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DRAFT REPORT

THE TRAINING CURRICULUM&


METHODOLOGY OF PUBLIC POLICY
TRAINING INSTITUTIONS
(TOWARDS INTEGRATION OF ENVIORNMENT IMPACT
ASSESSMENT (EIA) AND STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
(SEA) IN PUBLIC POLICY TRAINING INSTITUTIONS)

September 2012

Table of Contents
A.

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 3

B.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY............................................................................................................... 4

C.

METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................................. 4

D.

INSTITUTIONTAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR CIVIL SERVANTS TRAINING ................................... 4

E.

ASSESSMENT ...................................................................................................................................... 5
i.

CAPACITY ........................................................................................................................................ 5

ii.

CURRICULUM.................................................................................................................................. 6

iii.

TRAINING METHODOLOGY AND TECHNINQUES ............................................................... 13

iv.

PARTICIPANTS ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION..................................................................... 16

v.

COURSE REVIEW PROCESS ........................................................................................................ 16

vi.

TRAINING NEEDS/GAPS ......................................................................................................... 17

F.

CONCLUSION..................................................................................................................................... 18

G.

RECOMMENDATIONS ...................................................................................................................... 18

H.

POTENTIAL INTERVENTIONS UNDER NIAP ............................................................................... 19

ANNEXURE-1: STUDY APPROACH AND ACTION PLAN ................................................................................ 21


ANNEXURE-2: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PARTICIPANTS ...................................................................... 23

A. INTRODUCTION
1. The National Impact Assessment Programme (NIAP) in Pakistan is currently being
implemented to institutionalize the practice of Strategic Environmental Assessment
(SEA) in national development planning. The Pakistan Environmental Protection
Agency (Pak EPA), the Ministry of Climate Change (MoCC) and the Planning
Commission of Pakistan (PC) are key stakeholders of the NIAP. The International
Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is supporting this programme.

2. NIAP aims to contribute to sustainable development in Pakistan through


strengthening of the EIA process and introduction of SEA in development planning.
Improved EIA will lead to more environmentally conscious development at the
project level, while the introduction of SEA will facilitate improved planning, not
only by the integration of potential impacts into plan development and decisionmaking, but also through improved coordination between the authorities involved
in planning.

3. Traditionally, the Ministry of Environment has been the apex policymaking body for
environment and sustainable development. After the 18th Amendment, the
institutional landscape has changed as the subject environment has been devolved
to the provinces while a Ministry of Climate Change (MoCC) created at federal level.
The Planning and Development Division is the premier body responsible for
development planning in the country and, as per current arrangements, EIA is
mandatory for all infrastructure projects. The country also has Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) at federal level and its counterparts in provinces to enforce
relevant laws. However, limited technical capacity within federal and provincial
governments and weak enforcement of relevant rules have led to the neglect of
environmental sustainability in policy making and implementation. The 18th
Amendment has given the provinces added responsibility for environment but this
will only increase pressure on existing capacity. The arrangements are unclear and
provinces still need to develop new rules, systems and regulatory framework to
manage some of the devolved functions.

4. In Pakistan, numerous training workshops, exposure visits, and classroom teaching


and training for government department have been held to mainstream EIA/SEA.
These initiatives, however, have not made much of a difference, as the EIA/SEA has
not been properly mainstreamed in the development planning in Pakistan. A
primary factor explaining this situation is the high rate of turnover for officials, and
a lack of understanding of this tool in relevant departments. Learning from this
experience, the NIAP is now planning to focus on integrating SEA in the curriculum
of the National School of Public Policy (NSPP). Promotion to higher grades is linked
to the civil servants attending different courses of the NSPP. The NSPP is open to
working with international partners, for example, it is working with the USAID to
3

embed core-customized elements of institutional development into the NSPP


curriculum.

B. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

5. The purpose of this study is to review the existing training curriculum of the NSPP
and other important training institutions and propose what needs to be done to
integrate EIA and SEA in their curriculum. The assessment also covers capacity
aspects of individuals and departments involved in training delivery and proposes
the kind of courses that need to be introduced.
C. METHODOLOGY

6. The assessment focused primarily on the National School of Public Policy (NSPP) as
it has exclusive mandate to train civil servants in Pakistan. As part of this
assessment, training design, course contents, training methodology, quality of
visiting and permanent faculty, and evaluation of course participants, course review
process were reviewed. Interviews of the officials 1 of the NSPP and course
participants were also conducted during this exercise. Annexure-1 (Study Approach
and Action Plan including Questionnaire for the NPSSs officials) and Annexure-2
(Questionnaire for Course Participants) indicate our approach and questionnaires
used to gather information for analysis.

7. The first draft of the report is now ready for stakeholders. We will incorporate
stakeholders feedback on the draft report appropriately in this document. We will
also organize a national workshop in Islamabad to share the revised draft with
stakeholders and further improve it in the light of stakeholders feedback. The
report will respond to all the requirements given in Para 3 of the TORs.

D. INSTITUTIONTAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR CIVIL SERVANTS TRAINING

8. The National Institute of Public Administration (NIPA) was established in March


1961 under the West Pakistan Government Educational and Training Institutions
Ordinance, 1960. It operated as a semi-autonomous organization under the
administrative control of the Establishment Division, Government of Pakistan until
2005. It is now merged with the National Management College (NMC), as Senior
Management Wing (SMW) imparting training to civil servants in B-19, to form the
National School of Public Policy (NSPP).

