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Introduction CNC Programming

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Universitas Islam 45 Bekasi – Teknik Produksi & NC 1

Basic Machine Axes: 3 axis

Milling Machines: 3 axis

X – axis (table left and right)

Y – axis (table in and out)

Z – axis (usually the spindle axis)

Machines: 3 axis X – axis (table left and right) Y – axis (table in and

Additional Axes

A – axis (angular axis about X - axis)

B – axis (angular axis about Y – axis)

C – axis (angular axis about Z – axis)

U – axis (secondary axis parallel to X)

V – axis (secondary axis parallel to Y)

W – axis (secondary axis parallel to Z)

Milling Machines: 4 axis

Milling Machines: 4 axis


NC Numerical Control CNC Computer Numerical Control DNC Direct Numerical Control APT Automatic Programmed Tool CAD Computer Aided Design CAM Computer Aided Manufacturing CIM Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Download Code Sheet

Download Code Sheet Click here to open Code Sheet

Click here to open Code Sheet

G - Code Programming

G – Code Programming Originally called the “Word Address” programming format.

Processed one line at a time sequentially.

Common Format of a Block

Sequence Preparatory Dimension Feed Spindle Tool Misc. # Function Words Rate Function Function Function N50
G90 G01

Individual Words

Word Address 1

N – Sequence or line number

A tag that identifies the beginning of a block of code. It is used by operators to locate specific lines of a program when entering data or verifying the program operation.

G – Preparatory function

G words specify the mode in which the milling machine is to move along its programmed axes.

Word Address 2

Dimension Words

X – Distance or position in X direction

Y – Distance or position in Y direction

Z – Distance or position in Z direction

M – Miscellaneous functions

M words specify CNC machine functions not related to dimensions or axial movements.

Word Address 3


Feed rate (inches per minute or millimeters per minute) Rate at which cutting tool moves along an axis.


– Spindle speed (rpm – revolutions per minute) Controls spindle rotation speed.


– Tool number

Specifies tool to be selected.

Word Address 4

I – Circular cutting reference for x axis

J – Circular cutting reference for y axis

K – Circular cutting reference for z axis

G Word

G words or codes tell the machine to perform certain functions. Most G words are modal which means they remain in effect until replaced by another modal G code.

Common G Codes

G00 – Rapid positioning mode

Tool is moved along the shortest route to programmed X,Y,Z position. Usually NOT used for cutting.

G01 – Linear Interpolation mode

Tool is moved along a straight-line path at programmed rate of speed.

G02 – Circular motion clockwise (cw) G03 – Circular motion counter clockwise (ccw)

Common G Codes, con.,

G17 – XY plane G18 – XZ plane G19 – YZ plane G20 – Inch Mode G21 – Metric Mode G28 – Return to axis machine Zero (Home)

G Codes: G90, G91

G90 – Absolute Coordinate Reference

References the next position from an absolute zero point which is set once for the entire program.

G91 – Incremental Coordinate Reference

References the next position from the previous position.

G Codes: Canned Cycles

G80 – Cancel canned cycle G81 – Drilling cycle G83 – Peck drilling cycle G84 – Tapping cycle G85 – Boring cycle G86 – Boring cycle

NOTE: A canned cycle stays in effect until cancelled by a G80.

Canned Cycles: G81

G81 – Drilling Cycle

Feed to depth, rapid return

Example of program code:

Cycle Feed to depth, rapid return Example of program code: N35 G81 X.500Y.500Z-1.000 R.100 F1.50 N36

N35 G81 X.500Y.500Z-1.000 R.100 F1.50

N36 X1.000Y1.500 N37 X1.500Y2.000 N38 G80

rapid return Example of program code: N35 G81 X.500Y.500Z-1.000 R.100 F1.50 N36 X1.000Y1.500 N37 X1.500Y2.000 N38

Canned Cycles: G83, G84

G83 – Peck Drilling Cycle

Feed to an intermediate depth, rapid out, rapid back to just above previous depth, feed to next depth, rapid out, repeat until reaching full depth.

G84 – Tapping Cycle

This cycle creates internal threads in an existing hole. NOTE: One cannot over-ride the feed rate.

Canned Cycles: G85, G86

G85 - Boring Cycle

Feed to depth, feed back out.

G86 – Boring Cycle

Feed to depth, rapid out.

