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Petroleum Technical Training Institute Khairpur Mirs

Organic Chemistry
[CHT-244]

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Chapter # 01
Getting Started
Organic chemistry is all around us. All organic compounds contain the element carbon. More
than 10 million organic compounds are known today.
There are two main classes of chemical compounds, inorganic and organic. More than a
century ago all substances then known are classified on the basis of source from which they
were derived. The compounds which were mineral origin were known as Inorganic and
those of vegetable or animals origin were called Organic. For example tablet salt, marble
etc. whereas acetic acid (from vinegar), alcohol (from wine), tartaric acid (from grapes),
citric acid (from lemons) and sucrose (from sugarcane) were organic.
It was assumed that organic compounds could be produced only by living matter, for living
matter was thought to possess a Vital force. As long as this concept prevailed no effort was
made to produce organic compounds in the laboratory, and the Vital force theory long went
unchallenged.
In 1828, the German chemist wholer heat ammonium cynate, derived from inorganic
substances, and obtained the organic compound compound urea.

Definition of Organic Chemistry:


organic chemistry is that branch of chemistry which deals with the study of compounds of
carbon and hydrogen (hydrocarbon) and their derivatives
Some features of organic compounds.
1. Peculiar nature of carbon
Carbon forms a large number of compounds. There are millions of organic compounds.
The main reason for such a large number of compounds is its unique property of linking
with other carbon atoms to form long chains or rings. This self linking property of carbon
is called Catenation.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Non-Ionic character of organic compounds


Complexity of organic compounds
They shows isomerism
Slow rate of reaction

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Compiled by:
Muhammad Shakaib Qureshi

Petroleum Technical Training Institute Khairpur Mirs

Organic Chemistry
[CHT-244]

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6. Insoluble in water
Classification of Organic Chemistry

Alkane;
An alkane, or paraffin is a saturated hydrocarbon. Alkanes consist only of
hydrogen and carbon atoms, all bonds are single bonds, and the carbon atoms are not
joined in cyclic structures but instead form an open chain. They have the general chemical
formula CnH2n+2.
Alkene:
An alkene, olefin, or olefine is an unsaturated chemical compound containing
at least one carboncarbon double bond. The simplest acyclic alkenes, with only one double
bond and no other functional groups, known as mono-enes, form a homologous series of
hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n
Alkynes:
An alkyne is an unsaturated hydrocarbon which has at least one carbon
carbon triple bond between two carbon atoms. The simplest acyclic alkynes with only one

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Compiled by:
Muhammad Shakaib Qureshi

Petroleum Technical Training Institute Khairpur Mirs

Organic Chemistry
[CHT-244]

_____________________________________________________________________________________

triple bond and no other functional groups form a homologous series with the general
chemical formula CnH2n-2.
Aromatics: The term aromatics compounds stands for the whole series of compounds
which contain one or more benzene rings in their molecule. With the introduction of the
new name of Arenes for all aromatics hydrocarbons (Benzene, naphthalene, Anthracene,
etc) the precise definition of aromatics compounds is Arenes and their derivatives.

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Compiled by:
Muhammad Shakaib Qureshi

Petroleum Technical Training Institute Khairpur Mirs

Organic Chemistry
[CHT-244]

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Functional Group
It is defined as a particular atom or a group of atoms which is responsible for the properties
of
compound
where
it
is
present
or
A functional group is an atom or group of atoms in a molecule that gives the molecule its
characteristics chemical properties

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Compiled by:
Muhammad Shakaib Qureshi

Petroleum Technical Training Institute Khairpur Mirs

Organic Chemistry
[CHT-244]

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Difference between organic and inorganic properties


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Organic
Low melting point
Low boiling point
Low solubility in water, high solubility
in non-polar solvent
Flammable
Solutions are non conductors of
electricity
Exhibit covalent bond
Exhibit isomerism

8. Chemical reaction are slow

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Inorganic
High melting point
High boiling point
High solubility in water, low solubility
in non-polar solvent
Nonflammable
Solutions are conductors of electricity

6. Exhibit ionic bonding


7. Isomers are limited to few exception
(e.g transition elements)
8. Chemical reaction are fast

Source of Organic Compound


Historically, has be mentioned, all organic compounds at one time came from plants or
animals. Many of our most important substances are still derived from these source directly
or indirectly.
1. Plant and animals; Many organic compounds are obtained directly from plant and
animals source by suitable methods of isolation. A few examples are
a. Carbohydrate (cellulose, sugars, starch)
b. Proteins (silk, wool, casein, food protien)
c. Fats and oils (cottonseed, soyabean oils)
d. Vitamins, flavor, resins etc
2. Natural gas and Petroleum; It is the major source of organic compounds, these are
mainly used as a fuel, and also synthetic organic compounds which we use in our
daily life.
3. Coal; Coal is another major source of organic compounds. It yields coke and coal tar
on pyrolysis or destructive distillation. More than 200 organic compounds have been
directly isolated from coal tar.
4. Fermentation;
Fermentation is defined as ythe production of chemicals by the
action of micro organisms. By employing appropriate organisms hosts of useful
substances are produced including alcohols, acids, vitamins and antibodies.
5. Synthesis:
Simple organic compounds derived from petroleum, or coal have been
converted into thousands of useful materials by synthetic methods. Synthetic
materials are dyes, rubber, fibers, plastics, drugs, papers etc.

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Compiled by:
Muhammad Shakaib Qureshi

Petroleum Technical Training Institute Khairpur Mirs

Organic Chemistry
[CHT-244]

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Application of Organic compounds


1.Preservatives - citric acid, sodium benzoate are only two of many.
2.Drugs, including antibiotics - aspirin, acetaminophen, prozac, birth control, etc. are ALL
organic
molecules.
3.Plastics - the building blocks that compose plastic are organic molecules, and plastics are
long,
long
chains
of
organic
molecules
linked
together.
4.Flavorings in food - what we taste are the organic compounds interacting with our taste
buds.
5.Scents - perfumes and food - anything we detect with our nose is an organic compound
interacting
with
receptors
in
our
nose
6.Fuel - gasoline for cars and oil for their engines are both organic compounds.
7.Pesticides - most pesticides are organic molecules that have neurotoxic properties to
insects.
8.Food coloring and color - organic molecules are the cause of color in food colorings
9.Vitamins - vitamins are organic molecules. Usually we need them because they help our
body do the chemical reactions it needs to do and contributes to the building blocks that our
cells
and
parts
need
to
stay
healthy.
10.Cosmetics - look at the label of any makeup or nail product - all those compounds are
organic compounds most of the time, mostly (mica and titanium dioxide are examples of
things that are not organic).

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Compiled by:
Muhammad Shakaib Qureshi