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Statistical Analysis on Land Dispute Occurring in Cambodia 2008
Statistical Analysis on Land Dispute Occurring
in Cambodia 2008
Analysis on Land Dispute Occurring in Cambodia 2008 Land and Livelihoods Programme Land Information Centre The

Land and Livelihoods Programme Land Information Centre

The NGO Forum on Cambodia

The NGO Forum on Cambodia – Statistical Analysis on Land Dispute Occurring in Cambodia (For the year 2008)

Written by:

Land Information Centre (LIC)

Layout Designed by:

NGO Forum Staff

Acknowledgements:

The NGO Forum on Cambodia would like to acknowledge all the individuals and

organizations that assisted the Land Information Centre team with the compilation of

data presented in this report. The LIC Team would like to thank Adhoc, Licadho,

Vigilance, CDP, MVI, BFD, CODEC, AS (Woman Development) and all provincial

government authorities for assisting during data validation at the field. LIC also wishes to

thank Oxfam GB in particular for their provision of the original database of land dispute

cases, and supporting documents. In addition, LIC would like to acknowledge those

organizations and community representatives who freely provided their time and

information to assist the LIC during the field verification visits.

© The NGO Forum on Cambodia – 2009

Statistical Analysis on Land Dispute Occurring in Cambodia (For the year 2008)

Contents

 

Page

Summary

 

1

 

Introduction

 

1

Methodology

 

2

 
   

Result of the Data Analysis Number of Land Dispute Cases (By Provinces):

2

Number of Affected Households:

3

Size of Land under Dispute:

 

3

Type of Land under Dispute:

3

Status of Land Disputed:

4

Range of Authorities which Land Dispute Cases Were Referred to:

4

Situation of Land Occupation in Disputed Area:

5

Reasons for Land Acquisition:

 

6

Type of Actors:

7

Type of Claims for Possession of Disputed Land (by Actors):

8

Conclusion

 

9

Land Dispute Data Illustration in GIS-map:

10

Annex I: Number of Land Dispute Cases (By Provinces) Annex II: Map illustrations number of affected household by provinces Annex III: Size of Land Dispute Area Annex IV: Primary Land Dispute Type Annex V: Status of Land Dispute Annex VI: Situation of Land Occupation in Disputed Area Annex VII: Reasons for Land Acquisition:

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Figure 1: Land Dispute Location Figure 2: Authority to which Land Dispute Case were Referred:

2

5

Tables

Table 1: Number of Affected Households Table 2: Size of Land Dispute Area Table 3: Land Dispute Type Table 4: Status of Land Dispute Table 5: Situation of Land Occupation in Disputed Area:

3

3

4

4

6

Table 6: Activities Occurred During the Land Dispute:

6

Table 7: Reasons for Land Acquisition:

7

Table 8: Type of compliant actors involved in land dispute:

7

Table 9: Type of defendant actors involved in land dispute:

7

Table 10: Type of claims and documentation held by complaints:

8

Table 11: Possession paper claim by defendants:

8

Statistical Analysis on Land Dispute Occurring in Cambodia (For the year 2008)

Summary

Land disputes have been known as a critical issue for Cambodia at the present. The causes of the disputed have been described driving by law not being fully enforced, less involvement of local authorities, and people knowledge related to legal and policy is limited. Land disputes have seen dramatically increased in particularly in these last couple years. For instance, 173 land dispute cases were collected from local media for the year of 2008. These cases were collected from four local media -Kohsantepheap, Rasmey Kampuchear, The Cambodia Daily, and Radio Free Asia. All collected cases, were brought to verify with existing Land Dispute Database of the Land Information Centre. All the case were recorded and updated. The majority of dispute cases reported more likely occurring within zones of rapid economic growth. Each disputes reported relatively big. In average, around 200 families are involved in a land dispute case. More than half of land disputes occurred in productive land (Chamkar and paddy field) with size more than 50ha. The majorities of land disputes erupted long times a go, but only few been resolved.

Introduction

Increasing land value, ineffectiveness of law enforcement, lack of community’s knowledge in legal and policy, and unclear roles and responsibilities of key responsible authorities are in part the driving forces leading to land disputes in Cambodia. Most of disputes more likely happen in the areas, which are not clear legal entity ownership i.e. forest areas or land not yet being titled. Having seen this issue, many mechanisms and approaches have been made by the Royal Government of Cambodia. Various institutions body or working groups have been formed. In line with those mechanisms and approaches, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and development partners also play an important role to reduce those land conflicts. Almost every issue of the local newspapers mention of land disputes. Various mechanisms from different government agencies have been made and applied, but the results seem not found significantly change.

