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Lecture Hand Out

Mechanical Engineering Department
Brawijaya University

1.1. Description
Mechanism to compress or pressurize gas, air, or vapour. The ratio between outlet
pressure and inlet pressure is Compression ratio (CR).
Since gas is compressible fluid, while pressure increases at the outlet, the volume reduces,
and the temperature increases according to thermodynamic equation Boyle-Gay-Lussac,
P1.V1/T1 = P2.V2/T2
They are used a lot in engineering in:
- Jet engine
- Gas turbine system
- Refrigeration system
- To compress gases in pneumatic system
- Pipeline transport

1.2. Compressor Types

1.3. Thermodynamic Analysis of Compressor

Compressor is a thermodynamic system, that pressurize gas to higher pressure and results in
lower volume and higher temperature. Compressor is an open thermodynamic system, where
mass of the gas continously enter the system and simultanously exit from the system.
Compressor works in steady flow basis, where mass into the system equals to the mass out.
Thermodynamics Open System

Applying conservation energy principle,

A number of thermodynamic devices such as pumps, fans, compressors, turbines, nozzles,

diffusers, and heaters operate with one entrance and one exit. The steady-state, steady-flow
conservation of mass and first law of thermodynamics for these systems reduce to

Qnet m1 (h1 2 gz1 ) Wnet m2 (h2 2 gz2 )

With one direction of heat and work, the equation may be rewritten as,

2 2
(V V1 )
Q W m[h2 h1 2
g ( z 2 z1 )]

For compressor, the differences of kinetic energy and elevation at inlet and outlet usually
very small and could be neglected,

Compressors and fans are essentially the same devices. However, compressors operate
over larger pressure ratios than fans. If we neglect the changes in kinetic and potential
energies as fluid flows through an adiabatic compressor having one entrance and one exit,
the steady-state, steady-flow first law or the conservation of energy equation becomes,
2 2

(V V1 ) 0
Q W m[h2 h1 2
g ( z 2 z1 ) 0]

W m[h2 h1 )

( Win ) m(h2 h1 ) or, Win m(h2 h1 )

Equation of State in compressor
Pv = RT, or PV = mRT
These equation of state could be applied for steady state liquid flow, as in
compressor in time rate,

P.V/t = m/t RT , or P.V m .R.T

Where, V/t =V, volumetric flow rate [m3/sec]

m/t = m , mass flow rate [kg/sec]

The ideal compressor works in isentropic process, and the relation between the
compressor property P, V, and T,

The isentropic work is the minimum possible work that the adiabatic compressor
requires; therefore, the actual work is greater than the isentropic work. Since
efficiencies are defined to be less than 1, the compressor efficiency (hc) is defined
as the ratio between isentropic work and actual work.

Compressor Horse Power


Hydraulic or Gas Horse Power (GHP), [kW]

Shaft or Brake Horse Power (BHP), [kW]

GHP = (r.Q/t.g.H)/1000

BHP = GHP/hc = (r.Q/t.g.H)/(hc.1000)

Where, r = density of gas [kg/m3]

Q/t = volume flow rate [m3/sec]
g = gravitation [m/sec2]
H = head [m]
hc = efisiensi kompresor
EXAMPLE 56 Compressing Air by a Compressor Air at 100 kPa and 280 K is compressed
steadily to 600 kPa and 400 K. The mass flow rate of the air is 0.02 kg/s, and a heat loss
of 16 kJ/kg occurs during the process. Assuming the changes in kinetic and potential
energies are negligible, determine the necessary power input to the compressor.

P.R. 1.

P.R. 2. Carbon dioxide enters an adiabatic compressor at 100 kPa and 300 K at a rate of 0.5 kg/s
and leaves at 600 kPa and 450 K. Neglecting kinetic energy changes, determine (a) the volume flow
rate of the carbon dioxide at the compressor inlet and (b) the power input to the compressor.

P.R. 1.

P.R. 2.