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4.5.4.

Design of vertical drop weir


The design of a vertical drop weir consists of (see Fig. 4.19):
i. Hydraulic calculations to fix various elevations,
ii. Design of weir wall,
iii. Design of impervious floor (apron),
iv. Design of protection works on upstream and downstream sides.
The following data must be known for the design of the vertical drop weir:
a) Maximum flood discharge,
b) High flood level (H.F.L.) before construction of weir,
c) Downstream bed level,
d) Full supply level (F.S.L.) of canal taking off from the river,
e) Allowable afflux,
f) Laceys silt factor.

Figure 4.19 Vertical Drop Weir


4.5.4.1 Hydraulic Calculations
(i)
(ii)

The length of the waterway, L is calculated from Laceys regime formula (given in
section4.5.2).
The discharge per unit length of the waterway, q is calculated as q = Q/L.

(iii) The regime scour depth is calculated using Laceys formula


q2
R = 1.35
f

3.

(iv) The regime velocity and velocity head are calculated from
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(v)

V = q/R, and velocity head = v2/(2g)


Water levels and total energy line (T.E.L.) on the downstream side and upstream side are
calculated as
Level of d/s T.E.L. = (H.F.L. before construction) + v2/(2g)
Level of u/s T.E.L. = Level of d/s T.E.L. + Afflux
Level of u/s H.F.L. = Level of u/s T.E.L. v2/(2g)

(vi)

Discharge over the crest of the weir is determined from,

q = 1.70 K 3
and

q
K=

1.70

2 3

Therefore, crest level = u/s T.E.L. - K


(vii)

Pond level = Level of top of gates


= F.S.L. of canal + Head loss through regulator

Head loss through regulator may be taken as 0.5 to 1.0 m.


Height of shutters = S = Level of top of gates Crest level
(viii) Protection against scour
Level of bottom of u/s pile = u/s H.F.L. 1.5 R
Level of bottom of d/s pile = H.F.L. after retrogression 2 R
4.5.4.2 Design of Weir Wall
A weir wall is usually trapezoidal in cross-section with either both u/s and d/s faces inclined; or
u/s face vertical and d/s face inclined. The design of the weir wall involves the determination of
its top and bottom widths such that the section will be stable under the condition of maximum
stress. In general the condition of maximum pressure on a hydraulic structure is that in which the
head water is at the level of the crest of the weir or at the top of the crest of the shutters (if any)
and no water is flowing over the weir so that there is no water on the d/s side. However, the
condition of maximum stress on the weir may be different in certain cases. Hence, it is necessary
to check the stability of the weir under the following three states:
State 1. When the u/s water or head water is at crest level or at the top of the crest shutter (if any)
and there is no flow (Figure 4.20 a).

State 2. When water is flowing over the weir crest and the weir is submerged (Fig. 4.20 b).
State 3. When water is flowing over the weir crest and weir is discharging with a clear overfall
(Fig. 4.20 c).
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Figure 4.20 Calculations of flow over vertical drop weir


Top width of weir wall
Top width of the weir wall is obtained using three methods:

1.

No tension criterion (for elementary profile)

The top width is determined on the consideration of no tension criterion for determining the
width of an elementary (or triangular) profile of a dam or a weir, given by
d
B1 =
Sm
Where B1 = top width of the weir
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d = maximum depth of water above the weir crest, which is equal to u/s H.F.L. crest
level,

2.

No sliding criterion (for elementary profile)

The top width of the weir is given by,


d
B1 =
Sm
Where m = coefficient of friction. Assuming m = 2/3 as a safe value, we get
B1 =

3.

3d
2 Sm

Considering the height of the crest shutter

The top width of the weir is affected by height of crest shutter and it is given by,
B1 = S + 1 (meters)
Then, the largest of the three values is taken as the top width of the weir wall.

Bottom width of weir wall


The bottom width of the weir wall, B, is determined by equating the overturning moments to the
resisting moments taken at the outer middle third of the bottom width of the weir wall. In
determining the bottom width all the three states discussed before are considered.

State 1. Head water is at crest level or at the top of the crest shutter (if any)
Considering the pressure diagram in Fig. 4.20(a), the overturning moment is given by
(H + S)
6
The resisting moment about the outer middle third point of the bottom is given by,

1

M r = {(S m + 1.5)H + 2.5S}B 2 + B1 (S m H H S)B B12 (H + 3S)


12
2

The above expression is valid when u/s and d/s faces have the same slope. If the u/s face is kept
vertical, the resisting moment is given by
HS m 2
Mr =
(
B + BB1 B12 )
6
By equating the overturning moment to the resisting moment, the bottom width B is determined.
3

M0 =

State 2. Water is flowing over the weir crest and the weir is submerged (Fig. 4.20 b).
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The overturning moment is given by,


hH 2
M0 =
2
For maximum value of M0, h is taken corresponding to the case when the weir is just submerged.
The resisting moment about the outer middle third of the bottom, with tail water at weir crest
level, is given by,
Mr =

H (S m 1) 2
B + B1 B - if both u/s and d/s faces have the same slope.
12

If the u/s face is vertical,


Mr =

H (S m 1) 2
B + B1B B12
6

Equating M0 and Mr, B can be determined.