9. The NSPP has constituent units and integral units. The constituent units are
National Institutes of Management (NIM) in Karachi, Lahore, Quetta, Peshawar,
Islamabad 2 and Civil Services Academy (CSA), Lahore. The integral units are the

List of officials interviewed would be added as Annexure once interviews are over.
National Centre for Rural Development (NCRD) acts as the NIM, Islamabad for purpose of MCMC Program for
Islamabad based officers.

National Management College, Executive Development Institute, and National


Institute of Public Policy. Other civil training institutions of the federal government
may also become constituent units provided they meet certain criteria. The NSPP
has led to the standardization of in-service training program of civil servants. For
example, the Mid Career Management Course (MCMC) mandatory for civil servants
promotion from B-18 to B-19 has been standardized and made more coherent. All
NIMs follow the same syllabi for this intensive program. Similarly, the Senior
Management Course (SMC), mandatory for civil servants promotion from B-19 to B20 has been standardized. The National Management Course (NMC), which is
mandatory for civil servants promotion from B-20 to B-21, has also been
standardized. It may be added that the civil servants posted in the Gilgit-Baltistan
Province and AJK also participate in the training programs of the NSPP. Some B-20
officers attend the National Defense Universitys Master Program in public policy
which is also acceptable in lieu of the NMC. The University is located in Islamabad
and it does not offer a specialized curriculum like that used in the NSPP for training
of B-20 officers. Few spots are available to civil servants for this option and
therefore it is an insignificant entry point for the IUCN.

10. Roughly speaking, 700-800 civil servants participate in training at different


constituent and integral units of the NSPP annually. These officers hold senior
positions in federal, provincial and district governments and, therefore, they can
play a significant role in institutionalizing the practice of SEA in government
operations.
11. In addition to the NSPP, the Audit and Accounts Training Institute (AATI) of the
Auditor-General of Pakistan (AGP) is an important institution where auditors may
be trained in how to integrate SEA in statutory audits where appropriate. The
AATIs head office is in Lahore with its regional offices in provincial headquarters.
The Auditor General reports are presented to the Public Accounts Committees
(PACs) at the national and provincial levels. Before this presentation, Field Audit
Offices review audit findings with Principal Accounting Officers (PAOs) at the
Department Accounts Committees (DACs) level at national and provincial level.
Thus, audit process can be used to sensitize PAOs and also members of the PACs to
the SEA process and to gradually mainstream it in the working of the government.

12. Following the proposed approach for this study, a literature review was carried out.
Selected unstructured interviews of officials involved in training at the NSPP were
conducted. In addition, some officers who recently completed training at the NSPP
were also interviewed. We also looked at the syllabi of some of the training courses
conducted under the NSPP. Following are our preliminary findings.
E. ASSESSMENT
i.

CAPACITY

13. The NSPPs key positions are held by civil servants representing different
occupational groups. Most of them have served in district, provincial, and federal
governments in different capacities and some of them hold advanced degrees in
disciplines such as economics, public policy, government, and business from leading
universities of the United States. However, their core experience has been service
delivery rather than teaching fellow civil servants. Thus, the NSPP almost entirely
depends on visiting faculty/Resource Persons (RPs) to impart training. Subject
matter specialists from the government or private sector are invited as RPs to
deliver lectures/workshop on selected topics as per the training schedule. This
modality is flexible in that it allows enough room to accommodate any subject in the
curriculum as subject matter experts may be engaged from the market and the NSPP
has no financial constraint. NSPPs internal capacity is not an indicator of whether of
not it can teach EIA and SEA. The NSPP can use external resource person(s) to teach
the civil servants EIA and SEA.

14. The AATI conducts numerous courses on accounting and audits but it lacks capacity
to train auditors in environmental audits and SEA is totally new phenomenon to this
organization. In fact, it has been trying to engage an environmental auditor to
develop multi-sector guidelines on environment auditing and also to train staff so as
to enable them to identify and conduct environment audits. The AATI, for the most
part, depends on its permanent faculty to deliver lectures on different types of
audits though it also engages Resource Person(s) both from the government and
private sectors for specialized subject from time to time. However, the AATI offers
resource person(s) a rate that in one-tenth of the rate offered by the NSPP. Another
aspect is that auditors need much deeper understanding than a lecture or two
would impart. Thus, short-term technical support for the AATI is worth considering.
ii.

CURRICULUM

15. The NSPP follows standardized curricula in its training programs. The Common
Training Program (CTP), designed for fresh entrants to civil services, helps
participants understand how government works. It orientates fresh entrants to the
basic concepts of economics, IT, political and administrative arrangements for
service delivery, quantitative tools for decision making, public sector management,
personnel and office management, professional and social ethics, basics of computer
and IT etc. The duration of this course is 7 months.

16. Once civil servants are ready for promotion to B-19, they are required to attend the
MCMC at one of the NIMs in provincial headquarters or Islamabad. The MCMC
focuses on building knowledge, skills, and leadership potential in civil servants at
operational/tactical level.The duration of this course is 10 weeks. Civil servants are
sensitized to public interest issues and groomed for service delivery. The MCMCs
five modules and course contents are summarized in Table-1 below:
6

No.
1

Module Name
Institutional framework
of strategic
management and
important national
issues of Pakistan.

