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4th Year
June 2015


Read texts PART 1 and PART 2 and answer the questions about them

Read the article about television advertising. Five sentences have been removed. Which
sentence A-F fits each gap (1-5) There is one extra sentence you do not need to use.

A Brief History of Television Advertising

Every day the average person sees 20 minutes of adverts on television or on their computer. But how did this come
about? Commercial broadcasting was originally developed as a means for companies to sell radios, where radiomanufacturing companies also owned the radio stations. But once they realized that many households were listening to
their radios a significant amount of time every day, other organizations started to explore this medium as a way to get
their message across to the public. If one has to choose a single event that began the era of radio broadcasting, it would
probably be the radio programme broadcast by station WEAF in New York City on August 28, 1922 (-----1-----) By
Christmas of that year, several other major New York department stores were also running advertisements for their
By the late 20s radio advertising had advanced in a dramatic way. It was now dominated by advertising agencies who
took control of the schedules by buying the available air time those valuable minutes and hours during which they
could reach the public and selling it to their customers. They also handled the creative aspects of the commercials and
programmes. (-----2-----) These efforts paved the way for the birth of television advertising that would begin in a few more
Television advertising didn't really take hold until the late 1940s. As television was totally new offering both sound and
moving pictures the advertising industry moved into this area cautiously as they were not sure what methods would
work best to promote their clients products on television. (-----3-----) Or perhaps it was a case of taking an entirely new
approach to reach the television audiences in a meaningful and effective manner.
After many surveys, the advertising agencies determined that the most effective way to reach consumers with a strong
message would be by creating shows that featured a single product or a line of products from a single company. From

this idea came the typical television shows of the 1950s, including such titles as Kraft Television Theater and Colgate
Comedy Hour. As with radio, these television programmes were produced by advertising agencies for their clients, rather
than the studios as is normal practice today.
This practice worked really well for the clients for a while. But as the television gained more popularity and there were
more people watching it, the television networks were raising the costs of doing business. This pressure connected with
the cost of delivering a production through television forced a massive change in the relationship of all the parties
involved. (-----4-----)
NBC executive Sylvester L. "Pat" Weaver came up a with a solution that would work and would also be very favourable
to the networks. He introduced the "magazine concept" of television advertising. In this arrangement, the sponsors would
purchase blocks of time (typically one to two minutes) in a show rather than be a sponsor for an entire show. This idea
would allow a variety of sponsors up to four was the number imagined for a show. Like a magazine, the networks
would now control the content as no one advertiser would "own" a particular show.
By 1960, the magazine concept dominated television advertising, as it has ever since. Instead of relying on audience
identification with a specific show, sponsors now spread their messages across the schedule in an effort to reach as
many consumers as possible. Being able to reach a broader segment of the population proved to be very effective for
the sponsors.
More than 30 years later, online advertising came onto the scene. (-----5-----) Another is the efficiency of the advertiser's
investment. Online advertising allows for the customization of advertisements, including content and posted websites.
Many people find advertisements annoying, complaining that they interrupt their enjoyment of a television programme for
example. But perhaps we should appreciate the long way they have come since the 1920s.
A One major benefit of this type of advertising is the immediate publishing of information and content
that is not limited by geography or time.
B A solution had to be found if this very powerful advertising medium was to continue to be financially
possible for the sponsors.
C This idea was originally resisted but after a bit of experimentation, they found that this method would
work well for packaged-goods.
D This was a ten-minute advertisement for suburban apartment housing.
E Should it still be treated as radio advertising but with pictures thrown in?
F In fact, they even created entire series that were designed to sell one product or another.

PART 2: Read the article. For questions 1-5, choose the correct answer (A, B, C, or D).

Finding the past

Few hobbies combine collecting Roman artefacts, medieval coins, and discovering bodies. But the
very British hobby of mudlarking is making a comeback.
Mudlarking is a pastime that has become more popular in the last few years in London. It involves
going to the River Thames at low tide and digging in the mud for valuable objects. A person who
goes mudlarking is called a mudlark.
Mudlarking has its origins in 18th-century London. But in those days, it wasnt a hobby at all. It was
actually a way for many children and those too old to be employed to survive. This was at a
time when there were hardly any bridges crossing the river, so most people caught boats across.
Getting on and off the boats, people dropped things. These were then found by mudlarks, the
poorest level of society, who sold them to earn money, which would hopefully be just enough for a
Steve Brooker is a modern-day mudlark and hes had this unusual hobby for 30 years. Hes found
everything from glass bottles and clay pots, to coins dating from Roman times right up to the
present day. He says he has found many extraordinary things, but finding a human skeleton was
particularly terrifying. He later found out the bones were 300 years old, but even so, its an
experience he is happy he hasnt repeated.
Steve often goes to the river near where he lives, but on the day I met him, he accompanied me in
my boat to the east of the city. Steve was excited because he hadnt had a boat for a few years,
and this meant he could reach an area where he hadnt been for some time. Getting caught out by
the tide is a real danger, Steve explains. He advises us, as he does with anyone he guides on the
river, to watch for the water level and always have an escape route. We appear to be ok and our
boat is our way on and off the Blackwall foreshore.
Apart from a permit, the only tools required for mudlarking are a bucket and something to dig with.
At 25C, we are lucky with the weather, but even on rainy days, keen mudlarks can be found by the
waters edge. Every day, as the water level rises and falls it moves objects in the mud, explains
Steve. So its possible to find really good things any time of the year. Steve quickly fills his bucket
with coins, Victorian pipes, old keys, and even a jar that he says came from an old food factory that
used to be nearby. He knows exactly where to look and hardly digs down at all. After an hour, his
top object is a metal toy from the 1800s. Much of what he finds goes to local museums. Thats
what anyone who goes mudlarking usually does, says Steve.
Steve explains why the river mud holds such treasure. It is anaerobic, which means it doesnt hold
air. Therefore, anything in it stays in great condition, he says. Once they are opened up to the air,
however, their condition starts to break down, so mudlarking is all about keeping things that would
otherwise fall to pieces.


In 18th-century London, mudlarking ...

was popular with restaurant staff.
was normally done by boat owners.
was a common hobby for young people.
was a way for some elderly people to get money.


What does the author say about Steve Brooker?

He plans to give up this hobby soon.
He hopes he will find more coins soon.
He found coins used in only one period of history.
He discovered a persons bones while mudlarking.


What advice does Steve offer other mudlarks?

Its a good idea to get a boat.
Its best to go mudlarking on all parts of the river.
They need to have a plan for when things go wrong.
They should travel up the river at different times of day.


Steve says that success at mudlarking is linked to ...

the length of time you spend doing it.
the weather on the day you do it.
the tools you use to do it.
the location you do it in.


Most modern mudlarks ...

keep what they find.
wash what they find and then sell it.
give what they find to somebody else.
hold on to what they find for some time and sell it later on.

2 Match five of the UNDERLINED words / phrases to the definitions.

Example: the structure of bones in a person skeleton

to be in a very bad condition

returning to popularity
a type of earth that becomes heavy when it is baked and used to make things
worth a lot of money
unexpected or strange

1 1D

1 1


2 1

fall to pieces
making a comeback