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Designed

and detailed
(BS 8110: 1997)
OFC
contains 32 pages

BQ7I

Brifish Ceiiieri Associahon

J. B. Higgins and B. R. Rogers MA, CEng, MICE


This document
For a worldwide and up-todate literature search Ofl any aspect of concrete design or construction and
related topics, contact the
BCAs Centre for Concrete Information on Dl 344 762676.
43.501 First published 1973
Second edition 1986
Third edition 1998
ISBN 07210 1541 7
Price Group F
British Cement Association 1998
Published by
British Cement Association
Century House. Telford Avenue
Crowihorne. Berks RG45 YS
Tel: 01344 762676 Fax: 01344 761214
Website: www.bca.org.uk

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and limitations ol its
contents and take responsibility
resulting from such advice

for its use and application. No liability (including that for negligence) for any loss

is accepted. Readers should note that


and should therefore ensure that
information

all BCA publications are subject to revision from time to time

they are in possession of the latest version.

IFC

Designed and detailed


(BS 8110: 1997)
J. B. Higgins and B. R. Rogers MA. CFng, MI(I

Contents Foreword
of Designed and detailed has been revised to BS 8110 : Part I:
1997, and the amendment dated 15 September 1998. Although there have been
3 BS 8110 and limit state design several amendments to the code since 1985, the latest and most significant
change
2 Introduction This third edition

has been the reduction in the partial safety factor for reinforcement m from 1.15
6 Design information . . to 1 .05. With higher stresses, less steel is required. However, the total saving may
7 Structural summary sheet not be fully realised because there are other considerations such as choosing a
practical arrangement of bars, and the deflection in the case of shallower
8 Floor slab members.
10 First-floor main beam The calculations have also been revised for the loading requirements of BS 6399
Part 1: 1996 and Part 2: 1995.
16 Edge beam .
Design charts in BS 8110 : Part 3: 1985 may still be used to provide a
18 Columns conservative solution, and one of these charts has been included for the design of
columns. Lap lengths for these members have also been taken from BS 8110,
22 Foundation Table 3.27, but adjusted for the design stress of 087f.
24 Shear wall The tie reinforcement for robustness is designed at its characteristic strength. If the
characteristic bond stress is used for calculating laps and anchorage lengths, then
26 Staircase the values in Table 3.27 may be multiplied by I 05/l4. This publication takes a
conservative practical approach and uses directly the values given in Table 3.27.
28 Column design chart
Observant users of previous editions will appreciate the skill that is evident in the
29 Further information setting out of the calculations and the drawings. This is the work of the late Jim
Higgins, whose care in the production of the original artwork was meticulous.
Sadly, he never saw the second edition in print. I hope that my amendments to
this third edition will not detract from his fine workmanship.
Special thanks are due to Tony Threlfall for his advice and suggestions for this
edition.

Railton Rogers

Introduction
The purpose of this publication is to apply the principles of limit stale design given
in BS 8110 by means of a simple worked example for a reinforced concrete
building frame. The calculations and details arc presented in a form suitable for
design office purposes and are generally in accordance with the following
pLihI ications.

use 0/concrete. Part I . Code of


practice/or design and construction. Milton Keynes, BSI. 1997. 120 pp. BS 8110
BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITtJTION Siructural

Part I: 1997.
H M STATIONERY OFFICE. Building and buildings. The Building Regnlation.v 1991
(Amended 1994). HMSO, London. 21 pp. Statutory Instruments No. 2768.
BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION Loading/or buildings. Part I . Code 0/practice

loads. Milton Keynes. BSI. 1996. It) pp. BS 6399 : Part

br dead and inposed

1996.
BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. Loading/or

Jiir

buildings. Part 2. Code 0/practice


wind loads. Milton Keynes, BSI. 1995. 82 pP BS 6399 : Part 2: 1995.

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. Loading

/ir buildings. Part 3. (ode 0/practice /r

Milton Keynes. BSI. 1988. 23 pp. BS 6399 : Part 3: 1988.


BRITISH STANDARDS INSTlThTIO'J. Specification /or scheduling, dimensioning,
bendin' (111(1 cutiin' steel rein/irceinent/r concrete. Milton Keynes, BSI. 1989.
20 PP BS 4466 : 1989.
IIIE C( )NCR VIE SOCIETY. Model procedure /ir the presentation 0/ calculation,r.
London (now Slough). 1981 . Technical Report 5, second edition. 18 pp.

imposed roo/ loads.

THE CONCRETE SOCIETY AND THE INSTITUTION OF STRUCTURAL F.NGINEERS,


5iandard method o/detailnig structural concrete. London. The Institution. 1989.
138 pp.

BS 8110 and limit

state design

c:)bjective To serve its purpose, a structure must be safe against collapse and be
serviceable in use. Calculations alone do not produce safe, serviceable and
durable structures. Equally important are the suitability of the materials,
quality control and supervision of the workmanship.
Limit state design admits that a structure may become unsatisfactory
through a number of ways which all have to be considered independently
against defined limits of satisfactory behaviour. It admits that there is an
inherent variability in loads, materials and methods of design and
construction which makes it impossible to achieve complete safety against
any possible shortcoming. By providing sufficient margins of safety, the aim
of limit state design is to provide an acceptable probability that the structure
will perform satisfactorily during its intended life.
Limit states can he classified into two main groups:
(I) the ultimate limit state, which is concerned with the provision of
adequate safety;
(2) the serviceability limit states, which are essentially concerned with
durability.

Generally, in practice, there are three limit states which are normally
considered for reinforced concrete and these are given in the Table below.
Serviceability limit states
Ultimate

limit state Deflection Cracking


Objective

Provision of
adequate safety
Structure should
not deflect so as
to impair use
of structure
Cracking should
not be such as
to damage finishes
or otherwise .
impair usage
Loading regime Design ultimate
loads Design service load
Performance limit Structure should

not fail
Deflection should

not exceed
specified
limits

Crack width
should not
exceed 03 mm
generally

Characteristic values For the testing of materials, a statistical approach can be applied to the
variations within materials which occur in practice. A normal or Gaussian
distribution curve is assumed to represent the results of the tests and a value
known as the characteristic value can be chosen below which not more than
5% of the test results may be expected to lie.
The characteristic strength is given by the equation:
Characteristic strength = Mean or Average strength L64 X Standard deviation
Ideally, a characteristic load should be similarly defined, as a load with a 5%
probability of being exceeded during the lifetime of the structure. Flowever, it
is not yet possible to-express loading in statistical terms, so the Code uses the
loads defined in BS 6399: Parts 1, 2 and 3.
3