2 Governance modalities
and
downstream
administrative
structures
at
the
Operational & Tactical
Levels of Government.

Table-1

Course Contents
Methodology and Processes (Public Policy),
National Quest for Water and Its Management,
Issues of Human Rights, Issues of Provincial
Autonomy, Countering Terrorism at Divisional
and District Level, Administrative Peculiarities
of GB & AJK, Administrative Peculiarities of
FATA and PATA, Supply, Distribution and Use
of Energy in Pakistan, Regional Security and
Foreign Policy, Extremism and its impact on
Pakistan, Rising Urbanization and Challenges
to Vibrant Cities, National Heritage.
Simulation Exercise (Minor)

Administrative
Structure
and
Federal,
Provincial and District levels, Federal and
Provincial Rules of Business,
Revisiting
Estacode and Secretariat Instructions, 18th
Amendments and
Related Challenges,
Interagency
Process
for
Operational
Effectiveness, Judicial Review of Administrative
Action, E-Governance and Its Utility in Service
Delivery, Accountability, From Reactive to
Proactive Governance, Office Procedures and
Disciplinary Actions, Administrative Discretion,
Local
Self-Governance
in
Pakistan,
Regulating Law and Order-Present and Future
Challenges, Media Activism and Service
Delivery, Pakistan Parliamentary Form of
GovernmentNational and Provincial Set UP,
Case Study Research
3 Public
Sector Essential of Public Service Management and
ManagementTheory
Leadership,
Institutional
Performance
and Its Application at Evaluation Systems, Emotional Literacy,
Operational/Tactical
Problem Solving and Decision Making, Crisis
Levels.
andDisaster Management, Team Building,
Performance Audit, Change Management,
Communication and Presentation Skills, Time
and Workload Management, Ethics in Public
Service Delivery, Negotiations Skills, Anger
Management, Performance Management in
Public
Sector-Conceptual
Overview,
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Performance
Management
and
HRM,
Performance Management in Organizations,
Case Study
Simulation Exercise ( Major)
4 Economics & Finance as Basic Concepts of Micro and Macroeconomics,
applicable
to Fiscal and Monetary Policies, Pakistans
operational
Economy-Domestic, Regional and Global
management.
Context, Poverty Reduction Strategies,
Pakistan Agriculture and Industry-Impact of
WTO, Public Financial Management-Role of
Principal Accounting Officers, Preparation of
Departmental and District Budget, Project
Management and Project Management Tools,
Role of Regulatory Bodies at Operational and
Tactical Level, Support Price Mechanism in
Agriculture Sector-Implications After 18th
Amendment, Public-Private Partnership
Operational Issues, Taxation System at
Provincial
and
Local
Levels,
Public
Procurement Rules in Pakistan, MS Project,
Data Analysis for Effective Decision Making,
Case Study
Simulation (Major)
5 Research and Field Lecture Discussion on Research Methods
Study Tours
In-Land Study Tour, and Presentation
Local Visits (6)
17. When civil servants are ready for promotion to B-20, they are required to attend
SMC at the Senior Management Wing (SMW) of the NPSS. The SMC focuses on
improving knowledge, attitudes, skills and leadership ability in civil servants. The
officers learn to develop operational strategy and action plans and techniques for
monitoring. The duration of this course is 20 weeks. The SMCs six modules along
with course contents are illustrated in Table-2 below:
No.

Module Name
1 National
Environment:
Issues of Internal
and
External
Dynamics

Table-2
Course Contents
Determinants of foreign policy, Statecraft
Methodology and Process of Policy Formulation,
Overview of Pakistans Relations with Major Powers
USA and China, Pakistans Relations with Regional
Countries (Afghanistan, Iran & CARs), Pakistans
Relations with Economically Important Countries,
Indo-Pak Relations, Values, Beliefs & Attitudes - their
8

2 Diversity
of
Pakistani State &
Society:
Its
Impact
on
Administration
and
Service
Delivery

3 Economics
and
Financial
Management at
Operational Level

Impact on Governance, Ethics and Governance,


Sources of Public Policy and Issues of Implementation
& Governance, Issues of Governance and Service
Delivery at the Provincial Level, Counter-Terrorism
Strategy and State Response, Pakistans Heritage,
Talks by Councillor General ( India, US, Iran per
availability)
Pakistan State and Society, Socio-Cultural Diversities
within Punjab Province and Their Impact on Public
Service Management, Socio-Cultural Diversities within
KP, FATA, FR and PATA and their Impact on Public
Service Management, Socio-Cultural Diversities within
Sindh Province and their Impact on Public Service
Management, Socio-Cultural Diversities within
Balochistan Province and their impact on Public
Service Management, Peculiarities of PoliticoAdministrative Arrangements and Governance in
Gilgit-Baltistan and AJK, Marginalized Sections of
Society including Minorities, Women and Children,
Development of Arts & Literature and its Impact on
Pakistani Society, Sectarian Conflict and its
Administrative Management, Islam and Modern
Islamic State, Case Study-I:
Land Administration
System: Socio-Economic-Political Dynamics at the
Operational Level
Basic economic concepts and theories, fiscal and
monetary
policies,
economic
development,
Application of Tools for Policy Analysis and Decision
Making, Macro Economic Planning in Pakistan, Role of
International financial assistance in Pakistans
Economy, Understanding Financial Statements and
Project Appraisal Techniques (Financial Analysis),
Workshop on Project formulation appraisal and
implementation, Public Finance Local Resource
Generation , Utilization and Financial Externalities,
Workshop on Project Management, Taxation Structure
in Pakistan (Federal, Provincial and District),
Challenges to Agriculture in Pakistan, Alleviating
Urban/Rural Poverty in Pakistan, Small & Medium
Scale Entrepreneurship Development, Large Scale
Industrial Development in Pakistan, Trade Policy and
its Implementation, Role of market in influencing
policy formulation and policy implementation,
Economic & Financial Issues of State Owned
Entities(SOE)-PIA/Railways, Energy Deficit, Case
9