State 3. Water is flowing over the weir crest and weir is discharging with a clear over-fall (Fig.
4.20 c).
3
H + 3dH 2 D 3
6
In this equation there are two unknowns, viz. d and D and the relation between the two must be
known to find the maximum overturning moment. When the weir extends over the entire width
of the river and the width of the river is of considerable width in comparison to its depth, d is
roughly proportional to D, i.e. d = kD; where k is a constant and can be known if the river
discharge for any one depth is known (i.e. gauged).
M0 =

Introducing this relation, M0 will be,

M 0 = H 3 + 3kDH 2 D 3
6
The maximum value of M0 is obtained from,
dM 0
= 3kH 2 3D 2 = 0
dD
6

Or
D=H k
Hence, the maximum value of M0 is given by
H 3
1 + 2k 3 2
6
The resisting moment may be considered to be approximately the same as that given for state 2.
Like the previous cases, by equating M0 and Mr, B is determined.
M0 =

The greatest of the three values of B obtained above is adopted.

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4.5.4.3 Design of impervious floor (or apron)


For underseepage the worst condition occurs when the water on the u/s side is at the level of the
weir crest or at the top of the crest shutters and there is no tailwater.
Then, if the floor is designed on the basis of Blighs theory, the total creep length is given by
L = CHs
Where Hs is as shown in Figure 4.19.
However, if the floor is to be designed on the basis of Khoslas theory, the horizontal length b of
the impervious floor is found by the consideration of the permissible exit gradient, GE, given by
H
1
GE = S
d
Knowing the permissible value of GE for the soil and values of Hs and d,

may be

, the corresponding value of



may be found. Then from = b/d, knowing and d, the value of b can be determined.

calculated. From the exit gradient curve, for this value of

Out of the total impervious floor length b (or creep length L), the lengths L1 and L2 (Fig. 4.19) on
the d/s and u/s of the weir wall, respectively are fixed on the basis of Blighs recommendation as
(1) Downstream impervious floor length, L1:

L1 = 2.21C

Hs
10

- for weirs without crest shutters

Hs
- for weirs with crest shutters
13
(2) Upstream impervious floor length, L2
L1 = 2.21C

L2 = L L1 (B + 2d1 + 2d2)

(according to Blighs theory)

L2 = b L2 B

(according to Khoslas theory)

4.5.4.4 Design of protection works on upstream and downstream sides


(i) Upstream side
Immediately at u/s end of the impervious floor, a block protection of length d1 is provided, where
d1 is the depth of pile below the river bed or the impervious floor at the u/s end. U/s of the block
protection a launching apron of length equal to 1.5d1 is provided.
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(ii) Downstream side


The total length of the impervious floor, inverted filter, and launching apron on the d/s side of
the weir wall is also fixed on the basis of Blighs recommendations as

L 3 = 18C

Hs q
x
10 75

- for weirs without crest shutters

Hs q
x
- for weirs with crest shutters
13 75
The minimum length of the inverted and the launching apron is then equal to L3 L1.
L 3 = 18C

However, an inverted filter of minimum length equal to 1.5d2 is to be provided immediately at


the d/s end of the impervious floor, where d2 is depth of d/s sheet pile. After the inverted filter, a
launching apron of length equal to 1.5 d2 and thickness of 1.5 m is provided. If the required
length (L3 L1) is more than 3d2 the lengths of the inverted filter and launching apron may be
suitably increased.

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Example 4.3
Design a vertical drop weir on the basis of Blighs theory for the following site conditions:
(a) Maximum flood discharge = 2585 m3/s
(b) H.F.L. before construction = 255 m
(c) Minimum water level = d/s bed level = 248 m
(d) F.S.L. of canal = 254 m
(e) Allowable afflux = 1 m
(f) Coefficient of creep, C = 12
Assume any other data not given.
If permissible exit gradient is 1/6, test the floor of the above weir by Khoslas theory and
make changes if found necessary.
Solution
1) Hydraulic Calculations
i)
L = 4.75 Q1/2 = 4.75 x (2585)1/2 = 241.50 m
q = Q/L = 2585/241.50 = 10.70 m3/s/m
ii)
Regime scour depth, taking silt factor, f = 1
q2
R = 1.35
f

iii)

iv)
v)

vi)

