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# CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH

## What is correlational research?

Correlational is statistical technique that can show whether and how
strongly pairs of variables are related. The researcher begins with the idea that
there might be a relationship between two variables. According to Faenkel and
Wallen (2008, 328), it is a study to determine the relationship and the degree of
relationship between two or more variables without any attempt to influence these
variables so that there is no manipulation of variables. She or he then measures
both variables for each of a large number of cases and checks to see if they are in
fact related. The relationship of interest could be either a D relationship or an R
relationship, so this might involve making a bar graph and computing d or making
a line graph or scatterplot and computing r. It probably also involves null
hypothesis testing to see if the observed relationship is statistically significant.
The existence of the relationship and the level of these variables is
important because knowing the level of the relationship, researchers will be able
to develop it in accordance with the purpose of research . This type of research
typically involves a statistical measure / level relationship called correlation (Mc
Millan and Schumacher, in Shamsuddin and Vismaia, 2009:25). Correlational
research using the instrument to determine whether, and to what level, there is a
relationship between two or more variables that can be quantitatived.
According to Gay in Sukardi ( 2004:166 ) correlation research is one part
of research ex - postfacto because researchers usually do not manipulate the state
of a given variable and directly search for the existence of the relationship and the
level of relationship variables, are reflected in the correlation coefficient.
Furthermore, Fraenkel and Wallen (2008: 329) states research into the correlation
of descriptions of research because such research is an attempt describe the
conditions that have occurred . In this study, researchers seek to describe the
current conditions in the context of quantitative reflected in the variable.
Correlational research conducted in various fields including education, social, and
economic.

## Why did the correlational research?

According Sukardi ( 2004:166 ) correlation study has three important
characteristics for the researchers who want to use it. Three of these
characteristics are as follows; (1) correlation study of complex variables and
appropriate if the researcher is not possible to manipulate and control variables as
in the experimental study, (2) allows intensive variables measured in the setting
(environment) real, and (3) allows researchers to get a significant degree of
research questions on two or more variables. The question is; (1) Is there a
relationship between two variables?, (2) How does the direction of the
relationship?, and (3) How much / far the relationship can be explained ?
Correlational study aimed to determine whether there is a relationship, in
which way the relationship (positive /negativ ), and how far there is a relationship
between two or more variables (which can be measured). For example, the
relationship between intelligence and creativity , the spirit of achievement , height
for age, the value of the English language with the value of statistics, and so on.
The purpose of the investigation is to establish the correlation or disclose a
relationship or using the relations in making predictions (forecasts). In
correlational studies, researchers usually only based on the appearance of a
variable as it is, without setting conditions or manipulate these variables.
Therefore , researchers should know quite a lot of good reasons to maintain a
relationship results found.
A researcher using the appropriate correlation research when the
researcher has several important reasons , including the following:
1. There is a need for the information that there is a relationship between
variables where the correlation coefficient can reach it.
2. Correlation study should be taken into account when the utility appears
that a complex variable , and researchers may not be able to control and
manipulate these variables.
3. In a study conducted measurements allow multiple variables and
relationships that exist in a realistic setting . Another important reason is
that the precise correlation study done , if one goal of research is to

## achieve a prediction formula , which shows the state of the relationship

between the variables assumption.
How to make research questions in correlational research?
Correlation study is an action research involving the collection of data to
determine whether there is a relationship and degree of relationship between two
or more variables. This research was carried out, when we want to know about the
existence of strong and weak ties related variables in an object or subject under
study. The existence of the relationship and the level of these variables is
important, because by knowing the level of the relationship, researchers will be
able to develop it in accordance with the purpose of research.
Correlational studies can be designed to determine which of a list of
variables that may be related as well to test hypotheses about the expected
relationship. The variables involved should be selected. In other words, the
relationship to be investigated should be supported by theory or derived from
experience. According to Sukardi, (2008:166) says that moreover, correlational
research is designed to answer three of research questions about two or more
variables. The research questions such as:
1. Is there a relationship between two variables?
2. How does the direction of the relationship?
3. How much / and how far the relationship can be explained?
In the education field, correlation studies are commonly used to conduct research
on a number of variables that are expected to have a significant role in achieving
the learning process. As an example, such as the relationship between students
reading ability with mastering vocabulary. The research question based on this
fact is : is there is relationship between improving students reading ability with
mastering vocabulary