Desiqn toads The design load is given by the equation:


Design load = Characteristic load X
where 'r is a partial safety factor for loading. This factor takes into account
the possibility that the loads acting on the structure may be greater than the
characteristic values. It also takes into account the assumptions made in the
method of analysis, and the seriousness of failure to meet the design criteria
for a particular limit state. The consequence of collapse is much more
serious than exceeding the serviceability limits and so this is reflected in the
higher values of the partial safety factors. Components of load have to he
considered in their most unfavourable combinations, Sc) sets of values of
for minimum and maximum design loads are required. For example, the
worst situation for a structure being checked for overturning under the
action of wind load will he where the maximum wind load is combined with
the minimum vertical dead load. Lower values of ;' are used for the
combination of wind, imposed and dead loads than for the combinations of
wind and dead, and dead and imposed loads, as the probability Df three
independent design loads achieving their maximum value at the same time is
less. The table below gives the partial load factors for the ultimate limit
state.
Combination
of loads
Partial safety factor to be applied to
dead load imposed load wind
when effect of load is load
adverse beneficial adverse heneficEal
1 Dead and imposed
2 Dead and wind
3 Dead and wind
with imposed
14
14
12
10

10
12
16

12

1)

12

14
12

Deiin strenqths The design strength is given by the equation:


Characteristic [)esign strength = _______________s_t_r_e_n_g_t h
where is a partial safety factor on the material strength. This factor takes
into account the variation in workmanship and quality control that may
normally be expected to occur in the manufacture of the materials. The
values of to he used for the two materials when designing for the ultimate
limit state are given below:
Values of

for the ultimate limit state

Reinforcement I .05

(oncrete
Flexure or axial load IS
Shear strength without shear reinforcement 125
Bond strength 14
Others (e.g. bearing stress) 15
iOLisiuest In addition to providing a structure that is capable of carrying the design
loads, the layout should be such that damage to small areas of a structure or
failure of single elements will not lead to a major collapse.
The Code requires that in all buildings the structural members should be
linked together in the following manner:
(a) by effectively continuous peripheral ties at each floor and roof level:
4

(b) by internal ties in two directions approximately at right-angles,


effectively continuous throughout their length and anchored to the
peripheral ties at each end (unless continuing as horizontal ties to
columns or walls);
(c) by external column and wall ties anchored or tied horizontally into the
structure at each floor and roof level;
(d) by continuous vertical ties from foundation to the roof level in all
columns and walls carriing vertical loads.
In the design of the ties, the reinforcement may be assumed to be acting at
its characteristic strength with no other forces present but the tie forces.
Reinforcement provided for other purposes can often be used to form part
or the whole of these ties, so that in the design process, when the required
reinforcement for the usual dead, imposed and wind loading has been found,
a check can be made to see whether modifications or additions to the
reinforcement are required to fulfil the tie requirements.

Durabflty and re resislance At the commencement of the design, the following should be
considered:
the climate and environmental conditions to which the concrete will be
exposed;
the concrete quality;
the cover to the reinforcement.

It should also be noted that the quality of the construction process and the

Iirst hours after casting of the concrete have a major influence upon the
subsequent durability of the structure.
The cover for protection against corrosion may not be sufficient for fire
protection, so this should be considered at the onset of the design, and also
the dimensions of the members.
The Code gives maximum water/cement ratios, minimum cement contents
and minimum characteristic strengths for concretes suitable for use in
various environments with specified covers and using 20 mm nominal
maximum size aggregate. The minimum grades will generally ensure that the
limits on free water/cement ratio and cement content will be met without
further checking.
Appflcation Durability and fire resistance requirements are considered at the onset of the
design process because this determines the grade of concrete, the cover, and
the size of the members. Usually, for most structures, Part 1 of the Code will
be used in which it is assumed that the ultimate limit state will be the most
critical limit state. Design will therefore be carried out at this limit state,
followed by checks to ensure that the serviceability limit states of deflection
and cracking are not reached. In special circumstances, other limit states,
such as vibration or the effects of fatigue, may require consideration. Should
it be necessary to calculate deflections and crack widths, methods are given
in Part 2 of the Code. The serviceability limit state of deflection may be the
limiting requirement for floor slabs with large span/effective-depth ratios.
This can he checked before the reinforcement is determined, although some
engineers may prefer to follow the procedure where the check is made after
the reinforcement has been found.
Simplified detailing requirements for the curtailment of the reinforcement
may be used for beams and slabs which fulfil certain design conditions.
Nowever, for other situations, the curtailments should be taken from a
bending moment envelope and be in accordance with the general
recommendations of the Code.
5

Design information
Client W

Co#.ai Architect

Engineer responsible

BRJZers

/j,

Building Regulation authority or other and

Date of submission

TLe.

'a,

LIL14

5SiO

Pout

tnj L

2 IO5)ckr

of Cocre.tc Past 'j. S7

PCU B8

Relevant Building
Regulations and
Design Codes

Lbon

Intended use

of structure

Fire resistance reqLnrements

Roof 5

S1j'oro- irvoecj C) &ct tL3r 4.QkW/ 4O k4/

LXc Co4 Fors a


General loading conditions
Speed

2 a/ec (basic

Factors

105 Sb = 171, S 1.0 S

= 1 O

Co'84, C +O(*r.') ,., O3((),C_r=QO2S


Wind loading ccnditrons

e.'Jere.

(Vd ('ixaS) (S6llOTcie3.2)

Exposure conditions

- v\O AoLjo, beac rreure 2oo


Subsoil conditions

R1c

fs

k4 ov wcik

Foundation type

,r-A4e. 4o

wt '20.

Material data

L. strek fL

4o

- 1iJ'c

'

Sdf wet
AU S-oir,.

4'ok4/

ov ore

a (IIOTcIb3.)

Other relevant information

Structural summary sheet


3 1'2..4.2
t, AU CoCa
z,

Mbean ,

-l

bW4w

wall

W1 t5-rAI4cE.

i, IiP

.L

e4A

prviAed.
or.

orce r4 eA

ka

bx-r vGod kL. EW kor

b ctrc

r4 /ui, o4 r4 /"44 -3

CC

Ft C2o4\0) = 2Q+lG
P-

3G(Ok,

Perpcc ;te

It.

ter e

aw

wc

G 5ooO=4oooO
0

0-I
11

175

fl5

SSS0

T"{P1CALLOOR PLA4
oox3oO
OOx'oO

SO OO
3

T'-(PICAL cRoSS- C'TtoJ.


