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Exercise 6.4

Question 1:

1. Using differentials, find the approximate value of each of the following up to 3 places of decimal

(i)

value of each of the following up to 3 places of decimal (i) (iv) (vii) (x)

(iv)

of each of the following up to 3 places of decimal (i) (iv) (vii) (x) (xiii)

(vii)

of the following up to 3 places of decimal (i) (iv) (vii) (x) (xiii) Answer (i)

(x)

the following up to 3 places of decimal (i) (iv) (vii) (x) (xiii) Answer (i) (ii)

(xiii)

up to 3 places of decimal (i) (iv) (vii) (x) (xiii) Answer (i) (ii) (iii) (

Answer

(i)

to 3 places of decimal (i) (iv) (vii) (x) (xiii) Answer (i) (ii) (iii) ( v

(ii)

(ii) (iii)

(iii)

(ii) (iii)

(v)

( v ) (vi)

(vi)

( v ) (vi)

(viii)

(viii) (ix)

(ix)

(viii) (ix)

(xi)

(xii)(ii) (iii) ( v ) (vi) (viii) (ix) (xi) (xiv) (xv) Consider . Let x =

(iii) ( v ) (vi) (viii) (ix) (xi) (xii) (xiv) (xv) Consider . Let x =

(xiv)

(xv)( v ) (vi) (viii) (ix) (xi) (xii) (xiv) Consider . Let x = 25 and

( v ) (vi) (viii) (ix) (xi) (xii) (xiv) (xv) Consider . Let x = 25

Consider

Consider . Let x = 25 and ∆ x = 0.3.

. Let x = 25 and ∆x = 0.3.

Then,

(xv) Consider . Let x = 25 and ∆ x = 0.3. Then, Now, dy is

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆y and is given by,

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value
Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value

Hence, the approximate value of

to ∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value of (ii) is 0.03 +

(ii)

∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value of (ii) is 0.03 + 5

is 0.03 + 5 = 5.03.

Consider

Consider . Let x = 49 and ∆ x = 0.5.

. Let x = 49 and ∆x = 0.5.

Then,

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is 0.03 + 5 = 5.03. Consider . Let x = 49 and ∆ x =

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www.tiwariacademy. in Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆ y and is given by, Hence, the

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆y and is given by,

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value

Hence, the approximate value of

(iii)

y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value of (iii) is 7 + 0.035 =
y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value of (iii) is 7 + 0.035 =

is 7 + 0.035 = 7.035.

Consider

. Let x = 1 and ∆ x = − 0.4.

. Let x = 1 and ∆x = − 0.4.

Then,

Consider . Let x = 1 and ∆ x = − 0.4. Then, Now, dy is

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆y and is given by,

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value

Hence, the approximate value of

to ∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value of is 1 + (−0.2)

is 1 + (−0.2) = 1 − 0.2 = 0.8.

(iv)

approximate value of is 1 + (−0.2) = 1 − 0.2 = 0.8. (iv) Consider Then,

Consider

Then,

. Let x = 0.008 and ∆ x = 0.001. x = 0.008 and ∆x = 0.001.

(iv) Consider Then, . Let x = 0.008 and ∆ x = 0.001. Now, dy is

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆y and is given by,

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x = 0.001. Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆ y and is given by, www.tiwariacademy.

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www.tiwariacademy. in Hence, the approximate value of (v) is 0.2 + 0.008 = 0.208. Consider .

Hence, the approximate value of

(v)

www.tiwariacademy. in Hence, the approximate value of (v) is 0.2 + 0.008 = 0.208. Consider .
www.tiwariacademy. in Hence, the approximate value of (v) is 0.2 + 0.008 = 0.208. Consider .

is 0.2 + 0.008 = 0.208.

Consider

Consider . Let x = 1 and ∆ x = −0.001.

. Let x = 1 and ∆x = −0.001.

Then,

Consider . Let x = 1 and ∆ x = −0.001. Then, Now, dy is approximately

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆y and is given by,

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value

Hence, the approximate value of

to ∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value of (vi) Consider Then, .

(vi)

∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value of (vi) Consider Then, . Let

Consider

Then,

. Let x = 16 and ∆ x = −1. x = 16 and ∆x = −1.

is 1 + (−0.0001) = 0.9999.

Let x = 16 and ∆ x = −1. is 1 + (−0.0001) = 0.9999. Now,

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆y and is given by,

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= 0.9999. Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆ y and is given by, www.tiwariacademy. com

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www.tiwariacademy. in Hence, the approximate value of (vii) is 2 + (−0.03125) = 1.96875. Consider .