Land Information Centre is a unique project of the NGO Forum on Cambodia under the land and livelihoods programme. It was established since middle of 2006 to provide strategic information to all projects under LLP to do advocacy for policy changes to benefit the poor and vulnerable groups. Information used for advocacy comes from the result of researches, investigations, and results of database analysis. Compilation of land dispute cases issued in local media (Kohsantepheap, Rasmey Kampuchear, The Cambodia Daily, and Radio Free Asia) is one of the LIC project. The results of the analysis also used to inform public about the overview of land dispute situation in Cambodia annually.

The overall objective of this land dispute database analysis aims at highly the general situation of land disputes occurred within the year 2008. The analysis aimed to highlight the key players and its intervention from key responsible agencies.

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Methodology

Data analysis for this report come from the most updated information collected from local media and provincial-based NGOs partners within the year 2008. Before analysis it was verified and updated on our existing land dispute database system. Four local media named: Kohsantepheap, Rasmey Kampuchear, The Cambodia Daily and Radio Free Asia, were chosen as the key information for land dispute data updated. Some cases were brought to verify with NGOs Forum provincial network from their respective areas. The case counted for the database, only any case, which involve more than 5 households.

There are 173 land dispute cases were issued in the local media within this year 2008. Each single case was validated with the database or verify with NGO provincial network member. The database were stored as spatial data in Geographical Information System (GIS) database. The system enables to generate results on geographically basis. A simple statistical data analysis result also possible to acquire from this system.

Result of the Data Analysis

Number of Land Dispute Cases (By Provinces):

The result of the analysis from 173 LD cases shows that the areas with the high rate of land disputes are lowland experiencing rapid economic growth, and in forested land. The figure 1 below shows the provincial with the highest number of land dispute cases were Sihanoukville, Kampot, and Kandal, followed by Siem Reap, Battambang, Koh Kong and Banteay Meanchey. (see Annex I: Number of land dispute case by province).

Figure 1: Land Dispute Location

Kong and Banteay Meanchey. (see Annex I: Number of land dispute case by province). Figure 1:

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Number of Affected Households:

On average the land dispute case analyzed involved 188 families. The number of families in a land dispute ranges from 5 to 4,000 families. Most LDs that involved large numbers of families were those in relation to in Economic Land Concession areas. In general, more than fifty percents of the land disputes involved community more than 50 families (see Table 1 below). The largest case (involving more than 100 households), were found in Ratanakiri, Kratie, Banteymean Chey, Kandal, Kampot and Prah Sihanouk provinces (see Annex II: Map illustrations number of affected household by provinces).

Table 1: Number of Affected Households

Number of involved households

Percentage

5 - 49

32.37%

50

- 99

9.83%

100 - 200

24.28%

>200

25.43%

No data

8.09%

Minimum

5 HHs

Maximum

4000 HHs

Average

188 HHs

Size of Land under Dispute:

8.09% 32.37% 25.43% 24.28% 9.83% 5 - 49 50 - 99 100 - 200 >200
8.09%
32.37%
25.43%
24.28%
9.83%
5 - 49
50 - 99
100 - 200
>200
No data

Nearly half of the land disputes involved less that 50 ha of land. However, some land disputes are as big as 8,000 ha with the average being of 276 ha. Only a few (10%) land dispute cases occurred in land areas larger than 500 ha (Table 2: Size of land dispute). Most of the larger disputes in terms of land size were in relation to conflict between a local community (community forest land) and an economic land concession company. (see Annex III:: Map illustrates the size of disputed land by provinces).

