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# Structures 2

## Hibbeler book chapters to do:

Chapter 5 Torsion
[Chapter 6 Bending (revision)]
Chapter 7 Transverse Shear
Chapter 9 Stress Transformation
Chapter 10 Strain Transformation
Chapter 14 Energy Methods

Lecture Questions:
Chapter 4 (Torsion):
Look at Aircraft Structures book for torsion of multicell thin walled sections
Done: Q1-9
Gone Wrong:
Q3 Always remember when to round up or to round down your answers.
Especially in the case of torsion it is important to sometimes round down your
Q5 I am getting an answer of 1.77
Q6 When drawing shear flow distribution show the arrows of the shear flow too
When the question mentions the length of a thin section this the longitudinal
length L rather than the perimeter of the cross section.

You always forget to square the area in the calculation of polar moment of

inertia.

You made the mistake of subtracting the shear stresses 1 and 2 to find the shear
stress in the middle vertical web. In fact it was necessary to subtract the shear
flows 1 and 2 and to then divide the result by 2.5mm to get the shear stress in
the middle web.
You also took the torque value as being 10 to the 3 while actually it was 10 times
10 to the 3 (i.e. 10 to the 4 in total)
The answer for the angle of twist given below seems to be wrong. It seems to be
twice the actual value (the person forgot the half the answer at the end)
http://14.139.172.204/nptel/CSE/Web/105108070/module7/lecture16.pdf

## Principal stresses and maximum shear stress:

The maximum and minimum normal stress are called principal stresses.
The angle P defines the orientation of the principal planes, that is, the
planes on which the principal stress act.
No shear stress acts on the principal planes.
The planes of maximum shear stress occur at 45 to the principal axes.
The maximum shear stress is one-half the difference of the principle
shear stresses.

## Hibbeler Mechanics of Materials:

Pg 387 F7.6, F7.7
Pg 404 Q7-70 (you got half the original answer)
The shear centre is the point through which a force can be applied which will
cause a beam to bend and yet not twist. The shear centre will always lie on an
axis of symmetry of the cross section.
Pg425
P8-1 (forces produce bending moment about the centroid, no need for similar
trinagles or the like)

Pg 519 you forgot to put negative signs for all your answers:

10.55 couldnt do

Torsion:

From http://nguyen.hong.hai.free.fr/EBOOKS/SCIENCE%20AND
%20ENGINEERING/MECANIQUE/MATERIAUX/Mechanics%20of
%20Materials.rar_FILES/Mechanics%20of%20Materials/Volume
%202/32666_05.pdf

The shear flow measures the force per unit length along the tubes crosssectional area.
The applied torque causes the shear flow and the average stress to always be
directed tangent to the wall of the tube, such that it contributes to the resultant
internal torque T.
For torsion of thin-walled closed sections look at Hibbeler book, pg228 onwards
Do example, 5.11, 5.12,
Example 5.12 really tests your understanding of this topic!

## LOOK VERY CAREFUL AT THE DIRECTION AND ORIENTATION OF THE SHEAR

STRESSES INDUCED BY AN APPLIED TORQUE BELOW:

Hibbeler
Questions
Chapter 7 Transverse Shear (Hibbeler 8th edition):
Done: F7.1 F7.5, Q7.1 Q7.16 (Need to do review questions!!!)
Q7.3 is a good question (you did this correctly)
Q7.5 is a good question (when integrating for area, always put limits that agree
with the positive convention for the y and x axes)
Q7.9 is a very good question
Got Wrong:
Example 7.1 pg 367
F7.1 You needed to work out the first moment of area and thickness of one
flange only (THIS IS A VERY IMPORTANT CONCEPT!)
F7.2 This question got you real bad (You should know that the maximum shear
stress need not be positive, so when you draw the shear force diagram look at
the point with the highest amplitude to work out the maximum shear stress)
F7.5 You made a mistake in calculating the second moment of area
Q7.1 You took the wrong thickness (you took the top thickness which is incorrect)
Q7.4 (Minor mistake)
Q7.6 (For a point below the neutral axis, take the moment of area below the
section of the interest)
Q7.8
Q7.12 Look at solution. This is how you are supposed to present shear stress
distribution across a cross-section (focus particularly on the equation of the
curve given)
Q7.13 and Q7.14 (You calculated the second moment of area and the first
moment of area incorrectly)

