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Very Costly

Does not require much timbering or supports

Extreme care required in carrying out the work

Over cutting of the section is to be avoided

Allows tunneling operations to be carried out

at many sections along the tunnel length

Construction of Shafts

Transferring C/L to the inside of tunnel

Deciding method of excavation

Setting up and drilling holes for blasting

Filling up of explosives

Carrying out the blasting operations

Providing ventilation and removing dust after


Carting muck at suitable place outside tunnel

Pumping and removing groundwater

Providing supports inside tunnel

Lining of tunnel

Opening tunnel for use

System of vertical shafts

On tunnel line, at suitable points, shafts are sunk.
n shafts
(2n + 2) faces of attack
System of Pilot Tunnels
lateral or horizontal approach shorter compared to
deep vertical shafts
Small size tunnel called plot tunnel driven parallel
and close to proposed tunnel and short cross
connecting tunnels to reach proposed main tunnel

Cross Headings convenient places to store

tools and materials during construction

Less costly than shaft

Avoids dislocation of strata at sides of tunnels

After work completion, cross headings can be

used for repairs and maintenance

Means of artificial ventilation by use of fans

Drift Method

Heading and Bench Method

Full Face Method

Cantilever car dump Method

Consists of driving small

sized heading , centrally at
top or bottom of face , which
is enlarged by widening and
Top drift method- popular
Boring or blasting a top centre
heading of drift end to end
Widening & Enlarging
Benching in stages

Drift 2m x 3m size is driven end to

end of tunnel

As heading proceeds, C/L is checked

and marked on iron dogs fixed on

Widening is commenced by blasting

sides of drift

Completes top heading

Benching is carried out in stages and

lowered down to grade in a series of
sloping and horizontal cuts

Supporting platforms not required for drilling


During heading, mucking work goes on


Small preliminary section for full length driven

and so economization of excavation work

Good ventilation for workers

Enlargement work only after central hole is

constructed for full length

As enlarging and benching commences,

mucking trucks have to shifted frequently from
bench to bench - costly

Central Drift time consuming but provides

good ventilation, requires less quantity of power.

Side Drift used for tunneling work of large

tunnels in bad ground

Bottom Drift Platforms can be avoided

Involves driving of top

portion of tunnel in
advance of the bottom
Hard and self supporting
Top heading
proceeds one round over
the bottom
Heading is always ahead of
Less explosive compared to
full face method

Adopted for tunnels of small C/s area diameter < 6m & face areas < 19 m2 through stable and self supporting rocks

Full face is opened out once for all and driven

Extra units of tunneling equipment necessary

TBMs well suited for full face excavation

Simplicity of operation
Minimizes total magnitude of ground
disturbance and settlement
Work completed easily and speedily
Advantage in sensitive ground conditions
where multi- phase excavation could generate
unacceptable ground pressure and settlement
Mucking trucks could laid on tunnel floor

Improved arrangement of throwing muck from

bench to floor of tunnel

2 plate girders fixed at 1.80 m centre to centre

Belt Conveyor runs on the plate girders

Ends of plate girders project beyond full face of


Front ends of girders supported by means of

struts from top of tunnel

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