Table 2: Size of Land Dispute Area

Size of land Dispute

Percentage

Less than 50Ha

43.35%

51

- 100Ha

7.51%

101- 500Ha

21.97%

More than 500Ha

10.40%

No data

16.76%

Total

100%

Minimum

<1 ha

Maximum

8000 ha

Average

276 ha

Type of Land under Dispute:

10.40% 16.76% 21.97% 7.51% 43.35% No data Less than 50Ha 51 - 100Ha 101- 500Ha
10.40%
16.76%
21.97%
7.51%
43.35%
No data
Less than 50Ha
51 - 100Ha
101- 500Ha
More than 500Ha

Different types of land use defined in this report depend on the report from media or NGO provincial network members. From the Table 3 it is clear that more than half of land disputes (54.34%) occur in productive land areas (Chamkar and rice agricultural land). About one quarter (22.54%) of disputes involve residential areas and (13.29%) in the forest land which being used by local community. This result suggests that, if disputes continue for long periods, they are likely to have negative impact on livelihoods and income generation activities as the majority of cases involve productive land. In Siem

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Reap, Ratanakiri, Kampong Speu and Kampong Chhnang province more than fifty percent of the dispute cases recorded involved Chamkar or agricultural land.(see Annex IV: Map illustrates type of disputed land by provinces).

Table 3: Land Dispute Type

Land dispute type

Percentage

Residential land

22.54%

Agricultural land

39.31%

Chamkar field

15.03%

Forest Land - Community Forest

13.29%

Forest Land - State Land Wetland Other Unknown No Data Total

1.16%

1.16%

2.89%

0.58%

4.05%

100%

Status of Land Disputed:

4.05% 2.89% 0.58% 1.16% 22.54% 1.16% 13.29% 15.03%
4.05%
2.89%
0.58%
1.16%
22.54%
1.16%
13.29%
15.03%

39.31%

Residential land Chamkar field Forest Land - State Land Other No Data

Agricultural landResidential land Chamkar field Forest Land - State Land Other No Data

Forest Land - Community ForestResidential land Chamkar field Forest Land - State Land Other No Data Agricultural land Wetland Unknown

Wetlandland Chamkar field Forest Land - State Land Other No Data Agricultural land Forest Land -

Unknownland Chamkar field Forest Land - State Land Other No Data Agricultural land Forest Land -

The below table shows that only small proportion of land dispute cases (less than 13%) were resolved within the year 2008. With verifying with the record in the Land Dispute Database, some cases take longer than 10 years to reach a resolved as many legal mechanisms or conflict resolutions approaches can be applied, which often take time. With these cases being reported this year, there is not many cases found to be resolved within such a short period, only some were reported partly resolved. The details of status of case resolutions are given in Table 4 below. The only provinces in which cases were partially resolved during 2008 were Phnom Penh and Pailen (see detail of each province in Annex V).

Table 4: Status of Land Dispute

Status of Resolution

Percentage

Partly resolved

5.20%

Resolved for both complainant and defendant

4.05%

Resolved for complainant

6.94%

Resolved for defendant

1.73%

Unresolved

82.08%

5.20% 4.05% 6.94% 82.08% Partly resolved Resolved for both complainant and defendant Resolved for complainant
5.20%
4.05%
6.94%
82.08%
Partly resolved
Resolved for both complainant and defendant
Resolved for complainant
Resolved for defendant
Unresolved

1.73%

Range of Authorities which Land Dispute Cases Were Referred to:

Once conflict occurs, people tend to seek help from various authorities. Some conflicts were submitted as complaints to many authorities at different level, including the Prime Minister’s Cabinet. From the illustration of figure 2 it clear that the majority of land dispute (87.86%) are referred to immediate local authorities (village, commune, or district level). This results show that village development council or commune council could play a very important role in term of facilitation or mediation during the conflict resolution process for people in their administrative jurisdiction.

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Figure 2: Authority to which Land Dispute Case were Referred:

4.05% 5.78% 2.31% 8.09% 27.17% 6.36% 3.47% 5.78% 0.00% 6.36% 8.09% 27.75% 49.71% 3.47% 5.78%
4.05%
5.78%
2.31%
8.09%
27.17%
6.36%
3.47%
5.78%
0.00%
6.36%
8.09%
27.75%
49.71%
3.47%
5.78%
20.00%
40.00%
60.00%
80.00%

87.86%

Local Authorities (Village, Commune and District)

District Cadastral Commission

Provincial Cadastral Commission

National Cadastral Commission

National Authority for Land Dispute Resolution

Provincial Court

Appeal Court

Supreme Court

National Assembly

Royal Palace

Ministry of Interior

Concil of Minister

Prime Minster's Cabinet

Provincial Hall

Department of National Assembly and Senate's Affairs

Others

0.00%

100.00%

Percentage

The second most common authority which people requested for interment on land dispute cases was the Provincial Governor (49.71%). Nearly one third (27.75%) of cases also filed their complaint direct to the Prime Minister’s Cabinet. Interestingly, only a few cases were found that it referred to district, provincial, or national Cadastral Offices or the National Authority for Land Dispute Resolution (NALDR). The Provincial court also plays an important role as 27.17% of LD cases brought to the provincial court during 2008.