SJe: ICryo,, CoS,$.275Ox'l75OxOO
C C-

cPc

><
Ir. rEt,
w

CCC

Tia

cc

CC

PRVSi -

Floor slab
interior-span solid slab
175

5000
BS 8110
ref.
CALCULATIONS OUTPUT

3.?,

T c3

34
DugPB%t.vr'
W.L4S4

ct

FR.E

REITA4C

ov hr U4 CovCt.ov of <pare

Mo.xre
Tb(3,12

LoA
O.17E x 24 4.2

(G4t

0.

toc.d = 4.7kt{/
Cpa.ge

c) = 4. okN/

Dgvtoati t.1r47+ 1.x4) 50


3k

r.ce o766tbk 2Ocovt 1zk> ik

3.r.2,4

2o

44.70kN1/2

cover ..

'2o si.

32.4
Iable3i2

/Vs
Iraror r.spo. o.oC,3F =0.OCx,43x5O
ULXIMATE

2O.4kh/ wct 4.DrtS

4.44

Tb(e8

FCEfrT
t4 ppor. k 42oo-.41 ox4S2 0 0Th

= oc'23 i4s(o.S+J(o.Z

)=

(buto.x1494s:

A5-- PA 204x1&
O.95 O.9546Ox14l5

Cdr5cear
o.S4.91O3' 0.22 M/w

lc?x 14S

Top&otow

T12. 0o

(iiJ)

ok.

TQ6k
Tok3IO

DLaC.T(oi.4
PA

6k /4faeq rio =

2o4d0',. 031 2x4(O33O

I4')

3 x 317

cr or WOr

re.L.'.ft. 1

5000 - 33 $(o 149 , r4o oc.

2U.27 CR.Acl(ii

447

. Atlte 5 '21.5

p-cj
k 11
.

bt.twee. bo.r OC

, (2

oO .,

12

34

rttQ. cJck.4

c.*j k.
ak..

3.12.3.4
TAbteZ7

PV(op..J o..ct4We5 ITR..iALii Ft = 3kN/.wd

Torce 4t(

( 4t)_

4r.Lw>Ft

4S.x lo
44,0 -'fl'
(377

:#3oo. T12.e3oo

tso.l.

5T10.-41 2)00

i1loo
T

"

'

C3*'Z)

5T10-41r2 It,
I

S-rto--3GO'r2
I

(2+3) I

.J
Commentary on bar arrangement
BS 8110 ref Bar marks Notes
All bars are labelled in the form described in the Standard method of detailing structural concrete,
e.g. 45T12-l-300B1 means that in the bottom outer layer there are45 Grade 460 Fype 2 deformed
12 mm nominal size bars at 300 mm centres and the bar mark is -I-.
The bars are numbered in the likely sequence ot fixing; the positions of the first and last bars in a string are
indicated in plan and section. Intermediate bars have been omitted for clarity.

Table 3.25 Minimum area of tension reinforcement = 00013 X 1000 >< 175 = 228 mm2/m.
3.12.11.2.7 Maximum clear spacing of tension bars = lesser of 750 mm or 3d, i.e. 3d = 3 )< 149 = 447 mm.

h < 200, therefore no further check on spacing


1

Main tension bars Tl2 @ 300, A

= 377 mm2 > minimum 228 mm2/m. OK.

If curtailed, A = 377/2 = 189 mm2 < minimum 228 mm2/m not OK.
3.12.3.4 Bars lapped 300 mm at bottom support to provide continuous tie.
Table 3.25 2,3 Secondary bars use T10 @ 300 (262 mm2/m).
3.12.8.11 4,5 Minimum lap = 300mm > IS )< 10 = 150 mm. Lapping reduces bar lengths for easier handling on
site.
7 Laps are shown staggered for effective crack control.
3.4.1.5 6 Minimum transverse reinforcement is placed across the full flange width of the edge beam (minimum

width = 650 mm, see page 16).


Table 3.25 Minimum area = 00015 )< 1000 >< 175 = 263 mm2/m use TlO @ 300 (262 mm2/m).
8 Main tension bars over support 112 @ 300 as bar mark I.
3.12.10.3 One curtailment shown at 03 effective span from face of support. Further curtailments prevented by
minimum area and spacing requirements similar to mark I.
9
i,TIOc30OTQt

Al
1.

)
5Tt0-5JT' Mt.
B
I

II
U'2 .1
L

ST tO -51

1oo
1

30O
I
L%o
'1

8T1O-2.00
'7T1O-3)2 Mt.
4
1

@_Th F

i_

(2) _i

T10- 1300
7 TI

0- 'z) e2 AlL

4T'2-1- 300
P LA.1 (r4

'2 ovfte4

r c[ti)

A It
AR. = alecY4J_ &r5

.45s Att

A-A

,z tt.

5= 20 $cale; i;oFirst-floor main beam


- CovE.R toote
two-span flanged beam
BS 8110
ref.
CALCULATIONS OUTPJT

.2.I.21 Su.FR.P1ME.
A taa.r

AL'-t'5

ett. Ljs

forces. F-or

-1oo

&iiiwecL to be xed.
1ve. Ti.

t'i.ov,.

Lart* 1L4

3
To.bk6

3,34

e.LLa.r ro4kcgd

e' b er rMrv

be co(s.bosje

4 tse

be(oi c

w ot prove rot rcd rert.

to

a-re. takcr

b sc-ur wcAk.

SC

tD

'

ov1

Ri

COVW

for

STA CG

vt co t.ov of eposurc 2o. cove ?OO wbefor -

cover Ii4K5

20
.2122 LAPD4G

p4 toc o75o.b CPe&) 5c4.7 2.S se-ieLt

(o.o.r7s)o.3 x 24 = '23

oGa.w 2B.kW/,

Mv ce o4 i4 (.B)
103K 2S&k4/.

uie.4:

BA 1'
cZUIL4 rowv AvJ

------

w p

Ctk I
1o o4
LtperCowC.
Scur

(k)

CASEJ1

CM IS%t

2o.Ok4/, +

'(2 + 32 'i& k/s

Oc 2OOk/t.