## Q7.15 Lovely Question

Q7.16 You got wrecked mate

Done: F8.1 F8.8, 8.18 8.30, 8.36, 8.37, 8.48, 8.57 8.58
8.26
Got Wrong:
F8.1
F8.2 (Remember that when the point is under the neutral axis then use Q for
bottom section of the component)
F8.3 (You calculated the shear force, bending moment, and Q incorrectly)
F8.4 This totally confused me!!!
F8.6 Boss Question (Note that the 1500N force induces a shear force, torsional
moment and bending moment!!!)
F8.7 Why was the difference of the two shear stresses taken and not the sum???
8.18
8.24
8.29
8.32
8.36
8.37 (Why do the shear stresses add up? It does not make sense)

## Chapter 9 Stress Transformation (Hibbeler 8th edition):

Done: F9.1-F9.6, F9.7-F9.11, Q9.51 - 9.58, Q9.78, Q9.84 Q9.94 (Need to do
review questions!!!)
Got Wrong:
F9.3 (Forgot to halve angle)
F9.5 (You did not mention the second principal stress, i.e. the algebraically
smaller principal stress is equal to 0 MPa)
F9.6 (I need to revise bending of beams because the shear force and bending
moment that I calculated for point C were incorrect)
Example 9.9 pg 467 of book
F9.10 (You calculated the normal stress wrong, i.e. made a minor mistake, and
you calculated the shear stress wrong because you calculated the wrong value of
the first moment of area Q which was supposed to be for the top section not the
bottom one)
Q9.51
Q9.92, Lovely Question as it teaches you how to use the sign for shear stresses
induced by shear forces (the direction of the shear stress is the same as that for
the point load rather than the shear force)

## Chapter 10 Strain Transformation (Hibbeler 8th edition):

Done: Q10.1 10.10 (Need to do review questions!!!), Q10.22 - , Q10.64
Q10.81, 10.32 10.58
53 AND 54 TO DO!
10.45 Is a very nice concept question.
Got Wrong: Q10.1 - 10.5
Q10.4 (You drew the angle for the last part wrong; remember that the positive
value of shear strain means that the angle between x1 and y1 decreases)
Q10.5
Q10.24
Q10.25
10.39
10.40
10.41 BOSS QUESTION!
10.43 You calculated I incorrectly
10.46
10.48 BOSS EQUATION
10.49
10.55 LOVELY QUESTION! NEED TO LEARN HOW TO DO THIS!!!
10.56
10.57 Very nice question
10.53
10.54 Beautiful!
Q.10.71 You should mention something like Based on this result, the steel shell
does not yield according to the maximum shear stress theory
Q10.75 Very nice question
Q10.76

## Principal stresses and principal strains

occur in the same directions.
Ductile materials fail in shear, and here the maximum-shear-stress theory or
the maximum-distortion-energy theory can be used to predict failure. Both of
these theories make comparison to the yield stress of a specimen subjected to

## a uniaxial tensile stress. Brittle materials fail in tension or compression,

and so the maximum-normal-stress theory (or Mohrs failure criterion) can be
used to predict failure. Here comparisons are made with the ultimate tensile
(or compressive) stress developed in a specimen.

## Chapter 14 Energy Methods (Hibbeler 8th edition):

Done: 14.3 14.5, 14.10 - 14.14, 14.19,
Not done: 14.6, 14.7, 14.13
Got Wrong: 14.3, 14.4, 14.5