Situation of Land Occupation in Disputed Area:

The Table 5 below shows that nearly two thirds of disputed land is occupied by the complainant 1 while the dispute is ongoing. The result shows that despite being under conflicts and sometime being forced to leave, but the complaints more likely still could access to those land or resources. For more detailed status of land dispute occupation by province, see in Annex VI.

1 Complainant here refers to those who submitted their complaints to any authorities.

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Table 5: Situation of Land Occupation in Disputed Area:

Land Dispute Situation

Percentage

Complainant Occupy

67.63%

Defendant Occupy

8.09%

Occupied by Both

19.08%

No occupation / Unknown

5.20%

Total

100%

Methods for land Acquisition:

5.20% 19.08% 8.09% 67.63% Complainant Occupy Defendant Occupy Occupied by Both No ocuupation / Unknow
5.20%
19.08%
8.09%
67.63%
Complainant Occupy
Defendant Occupy
Occupied by Both
No ocuupation / Unknow n

Table 6 below reveals that of the 173 cases, more than two thirds (63.58%) involved the use of violence or threats during acquisition of the land under dispute. In total, 76.88% of cases involved the misuse of power, money or deceit by defendants as a means to acquire the land in question.

Notably, about 67.63% of the land conflict cases involved local authorities. In some case they are among the defendants claiming the land under dispute. This involvement is of a concern given the role of these local authorities play in land dispute resolution mechanisms.

Although not in high percentage, the 24.86% of detention of actors in the land dispute, together with

the larger proportion of threat and violence used is one of the biggest concerns for civil society during

2008.

These strategies are a significant deterrent against people claiming their rightful possession to

land.

Table 6: Activities Occurred During the Land Dispute:

Activities occurred during land dispute

Percentage

Using authorities letter to claimed

5.78%

Using Threats or Violence

63.58%

Using power/money/deceit

76.88%

Using detention method

24.86%

Authorities involved Other method

67.63%

1.73%

Reasons for Land Acquisition:

The analysis in Table 7 reveals that more than half of land disputes were based on land acquisition relation to Economic Land Concessions and plantation project (Table 7). This could be due to overlapping of property boundaries as a result of unclear boundary definition through inaccurate ground-true survey by local authorities before the land was granted for concessionaires. The other reasons that often raised were related to the unclear boundary demarcation of Community Forest Concession areas.

Claiming that land under dispute was state land and state development areas, or private individual land (26.59% and 9.83%, respectively) was also a common result of the analysis. This phenomenon, again, indicates that rapid economic growth is one of the more significant driving forces leading to land conflict in Cambodia, particularly in areas where title have not yet clarified (Annex VII).

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Table 7: Reasons for Land Acquisition:

Purpose of land acquisition

Percentage

ELCs / Social Land Concession

9.25%

Military Purpose

6.36%

Plantation / Farming

31.21%

Private Individual Land

9.83%

Residency State land and Development Area No Information Total

9.25%

26.59%

7.51%

100%

Type of Actors:

26.59%

7.51% 9.25% 6.36% 31.21% 9.25%
7.51%
9.25%
6.36%
31.21%
9.25%

9.83%

ELCs / Social Land Concession Plantation / Farming Residency No Information

Military PurposeELCs / Social Land Concession Plantation / Farming Residency No Information

Private Individual LandState land / Development Area

State land / Development AreaPrivate Individual Land

 

Due to the limitation of information in data sources, nearly fifty percent of the cases were reported without detailed information on complainants represented. As Table 8 below shows, out of 86 complaints more than two thirds (79.07%) are farmers. Among those, more than one quarter (18.60%) are indigenous people; in only a few (1.16%) cases has the complainant been either a company or local government officials (Table 8).

Table 8: Type of compliant actors involved in land dispute:

Actors

Number

Percentage

Company

1

1.16%

Farmers

68

79.07%

Indigenous People

16

18.60%

Official

1

1.16%

Total

86

100%

1.16% 1.16% 18.60% 79.07% Company Farmers and Non Farmers Indigenous People Official
1.16%
1.16%
18.60%
79.07%
Company
Farmers and Non Farmers
Indigenous People
Official

Out of the 107 defendants represented, more than one quarter (29.91%), were companies, primarily those with economic land concessions. About twenty percents were local authorities and military officials and in a further percent, the defendant was unknown (Table 9).