4 Issues
of
Operational
Effectiveness
within Strategic
Governance
Framework

5 Research
Methodology
Research

&

6 Inland
Study
Tour and Local
Visits
to
understand
working of the
government and
private
sector
institutions

Study on Izhar Limited A Case of Entrepreneurship


Conceptual Framework of Public Service Management ,
Emotional
Literacy/Intelligence
&
Stress
Management, Leadership And Successful Leadership
Models,Leadership,
Subordinate
Legislation:
Governance And Policy Implementation In Pakistan,
Effective
Negotiations,
Strategic
Management;
Operational Planning and Implementation, Strategy
Implementation, Federal Provincial and Local
Government Structures In Pakistan, Federal Provincial
and Local Government Structures In Pakistan (Federal
Level), Federal Provincial and Local Government
Structures in Pakistan (Provincial Level) , Federal
Provincial and Local Government Structures in
Pakistan (Local Level), Human Resource Management
at Operational Level, Performance Indicators for
Improving Service Delivery in Public Sector of
Pakistan, Media Handling In Public Sector
Organizations, Case Study:Organization, governance
and strategic management PHA.
Introduction to Research Methodology, Research
Process, Data Collection ( I&II ), Style and Form of the
Paper, Notes & Bibliography, Presentation Skills,
Effective Writing Skills, Thinking and Reasoning,
Communication Skill ( Presentations)
In-Land Study Tour
Local Visits covered energy sector, local industry,
national heritage, and deeni madaris.

18. The National Management Wing of the NPSS organizes National Management
Course (NMC) for officers who are in promotion zone from B-20 to B-21. It seeks to
enable senior officers of the Federal and Provincial Civil Services, friendly countries
(allied participants), armed forces and senior executives from the private sector to
understand factors bearing on formulation and implementation of public policy,
with a view to preparing them for assignments at national policy level.The duration
of this course is 22 weeks. The NMCs six modules along with course contents are
described in Table-3 below:

Table-3

10

No.
1

Module Name
Course Contents
Statecraft
and Statecraft- Methodology and Process of Policy
Public Policy
Formulation- A Generic View , Constitutional Practices in
Pakistan in the Context of Effective Governance, Military
Interventions and Judicial Decisions ,Statecraft in a
Modern Islamic State ,Sectarianism in Pakistan and its
Impact on Public Policy and Statecraft in Pakistan ,
Pakistans Relations with Regional Countries ( India ran,
Afghanistan and CARs), , Pakistans Relations with
Economically Important Countries, , Pakistans Relations
with Major Powers (USA, China and Russia), , Sources of
Public Policy ,Purpose of the State, National Interests,
Aims and Objectives of the State ,Impact of External
Dynamics on Policy Processes ,Role of Islam in State and
Role of State in Religious Practices of the Citizens-Case of
Hudood Ordinance , National Comprehensive Security
,18th Amendment-Financial Aspects and Capacity
Building Issues, Andruni aur Beruni Muharrikat aur
Public Policy, Call on the President, Prime Minister, CMs
and Governors of Sindh, Balochistan and Khyber
Pakhtunkhawa, Talk by the Ambassador of US, India,
China, Iran, Afghanistan, Russian, France, UK, Germany,
Japan
Socio-Cultural
Socio-Cultural Environment of Pakistan and its Impact
Dynamic
of on Promotion of National Harmony, Values, Beliefs and
Pakistan:Human
Attitudes and their Impact on Policy Formulation and
Developementand Implementation, Role and Status of Women in Pakistan
Public
Service and Gender Issues ,Civil Society: Role in Social
Management
Development in Pakistan ,Development of Culture and
Entertainment Industry and its Impact on Pakistani
Society ,Child Welfare in Pakistan ,Pakistans
Heritage,Women Empowerment , Human Resource
Empowerment (Education Policy Merged) ,IMF Paper
,Public Service Enter[rises (P.S.E) ,Law & Order and
Criminal Justice System ,Higher Education Commission
and its Role/Impact on Quality of Higher Education in
Public and Private Sectors ,Development of Sports and
its Impact on Pakistani Society
Economics
and Micro and Macroeconomics - Concepts and Theories
Finance for Socio- ,Economic Development ,Understanding of Corporate &
Economic
Public Financial Statements,Overview of Economy of
Development and Pakistan ,Monetary and Fiscal Policies vis--vis Global
Political Stability
Financial Management ,Macroeconomic Stability and
Development Strategy in Pakistan ,Growth, Poverty and
Income Distribution ,Fiscal Policy: Taxation and
11

