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wide range of techniques which rely primarily on visual observation with instrumentation to

obtain a
measurement of length or determination of position from which movement may be deduced.
The methods generally require the presence of an observer on site at the time of measurement
which can be operated remotely once installed.
there is a wide range from which to select the system most appropriate in terms of cost and
accuracy to study effectively the problem in hand..Principles of these techniques are common
to those used in traditional site-surveying techniques familiar to engineers setting out buildings
prior to and during construction or by land surveyors at the planning stage.
The additional characteristics required for monitoring the performance of a building structure
include the ability to refer reproducibly to points on the structure over significant periods of
time, with confidence in the integrity of the points. There is the corresponding need for reliable
stable datum points, if absolute, rather than just relative, measures of movement are required.
The requirements for accuracy of monitoring are likely to be considerably greater and therefore
more onerous to achieve. The movements expected during a monitoring programme will
depend on the size and type of the building and the cause of movement. The effects of
foundation movement on superstructure, dimensional changes caused by environmental
effects, structural deflection under load or incipient instability may be of quite different
magnitudes and patterns. Nevertheless, the expected magnitude is likely to be millimetres, up
to perhaps 10 or 20, but of course with
exceptions, and the accuracy required to be no worse than a millimetre. If
progress of the movement is to be followed, particularly if it is to be used to
trigger action to safeguard safety as opposed to leading to an understanding of
the behaviour of the building structure or fabric, or if it is required to determine
when movement is ceasing, then submillimetric accuracy may be required.
The factors to be considered in order to achieve the required accuracy
The accuracy of the basic survey instruments used.
The precision of any necessary ancillary equipment.
The rigidity of fixing and long-term integrity of permanent reference
fittings to which measurements are to be made.
The repeatability of positioning of all equipment used.
The stability of points taken as data.
The relative position of points to be monitored on the building and of
the datum points.
The effects of meteorological conditions.
The competence of the observers.
Compatibility of all these factors is essential for the attainment of accurate
determination of position at one time and for the reliable comparison of
observations made at different times, often at long intervals.
When a survey is to be designed to monitor the response to known events,
such as adjacent construction work, it is essential that sufficient time is allowed
to permit at least two sets of observations to establish datum measurements
before possible disturbance takes place.

1.1 Introduction
There are two groups of sensors used for monitoring:
geodetic measuring georefernced displacements in
dimensions
geotechnical measuring relative physical quantities

three

1.2Geodetic methods
Geodetic
monitoring
comprises
observations which indicate the
and angles measure in reference
for such measurement is total
receivers are included into this

techniques
based
on
optical
movement of building by distance
to control point. Equipment used
station and level but also GNSS
group.

1.3
Sensors used for
extensometers.

geotechical

monitoring

are

inclinometers,

piezometers,