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Coatings and their applications

in textiles
G. Buyle MIICS 2012

Textiles various applications

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Outline





Introduction Centexbel
Basic textile coating
Advanced coating techniques
Examples of applications

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Acknowledgements
 Research at Centexbel on topic smart
textiles enabled via several research
projects
 Acknowledgement of the funding agencies
on different levels:
 Regional: IWT
 National: BELSPO
 European: FP6 and FP7 programmes

 Acknowledgement of the numerous


partners (both from academia and
industry) worked with in these projects
G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Outline





Introduction Centexbel
Basic textile coating
Advanced coating techniques
Examples of applications

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Centexbel: centre of competence


 collective research and technical centre
 membership organisation
 Belgian textile companies
 associated (international) member companies and
organisations

 staff
 140 skilled and highly educated men and women

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Research groups
 Three domains:
 Functional thermoplastic textiles: compounding, extrusion, (bio)
polymers, nano-additives, textile reinforced composites,
 Textile functionalisation and surface modification: coating &
finishing, sol gel, plasma treatment, lamination, hot melt,
 Health, safety & security: medical and bio-functional textiles, smart
textiles, thermo-physiological comfort,

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

textile functionalisation and


surface modification

 Coating, finishing and surface modification for new and superior


functional performance
 textiles with multifunctional properties
 modifying textile surfaces using coating, plasma functionalisation, UV
curing, hot melt, sol gel,
 new sustainable technologies
G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Testing laboratories
Laboratories (ISO 17025 accredited):
 Physical:
 E.g. breathability, outdoor ageing

 Chemical:
 E.g. chemical analysis, microscopy

 Microbiological:
 E.g. antimicrobial effect, biodegradability

 Fire:
 E.g. burning behaviour, smoke toxicity

Centexbel is recognized by large distribution companies,


consumers associations, OEMs,
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(pre-)standardisation

 Active participation/leading role in


standardisation committees (CEN & ISO)
 Sector operator
Centexbel leads
 Mirror committees
WG31 Smart Textiles
(in CEN TC248)
G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Outline





Introduction Centexbel
Basic textile coating
Advanced coating techniques
Examples of applications

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Vision: textile as flexible carrier for


offering specific functionalisation(s)
Light Reflection
Fire Retardant
Biocompatible
Anti abrasion
Breathable
Self cleaning
Water repellency
Fragrance release
Electrically conductive
Thermal insulation
Antibacterial
Bioresponsive
G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Three levels of coating fabrics


Fabric
level

Traditional
coating

Yarn
level
Filament/
fibre
level
G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Advanced
techniques
e.g. plasma
coating

Materials
 Textile coating typically
comprises 2 parts:

Example nanoparticles
for textile coating

 Binder for durability


(washing, abrasion)
 Additives for functionality

 Materials for binder:


 Polyacrylate
 Polyurethane
 Polyvinylchloride
G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

NP
Matrix/binder

Example: lamination of membrane


in-between two textile fabrics
Knitted fabric
Coating
Membrane
Coating
Woven fabric

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Example:
Fire Retardant coating for carpet

Coating application
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Carpet coating analysis


via XRF mapping
Carpet structure

FR additives

Ti

Sb

Br

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Example:
PVC coated polyester fabric
Textile architecture

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Tarpaulins for trucks

Classical techniques:
 Wet techniques:
 Formulation: solvent or water based
 Application unit: padding/ immersion,
knife coating, transfer coating, foam
coating,
 Typical add-on: 20-50g/m2

 Multitude of advantages:
 Robust
 Large scale
 Relatively simple equipment
G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Immersion

Mayer bar

Classical techniques:
typical coating line

 Wet technique need for ovens energy issue


 Long only profitable for large batches

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Search for novel techniques because


of drawbacks/limitations
 Drivers:
 Economy:
 ability to run smaller production batch sizes digital
 reduce energy use dry techniques
 Performance:
 minimal thickness or add-on
 accuracy, uniformity
 Ecology:
 more healthy products (e.g. prevention of phthalates)
 use of bio-based and/or bio-degradable
G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Hot melt: basics




Hot melt:






100% system
(granulates, blocks,)
Melting of the polymer
Application as melt
Solidifying Coating
Materials: PE, PP, PES, PA,
EVA, TPU, silicone
Source: www.robatech.com

Two main groups (curing based):





Thermoplastic hot melts:


 Solidifying via cooling
Reactive hot melts:
 Solidifying via cooling + drying or UV irradiation

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

UV curable coatings
IR source

IR

UV

UV source

Textile
substrate

Coating
application
Curing
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Polyolefine-coatings (1/2)
 POD = polyolefine dispersion in water, suitable
for standard application techniques

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Source: Dow

Polyolefine-coatings (2/2)
 PODs have unique advantages:
 Solvent-free solution
 High solid content (typically 40 to 55 wt%)
 Functionalisation possible

 Functionalisation:
 Possible to mix in active components
 Examples: FR, antimicrobial, conductive

 Goal: replace some of the PVC


applications (prevention of phthalates)
G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Outline





Introduction Centexbel
Basic textile coating
Advanced coating techniques
Examples of applications

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Advanced coating techniques







ALD
Evaporation
Magnetron sputtering
Atmospheric Plasma coating

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

ALD technique - introduction


 Deposition via ALD:
 Atomic Layer Deposition
 Process at low pressures
(in vacuum chamber)
highly conformal coatings

Standard
technique

ALD
technique

 Advantages for textile:


 Example: ALD deposition on cotton fibres
Extremely high conformality
Possibility to have anti-corrosion layer

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Cross section: cotton fibre with ALD coating


Source: Hyde et al.