Expenditure Policy ,Debt Management Policy ,Monetary


Policy and the Issue of Autonomy of State Bank of
Pakistan ,Capital Market Development in Pakistan and
its Regulation ,The Challenges of Industrialization in
Pakistan ,Trade Lead Growth: Challenges and Prospects
,Domestic Commerce and Trade in Pakistan; Perspective,
Prospects and Challenges ,Agricultural Policy ,Financial
System of Pakistan and its Linkages with Global Finance
and Influence of IFIs on Policy Formulation in Pakistan
,Energy Challenges ,Framework for Economic GrowthStrategy Paper May 2011-Planning Commission
,Economic Development, Political Stability and National
Security
Governance,
Governance: General Perspective ,Public Management
Strategic
and Process of Change in Pakistan ,National Leadership
Management and and Institutional Framework ,Emotional Literacy and
Leadership
Stress Management ,Rules of Business and Institutional
Mechanism for Facilitating the Process and Methodology
of Public Policy Formulation in Pakistan ,Pay & Pensions
Commissions Report 2009 In the Context of Improved
Performance of Governance ,Water Issues Treaties &
Disputes ,Media (Print & Electronic) and Statecraft
,Public Service Institutions and their Economic/Strategic
ManagementPakistan
Railways/PIA
,Strategy
Formulation ,Leadership and Decision Making
Research
General Introduction to Research Methodology:
Methodology and ,Epistemology of Social Sciences Research , Empiricism
Research
and Empirical Method ,Research Process ,Data
Collection-1 ,Data Collection-2 ,Style and Form of the
Paper ,Notes and Bibliography ,Workshop on Notes and
Bibliography ,Thinking & Reasoning ,Communication &
Presentation Skills ,(Research Proposal, including the
Process of Writing Statement of the Problem ,Data
Analysis and Interpretation (Hands on Training-HoT)
Local and Foreign Local study tours helped officers understand the
Study Tour
working of public and private sector institutions.
Foreign Study Tour exposed participants of the NMC to
good practices that can be replicated in Pakistan.

19. Similarities in the structure of these courses are noteworthy but as civil servants
move up the ladder from the CTP to the NMC, the thrust of training courses shifts
toward strategic management and leadership in governance. The format used is
workshop, lectures, tutorial discussions in syndicates, field visits, which is
appropriate for the audience. In the case of the NMC, a foreign visit is also part of the

12

course to expose course participants to the good international practices. Notable


emphasis is placed on officers participation in discussion and other activities.

20. It is noted that the courses on environmental management and assessment are few.
However, there is opportunity to integrate this subject in the curricula given the
flexible methodology used in the NSPP.

21. Some officers participate in the National Defense Universitys Masters Program in
Strategic Management instead of the NMC. Its curriculum is standardized and not
specifically tailored to the requirements of civil servants. Less than 5 spots are made
available to civil servants for this program and, therefore, it is not feasible entry
point for the IUCN.
22. The AATI offers numerous short courses for its officials from B-17 to B-19. The
officers of the Pakistan Audit and Accounts Services (PA&AS) also attend CTP,
MCMC, SMC, and NMC like other occupation groups. The curriculum covers topics of
financial management with larger focus on audits. However, there is hardly any
course on environmental audit because of capacity constraint as pointed out in
Para-13 above.

iii.

TRAINING METHODOLOGY AND TECHNINQUES

23. Typically, the SMC, NMC and MCMC comprise the following pedagogical
instruments:

a. Lecture Discussion (LD): A LD is a two-hour session in which an expert delivers a


lecture on a topic under one of the course modules for about 45 minutes which
follows a Question and Answer (Q&A) session. The Chief Instructor (CI) and
permanent faculty (Directing Staff) attend these L.Ds. The Q&A session is regulated
to make sure that every participant gets a chance to ask questions during L.Ds. For
each L.D, the NSPP designates one/two participants to write a synopsis capturing
key points of the L.D. The synopsis is evaluated for quality and affects participants
overall grading in the course.

b. Panel Discussion (PD): A PD is a three-hour session in which two experts are


invited to present their views on a subject under one of the course modules. The
experts get 45 minutes each to present their views. This follows a Q&A session of 90
minutes. The Chief Instructor and permanent faculty (Directing Staff) attend these
P.Ls. Like L.D, the Q&A session is regulated. For each L.D, the NSPP designates
one/two participants to write a synopsis capturing key points of the L.D. The
synopsis is evaluated for quality and affects participants overall grading in the
course.
c. Tutorial Discussion (TD): A TD occurs in small groups known as syndicates. For
this purpose, course participants are divided into groups of 10-12. Syndicates are
13

notified right at the start of each term of the course. In case of the SMC, each
participant is assigned to three different syndicates in three terms. Each syndicate
has a Sponsoring Directing Staff (SDS). Reading material, prepared by the NSPP, is
provided in advance with the expectation that participants will have read it before
they convene for T.Ds in their respective syndicate rooms. For each T.D, members of
the syndicates are required to elect a Chairman and a Secretary. The Chairman leads
the discussion while the Secretary takes notes and prepares a report on the
discussion. The report is evaluated for quality and affects the assessment of
participants that play the roles of the Chairman and the Secretary. It is not
uncommon for the SDS to take a quiz before discussion to test whether participants
are ready for discussion. The SDS also set over all direction for discussion.

d. Current Issue Presentation (CIPs): The purpose of CIPs is to sharpen analytic skills
and enable them to strategize policy implementation. Each participant proposes
three current issue topics. The NSPP may, however, assign a different topic. Each
participant is required to complete his or her presentation in 30 minutes. The CI and
permanent faculty (Directing Staff) evaluate presentations and raise questions to
make sure that participants are fully prepared on the issue. Some participants are
asked to repeat their presentation if they dont meet the expectation of the NSPP.
Course participants can not ask questions.