Table 9: Type of defendant actors involved in land dispute:

Actors

Number

Percentage

Community

3

2.80%

Company

32

29.91%

Local Authority (Village-District Level)

21

19.63%

Military

22

20.56%

Provincial and

   

National Authority

4

3.74%

Police

2

1.87%

Others (unknown…)

23

21.50%

Total

107

100%

1.87% 3.74% 2.80% 21.50% 29.91% 1.87% 18.69% 19.63%
1.87%
3.74%
2.80%
21.50%
29.91%
1.87%
18.69%
19.63%

Community Local Authority (Village-District Level) MilitaryActor type Complainant Police

CompanyCommunity Local Authority (Village-District Level) MilitaryActor type Complainant Police

MilitaryLevel) MilitaryActor type Complainant Police Company Others (Unknow n) Provincial and National Authority

Others (Unknow n)(Village-District Level) MilitaryActor type Complainant Police Company Military Provincial and National Authority

Provincial and National AuthorityLocal Authority (Village-District Level) MilitaryActor type Complainant Police Company Military Others (Unknow n)

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Type of Claims for Possession of Disputed Land (by Actors):

Nearly fifty percents of the cases were reported without detailed information on complainants’ claim for possession of the land under dispute. Out of 86 complainants, nearly fifty percents of community member had no official documents 2 to assure the legal possession but claim that they had settle on the land by clearing forest and land. About twenty percent of claims have received unofficial recognition by local issued by local authorities since they first occupied the land. Among those, eighty percent claim ownership of the dispute land through it being traditional community land inhered from their ancestors. Among land disputes, only a small amount of claims that had legal documents 3 to prove their ownership (Table 10). This data revealed that official land title will play very important role in reducing the land conflicts in the

Table 10: Type of claims and documentation held by complaints:

Possession Claim

Number

Percentage

Authorized Letter

3

3.49%

Buying/Selling Receipt

1

1.16%

Settlement

38

44.19%

Unauthorized Letter

18

20.93%

Register Receipt

2

2.33%

(LMAP)

Traditional Claim

16

18.60%

Others

8

9.30%

Total

86

100%

3.49%

1.16%
1.16%

20.93%

2.33%
2.33%

9.30%

18.60%

44.19%

Authorized Letter

Buying/Selling ReciptAuthorized Letter Informal Settlment

Informal SettlmentAuthorized Letter Buying/Selling Recipt

Ohters

Register Receipt (LMAP)Ohters Tranditional Claim

Tranditional ClaimOhters Register Receipt (LMAP)

Unauthorized Letter

 

Out of the 107 defendants’ type of claims, nearly half of total cases had unofficial (unauthorized) documents to claim possession of the land whilst. And, more than fifty percents (51.40%) had official documents, either in the form of a letter from government authorities or contract documentation for a economic land concession.

Table 11: Possession paper claim by defendants:

Possession Claim

Number

Percentage

Authorized Letter

40

37.38%

ELC Recognized Letter

15

14.02%

Register Receipt (LMAP)

1

0.93%

SLC

2

1.87%

Un cleared letter

49

45.79%

Total

107

100%

45.79%

37.38% 0.93% 14.02% 1.87% Authorized Letter ELCRecognized Letter Register Receipt (LMAP) SLC Unclear
37.38%
0.93%
14.02%
1.87%
Authorized Letter
ELCRecognized Letter
Register Receipt (LMAP)
SLC
Unclear

2 Official document refer to any official letter recognized by local authorities

3 Legal document refer to any document legally recognized at National Level

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Conclusion

From the analysis we can concluded that land dispute in Cambodia is still serious and effective actions should be taken soon. Most of the cased tense in areas saw as rapid economic growth. This could be due to the booming of land speculation business. Most cases happened relatively big, in average 200 family were involved with average size about 50 ha. Even lot of dispute resolution mechanisms were applied, but success seem little achieved. Most of the conflicts lead to use violence. The conflict caused by unclear of possession paper or overlap of land ownership.