+t.4t .i2k/M Bi

Lower II

= x4

12

Moie.m

()

.O ve4tl.Q%

Lij*- Cokiv v#
ower

sc-0- (1)
CDiLAI stf,

sLeer (-!)
- 17$ 2O + 4o2 - 348k + Qc
+ ba

ii

24 oo 22

(8't'2
-19 2.7( 4- 4$

2So 28

-4

4-it 7 + 'a-

34 #1's
2$2 i'2o

iii -

.54 e4

+ 2o4 -

1- 33

+ 2'
+ 17

1%

-- 542

10

=460

tto

........ ... ..
CALCULATIONS

MDN-E'JT ..NvLOPE

Rrnto

8000 6000 300

V
FogcE E1LOPE
40 r CASE I 17S o .5S
402 2&L

( O')

(2o'J')

II

34 S2

II

(I)

{1 eatA.
wecoc L 32S
-UI

La6t
I trbut&i
2? I
22 I

EveLop.
3511

oao
00 m.
1

2BBR I

3001
L

= 282

i55 k1
0.4

0.s
46o

vw1

=
0

&s
2

s'. t&or
(. .3 a
4T25
1

. . I,

III

(SQ..e

ii')

440

Lj4co

J__

2 T 2B
Co

:vta.-vt Supor:
BS 8110
ref. CALCULATIONS OUTPUT

Fcor. ?JL Q1 = 0.7


K' O.4o2(0.7O.4')_01(O.7_Q.4)2
K Ot21 > O1o4

bd2

4oxooi4.4

42O
0.02'3

Mu

3EAM.,

322t

/ct

3.4.4.4

= o.io4

t.FLOof

E')

efoe O > O7
50

/O.4,):. /c i-0o4<O.
-- Co

---

0. '5 40.( 10o4 ') x 40 x 00 x 4402 22 Ma C440-5o) r32


o (oo 5oo)/ 3o0
t2

C'tgck A1

0104

. 4o x oo 442.

+ 232 1685 0.95 4ox

o5

S%

Frot M
Ef. f[ae wtL = 6

1O =

(Q.2 x

O7

+ Q. t4 .'< 9000

4Z0x4So

4d =(o,s+Jo,2-oo.7> os ______ -

so

A5

t756

- 32. < 10
0.5x4Ox0.9Sx4SO
FroM

.M.evop11) 2.2.1 = i5x

tO

04S

44O

40 x

OOx 45O

--As

(O.So.

')

D2

:.-

cl

.4)

i,xtO O'Sx4,0.x 0.9rLx 450

ckovcbox: 775 o'S.c.4Ox4S1


75 x to
312'32'2

..IC.b4rcksr= 190x S0/5)

2 x 4o,( '25
M

Frv .Vf. Cvveloe


M=

3.4.j. .M.evei.oe, E. . .OO+ 0.14 x (,00O


M = OO7, cu
A

13x 10

4 T 2

(tO

tc...o ".
= O.O,4
657 MAM
So

2T25

__

j nPoo
a.6

)25,,

1t40
12

4o 4So
Ce4c Abt9e4
we.b

o.oo K300X 500 = -se.

TLc

2 T 2S

(8lr.
t&4%SLO
BS 8110
ref CALCULATIONS OUTPUT

34.G
T.6te3'B

TIe7

or-.oVe.r Spport,0.002fx3Q0oO=

2 45.5

Tbe37
Tobe7

SkEAR REll4PORcMEJT

Ccve. tior,

re.L,, 2T2

(82 w2)

boo A - 100x2 073, 0S7(- OO4SO / t'vvk A 6 0.4 OOx 04

\!c

'

' 00TrR2oo
.(vO7O04' .o59/2

OSS(2O = 075

Sv 3oo

4B0

d.4SO
Skct

LR1k2 2 A/ oo io o.7s 2
j

T6137
4StO

Loao

8LM

V.f.d
2t V/N/
j(oo

vv
0%

Ay
tlS

Lks
R'l2C. 175

R.

2 3-

12

R 1 300

.50 j 1t

R..t'2. @ 3oo
,,

L.H

25
2M
'32

jsc O.o
tSS
j.14
R.L

V1G875 k..N
.o3
2S
37
O.'9

p.51
O.7

34..1

3.4,

T.bIe9

bkto
FLECTION1

b-Lo= b

M 2x 4(oOic I75i27

ctor i..5 224


Acto -- &000 450
.

'2.t1.2.

Tk32g
3ViII2
3 I2124

C AC

2i2

:c-.k
J
1V\

ct;

rk ba pa

23/2 42Ox4SO2 3x 1%O 325

T'VLOY. \'L4.

0/

& xtr-.f sport

T 2o

+ 18

I.e.raS $..4por-t T 30
0
e,<tLrroj

sro T 0

100 < 125

40 < 203
100

< 10

1 <4

o0 < 55
--

0I5

35 <

-35 <

92

3t2.3
2 &t6
Tcb3'27

3123.i
TIE PRO\,

Si0 F 3k/ (e

0. Tv\.trJ
=F

(K)

( 4.+4.O 7

tLC forCe or

aae 7)

po

15 7.

'. G'&x S = I

Cvw 3S< ('s2)


Lap

uefa- 4 etee d-t

xe-r

(J) 3,%

Co

( -sF

ca

< 7QkJ L5

Coa carKe

coLw

ioo<

2S)

4o2< 41kN c'r o 473 x

04

S2
L'e oc;

D2rS

0r.a4L,

0L (va.4Q,

'

0O 3

t xteJ

II

153k Nn Extntot QIon4 T.C.P(3.1,S

cL450.
2) 300. (.
t.Lo. ct. 5 =
a.

b=

to pt, we4- M /IT.C.P 2


Commentary on bar arrangement
US 8110 ref Bar marks Noics
lius beam shows loose splice bars at each column intersection. Ihis met hod simplifies detailine and 0 sing
and the span cage can readily he prefabricated.
I Tension bars arc stopped 50 mm from each column lace to avoid clashing with the column bars
3.3.1.2 shown

in section A--A. Nominal cover 20 + 12 32 mm > 25 mm, say 35 mm.


bars stopped off as shown in the curtailment diagram above.

3.12.9.1 2 Remaining tension

3.12.8.14 ('heck masimum amount

of reinforcement at laps <

40 breadth

4 >< 25 = 100 mm < 0-4 X 300 = 12)) mm OK.


3 loose bars arc fixed inside column bars as shown in section BB. Although designed as compression
3.12.3.4 bars, these bars also act as internal ties and lap 1000 mm with the adjacent span bars for continuity.
4 The two tensioil bars are stopped 51) mni from the column Oice to avoid the column bars beyond.
5,10 loose Ibars are bxcd insidc the column bars and provide continuitS for column and internal ties.
3.12.11.1 ('heck minimum distance between tension bars 25 mm (aggregate si/c

30)) 200 - 100 mm

'

25 mm

OK.