e. Service Group Presentation: The NSPP require the senior-most officers of different
services/organizations to make presentation on their service group/organization.
The officers get 45 minutes to make presentation while 15 minutes are kept for Q&A
session. Course participants can ask questions. The presentations cove historical
background, organization structure, organizational effectiveness, strengths and
weakness analysis, promotion prospects etc.
f. Simulation: The purpose of this exercise is to put course participants in a real-life
like situation with time and resource constraint and a set of hurdles to overcome
through appropriate interventions. Participants learn to identify gaps in institutions
and policies, prioritize issues, develop workable action plans, and mechanisms to
monitor implementation progress of these plans. They are encouraged to be
innovative and sensitive to contingency planning in an uncertain world. A
simulation exercise takes 8-10 days to complete. Participants are divided into
Research Analysis Groups (RAGs) and Syndicates. A RAG usually comprises 5-6
participants while a Syndicate has 7-8 participants. The exercise is structured in
such a way that RAGs work directly feed into the work of Syndicates. In SMC, there
are three simulation exercises, one in each term. The NSPP usually picks one sector
in each exercise, breaks it into different bits, distributes these bits between RAGs
and Syndicates, and assigns SDS to provide direction 3. Each RAG/Syndicate has a

During the 11th SMC, the NSPP covered (a) Public Service Delivery: Issues in Urban Management of
Lahore (b) Energy: Strategy and Implementation in Pakistan and (c) Commerce and Trade:
Challenge and Prospects.
3

14

leader who is responsible for presentation. Simulation is the most important


training activity during the MCMC, SMC, and NMC. Each course has three simulation
exercises 4.

g. Analysis Papers (APs): The NSPP focuses on sharpening analytical skills in the civil
servants. Thus, LDs, PDs, Simulation, and other exercises aim at promoting
analytical thinking. The NSPP continuously assesses participants progress in this
regard through the quality of questions asked, syndicate reports, synopsis, etc. APs
are designed to test whether participants can apply analytical skills while handling
issues of public policies or not. The scope of APs is broad-based as public policy and
statecraft itself. The difficulty level of APs increases as participants move from one
term to another 5. APs are prominent features of both SMC and NMC.

h. Study Tours: Participants are exposed to the working of different sectors. They are
broken into small groups and taken to the local government offices and commercial
enterprises. They learn how these organizations are facing different challenges and
draw lessons for other sectors. In-Land Study Tours are also important component
of the MCMC and SMC. Participants are divided into smaller groups for this purpose
and taken to different cities/areas. Each Local/In-Land Study group gets given clear
Terms of Reference (TORs) before-hand so that it can ask focused questions during
visits and learn what is important. At the end of these visits, group coordinators
make presentations. After presentations, the SDS randomly selects participant for
asking a question. That keeps all participants focused on what is being presented
and helps disseminates group learning among other groups as well. In the case of
NMC, participants are also taken abroad to learn best international practices that
can be replicated in Pakistan to improve service delivery.

i. Individual Research Papers (IRPs): This activity prepares participants to conduct


research in public policy. Participants learn research methodology and carry out
research on assigned topics during their training. They are required to submit final
papers before the closing of the course. It enables participants to analyze and
interpret contemporary issues, identify policy options, and formulate informed
policies. Participants propose a few topics but it is the discretion of the NSPP to
assign any research topic that it deems appropriate. At times, some participants are
also required to make presentation on their IRP. In such cases, when a presentation
is over, the CI randomly asks some participants to ask questions. Panel experts are
also picked from among the participants and ask to critique the IRP report and
presentation. This activity is part of the MCMC, SMC and NMC.

The focus, composition, and scope of simulation exercises will vary from course to course. The
description given here is based on review of the structure of 11th SMC Course at the SMC Wing,
NSPP, Lahore.
5
For example, in the case of SMC, the requirement gets harder as one moves from term 1 to term 3. The
outputs of participants analytical thinking is 3-4 pages for AP-1, 5-6 pages for AP-2, and 8-9 pages for
AP-3.
4

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j. Extra- curriculum activities: Course participants are also required to participate in


extra-curricular activities through out their respective courses. This builds
interpersonal skills and gives participants a chance to learn from each other.
iv.

PARTICIPANTS ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION

24. During pre-service training at CSA, the effectiveness of training is judged largely on
periodic internal exams. In addition, participants' performance in extra-curricular
activities is also considered. During MCMC, SMC, and NMC, different techniques are
used for assessment. Each faculty member grades participants individually for each
activity that they perform. Before any activity, clear requirements are conveyed
through hand-outs and participants are required to meet those requirements during
the activity. This makes sure that assessment/evaluation is transparent and
objective. In addition to the faculty, the CI rigorously monitors the performance of
each participant through out the course. In the case of APs 6, participants responses
are coded before distribution among the faculty members for review and grading.
The faculty members dont know whose papers they are reviewing. In addition to
the faculty, the CI also reviews these APs to make sure that these have been
assessed objectively by the faculty. In some cases, even Reactor looks at some
responses for quality assurance. In case of simulation, experts on the subject are
invited to review the presentations of RAG/Syndicate after the end of simulation
exercise. These experts ask questions to make sure that RAGs/Syndicates have
developed a thorough understanding of the subject during this exercise.
Participants are also required to write synopsis of a TD/PD session. The quality of
synopsis is also appraised. For the most part, Q&A sessions are regulated to make
sure that every participant gets a fair number of chances to raise questions after
TD/PD. Those asking crisp and relevant questions that generate additional
important information for all participants are rated higher. The CI also interviews
all participants to better understand them and validate participants overall
ratings/evaluation in a course. Use of different techniques in assessment/evaluation
minimizes the risk that officers would be judged subjectively.
25. The AATI generally conducts short courses and no formal assessments are made.
Case study and lectures are prominent means for training delivery.
v.

