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Correlational is statistical technique that can show whether and how

strongly pairs of variables are related. The researcher begins with the idea that

there might be a relationship between two variables. According to Faenkel and

Wallen (2008, 328), it is a study to determine the relationship and the degree of

relationship between two or more variables without any attempt to influence these

variables so that there is no manipulation of variables. She or he then measures

both variables for each of a large number of cases and checks to see if they are in

fact related. The relationship of interest could be either a D relationship or an R

relationship, so this might involve making a bar graph and computing d or making

a line graph or scatterplot and computing r. It probably also involves null

hypothesis testing to see if the observed relationship is statistically significant.

The existence of the relationship and the level of these variables is

important because knowing the level of the relationship, researchers will be able

to develop it in accordance with the purpose of research . This type of research

typically involves a statistical measure / level relationship called correlation (Mc

Millan and Schumacher, in Shamsuddin and Vismaia, 2009:25). Correlational

research using the instrument to determine whether, and to what level, there is a

relationship between two or more variables that can be quantitatived.

According to Gay in Sukardi ( 2004:166 ) correlation research is one part

of research ex - postfacto because researchers usually do not manipulate the state

of a given variable and directly search for the existence of the relationship and the

level of relationship variables, are reflected in the correlation coefficient.

Furthermore, Fraenkel and Wallen (2008: 329) states research into the correlation

of descriptions of research because such research is an attempt describe the

conditions that have occurred . In this study, researchers seek to describe the

current conditions in the context of quantitative reflected in the variable.

Correlational research conducted in various fields including education, social, and

economic.

According Sukardi ( 2004:166 ) correlation study has three important

characteristics for the researchers who want to use it. Three of these

characteristics are as follows; (1) correlation study of complex variables and

appropriate if the researcher is not possible to manipulate and control variables as

in the experimental study, (2) allows intensive variables measured in the setting

(environment) real, and (3) allows researchers to get a significant degree of

association. In addition, a correlation study was conducted to answer three

research questions on two or more variables. The question is; (1) Is there a

relationship between two variables?, (2) How does the direction of the

relationship?, and (3) How much / far the relationship can be explained ?

Correlational study aimed to determine whether there is a relationship, in

which way the relationship (positive /negativ ), and how far there is a relationship

between two or more variables (which can be measured). For example, the

relationship between intelligence and creativity , the spirit of achievement , height

for age, the value of the English language with the value of statistics, and so on.

The purpose of the investigation is to establish the correlation or disclose a

relationship or using the relations in making predictions (forecasts). In

correlational studies, researchers usually only based on the appearance of a

variable as it is, without setting conditions or manipulate these variables.

Therefore , researchers should know quite a lot of good reasons to maintain a

relationship results found.

A researcher using the appropriate correlation research when the

researcher has several important reasons , including the following:

1. There is a need for the information that there is a relationship between

variables where the correlation coefficient can reach it.

2. Correlation study should be taken into account when the utility appears

that a complex variable , and researchers may not be able to control and

manipulate these variables.

3. In a study conducted measurements allow multiple variables and

relationships that exist in a realistic setting . Another important reason is

that the precise correlation study done , if one goal of research is to

between the variables assumption.

How to make research questions in correlational research?

Correlation study is an action research involving the collection of data to

determine whether there is a relationship and degree of relationship between two

or more variables. This research was carried out, when we want to know about the

existence of strong and weak ties related variables in an object or subject under

study. The existence of the relationship and the level of these variables is

important, because by knowing the level of the relationship, researchers will be

able to develop it in accordance with the purpose of research.

Correlational studies can be designed to determine which of a list of

variables that may be related as well to test hypotheses about the expected

relationship. The variables involved should be selected. In other words, the

relationship to be investigated should be supported by theory or derived from

experience. According to Sukardi, (2008:166) says that moreover, correlational

research is designed to answer three of research questions about two or more

variables. The research questions such as:

1. Is there a relationship between two variables?

2. How does the direction of the relationship?

3. How much / and how far the relationship can be explained?

In the education field, correlation studies are commonly used to conduct research

on a number of variables that are expected to have a significant role in achieving

the learning process. As an example, such as the relationship between students

reading ability with mastering vocabulary. The research question based on this

fact is : is there is relationship between improving students reading ability with

mastering vocabulary

a representative portion of the population studied ). While Sugiyono means that

the sample is a fraction of the number and characteristics possessed by the

population . From two experts above, it can be concluded that the sample is part

of a population that has characteristics or particular circumstances which will be

investigated . Because not all data and information will be processed and not all

people or objects to be studied, but simply by using a sample that would represent.

In this case the sample should be representative.