## According to Arikunto (2009:11) " The sample is part of a population ( or

a representative portion of the population studied ). While Sugiyono means that
the sample is a fraction of the number and characteristics possessed by the
population . From two experts above, it can be concluded that the sample is part
of a population that has characteristics or particular circumstances which will be
investigated . Because not all data and information will be processed and not all
people or objects to be studied, but simply by using a sample that would represent.
In this case the sample should be representative.
Population sample drawn at the time of planning a study called the target
population, while the population to be studied at the time doing the research
population is called sampling . The problem to be faced in this sampling is the
sampling and large sample sizes . It really depends on the nature of the
population, especially in randomly members in the study area or in certain
categories or also depends on population variation . The sample can be determined
by consideration of the problem , objectives , hypotheses , methods and research
instruments in addition to considerations of time , energy and finance . In order to
obtain samples refresentatif , must be aligned to each subject in the population has
an equal chance of becoming elements of the sample . The higher or a large
variation of the population , the greater the required sample . This sampling , there
are two kinds of techniques that are often or usually do , namely : probability
sampling and nonprobability sampling . Regarding the size of the sample there is
no provision standard or set formula , because the legitimacy of the sample lies in
the nature and characteristics of the population approaching or not , not on a large
or many . A minimum sample size of 30 subjects . This is based on calculations or
testing requirements that are commonly used in statistics . It has been said that the
sampling before , generally using two ways , namely probability sampling and
nonprobability sampling . Two sampling techniques are described as follows .
1 . Probability Sampling
Probability sampling is a sampling technique to provide equal
opportunities to every member of the population to be elected as members of the

## sample. Belonging to the probability sampling techniques have 4 groups ,

including :
A. Simple Random Sampling ( Random Sample )
Simple random sampling is a method of sampling using a random
member of the population regardless of the strata ( levels ) in
members of the population . This is done when the members of the
population considered to be similar , or so-called homogeneous . For
example : " The number of students who receive scholarships in
Sukabumi . Simple random sampling can be done through a lottery ,
table of random numbers or by systematic random .
B. Proportionate Stratified Random Sampling
Proportionate stratified random sampling is a sampling of members
of the population randomly and proportionally stratified , sampling is
done when members heterogeneous population ( not like) .
Proportionate stratified random sampling is done by making the
layers ( strata ) , then each layer is taken from a number of
randomized subjects . The number of subjects of each layer ( stratum
) is the research sample .
C. disproportionate stratified random sampling
Disproportionate stratified random sampling is a sampling of
members of the population stratified random and fixed , some have
less proportional distribution , sampli do this if members of a
heterogeneous population ( not like) .
D. Sampling Area ( Cluster Sampling )
Area sampling or cluster sampling is a sampling technique that is
done by taking a representative from each geographical area there .
Samples cluster is also called the sample group and not individuals .
2 . Non - Probability Sampling
Nonprobability sampling is a sampling technique that does not give
you a chance ( peluan ) on each member of the population to be a member of a
sample . Included in nonprobability sampling was divided into 6 groups , among
others :
A. Systematic Sampling

## Systematic sampling is sampling based on the sequence of the

population who had been given a serial number or a member of a
sample taken from the population at regular intervals of time , space
with a uniform sequence . For example : " The electricity customer
names already listed in Part Payment of Electricity by location . For
sampling of electricity customers , can be taken systematically
through Rayon electricity payments .
B. Sampling Quota
Quota sampling is sampling technique of the population that have a
certain characteristic to the number ( quota ) or sample the desired yan
based on certain considerations of the researcher . You do this by
specifying a large number of samples are required , then set the
number ( quota desired ) , then the allocation that will be used as the
basis to take the necessary sample unit .
C. Accidental Sampling
Sampling Accidental technique is based on spontaneity factor ,
meaning that anyone who accidentally met with investigators and in
accordance with the characteristics ( characteristics ) , then that person
can be used as a sample ( respondents ) .
D. purposive sampling
Purposive sampling also known as sampling considerations .
Purposive sampling is a sampling technique used researcher if the
researcher has pertimbanngan - specific considerations in the
determination of sample collection or sample for a particular purpose .
therefore , sampling is suitable for a case study in which a single
aspect of representative cases were observed and analyzed .
E. Sampling Saturated
Saturation sampling is a sampling technique used when all the
population as a sample and also known as the census . This saturation
sampling will be done if the population is less than 30 people .
F. Snowball Sampling
Snowball sampling is a sampling technique that originally are small
then the sample members ( respondents ) invites his friends to be
sampled and so on so that the sample is getting high amount. Like a