COURSE REVIEW PROCESS

26. Before the end of every regular training course at the NSPP, a Course Review
Committee (CRC) comprising course participants is constituted to look into the
course structure, course contents, and delivery etc and ascertain whether the course
has achieved its intended outcome. The CRC gathers and analyzes relevant

Performance in APs significantly affects overall grading because unlike any other activity,
participants exclusively depend on their innate analytic ability to respond to the issues raised in the
AP material within given time in a formal testing environment.
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vi.

information, and prepares a report. The report is presented to the management of


the course concerned. External reviewers, who are usually participants of earlier
but the same courses, are invited to provide feedback on the work of the CRC. The
faculty of the concerned course examines the CRCs recommendation and initiates
the process of changing the course if required.
TRAINING NEEDS/GAPS

27. As stated earlier in Para 12, the NPSS engages Resource Persons (RPs) for panel
discussions/lectures/workshops in its training courses for which it has a more than
adequate budget each year. The NSPP, therefore, has no training need in terms of
subject matter expertise for EIA and SEA. Interaction with participants of different
courses, however, reveals following shortcomings

The curriculum review carried out above (Para 13-17 above) clearly points
out significant duplication/overlaps in MCMC, SMC, and NMC. It may be the
reflection of training needs of different tiers of officers not being properly
worked out and integrated in training design.

The course contents are of primary relevance to the Pakistan Administrative


Service (PAS) 7, Police Service of Pakistan (PSP), and Pakistan Foreign
Service (FSP). Officers representing other occupational groups and ex-cadre
are forced to learn what may not be relevant to their work. The NSPP does
not have any backward linkage with the departments that send officers for
mandatory courses. If the departments can identify and communicate
training needs of their officers and the NSPP can somehow integrate those
needs in its training design, it would magnify the impact of training on
service delivery. This linkage does not exit right now.

The quality of reading material especially one used for tutorial discussion in
syndicates needs more variety. While professionals are advocating use of
case studies in adult learning and the NSPP has also made progress in this
regard, reliance on lectures remains considerable. The quality of material
and limited use of case study method may be due to the fact there is no
dedicated organizational unit for these purposes.
Staff at the NSPP requires more training to facilitate and optimize learning
processes through effective mentoring. Currently, this component is only
loosely embedded in the NSPPs training programs and its formal integration
will enhance the effectiveness of training.

The District Management Group (DMG) has recently been renamed as the Pakistan Administrative
Service (PAS)

17

The NSPP does not have any forward linkage with government departments
where officers go to work after training. In the absence of this linkage, the
NSPP does not get any feedback on whether its training has added to the
capacity of civil servants for service delivery. As premier training institution
of civil servants, the NSPP needs to closely monitor how its activities are
contributing toward governance improvement in the country.

And finally, the NSPPemphasizes research in its programs but this research
work is not formally linked with the working of federal ministries or
provincial departments. This linkage needs to be established as per its
mandate.We feel that these areas need to be examined and steps taken to
improve the quality of programs offered at the NSPP.

28. The AATI clearly needs technical support in developing training modules and
trainers for environmental audits geared toward EIA and SEA. Currently, the AGP
office lacks specialized auditing skills in this area and that is the reason that auditors
are not picking up these environmental issues effectively in their audit reports.
F. CONCLUSION

29. The establishment of the NSPP has created an opportunity for more focused and
effective training of civil servants in Pakistan. The NSPPs autonomy allows it to
diversify the topics covered in its training programs, thus creating space for the
inclusion of EIA and SEA in civil servants training programs. Most of the lectures
are delivered by the visiting faculty, and therefore there is no structural barrier to
engage experts in the field of EIA and SEA for this purpose.The NSPP employs
different tools and techniques in training and uses objective criteria for grading
participants. That enhances the effectiveness of training. The NSPP continuously
reviews its different programs through CRCs. However, one can see
duplication/overlaps in the design of MCMC, SMC and NMC that need to be plugged
in to align trainings with the requirement of all occupational groups and ex-cadre
officers. The NSPP is open to fresh ideas and willing to collaborate with the private
sector to improve its effectiveness. Apart from the NSPP, the AATI is another
promising entry point for the NIAP as the AGP, the parent office of the AATI, has
been keen on up-dating its skills of its auditors in environment audits.

G. RECOMMENDATIONS

30. Based on the points mentioned above, we suggest the following changes in policy:
i.

There is some duplication in the modules of the MCMC, SMC, and NMC, which
needs to be removed. There is little value in teaching civil servants the same
topic three times in their career.
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ii.

Training needs of different occupational groups/ex cadre officials are


different and these differences should be considered in designing training
programs. The NSPP may create mechanism to identify training needs more
structurally in collaboration with government departments that depute
officials for training.

iii.

Topics of environment and especially EIA and SEA need to be included in the
curricula of the NSPPP starting from the CTP down to the NMC.

iv.
v.
vi.

vii.

viii.

A dedicated unit for course design and material development needs to be


created.
Lectures need to be minimized and, instead, case study method should be
used involving group discussion.