Population sample drawn at the time of planning a study called the target

population, while the population to be studied at the time doing the research

population is called sampling . The problem to be faced in this sampling is the

sampling and large sample sizes . It really depends on the nature of the

population, especially in randomly members in the study area or in certain

categories or also depends on population variation . The sample can be determined

by consideration of the problem , objectives , hypotheses , methods and research

instruments in addition to considerations of time , energy and finance . In order to

obtain samples refresentatif , must be aligned to each subject in the population has

an equal chance of becoming elements of the sample . The higher or a large

variation of the population , the greater the required sample . This sampling , there

are two kinds of techniques that are often or usually do , namely : probability

sampling and nonprobability sampling . Regarding the size of the sample there is

no provision standard or set formula , because the legitimacy of the sample lies in

the nature and characteristics of the population approaching or not , not on a large

or many . A minimum sample size of 30 subjects . This is based on calculations or

testing requirements that are commonly used in statistics . It has been said that the

sampling before , generally using two ways , namely probability sampling and

nonprobability sampling . Two sampling techniques are described as follows .

1 . Probability Sampling

Probability sampling is a sampling technique to provide equal

opportunities to every member of the population to be elected as members of the

including :

A. Simple Random Sampling ( Random Sample )

Simple random sampling is a method of sampling using a random

member of the population regardless of the strata ( levels ) in

members of the population . This is done when the members of the

population considered to be similar , or so-called homogeneous . For

example : " The number of students who receive scholarships in

Sukabumi . Simple random sampling can be done through a lottery ,

table of random numbers or by systematic random .

B. Proportionate Stratified Random Sampling

Proportionate stratified random sampling is a sampling of members

of the population randomly and proportionally stratified , sampling is

done when members heterogeneous population ( not like) .

Proportionate stratified random sampling is done by making the

layers ( strata ) , then each layer is taken from a number of

randomized subjects . The number of subjects of each layer ( stratum

) is the research sample .

C. disproportionate stratified random sampling

Disproportionate stratified random sampling is a sampling of

members of the population stratified random and fixed , some have

less proportional distribution , sampli do this if members of a

heterogeneous population ( not like) .

D. Sampling Area ( Cluster Sampling )

Area sampling or cluster sampling is a sampling technique that is

done by taking a representative from each geographical area there .

Samples cluster is also called the sample group and not individuals .

2 . Non - Probability Sampling

Nonprobability sampling is a sampling technique that does not give

you a chance ( peluan ) on each member of the population to be a member of a

sample . Included in nonprobability sampling was divided into 6 groups , among

others :

A. Systematic Sampling

population who had been given a serial number or a member of a

sample taken from the population at regular intervals of time , space

with a uniform sequence . For example : " The electricity customer

names already listed in Part Payment of Electricity by location . For

sampling of electricity customers , can be taken systematically

through Rayon electricity payments .

B. Sampling Quota

Quota sampling is sampling technique of the population that have a

certain characteristic to the number ( quota ) or sample the desired yan

based on certain considerations of the researcher . You do this by

specifying a large number of samples are required , then set the

number ( quota desired ) , then the allocation that will be used as the

basis to take the necessary sample unit .

C. Accidental Sampling

Sampling Accidental technique is based on spontaneity factor ,

meaning that anyone who accidentally met with investigators and in

accordance with the characteristics ( characteristics ) , then that person

can be used as a sample ( respondents ) .

D. purposive sampling

Purposive sampling also known as sampling considerations .

Purposive sampling is a sampling technique used researcher if the

researcher has pertimbanngan - specific considerations in the

determination of sample collection or sample for a particular purpose .

therefore , sampling is suitable for a case study in which a single

aspect of representative cases were observed and analyzed .

E. Sampling Saturated

Saturation sampling is a sampling technique used when all the

population as a sample and also known as the census . This saturation

sampling will be done if the population is less than 30 people .

F. Snowball Sampling

Snowball sampling is a sampling technique that originally are small

then the sample members ( respondents ) invites his friends to be

sampled and so on so that the sample is getting high amount. Like a

rolling snowball that was growing more and more distant . Suitable

research using sampling is usually used qualitative research methods .

Correlational Research Design

In correlational research , either relational , predictive , and multivariate ,

involving the calculation of the variable complex korelasii ( criterion variable )

with other variables that are considered have relationship ( predictor variables ) .