2
= 1.35 10.70

= 6.56 m

Regime velocity, V = q/R = 10.70/6.56 = 1.63 m/s


Velocity head = V2/2g = (1.63)2/(2 x 9.81) = 0.14 m
Level of d/s T.E.L. = H.F.L. before construction + velocity head
= 255 + 0.14 = 255.14 m
Afflux = 1 m
Level of u/s T.E.L. = Level of d/s T.E.L. + Afflux
= 255.14 + 1.0 = 256.14 m
Therefore, level of u/s H.F.L. = Level of u/s T.E.L. V2/2g
= 256.14 0.14 = 256.0 m
Actual d/s H.F.L. (allowing 0.5 m for retrogression) = 255.0 0.5 = 254.5 m
q = 1.70K

K = (q/1.70)2/3 = (10.70/1.70)2/3 = 3.41 m

Crest level = u/s T.E.L. K = 256.14 3.41 = 252.73 m


Pond level = Level of top of gates
= F.S.L. of canal + Head loss through regulator (taken as 0.5m)
= 254 + 0.5 = 254.5 m
Therefore, height of shutters, S = Level of top of gates crest level
= 254.5 252.73 = 1.77 m
Bottom level of u/s pile (cutoff) = u/s H.F.L. 1.5 R
= 256.0 1.5 x 6.56
= 246.16 m

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The u/s pile may be taken up to a level of 246.0 m.


Therefore, depth of u/s pile = 248.0 246.0 = 2.0 m
Bottom level of d/s pile = d/s H.F.L. after retrogression 2R
= 254.5 2 x 6.56 = 241.38 m
Hence, the d/s pile may be taken up to a level of 241.0 m.
Depth of d/s pile = 248.0 241 = 7.0 m

vii)

Head of water, Hs = Level of crest gates bed level


= 254.5 248.0 = 6.5 m
Height of crest, H = Crest level bed level
= 252.73 248.0 = 4.73 m
(Check: Hs = H + S = 4.73 + 1.77 = 6.5 m)

2) Design of Weir Wall


viii) Top width B1
d = u/s H.F.L. crest level = 256.0 252.73 = 3.27 m
d
3.27
- Top width, B1 =
=
= 2.18 m
Sm
2.24

ix)

3d
2S m

3x 3.27
2 x 2.24

B1 =

From practical consideration, B1 = S + 1 = 1.77 + 1 = 2.77 m


Hence, provide top width B1 = 3.0 m.

= 2.19 m

Calculation of bottom width, B


- Considering State 1, the overturning moment is given by
3
H 3s
(H + S)
M0 =
=
6
6

9.81 x (6.5)
= 449 kN m
M0 =
6
Resisting moment is given by

1

M r = {(S m + 1.5)H + 2.5S}B 2 + B1 (S m H H S)B B12 (H + 3S)


12
2

For H = 4.73 m, S = 1.77 m, B1 = 3 m, and Sm = 2.24


9.81
{(2.24 + 1.5)x 4.73 + 2.5x1.77}B 2 + 3 x (2.24x 4.73 4.73 1.77 )B 1 x3 2 (4.73 + 3x1.77 )
Mr =

12
2

Therefore, equating M0 and Mr,


22.115B2 + 12.286 B 594.42 = 0, and solving the quadratic equation, we get the value
of the bottom width, B = 4.914 m
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- Considering state 2, the overturning moment is calculated as follows:


When the tailwater is just at the crest, d and h will be equal. For this condition, d (head over the
crest) is given by

q
d =

2 C d x 2g

Neglecting the velocity of approach, and taking Cd = 0.58,

10.70
d=

2 x 0.58 x 2x 9.81
3

= 3.39 m

Since d = h = 3.39 m
hH 2 9.81x 3.39 x 4.73 2
=
= 372.02 kN m
2
2
The resisting moment is
H (S m 1) 2
9.81x 4.73(2.24 1) 2
Mr =
B + B1 B =
B + 3B = 4.795 (B2 + 3B)
12
12
Equating Mo and Mr,
372.02 = 4.795 (B2 + 3B)
From which, B = 7.44 m
Adopting the greater of the two, we get B = 7.44 m. Provide B = 7.50 m
M0 =

3) Design of Impervious and pervious aprons


x)
Total creep length
L = CHs = 12 x 6.5 = 78.0 m
xi)

Downstream impervious apron

L1 = 2.21C
xii)

Hs
6 .5
= 2.21x12
13
13

= 18.75m , provide L1 = 19 m

Upstream impervious apron, L2


L2 = L L1 (B + 2d1 + 2d2) = 78 19 (7.5 + 2 x 2 + 2 x7) = 33.5 m

xiii)

Total length of d/s apron

L 3 = 18C
xiv)

