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Problem Set on Nitrogen Compounds and Lime

Deadline: 28 March 2016 (Monday)
Show your complete solution to the following problems.
1. In a Haber plant the gas leaving the CuCl tower contains 75.16% H2, 24.57% N2, and 0.27%
inerts. The gas entering the first bank of converters contains 79.52% H2, while the gas
leaving the absorber, which follows the first bank, contains 80.01% H2. Absorption of NH3
is substantially complete, and the design of the absorber is such that the amount of
permanent gases removed from the system in the absorbing medium is negligible. What is
the efficiency of utilization of H2 in the first bank? What is the percent conversion of H2 per
pass, i.e., the mols of H2 reacting to form NH3 per 100 mols of H2 entering the converters?
2. A synthetic-ammonia unit with a single converter is converting a fresh feed gas containing
75.8% H2, 23.7% N2, and 0.5% inerts. The gas leaves the converter containing 18.6% NH3
and 70.0% H2. This converted gas is fed to a cooler under conditions of temperature and
pressure such that most of the ammonia leaving the converter is condensed to a liquid and
removed. On reduction of pressure all the dissolved gases are evolved from this liquid
ammonia. These are compressed and recycled to the inlet of the converter, except for a purge
provided in the recycle line. The uncondesed ammonia leaving the cooler in these gases is
found to be 8% of that leaving the converter. Calculate the amount and composition of the
purged gases per 100 mols of feed gas, and determine the net mols of residual gas recycled
to the converter inlet per 100 mols of feed gas.
3. A plant consisting of five identical vertical lime kilns was tested over a 12-hr period under
normal operating conditions to determine its performance. Each kiln was 63 ft high and had
an outside diameter of 10 ft. The kilns were housed in a building 40 ft high. Below the roof,
the average temperature was 120F. The average gas analysis of the charge was 97.5%
CaCO3. The total production of lime from all five kilns during the 12-hr period was 139,500
lb, and the average analysis 93% CaO, 3.8% core, and 3.2% inerts. The average temperature
of the lime at the fire boxed was 1920F and at the discharge table 569F. The fuel was
producer gas, which entered the kilns at an average temperature of 787F. The producer gas
contained 7.9% CO2, 1.0% O2, 18.4% CO, 3.7% CH4, 12.1% H2, and 56.9% N2; and its dew
point was 112F. The average composition of the top gas was 22.4% CO2, 5.6% O2, 0.3%
CO, and 71.7% N2; and its temperature averaged 626F. The air entered the bottom of the
kiln at an average temperature of 626F. The air entered the bottom of the kiln at an average
temperature of 60F, carrying 0.0046 lb H2O per pound dry air. Calculate the following
a. Mols of dry producer gas per ton lime
b. Mols of dry air per ton lime
c. Mols of dry top gas per ton lime
d. Mols of H2O in the top gas per 100 mols dry gas
e. Percent excess air
f. Btu lost to the surroundings through the walls of the kiln per ton of stone