G Codes: Cutter Compensation

G40 – Cancel cutter diameter compensation.

G41 – Cutter compensation left.

G42 – Cutter compensation right.

M Word

M words tell the machine to perform certain machine related functions, such as: turn spindle on/off, coolant on/off, or stop/end program.

Professional Development ID Code: 6006

Common M words

M00 – Programmed pause

Automatically stops machine until operator pushes a button to resume program.

M01 – Optional stop

A stop acted upon by the machine when operator has signaled this command by pushing a button.

M02 – End of program

Stops program when all lines of code are completed. Must be last command in program.

Common M words

M03 – Turn spindle on

In clockwise direction

M04 – Turn spindle on

In counter clockwise direction

M05 – Stop spindle

Usually used prior to tool change or at end of program.

M06 – Tool change

Stops program and calls for a tool change, either automatically or manually.

Common M words

M08 – Turns Accessory 1 on. M09 – Turns Accessory 1 off.

M10 – Turns Accessory 2 on. M11 – Turns Accessory 2 off.

M30 – End of program

Similar to M02 but M30 will also “rewind” the program. Must be last statement in program. If used, DO NOT use M02.

Zero Points

Part Zero

– Used for absolute programming mode.

– Usually a position on the part that all absolute coordinates are referenced to.

– Changes with different parts and programs.

Machine Zero or Machine Home Position

– Fixed for each machine from the manufacturer.

– Not changeable.

Dasar Kontrol Numerik

Drilling : z y x
Drilling :
lathe: x z
Milling: y x z

Dasar Kontrol Numerik

• DPU paling tdk terdiri dr fungsi :

• Alat input, spt pembaca punched-tape

• Sirkuti pembaca dan logika pemeriksaan paritas

• Pengkodean sirkuit utk mendistribusikan data diantara kontrol aksis

• Interpolator, yg mensuplai perintah kecepatan antara titik berurutan yg diambil dr gambar

• CLU terdiri dari sirkuit:

• Loop kontrol posisi utk semua aksis

• Loop kontrol kecepatan

• Sirkuit perlambatan dan pengambilan umpan balik

• Kontrol fungsi tambahan

Keunggulan sistem NC

• Fleksibilitas penuh

• ketelitian tinggi

• Waktu proses lebih singkat

• Dimensi bentuk (kontor) pemotongan bisa lebih banyak

• Penyesuaian mesin mudah, membutuhkan wkt lbh singkat dibanding metode permesinan lainnya

• Tdk membutuhkan operator keahlian tinggi dan berpengalaman

• Operator memp waktu luang

Kelemahan sistem NC :

• Investasi awal tinggi

• Pemeliharaan yg lebih kompleks; teknisi pemeliharaan spesial dibutuhkan

• Paart programmer dgn keahlian tinggi dan terlatih dgn tepat dibutuhkan

Klasifikasi Sistem NC berdasarkan :

1. Tpe mesin : point-to-point vs Contouring

2. Struktur kontroller : hardware-base NC vs CNC

3. Metode pemrograman : pertambahan vs absolut

4. Tipe loop kontrol : loop terbuka vs loop tertutup

Point-to-Point (PTP)

• Contoh sederhana : mesin drilling

• Operasi:

Bahan kerja dipindahkan menuju cutting tool sampai mencapai posisi numerik yg ditetapkan.

Cutting tool melaksanakan operasi yg diperintahkan dgn aksis diam.

Sampai tugas diselesaikan, bahan kerja berpindah ke titik berikutnya dan siklus diulangi.

• Sistem hanya membutuhkan penghitung posisi utk mengontrol posisi akhir tool sampai mencapai titik yg akan dilubangi.

• Jalur dr titik awal sampai posisi akhir tdk dikontrol

• Data utk setiap posisi yg diinginkan diberikan dalam nilai koordinat dan resolusi tgt pd sistem BLU

• Contoh : meja XY mesin drilling akan dipindahkan dari titik (1,1) ke titik (6,3) dengan dimensi dlm in. Setiap aksis dpt dipindahkan dgn ekcepatan tetap 30 in/min. Tentukan waktu perjalanan dari titik awal ke titik akhir!

Solusi :

Waktu perjalanan aksis X :

Waktu perjalanan aksis Y :

Krn aksis dpt digerakkan scr simultan, mk wkt perjalanan meja adalah wkt terlama, yaitu 10 detik




61  10



31  4