ALD deposition into


non woven substrate
 Example*: ALD deposition on non woven (NW):
 Al-oxide (Al2O3) deposition
 PES NW cube dimensions: side = 3.5cm
 XPS analysis: penetration of coating ?

Outside

Inside

Deposition is uniform throughout the sample


G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

* TMMETACEL, in collaboration with UGent - www.ald.ugent.be

Advanced coating techniques







ALD
Evaporation
Magnetron sputtering
Atmospheric Plasma coating

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Evaporation for textiles


 Evaporation is feasible on textile
 Use of existing (large scale)
equipment
 Offered via toll manufacturing
 Applications:
 UV and/ or IR reflection layers
 Conductive layers
 Antimicrobial layers


G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Source: Alupa

Advanced coating techniques







ALD
Evaporation
Magnetron sputtering
Atmospheric Plasma coating

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Magnetron sputtering on textile


 Commercially available: silver
coated PA monofilament
 Use:
 Textile electrodes
 Antimicrobial textile

 But cost factor !!!

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Bron: Tersuisse Multifils

Most Luxurious Necktie Ever ? ...


Retailing at 7,500 Swiss francs (or roughly $8,450) apiece, each tie will comprise
8 grams of 24-karat gold,

Gold coated silk

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Source: www.ecouterre.com

Advanced coating techniques







ALD
Evaporation
Magnetron sputtering
Atmospheric Plasma coating

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Atmospheric plasma coating


Plasma source
Precursor
Plasma

Textile substrate
 Plasma + Precursor (chosen according to the desired properties)
 Coating possible permanent change of the surface properties
 Crucial: interaction between precursor, substrate and plasma
G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Atmospheric plasma coating


equipment*

 Key properties:
 For wide substrates (up to 40 cm)
 Corona + possibility to add liquid precursor
G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

* Available through cooperation with Univ. College Ghent

Example: surface analysis


antimicrobial coating
 XPS and ToF-SIMS chemical composition
Size = 5x5mm2, color = specific for chemical group, PES fabric

Untreated

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Badly treated

Uniformly treated

Outline





Introduction Centexbel
Basic textile coating
Advanced coating techniques
Examples of applications

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Electrical conductivity: integration of


carbon nanotubes in textile coatings
 Acrylic based coating with increasing CNT content:

Resistivity (Ohm)

 Highly flexible textile coatings


 Conductivity starts at 4 wt% CNT, resistivity down to 60 (!)
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

wt % CNT

10

SEM pictures: coated fibre with well


distributed CNT network

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Application: Integration
of solar cells in textile
 Solar cells require
(highly) conductive
layers
 Potential application:
directly coating on
textile materials
 e.g. tents, screens,
backpacks, garments

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Coated fabric

Flexible textile
solar cell

Application: conductive yarn via CNT,


used in antistatic fabrics

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Patent pending
(EP2011002735)

Antistatic fabric

Self Healing properties


 Several principles exist for reaching self-healing
(mixing of substances when crack/scratch appears)
 Own development for textile:
Freshly scratched

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

After self-healing

Abrasion resistance via


sol-gel chemistry for textiles
 Characteristics:
 Existing technology for coating on
glass surfaces
 Sustainable layers of eg. Si-O-Si
(~glass)
 Adapted to textiles
(lower curing temperature)
 Nano-porous surface,
thickness ca. 100nm
Superior abrasion properties !
G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Abrasion test
Reference

Sol gel

Bioresponsive coatings
 Smart dressings for burn wounds: the wound dressing
releases antimicrobials when needed and signals an
(upcoming) infection via dye release
1.

2.

Stabilised nanocapsules
containing "switched off"
dye and antimicrobial

3.

Pathogenic bacteria
release toxins and
enzymes opening
of nanocapsules shell

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Nanocapsules release
signaling molecules
and antimicrobials

Development of PV cells and


batteries at fibre level

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Summary
 (Coated) Textiles have a broad range of applications.
 Both for garments and for technical textiles
 Coating enables textile as flexible functionality carrier
 The classical techniques dominate.
 Relatively simple, reliable, large scale
 Continuous search for novel methods, materials and
applications.
 Methods: energy consumption , accuracy
 Materials: bio-, nano-
 Applications: electrical conductive, bioresponsive,

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314

Contact
Contact info:
Guy Buyle
Centexbel
Technologiepark 7
9052 Zwijnaarde
BELGIUM
www.centexbel.be
Tel: +32 9 220 41 51
Fax: +32 9 220 49 55
Guy.Buyle@centexbel.be
G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314