Hs q
6.5 10.7
x
= 18x12
x
13 75
13 75

= 57.69m , provide L3 = 57.7 m

Length of inverted filter and launching apron on d/s side = L3 L1


= 57.7 19 = 38.70 m

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d2 = 7.0 m
Min. length of inverted filter = 1.5 d2 = 1.5 x 7 = 10.5 m
Min. length of launching apron = 1.5 d2 = 1.5 x 7 = 10.5 m
Total length of downstream pervious apron = 2 x 10.5 = 21 m
But the total length to be provided for both is 38.7 m.
Hence, provide inverted filter of length 17.7 m with 1 m thick stone or concrete blocks
laid on 0.5 m thick graded filter; and launching apron of 21 m length and 1.5 m thickness.

xv)

U/s block protection and launching apron


d1 = 2 m,

Hence, provide block protection of length = d1 = 2 m consisting of 1 m thick stone or


concrete blocks laid on 0.5 m thick loosely packed stone.
Minimum length of u/s launching apron = 1.5 d1 = 1.5 x 2 = 3 m
Provide 3 m long and 1.5 m thick launching apron.

xvi)

Thickness of impervious floor

Provide a nominal thickness of 1 m for the portion u/s of the weir wall and 1.5 m for the
portion below the weir wall.
At point A, just at the d/s toe of the weir wall, the residual seepage head
Hr = Hs

Hs
(2d 1 + L 2 + B) = = 6.5 6.5 (2x 2 + 33.5 + 7.5) = 2.75m
L
78

Therefore, required thickness of floor,

t=

4 Hr
4 2.75
=
= 2.96m ,
3 S m 1 3 2.24 1

Provide 3 m a thickness of 3 m from the d/s toe of the weir wall up to a point 6 m from it.
For the rest of the d/s portion of the floor same procedure can be followed and thickness
calculated (e.g. for portion d/s of the 6 m).

4) Check by Khoslas Theory


i)

Check for exit gradient


Total length of impervious floor = 33.5 + 7.5 + 19 = 60 m
d2 = 7 m (d/s pile)
= b/d = 60/7 = 8.57 = 8.6

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From Khoslas curve for exit gradient, for = 8.6,


Therefore, G E =

Hs 1
d

= 0.145

6 .5
1
1
x 0.145 =
< (permissible exit gradient)
7
7 .4
6

Hence, SAFE
ii)

Check for the floor thickness

Pressures at key points C1 and D1 of the u/s pile


1 d1
2
=
=
= 0.033
b 60
From Khoslas curves D1 = 89%; C1 = 82%
Correction for floor thickness for C1 =

D1 C1
89 82
xt =
x1.0 = 3.5% (+ ve)
d
2

Correction for interference of d/s pile for C1


C = 19

Dd+ D

b b

b = b = 60 m; D = 7 m; d = 2 m
C = 19

7 2+7

= 0.97% 1% (+ ve)
60 60

Hence, corrected value C1 = 82 + 3.5 + 1 = 86.5%


Residual head at C1 = Hs x C1 = 6.5 x 0.865 = 5.62 m
Pressure at key points E2 and D2 of the d/s pile
1 d 7
= =
= 0.117
b 60
From Khoslas curves D2 = 21%; E2 = 30%
Correction for floor thickness for E2 =

E2 D2
30 21
xt =
x 2.0 = 2.6% ( ve)
d
7

(Thickness of floor near pile = 2 m)


Correction for interference of u/s pile for E2
C = 19

Dd+ D

b b

b = b = 60 m; D = 2 m; d = 7 m
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C = 19

2 7+ 2

= 0.5%( ve)
60 60

Hence, corrected value E2 = 30 2.6 0.5 = 26.9%


Residual head at E2 = Hs x E2 = 6.5 x 0.269 = 1.75 m
Assuming linear variation of pressure for intermediate points, the pressures and floor
thickness for points A, B and C are as follows:
Point A just at the d/s toe of the weir wall
5.62 1.75
PA = 5.62
(33.5 + 7.5) = 2.98m
60

tA =

2.98
= 2.40m
2.24 1

Actual thickness provided according to Blighs theory = 3 m


Hence, safe
Point B, 6 m from d/s toe of the weir wall
5.62 1.75
PB = 5.62
(33.5 + 7.5 + 6 ) = 2.59m
60

tB =

2.59
= 2.04m
2.24 1

Actual thickness provided according to Blighs theory = 2.5 m


Hence, safe
Point C, 12 m from d/s toe of the weir wall
5.62 1.75
PC = 5.62
(33.5 + 7.5 + 12 ) = 1.77 m
60

tC =

2 .2
= 1.77 m
2.24 1

Actual thickness provided according to Blighs theory = 2 m


Hence, safe

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Figure E-4.3 Section of the example weir

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