3.12.9.1 Top legs propect from centre-line

'4

f 5 mm).

into span. minimum dimensions shown in the curtailment diagram.

c,2R12

- 11

i4eoO

A 'ZTi6-

t '12 t
2
4

A-A ___
-

:O

'2T2,-2

ELE VAI
For o ba.c

r .stcxxce M o 2T2S ('3&2

a = c1_ bdxxOO.9 5[j] M= O.5fx4x, (3.4.4.4.) a=

/4o.9i2)MJ7
Bt,n: b 1420> = 0., M13'5km. 4LY Mo Ev.ve1opii.
& 1o ____ _____
1s
CURTA1LMT DIAGRAM.
Top: b=300,

l_o.I_

'75
bOO

M A1P4
cer

EAM

LNK DARAIY\
3.12.3.6
3.12.8.14
3.12.8.3
10
3.12.8.3
6.9
3.12.9.1
3.12.4.1
7.8

Bottom lcts lap minimum 00)) mm with span bars to provide continuity for the internal tie.

5+

) let both legs


Bottom lees 200 100)) 1200 mm ) project 350 mm. say.
Note that the bottom lees are raised to avoid the 40i rule in the lower layer.
'lop legs

450 1315 mm

('heck hearing stress inside bends. Jy

' 55 br

each radius

to simplify bending.

450 05 mm ) let both legs


Bottom legs 20(1 1001) 1200 mm ) project 1200 mm. say.
Else r 4d minimum radnis bends.
link hanger bars arc same length as bar marks I and 4. Bar is one size larger than links (n' inimum 12 mm).
'Ihe tension bars over the support stop as shown in the curtailment diagram. These hai's arc Oxed inside
the column reinforcement as shown in section BB.
'Ihese bars are bundled vertically in pairs to reduce congestion and this also allows a gap(ninimuni 75 mm)
for insert mii of a vibrator.

'lop legs 535

4-

II ('hosed links, shape code hi. are arranged to suit the link diagram above. Open top links, shape code 77.
arc not suitable for the sites shown.
3.12.8.12 Note that links it laps are spiLed at ilot greater than 200 mm since cover I'S bar size.
15

Edge beam
interior-span flanged beam

tf

1=

'350

5000 300
BS 8110
ref. CALCULATIONS OUTPUT

To.bIe

33,34
DL,RAILITY FIRE. 'S1iCE

tjqr Ovc cf ex?oure = 4OA..


3OOwde. be.4 for ir.ero /vLLMtA Co/e.r 4O%W%
NDw2aJ Cver

LoAi
Ie44 CooA 4!rov
6-3
25.0

2x2 294

.' o-7kL

ose4 i osab(p.t W'25

k= QO.7kJ
k= 2Ok.
F =i'zsok.
TAb(e..35

2.sokM.

byi (o.4 544o 125.0kg.

ULTtMATE .M'S

IrorsorC M.oo8F OO&xt?x5 O.OkW

Wtt4. a: M E O.07 12Sx

4S

444
3.415

Ta'5

4;,Io
Tcbk7

t.rLor os: 5Qx0' OO5 bd2


(o.s+a;-

0'O) A: 0Xi0 442.

M4-Ltcuy; e.fewi4t
- 43.9x

4ox oox'2So

Cu 40X650x 2902 002.,

SrorceO5SF*12S6875kN,

o5,46OxO'S7x2&D

=
A

fc'ot reforea.rc2T20

'Larforce G8'75_ (D. I+ 0.28) 2S


1oo4 o.is 5BxD =
bd 3oo,'2PO / 3oox2.BO 0.G3N)

v <ea+ 0.4) = o.4,( 300 0'

Oi &C2OOMs'

Sv '200

2w ob0 2T2O
fj 1 jio. J L.
.LJ4O

2C)o

vri

' M.

oSx2O L.j O'75>2&O ZI0P4 AS/ -

- O.7>

(4o2

R.io200

tLccgct.
4.'(.1

1ce3

Te,g
D,FL.CT%O,.J 44L.C

M-

22o b7b_ o.4>o3)

43.SIo' 2 x 4o 5ox29O - 3x 4o2 272N/rn

. Moft.a,. fi*4or 153


,1Aow*bLe. s&r/cff.dLp
1

ooo 17.2 2O

.'.

rto = 22 x

k.

l2cI.2A
Tcbe

3.12 (.2.4

CAc OFO 7rso \92>71/s (sedeco) A(oJb


d&rcpczc 2g CC
T0p

2 ar5o chkC

= 41000

220 ,coc QvJLQ CtE'oe 5.Cj'% 2L

rdtsre O0

,1
I

ok
oiIc27

3..U TIE. PR.oVl,O4

-eLF4. A5j .

U'L'Tt2,

4t= .

x74 45 3oc

To

'ZTVZ.
Bar marks Notes
Horizontal bars in this member provide the peripheral tie. Minimum lap = 300 mm.
I The two tension bars are stopped 50 mm from the column lace to avoid clashing with the column
bars shown in section A-A.
Separate splice hars are fixed inside vertical column bars.
Minimum area = 30% A = 03 x 364 = 109 rnm. Use 2'T 12 = 226 mrn.
I ap = 35 >< 12 >< 109/226 = 203 mm > 15 x 12 = 180 mm < 300 nim. Use 300 mm lap.
3 Link hanger bars also provide support for slab top reinorcenienI.

Minimum area = 20%


sI1pT1 = 02 x 436 = 87 mm. Use 2T 12 = 226 mm.
4 Tension reinforcement over support is fixed inside vertical column bars.
Bars are curtailed at 025 span from lace of support = 025
5 Closed links are shape code 61

'23R405-200

A1

je- co

2 T '2O 4
n

EL EV Ar iot
-75

ScaL1e1tO 44 3

COVE o
U

ks =40

t 21 i
Commentary on bar arrangement
ItS 8110 ref
3.12.8.11

A-A
Sc4, t:"ZO
3.12.10.2

Figure 3.24
Table 3.27
3.12.10.2
Figure 3.24
3.12.10.2
Figure 3.24
17

Columns

x 5000 1250 mm > 45 x

21) =

900 mm

slender and

EW

short columns
=

O.S

(E4o:

4.5

AD TcP
4.oboov)
or O tv\
=

I52> iS

= 40 = 460
lst

14000 15000 1j

300

300
8000 6000
BS 8110
ref
CALCULATIONS ouTPur

2I2.1 5ue,-FAM A4ALi'$lS - rEje.r to bpMe.iO.

UR(L4Tt c4 RsTca

cover-

o' r

o U4o o4oro4 ot
Co

Ikreroj 2o w...