Hence, the approximate value of

(vii)

www.tiwariacademy. in Hence, the approximate value of (vii) is 2 + (−0.03125) = 1.96875. Consider .
www.tiwariacademy. in Hence, the approximate value of (vii) is 2 + (−0.03125) = 1.96875. Consider .

is 2 + (−0.03125) = 1.96875.

Consider

Consider . Let x = 27 and ∆ x = −1.

. Let x = 27 and ∆x = −1.

Then,

Consider . Let x = 27 and ∆ x = −1. Then, Now, dy is approximately

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆y and is given by,

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value

Hence, the approximate value of

(viii)

y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value of (viii) is 3 + (−0.0370) =
y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value of (viii) is 3 + (−0.0370) =

is 3 + (−0.0370) = 2.9629.

Consider

Consider . Let x = 256 and ∆ x = −1.

. Let x = 256 and ∆x = −1.

Then,

Consider . Let x = 256 and ∆ x = −1. Then, Now, dy is approximately

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆y and is given by,

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Then, Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆ y and is given by, www.tiwariacademy. com Focus

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www.tiwariacademy. in Hence, the approximate value of (ix) Consider Then, . Let x = 81 and

Hence, the approximate value of

www.tiwariacademy. in Hence, the approximate value of (ix) Consider Then, . Let x = 81 and

(ix)

www.tiwariacademy. in Hence, the approximate value of (ix) Consider Then, . Let x = 81 and

Consider

Then,

. Let x = 81 and ∆ x = 1. x = 81 and ∆x = 1.

is 4 + (−0.0039) = 3.9961.

. Let x = 81 and ∆ x = 1. is 4 + (−0.0039) = 3.9961.

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆y and is given by,

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value

Hence, the approximate value of

to ∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value of is 3 + 0.009

is 3 + 0.009 = 3.009.

(x)

Hence, the approximate value of is 3 + 0.009 = 3.009. (x) Consider Then, . Let

Consider

Then,

. Let x = 400 and ∆ x = 1. x = 400 and ∆x = 1.

= 3.009. (x) Consider Then, . Let x = 400 and ∆ x = 1. Now,

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆y and is given by,

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and ∆ x = 1. Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆y and is given by,

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www.tiwariacademy. in Hence, the approximate value of is 20 + 0.025 = 20.025. (xi) Consider Then,

Hence, the approximate value of

www.tiwariacademy. in Hence, the approximate value of is 20 + 0.025 = 20.025. (xi) Consider Then,

is 20 + 0.025 = 20.025.

(xi)

Hence, the approximate value of is 20 + 0.025 = 20.025. (xi) Consider Then, . Let

Consider

Then,

. Let x = 0.0036 and ∆ x = 0.0001. x = 0.0036 and ∆x = 0.0001.

(xi) Consider Then, . Let x = 0.0036 and ∆ x = 0.0001. Now, dy is

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆y and is given by,

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆ y and is given by, Thus, the approximate value

Thus, the approximate value of

to ∆ y and is given by, Thus, the approximate value of is 0.06 + 0.00083

is 0.06 + 0.00083 = 0.06083.

(xii)

the approximate value of is 0.06 + 0.00083 = 0.06083. (xii) Consider Then, . Let x

Consider

Then,

. Let x = 27 and ∆ x = −0.43. x = 27 and ∆x = −0.43.

(xii) Consider Then, . Let x = 27 and ∆ x = −0.43. Now, dy is

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆y and is given by,

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x = −0.43. Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆ y and is given by, www.tiwariacademy.

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www.tiwariacademy. in Hence, the approximate value of is 3 + (−0.015) = 2.984. (xiii) Consider Then,

Hence, the approximate value of

is 3 + (−0.015) = 2.984.www.tiwariacademy. in Hence, the approximate value of (xiii) Consider Then, . Let x = 81 and

(xiii)

the approximate value of is 3 + (−0.015) = 2.984. (xiii) Consider Then, . Let x

Consider

Then,

. Let x = 81 and ∆ x = 0.5. x = 81 and ∆x = 0.5.

(xiii) Consider Then, . Let x = 81 and ∆ x = 0.5. Now, dy is

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆y and is given by,

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value

Hence, the approximate value of

is 3 + 0.0046 = 3.0046.to ∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value of (xiv) Consider Then, .

(xiv)

the approximate value of is 3 + 0.0046 = 3.0046. (xiv) Consider Then, . Let x

Consider

Then,

. Let x = 4 and ∆ x = − 0.032. x = 4 and ∆x = − 0.032.

= 3.0046. (xiv) Consider Then, . Let x = 4 and ∆ x = − 0.032.

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= 3.0046. (xiv) Consider Then, . Let x = 4 and ∆ x = − 0.032.