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Land Dispute Data Illustration in GIS-map:

Annex I: Number of Land Dispute Cases (By Provinces)

Land Dispute Data Illustration in GIS-map: Annex I: Number of Land Dispute Cases (By Provinces) -

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Annex II: Map illustrations number of affected household by provinces

Grouping

Percentage

5 - 49

32.37%

50 - 99

9.83%

100 - 200

24.28%

>200

25.43%

No data

8.09%

Total

100%

Minimum

5 HHs

Maximum

4000 HHs

Average

188 HHs

8.09% 32.37% 25.43% 24.28% 9.83% 5 - 49 50 - 99 100 - 200 >200
8.09%
32.37%
25.43%
24.28%
9.83%
5 - 49
50 - 99
100 - 200
>200
No data
4000 HHs Average 188 HHs 8.09% 32.37% 25.43% 24.28% 9.83% 5 - 49 50 - 99

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Annex III: Size of Land Dispute Area

Grouping

Percentage

Less than 50Ha

43.35%

51 - 100Ha

7.51%

101- 500Ha

21.97%

More than 500Ha

10.40%

No data

16.76%

Total

100%

Minimum

- 1 ha 8000 ha 276 ha

Maximum

Average

10.40% 16.76% 21.97% 7.51% 43.35% No data Less than 50Ha 51 - 100Ha 101- 500Ha
10.40%
16.76%
21.97%
7.51%
43.35%
No data
Less than 50Ha
51 - 100Ha
101- 500Ha
More than 500Ha
10.40% 16.76% 21.97% 7.51% 43.35% No data Less than 50Ha 51 - 100Ha 101- 500Ha More

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Annex IV: Primary Land Dispute Type

Grouping

Percentage

Residential land

22.54%

Agricultural land

39.31%

Chamkar field

15.03%

Forest Land - Community Forest

13.29%

Forest Land - State Land Wetland Other Unknown No Data Total

1.16%

1.16%

2.89%

0.58%

4.05%

100%

4.05% 2.89% 0.58% 1.16% 22.54% 1.16% 13.29% 15.03% 39.31% Residential land Chamkar field Forest Land
4.05%
2.89%
0.58%
1.16%
22.54%
1.16%
13.29%
15.03%
39.31%
Residential land
Chamkar field
Forest Land - State Land
Other
No Data
Agricultural land
Forest Land - Community Forest
Wetland
Unknown
Forest Land - State Land Other No Data Agricultural land Forest Land - Community Forest Wetland

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Annex V: Status of Land Dispute

Status of Resolution

Percentage

Partly resolved

5.20%

Resolved for both complainant and defendant

4.05%

Resolved for complainant

6.94%

Resolved for defendant

1.73%

Unresolved

82.08%

5.20% 4.05% 6.94% 82.08% Partly resolved Resolved for both complainant and defendant Resolved for complainant
5.20%
4.05%
6.94%
82.08%
Partly resolved
Resolved for both complainant and defendant
Resolved for complainant
Resolved for defendant
Unresolved

1.73%

Resolved for both complainant and defendant Resolved for complainant Resolved for defendant Unresolved 1.73% - 14

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Annex VI: Situation of Land Occupation in Disputed Area

Grouping

Percentage

Complainant Occupy

67.63%

Defendant Occupy

8.09%

Occupied by Both

19.08%

No occupation / Unknown

5.20%

Total

100%

5.20% 19.08% 8.09% 67.63% Complainant Occupy Defendant Occupy Occupied by Both No ocuupation / Unknow
5.20%
19.08%
8.09%
67.63%
Complainant Occupy
Defendant Occupy
Occupied by Both
No ocuupation / Unknow n
5.20% 19.08% 8.09% 67.63% Complainant Occupy Defendant Occupy Occupied by Both No ocuupation / Unknow n

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Annex VII: Reasons for Land Acquisition:

Grouping

Percentage

ELCs / Social Land Concession

9.25%

Military Purpose

6.36%

Plantation / Farming

31.21%

Private Individual Land

9.83%

Residency State land / Development Area No Information Total

9.25%

26.59%

7.51%

100%

26.59%

7.51% 9.25% 6.36% 31.21% 9.25%
7.51%
9.25%
6.36%
31.21%
9.25%

9.83%

ELCs / Social Land Concession Plantation / Farming Residency No Information

Military PurposeELCs / Social Land Concession Plantation / Farming Residency No Information

Private Individual Land/ Social Land Concession Plantation / Farming Residency No Information Military Purpose State land / Development

State land / Development AreaELCs / Social Land Concession Plantation / Farming Residency No Information Military Purpose Private Individual Land

Residency No Information Military Purpose Private Individual Land State land / Development Area - 16 -

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