To test these relationships , design or steps taken for the study and prediction of

the same relational although the details of each step for the two different ,

particularly in the collection and the analysis of data . Measures proficiency level ,

the most basic , are : the determination of the problem , the determination of the

subject , data collection , and data analysis .

a. determination of the problem

As in any research , the first step is to do research isto determine the research

issues that will be the focus of his studies . In correlational research , issues

chosen should have significant value in the patterns of behavior that goes a

complex phenomenon comprehension . In addition, the variables included in

the study should be based on consideration , both theoretically and reason ,

that these variables have a certain relationship . This can usually be obtained

based on the results of previous studies or earlier .

b . Determination of the subject

Subjects were recruited for this study must be measured in the variables that

are the focus of research . The subject should be relatively homogeneous in

factors beyond the studied variables that may affect the dependent variable .

When the subjects involved have significant differences in these factors , the

correlation between the variables studied are blurred . To reduce the

heterogeneity , researchers can classify subjects into groups based on certain

factors and levels , then examine the relationship between the study variables

for each group .

c . data collection

Various types of instruments can be used to measure and collect data each

variable , such as questionnaires , tests , interview guide and observation

guide , of course, tailored to the needs . The data collected by these

measurements of variables can be done in a relatively equal . Being in a

predictive study , predictor variables should be measured over a period of

time before it happens criterion variables . If not, then the prediction of these

criteria is meaningless .

d . analysis of data Basically

the analysis of the correlational research done by correlating the results of

measurements of a variable with another variable measurement results . In

relational research , bivariate correlation techniques , according to the type of

data , used to calculate the degree of relationship between vaiabel * with one

another . Being in a predictive study , the technique used is regression

analysis to determine the level of predictive capability predictor variable to

variable criteria . However, it can also be used when the usual correlation

analysis involving only two variables . When involving more than two

variables , for example, to determine whether two or more predictor variables

can be used to predict the criterion variables better than when used

individually , multiple regression analysis techniques , multiple regresion or

canonical analysis can be used . The results of these analyzes are usually

reported in terms of the correlation coefficient or regression coefficient as

well as the level of significance , in addition to the proportion of variance that

is contributed by the independent variable on the dependent variable

Analyze the Data

The analysis of the correlational research done by correlating the results

of measurements of a variable with another variable measurement results . In a

correlational study , bivariate correlation techniques , according to the type of data

, used to calculate the degree of relationship between variables with each other .

Being in a predictive study , the technique used is regression analysis to determine

the level of predictive capability predictor variable to variable criteria . However,

it can also be used when the usual correlation analysis involving only two

variables . When involving more than two variables , for example, to determine

whether two or more predictor variables can be used to predict the criterion

variables better than when used individually , multiple regression analysis

these analyzes are usually reported in terms of the correlation coefficient or

regression coefficient as well as the level of significance , in addition to the

proportion of variance that is contributed by the independent variable on the

dependent variable . Interpretation of the data is correlational research when

connecting the two variables will produce the symbol correlation coefficient ( r ) .

The relationship of these variables with a value of -1 is expressed until +1 . Value

( - ) indicates negative correlation conflicting variables and values ( + ) showed

positive correlation variable approach each other in the s ame direction

( SYAMSUDIN and Vismaia , 2009:25 ) .

There are several types of instruments commonly used in the study ,

namely :

1 . Tests

The test is a series of questions or exercises or other tools used to

measure skills , measurement , intelligence , ability or talent possessed by an

individual or group .

2 . Questionnaire

Questionnaires are a number of written questions used to obtain

information from respondents in terms of their personal statements , atu the things

he knew.

3 . Interview

Interviews are used by researchers to assess the state of a person , for

example to find data of the background variables of students , parents , education ,

attention , attitude towards something .

4 . Observations

In observational studies in the sense that is holding direct observation ,

observation can be done with the test , questionnaire , the range of images , and

sound recordings . observation contains a list of the types of activities that may

arise and be observed .

5 . Multilevel scale (ratings ) .

Rating or a graduated scale is a subjective measure that made

berskala.Walaupun scale This rise resulted in data that rough , but sufficient to

provide certain information about program or person . This instrument can easily

give the appearance of a picture , especially the appearance in the line of duty,

which shows the frequency of emergence properties . In preparing the scale ,

which needs to be considered is how to determine variable scale . What should be

asked what can be observed respondent .

6 . Documentation .

Documentation , from the origin of the word document , which means the

written stuff . In implement methods of documentation , research investigating

objects such books written , magazines , documents , regulations , minutes of

meetings , and so on

REFERENCES

Fraenkel, J.R dan Wellen, N.E. 2008. How to Design and Evaluate research in

Education. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Sukardi. 2004. Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan Kompetensi dan Praktiknya.

Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Syamsuddin dan Vismaia S. Damaianti. 2009. Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan

Bahasa. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Shaughnessy, J.J., Zeichmeister, E.B. & Zeichmeister, J.S. (2000). Research

methods in Psychology (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2006. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik.

Jakarta : Rineka Cipta.

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