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Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆y and is given by,

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value

Hence, the approximate value of

(xv)

∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value of (xv) is 8 + (−0.096)

is 8 + (−0.096) = 7.904.∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value of (xv) Consider Then, . Let

Consider

Then,

value of (xv) is 8 + (−0.096) = 7.904. Consider Then, . Let x = 32

. Let x = 32 and ∆x = 0.15.

= 7.904. Consider Then, . Let x = 32 and ∆ x = 0.15. Now, dy

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆y and is given by,

Now, dy is approximately equal to ∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value

Hence, the approximate value of

is 2 + 0.00187 = 2.00187.to ∆ y and is given by, Hence, the approximate value of Question 2: Find the

Question 2:

Find the approximate value of f (2.01), where f (x) = 4x 2 + 5x + 2 Answer Let x = 2 and ∆x = 0.01. Then, we have:

f(2.01) = f(x + ∆x) = 4(x + ∆x) 2 + 5(x + ∆x) + 2 Now, ∆y = f(x + ∆x) − f(x)

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) 2 + 5( x + ∆ x ) + 2 Now, ∆ y = f

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f(x + ∆x) = f(x) + ∆y

in ∴ f ( x + ∆ x ) = f ( x ) + ∆
in ∴ f ( x + ∆ x ) = f ( x ) + ∆

Hence, the approximate value of f (2.01) is 28.21.

Question 3:

Find the approximate value of f (5.001), where f (x) = x 3 − 7x 2 + 15. Answer Let x = 5 and ∆x = 0.001. Then, we have:

+ 15. Answer Let x = 5 and ∆ x = 0.001. Then, we have: Hence,

Hence, the approximate value of f (5.001) is −34.995.

Question 4:

Find the approximate change in the volume V of a cube of side x metres caused by increasing side by 1%.

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volume V of a cube of side x metres caused by increasing side by 1%. www.tiwariacademy.

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Answer The volume of a cube (V) of side x is given by V = x 3 .

of a cube ( V) of side x is given by V = x 3 .

Hence, the approximate change in the volume of the cube is 0.03x 3 m 3 .

Question 5:

Find the approximate change in the surface area of a cube of side x metres caused by decreasing the side by 1% Answer The surface area of a cube (S) of side x is given by S = 6x 2 .

of a cube ( S) of side x is given by S = 6 x 2

Hence, the approximate change in the surface area of the cube is 0.12x 2 m 2 .

Question 6:

If the radius of a sphere is measured as 7 m with an error of 0.02m, then find the approximate error in calculating its volume. Answer Let r be the radius of the sphere and ∆r be the error in measuring the radius. Then, r = 7 m and ∆r = 0.02 m Now, the volume V of the sphere is given by,

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= 7 m and ∆ r = 0.02 m Now, the volume V of the sphere

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www.tiwaria cadem y. in Hence, the approximate error in calculating the volume is 3.92 π m

Hence, the approximate error in calculating the volume is 3.92 π m 3 .

Question 7:

If the radius of a sphere is measured as 9 m with an error of 0.03 m, then find the approximate error in calculating in surface area. Answer Let r be the radius of the sphere and ∆r be the error in measuring the radius. Then, r = 9 m and ∆r = 0.03 m Now, the surface area of the sphere (S) is given by, S = 4πr 2

surface area of the sphere ( S) is given by, S = 4πr 2 Hence, the

Hence, the approximate error in calculating the surface area is 2.16π m 2 .

Question 8:

If f (x) = 3x 2 + 15x + 5, then the approximate value of f (3.02) is

A. 47.66

B. 57.66

C. 67.66

D. 77.66

Answer

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f (3.02) is A. 47.66 B. 57.66 C. 67.66 D. 77.66 Answer www.tiwariacademy. com Focus on

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Let x = 3 and ∆x = 0.02. Then, we have:

in Let x = 3 and ∆ x = 0.02. Then, we have: Hence, the approximate

Hence, the approximate value of f(3.02) is 77.66. The correct answer is D.

Question 9:

The approximate change in the volume of a cube of side x metres caused by increasing the side by 3% is

A. 0.06 x 3 m 3

Answer The volume of a cube (V) of side x is given by V = x 3 .

B. 0.6 x 3 m 3

C. 0.09 x 3 m 3

D. 0.9 x 3 m 3

x 3 m 3 C. 0.09 x 3 m 3 D. 0.9 x 3 m 3

Hence, the approximate change in the volume of the cube is 0.09x 3 m 3 . The correct answer is C.

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the volume of the cube is 0.09 x 3 m 3 . The correct answer is