T3k '

4
cover 4 -..k',

x r

tvo i 2 o(a.3o 4Ovst*w,

e xpo're 420o

It4TRAL CoL-u (u..ctaii

-- oof) AXtAL LOA o4

ifrow. ANALX

EAML$
k.N

COLUM

Ic

LoADS CGLM

E2

aa t

2 1. 2. d 2 1 2

12

oa 49
210

244
%33

S4

4 5
53

i4
133

34

J 32. sa 9
100 53

3 3 3aFL 2

249

29o
117
140

U7

t3 SB
32
1B4

ivj
32 s&

.,

3'
37 I9 6G,7
24.F-(. 298
249

aM JTS IMP0cED

M*1P'T$

2o
117

140
17

i3 i5
32

i54
117

5
SS
99

14 32 b93 1

FL 3oo

252
292
120

14

liB
37 ts
134

ics
120

g 34

5. i4 14

873 42, 12Th U82

I 8000

I ooo

LOAD

CA1

1oo1='
LoA CASE 2

(PoLr -,
atfecti.ve

= j3

3&
TabI 319

8l '3
N-IS

(3 D.9 E4co

c2.SxA.5 =
4 ,0,

1N1RNAL COLL4Mt.J Ld

o.d z. tOO *
beo4 i27

M1, 0,

(oo-

Q' 773 7

M2 S,

04 M -

Ca

O.(DW\2 =

O.4M.

O+0x

7.k

fI4 > 7.

"T ( e'y

tDSIx0.xl3S .4' a kb')

2ooo

DOS3oO
qreLe..s o
U23x S44 2.3S <
22

L.

(-' b")

M=

42> 29k,

_____

oe 1. bove

oor, cvv.t

a2 od,
C'
L76
M 4 1c,
oc4

oJ:

t'255

cN.

0-

0. x .34 = 2o.4kNr.,

_______ -- __________

Mow..t 204 + OM

4 > 358 Ti RO','SiO L0.4 i.os(2i 28i N

t)ot.4

2 0/460 (1 0

9O w

BS 8110
ref.
CALCULATIONS OUTPUT

t4 + 544
Po_,t t

324
33.. t
Ei 3
S 3'3
Prt I
3. 2.7
2

(b M+M 658 = x

2'2 L =

si

o8xoi0_

-- 5'

2''9

'2-44

a 3O-4o-i3 = 247.

2.47

__ -

Q32O

I. O2S 4Qx.OOx47xlci3 74ik..


N>

t- 4T'S (%oi)

K - _______ = O2 23-741
=

.4

ioox%O -

cb

fr\ cLa.-,

Ce.ck , _______
=

= _____

1v1 0,

k.

Mt.

k.

;5o

CcLrt 9t.2B')
3

k.

c247

4T'25
(tOGOIvw)
ok,
ok.

" 51.
M

23.9-7

5'8 > fr2


2.o
19

-ectLie

k-S 0'S Cerc


LK=

O9x

=
2ZI

0.9 (evct
0.9 x

Y= 'L15
b

CoAcLo;
=
=

usiv.43

oac

BS 8110
ref.
CALCULATIONS OUTPUT

EXTRJAL COLUMt4

(Foo

R..ooF)

AtAL LoA1 cd

MME,.iT

AL

TOTAL

u-AM

L OADS CoLuMtt

b$1QN

L0A CLMk0M. T$

IMPO$E.D loP oTToA4


LDAO C4E

t '1 i

2 2.

'

1 212

t. C

i92 i.7

4?

4 i0 5

S4 9

SW.

rt

247 25S

k2.o
S
25B

i1
S

2a
15 95
SW.

24.
eti3e

r.o-v

c4e
1!5
247
1J2!

26

25

il5

it & 13
120

25
S

5Th 125

t25

G1
L5
L2$

S 105
95 joS

U 42 4

98 oS

ti7
SW

t.

245 2S3

ii

V74 2&.

U9
7&&

10

E'oO

'

SW.

24e t'25 2S

25

ii 1 4.02 1D54 16O

oor)
c
Ft (t)LCLA1)
SOT CoLM

e
(.rt PSQc S
4T2B
C

i90

P%

I3\)
CD4Ov top.,

boo3)

EO
S399
Por

1.

PrI I
N Osx
oO+44-cY924O O5S k,
fr\ z

Asu c 300U8 N11hi7xJO 4.3

237

- 079 -k-- oo

0osc. = 2 '2.3, A5=.2o7o


B.o' 1st.c,+fa4

'i

(4T' i%D2)
20

154, ;

iS 7 k1L
kN.

b
I(4TEiNAL COLL..U1M F'2 ExTR.AL COLUMN Fl
LLv,k,
J
VertcaS it.rs

-;------ ----f-Ltrvk_J Vt.ai Se4o,


?

c
(1
.

Y9J
COV.R
.

;4

4 4.

t0k'= 40

:
-4 i

coR t,
.

c-I

L -,

;1
SCALES

i: 5O j 'ZO

The presentation shown above is schematic. This tabular method adapts readily to element repetition.
The sections are shown in their relative positions adjacent to the vertical reinforcement.
Main bars, area> minimum 04% bh.
Slope of crank at lower end = 1:10 maximum. Crank offset = 50 + 10% =55 mm.
Minimum crank length = 350 mm (140).
Length of short projection beyond crank = compression lap +. say, 75 mm for tolerance.
Reinforcement area at laps < 10% bh.
Bars project above first-floor slab level to provide a compression lap above the kicker.
Bar projection = 35 x 087/095 x 25 mm + 75 mm for kicker = 875 mm, i.e. compression lap = 800 mm.
2 A single link is provided, since each vertical bar is restrained by a corner.
Minimum size = 25/4, use 8 mm. Maximum spacing = 12 x 25 = 300 mm. (R8 @ 300.)
Cover to vertical bar = 40 mm> 15 x 25 = 375 mm. Linkse xtendt o undersideo f floor slab.
Normally, starter bars are detailed with the footing, as column F2. It can be economic to detail starters
with the column above as shown. In this case it is advisable to schedule the starter bars so that they can be
processed together with the footing. Note with this detail that the section at mid-height also applies to the
starter bar arrangement. The starter bars would be shown dotted on the footing detail together with a
suitable cross-reference. Bars project above the top of the base to provide a compression lap above the kicker
= 35 x 087/095 x 25 + 75 = 875 mm, i.e. lap = 800 mm.