Role of permanent faculty (Directing Staff) needs to be re-defined. The


faculty should be given more responsibility of mentoring and preparing
policy briefs for the government. A lot of research takes place in the NSPP but
the research outputs are generally shelved after training programs. Some of
the research outputs can be developed into policy briefs for the
federal/provincial governments.

Forward linkages with government departments need to be established to


get feedback on the performance of officers who attend mandatory training
programs. The NSPP should track whether its training programs are making
a difference through these linkages.
The AATI may be assisted in capacity building of auditors in environment
audits.

H. POTENTIAL INTERVENTIONS UNDER NIAP

31. The NIAP can do two things immediately. First, it can engage with the NSPP to
sensitize them to the importance of intensifying focus on environment and
especially EIA and SEA. There is limited, if any, understanding of EIA and SEA tool in
policy circles and that may be responsible for neglect of this subject in the curricula.
By assuring the supply of subject matter expertise through a long-term
commitment, the NSPP may be persuaded to accommodate this subject in its
training courses. Secondly, the NIAP may help the NSPP in establishing a course
design and material development unit. This will entail engaging a short-term
consultant for developing case studies and other material for different courses at
the NSPP.

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32. For the AATI, the NIAP needs to follow the same strategy. The positive thing is that
the AGP office is aware of the importance of EIA and SEA and looking for technical
support in this area. The NIAP can leverage this opportunity to develop in the AGP
office capacity for conducting environmental audits focusing especially on EIA and
SEA aspects. A short-term consultant will be required to carry out this work in
collaboration with the AATI.

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ANNEXURE-1: STUDY APPROACH AND ACTION PLAN


1. We plan to conduct background research on the establishment of the National School of
Public Policy (NSPP) to understand the intent behind its creation and its modus operandi.
We will also look at organizational arrangements managing and delivering trainings at the
NSPPs constituent and integral units. We will then review training design, course content,
training methodology, quality of visiting and permanent faculty, and how trainees are
graded in different programs. We would draw conclusions regarding the extent to which
the training is effective in achieving its intended outcomes. We will focus on identifying
strengths and weaknesses of the NSPP and suggest steps that can enhance its effectiveness
as a premier training institute of civil servants in Pakistan.

2. Once the draft report is ready, it will be shared with stakeholders and feedback received
from them would be incorporated appropriately. We will also organize a national
workshop in Islamabad to share the revised draft with stakeholders and further improve it
in the light of their feedback. The report will respond to all the requirements given in Para
3 of the TORs.As stated above, we plan to use structured questionnaire to solicit
information from the officials of the NSPP.
No.
Activity
1
Obtain relevant documents (syllabi of the NSPPs
programs)
2
Preliminary review of the syllabi of different programs
3
Draft Inception Note, Study Approach and Action Plan
4
Meeting with some officials of the CSA, SMC Wing
5
Assess institutional capacity at CSA and SMC Wing and
determine gaps that need to be plugged in to introduce
EIA and SEA in training programs
6
Meeting with some officials of the MCMC, and NMC Wing
7
Assess institutional capacity of the MCMC, and NMC
Wing and determine gaps that need to be plugged in to
introduce EIA and SEA in training programs
8
Visit of Karachi, Islamabad, Peshawar, Quetta to assess
faculty and training facilities
9
Detailed review of the syllabi of CSA, MCMC, SMC, and
NMC
10 Prepare the first draft of the study report
11 Circulate the draft report for feedback among
stakeholders
12 Revise the study report per comments
13 Design and deliver workshop on the study report
14 Finalize the study report

Timelines
April 16-20, 2012
April 23-27, 2012
May 2-4, 2012
May 7-11, 2012
May 14-18, 2012
May 21-31, 2012
June 7, 2012
June 14, 2012
June 22, 2012
June 26, 2012
June 29, 2012

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QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE FACULTY


We plan to meet a few officials in each of the training institutions of the NSPP. To
conduct focused discussion, we intent to use following questionnaire during
interviews with the selected officials of the NSPP.
1. How do you ensure that the emerging requirements of government agencies at
national and sub-national levels are properly factored in your training program?
2. What skills/competencies does your program target to improve?
3. Why do you focus on developing these skills/competencies?
4. Do you have any organizational unit dedicated to conducting needs assessment
and informing training design accordingly?
5. How do you select visiting faculty?
6. Do you conduct your institutional assessment to determine the kind of resources
(human, financial, and others) that you need to meet your training agenda?
7. How do you select officers for posting in your organization?
8. Is the permanent staff, especially the one involved in imparting training, is trained
enough for this type of work?
9. Is the turn over of the permanent staff low/higher? Explain why?
10. Do you think the NSPP is on track to achieving its objectives? How?

22

ANNEXURE-2: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PARTICIPANTS


We plan course participants interviews to get first hand impressions on the design,
delivery and effectiveness of the NSPPs training programs. we intent to use following
questionnaire for these interviews.
1. Do you think the course you attended was responsive to your needs?
2. What skills/competencies did the course target for development?
3. What are key areas that you think need improving?
4. What are your impressions about course design, material used, training methodology,
and evaluation?
5. How do you rank the quality of visiting faculty?
6. Do you think the Directing Staff (civil servants) posted in the NPSS are contributing
effectively toward program design and delivery?
7. Are you satisfied with the quality of services provided to participants during training?
8. Do you think the NSPP is on track to achieving its objectives? How?

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