rolling snowball that was growing more and more distant . Suitable
research using sampling is usually used qualitative research methods .
Correlational Research Design
In correlational research , either relational , predictive , and multivariate ,
involving the calculation of the variable complex korelasii ( criterion variable )
with other variables that are considered have relationship ( predictor variables ) .
To test these relationships , design or steps taken for the study and prediction of
the same relational although the details of each step for the two different ,
particularly in the collection and the analysis of data . Measures proficiency level ,
the most basic , are : the determination of the problem , the determination of the
subject , data collection , and data analysis .
a. determination of the problem
As in any research , the first step is to do research isto determine the research
issues that will be the focus of his studies . In correlational research , issues
chosen should have significant value in the patterns of behavior that goes a
complex phenomenon comprehension . In addition, the variables included in
the study should be based on consideration , both theoretically and reason ,
that these variables have a certain relationship . This can usually be obtained
based on the results of previous studies or earlier .
b . Determination of the subject
Subjects were recruited for this study must be measured in the variables that
are the focus of research . The subject should be relatively homogeneous in
factors beyond the studied variables that may affect the dependent variable .
When the subjects involved have significant differences in these factors , the
correlation between the variables studied are blurred . To reduce the
heterogeneity , researchers can classify subjects into groups based on certain
factors and levels , then examine the relationship between the study variables
for each group .
c . data collection
Various types of instruments can be used to measure and collect data each
variable , such as questionnaires , tests , interview guide and observation
guide , of course, tailored to the needs . The data collected by these

## instruments must be in the form of numbers . In a relational study ,

measurements of variables can be done in a relatively equal . Being in a
predictive study , predictor variables should be measured over a period of
time before it happens criterion variables . If not, then the prediction of these
criteria is meaningless .
d . analysis of data Basically
the analysis of the correlational research done by correlating the results of
measurements of a variable with another variable measurement results . In
relational research , bivariate correlation techniques , according to the type of
data , used to calculate the degree of relationship between vaiabel * with one
another . Being in a predictive study , the technique used is regression
analysis to determine the level of predictive capability predictor variable to
variable criteria . However, it can also be used when the usual correlation
analysis involving only two variables . When involving more than two
variables , for example, to determine whether two or more predictor variables
can be used to predict the criterion variables better than when used
individually , multiple regression analysis techniques , multiple regresion or
canonical analysis can be used . The results of these analyzes are usually
reported in terms of the correlation coefficient or regression coefficient as
well as the level of significance , in addition to the proportion of variance that
is contributed by the independent variable on the dependent variable
Analyze the Data
The analysis of the correlational research done by correlating the results
of measurements of a variable with another variable measurement results . In a
correlational study , bivariate correlation techniques , according to the type of data
, used to calculate the degree of relationship between variables with each other .
Being in a predictive study , the technique used is regression analysis to determine
the level of predictive capability predictor variable to variable criteria . However,
it can also be used when the usual correlation analysis involving only two
variables . When involving more than two variables , for example, to determine
whether two or more predictor variables can be used to predict the criterion
variables better than when used individually , multiple regression analysis

## techniques , multiple regresion or canonical analysis can be used . The results of

these analyzes are usually reported in terms of the correlation coefficient or
regression coefficient as well as the level of significance , in addition to the
proportion of variance that is contributed by the independent variable on the
dependent variable . Interpretation of the data is correlational research when
connecting the two variables will produce the symbol correlation coefficient ( r ) .
The relationship of these variables with a value of -1 is expressed until +1 . Value
( - ) indicates negative correlation conflicting variables and values ( + ) showed
positive correlation variable approach each other in the s ame direction
( SYAMSUDIN and Vismaia , 2009:25 ) .

## Types of Research Instruments

There are several types of instruments commonly used in the study ,
namely :
1 . Tests
The test is a series of questions or exercises or other tools used to
measure skills , measurement , intelligence , ability or talent possessed by an
individual or group .
2 . Questionnaire
Questionnaires are a number of written questions used to obtain
information from respondents in terms of their personal statements , atu the things
he knew.
3 . Interview
Interviews are used by researchers to assess the state of a person , for
example to find data of the background variables of students , parents , education ,
attention , attitude towards something .
4 . Observations
In observational studies in the sense that is holding direct observation ,
observation can be done with the test , questionnaire , the range of images , and
sound recordings . observation contains a list of the types of activities that may
arise and be observed .
5 . Multilevel scale (ratings ) .
berskala.Walaupun scale This rise resulted in data that rough , but sufficient to

provide certain information about program or person . This instrument can easily
give the appearance of a picture , especially the appearance in the line of duty,
which shows the frequency of emergence properties . In preparing the scale ,
which needs to be considered is how to determine variable scale . What should be
asked what can be observed respondent .
6 . Documentation .
Documentation , from the origin of the word document , which means the
written stuff . In implement methods of documentation , research investigating
objects such books written , magazines , documents , regulations , minutes of
meetings , and so on

REFERENCES
Fraenkel, J.R dan Wellen, N.E. 2008. How to Design and Evaluate research in
Education. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Sukardi. 2004. Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan Kompetensi dan Praktiknya.
Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.
Syamsuddin dan Vismaia S. Damaianti. 2009. Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan
Bahasa. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.
Shaughnessy, J.J., Zeichmeister, E.B. & Zeichmeister, J.S. (2000). Research
methods in Psychology (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2006. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik.
Jakarta : Rineka Cipta.