As bar mark 1, but bars provide a tension lap above 1st floor kicker. Cover = 50 mm.
Clear distance between adjacent laps = 100mm <6 x 25 mm; i.e. use factor 1.4
Projection = 14 x 35 x 087/095 x 25 + 75 = 1195 mm, say 1200 mm, i.e. tension lap = 1125 mm.
Sum of bar sizes at tension lap = 4 x 25 = 100mm. 100/300 x 100 = 33% <40% OK.
This detail provides the maximum lever arm and is the preferred detail for column/beam intersections.
5 Similar to mark 2 links, but extending to underside of main beam. Cover to vertical bars = 50 mm.
- 6 These U-bars are provided to restrain the vertical bars in the external face of the column.
Commentary on bar arrangement
BS 8110 ref Bar marks Notes
3.12.5.3 1
3.12.6.2

3.12.8.15
Table 3.27
3.12.7.2
3.12.7.1
3.12.8.12

Table 3.27
4

3. 12.8.13b
Table 3.27
3.12.8.14
21

Foundation
reinforced pad footing
BS 8110
ref.
CALCULATIONS ourPuT

Tob{e33

4 URAbLITY )Assoi.i roder4e*pesire '0

U se. ow.sat

4o

cover

No..sd cover

40M,l.r4$
LOADI.JC

- '1 (iet paqe19) De.4 I&.e'1 r0t.kN.

ICxr CIu-ec

12.7 718 1's1

127/i,4=D =443 I58


/,(toi 0kN/v etr

ov

roFk concete 4or4.foa4 .

5YC2OO -10) = 7. s

.. Acio,t 2'7S rove4 = 7.57f_w


U.L.S. Dtcv. ressu . 2Jo3kP4w
.4.4.4

o6t.v aoco1uw' 63x 'i.7S 2 =

Avers c
fr\ =

- c,o-4o-z5 =

3x 0' 0.017

P,.4 r9uw4

4o,27S0xS52

543x 10' 244Sw

o.954xO.9SS35 (Q5122)

44
3.

i.3.4(' )

3 113 4(2)

3L7.2
ULTIP.4ATh

SAR

Co4.or I
Sk

- V4f

t91
2 fI3751317s5o %s) :ookM

V.

SO'IO' i5o

's.3S

force V 4n coLa.=

f37s-a'so-2xS3S}

k4

2 1375
12.
V

't "

27SOcS3S

cka) V 1O SI - 4xoox5S
Crtt ,Q.rqk.r 4 (3oo + 3 x S5) 7., 20 ArwL (0.1x0.')
Baror. 2(75.G) V = 034. .'( O
Co4.or 2 p L4.v S\Qr) *.e ore.

<soHJ
u

ii

7G'20 x 535

LI J

Jr .,L

54
3'12U27

.II. .2

AC.W4

cL

2750< 535

3O< 7SOr

317 O.3

e OS '276O = 17<O.2.C3c d')_ O.2S(x3O0+9x53) 1429

soc SOcrs,eo.cA
C.riK wiftk ok,,
22
1
ground 600 pressure
AAAAAAAA

= 200

2750

.4

A
_J2O-t- &5OI

PLAN
4T25 -2
Cover =40
Mn,.

2aB--3oo

COVER.

BI 4O
2\4

-is A

Scak, i:SO

Commentary on bar arrangement

It

81 1() ret Bir

rnark 1\oles

pa

bctrs Q.cKoSs scctov.,

full width of base, less end covers.


Table 3.27 Bars should project a minimum tension bond length beyond the column face = 35 >< 20 = 700 mm <
1150 nim OK.
3.3.1.4 The underside of base is concrete blinded, cover = 40 mm.
Column starter bars are wired to bottom mat. Minimum projection ahose the top of base is a
Table 3.27 compression lap + kicker = 35 x 087/095 x 25 + 75 = 875 mm. i.e. lap = 800 mm (see p. 21).
3 Links are provided to stahi Imie and locate the starter bars during construction. These are the same site
as the column links above.
3.12.8.1 1 Straight bars extend

23

460
ist 175

4000
250
14300 900

Shear waD
external plain concrete wall
BS 8110
ref. CALCULATIONS OUTPUT

.94.3

14. 2> 2 WALL


T&bk 33

N)PSALt T'( Ft $TAC ccvr (

svexe. x?ocLsre. 40w,

F-y- rest&-e 17 kAI = i.2> t4oLsr

4o
, lc.rt stc ck..
2Ow.wt.

ye

C.

O.S(3Z3+8.S) 49.5k/

5Q V3t O.7(24x1E GS.1 C&ct.c


a,.r+x4xO.8') 27.8kN/. ;. c4_
BS

c4 1t4.kJM

(99 CLf 2

0<1 Dt4
k

ktO
VSbS22/ec. V: V5S
- O C (CpQr (kc
WIND

O85'< + 3)'>Q. J
tA O.5x4234'O

u:,s4 kWrt P +4x6

77/ oG,3' 7.7lD3

() LL4 . '20

+49.7k4/ -

l42j
T\.21

.4
e43

44

V.RTCA.L LOA1G
Locu.

coaj.

4< 2O

3,

IEN11'( (U.L,S. sg

1.4 114.G

Lcc1;')

# x B 204SkN/M.

x(44+27S447) oskJ4J

C e3

eoo. = (1.3/)

2o.ik\ (

0,tL

\<

144L/ /tA4
,1

L)L.

tt3-cx4S <r botLcs a

4 \5

43.4 S REAR otcJ


N

x4.G14-3 13

'- 24 0./Av

ck5vr.. sk&r rce. V

7( 14300

ok

y3
,i2.3.4.2
3, 2 .4.
3.1'Z.3..1

attjoor 7&2 Prpke.J ti.: As =

ThE PRovtso

14.3

40 ;x3f(4.7+4.o)x

;o r

DQ.rt.t vU

(78.SA)

T1O2oo4R,
C

u4jc4: rca4

FOOTIUC Mox.

cue. dcat # + w4

oDwt.ck)

4 '(a- 27 S#497 .

resr = 2I kf3

'1

ZSJQ

4 ev

tLte.

pA 72E,

;.i_io

OKO' 2So

tLc.k) cL = 2oo

ccec 01 lox'2Q.

oo4 1, 2.4
ottd".
)S

Tv e co

(3-772/1...C)

24

B 8110 ref Bar marks Notes


fable 3.27
3.3.1.4
Table 3.25 2

3.9.4.19
Table 3.27
3

4,5,6
3.12.3.4 7,8
9
Wall starters match vertical reinforcement. Minimum projection of horizontal legs beyond the

wall face is a design tension bond length = 35 x 182/377 < 12 = 203 mm < 287 mm. This provides
the footing reinforcement. Minimum projection above top of base is a compression lap + kicker
= 35 x 2 + 75 = 495 mm, say 525 mm, i.e. lap = 450 mm.
Underside of footing is concrete blinded, cover = 4(1 mm.
Minimum longitudal reinforcement provided.
Minimum vertical reinforcement. Area = 254

x 1000 >< 175 = 438 mrn'Im. (T 2 @ 300 EF = 754 mm2/m.j

T 12 bars provide reasonable rigidity for handling and help stabilize the cage during erection.
Minimum projection above top of firstfloor level is a compression lap + kicker = say 25 mm.
Lap = 450 mm.
Minimum horiiontal reinforcement. Area = 438 mni7m. (T10 @ 200 EF = 786 mm'/m.)
Provide at least a tension lap = 35 x 0 = 350 mm. say 450 mm to satisfy shrinkage and thermal
requirements.
Bars are placed outside vertical reinfircenient to provide maximum control against shrinkage and
thermal cracking. Those bars in the wall 05 in below firstfloor slab act also as interna] ties.
Tension lap 6)r tie = 35 >< 10 = 350 mm, say 450 mm.
Peripheral tie at first floor. 1,bars at either end provide continuity with edge beams.
Laps. say 450 mm.
Wall spacers maintain location of each face of reinforcement.
25

Commentary on bar arrangement

Staircase
3500
end-span continuous slab
175

5060

BS 8110
ref.
CALCULATIONS OUTPUT

3?
T.$ Ie 3

.toor

4 RLVrt 4

RE.1STAI4C.

c'-

ri )

o. z

LoA4
Ave.rMe ctb

L c.e.cc

o.k...

= 2so

.0

05

cZt.c ce4 SoaA .. .5

k/ = 4.OkJ3/

(14GS 1.4.o)5.o = 17.5kN/1k

k Q, S kN/ k

4.Okt/

T3S
.4'I
1tivtor SLLr= o.itFL= Q'11x77.5x'O 43.
TI1AT .Ms

eo r4et

O =

3$. 3Id/M.

E L2Q
w*st

44
To.bte.38

4FOR.CMeNT 1\

jsL. .i-.ter.or sc.pport.

43.1<o
A5 -

0.049 =

04

eox 44-e.4 0.040


A5 OSx46OxO.Sx'49

0 77-Sx 10
C&.Jc

SLto.r: V = O.31/n<v

d=
ToP

C o t2/
e

0TTOM

Tt2. i'.O
C7s4z/p.)
.

ok

344
T.b\3'tO

Dc.-rto cte.t r4o ox.


2

= .3>cO

4O 57t =

3
Mod s,cvce. strec.c. 232 a =

I.

AI.twte. a.ry'e. ctejt. ra.o x i 35. '2

c k 5060 - 340 14S

- 0k.
3VZIt 27

CACK

<K2 oa.

bcr5<ex 149 1r41 M. oc,

ok,

32.34 TE PRov5oP.J t-We.ct

r.t ttL

M. co

re 4 = (s

b-s&L cL4e dcvt

c.

o1TOM

4-T2

(4 t)

Ie.r'a T.e.
ooc

Pre srase. -

91

3-

73 2T%2

26
Table 3.27 1,5,6
Table 3.25 2,,9

Fig 3.25 3,4


3.12.10.3.2 7
Table 3.25 10,11

34 Tio-E
Main tension reinlorcemcnt. Lap lengths and anchorage bond lengths = 35 x 12 = 420 mm, say 450 mm.
Laps arc located to facilitate likely constructions equencesS.i milarf

or bar marks 12, 13 and 15.

Secondary reinforcement. Minimum area = 00013 x 1000 x 75 = 228 inniim.


Use 110 (a) 300 = 262 mm/rn.
Main tension reinlorcement over support .50% curtailed at

03 span, remainder at 0 IS span.

both measured from lace of support. Similar for bar mark 14.
libars provide 50% midspan reinforcement in both top and bottom at end support =
= 286 mmlrn.
Use 110 @ 15(1 = 524 mill/ni to match spacing of span bars. 1.ap, say 450 mm.
Optional ruinfoi cLnlent Minimum ULd = 228 mm Simil u for h

ii mai k

27

Cove.r

FUCHT '5'
CCVE
Commentary on bar arrangement
BS 8110 ref Bar marks Notes

Column design chart


28
CJ

E
E

z
0

z
Rectangular columns
50
45
40

35
30
25
20
15
10

5
01

23 4

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

16

05 >< 571

2 44

4 :3

M/bh 2 N/mm2
fcu 40
460

d/h 080

nformation from the Reinforced Concrete Council


Spreadsheets
Many of the design principles used in this publication will be covered by spreadsheets for reinforced

concrete
design now being developed by the Reinforced Concrete Council. Versions for both BS 8110 and EC2

are in
preparation. For details write to
6YS.

the RCC at Century House, Telford Avenue, Crowthorne, Berks RG45

Buildability and whole building economics


It should be stressed that the structural solution presented in this publication has been chosen for the
purpose: of
illustrating analysis, design and reinforcement detailing principles. A typical building frame accounts for
only
10% of the whole construction cost, but affects foundations, cladding and service provision. The choice and
details
of a building's structure should reflect both buildability and overall building economics. Analysis of these
factors
using a structural optimisation program* or charts from a publication** suggests that a flat slab alternative
may save
around 2% of overall building costs and ten days' construction time.
Similarly, rationalisation and simplification of reinforcement will normally speed construction and hence
reduce
overall construction costs and programme time. Excessive curtailment and tailoring of reinforcement to
save material
at the expense of rationalisation will prove counter-productive. These aspects are currently being
investigated at the
European Concrete Building Project at Cardington, and will result in the publication of best practice
guidance.

With increasing emphasis on the cost in use of buildings, there is a trend towards the use of exposed
soffits for
passive cooling. This move to whole life costs will modify the optimum solution, and deep ribbed or
coffereci slabs

are a favoured option to meet daylighting, thermal mass, ventilation and acoustic requirements.
*C oncept - a computepr rogramth ata llows the rapid semi-automated choice of concrete frame while
considering

whole building costs. Produced by the Reinforced Concrete Council. Available from the RCC on 01344
725733.
** Economic concrete frame elements - a pre-scheme design handbook, based on BS 8110, that helps
designers
choose the most viable concrete options. Produced by the Reinforced Concrete Council. Available from the
ECA on
01344 7257U4.

IBC

Designed and detailed (BS 8110: 1997)


J. B. Higgins and B. R. Rogers
BRITISH CEMENT ASSOCIATION PUBLICATION 43.501
OBC

Cl/Sf B
(28) q4 (K)
UDC 624.073.33.012.45:
624.04.001.3

(Ofl@rete