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Prescribed by National Curriculum and Textbook Board as a

Textbook (Bangla version) for Class Three from 2004,


English version of the book from academic year 2007

Introduction to Environment :
Social Studies
Class Three

Written and edited by :


Professor Kazi Modina
Abdul Malek
Selina Akter

Meher Moriam
Mohammad Abdul Zabber

Translated by :
Professor Yasmin Ahmed Professor Mariam Begum

National Curriculum and Textbook Board, Dhaka

Published by
National Curriculum and Textbook Board
69-70, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka-1000

[ All rights reserved by the Publisher ]


Is permitted to print and sell 1600 (One thousand Six hundred)
Copies of the book for the year 2009 Only. Circular No. 317 Date: 15/12/08
Allotment letter No. 717/08/07 Date: 23/02/09
Anmon New Offset Press, 38, Banglabazar, Dhaka-1100
First Print (Bangla version) : November 2003 [Trial Edition]
1st print (English version) : February 2007
[ "
" ]
Reprint (English version) : March 2008
[ "
" ]
Reprint (English version) : April 2009
[ "
" ]

Computer Compose & Positive


Perform Color Graphics (Pvt.) Ltd.

Cover & Illustrations


Biren Shorn
Picture Coloured by
Ahmed Ullah
Printing Supervision
Kamrun Nahar
Design
National Curriculum and Textbook Board

Website version developed by Mars Solutions Limited

Preface
For improving the existing quality of Primary Education in Bangladesh, National
Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB) in collaboration with PEDP-2 initiated an
extensive program for development of curriculum and teaching learning materials in
2002. In the light of this program the curriculum, textbooks and other teaching
learning materials of Primary levels have been prepared, revised and evaluated.
The textbook entitled, 'Introduction to Environment: Social Studies' has been prepared
on the basis of attainable competencies for the students of Class Three. The subject
matter of the textbook is derived from the basic elements of the environment familiar
to the children. This will facilitate our young learners to know how they can make
best use of the environment and also preserve it properly.
The contents of the book are analyzed and explained in such a manner with practical
1
examples, illustrations and system of planned activities, that students are inspired to
study the subject with a keen interest.
This book is originally published in Bangla. From 2007 NCTB is publishing the
English version of the textbook. English is the language of choice in today's
globalized world. To facilitate the verbal and written communication skills of our
future citizens and suitably prepare them for international competition, we decided to
translate the original Bangla textbooks into English. It's pleasant to note that the
number of English medium schools in Bangladesh is increasing very fast. In this
context NCTB decided to publish all the textbooks of Primary level in English. This
was a big endeavour for us. Despite our all efforts the textbook may not be totally
error free. However, in the future editions we shall try to remove all errors and
discrepancies.
Finally, I would like to express my heartfelt thanks and gratitude to those who have
made their valuable contributions in writing, editing, evaluating and translating this
book. I sincerely hope that the book will be useful to those for whom it has been
prepared.

Prof. Md. Mostofa Kamaluddin


Chairman
National Curriculum & Textbook Board, Dhaka

Contents
Chapter

Subject Matter

Page

One

Our Environment

Two

We are all Human Beings

Three

Our Work in The Family and School

Four

Rules and Disciplines in The Family

19

and School

27

33

Five

Our Country

Six

The Geographical Environment of


Bangladesh

47

Seven

Our Wealth

53

Eight

Our Rights and Duties

61

Nine

Dignity of Labour

71

Ten

Democratic Attitude

80

Eleven

Different Culture/of Different peoples

86

Twelve

Population of Bangladesh
its Increase and Problem

92

Chapter One

Our Environment
What is Environment?
Let us see what social elements are around us. Man has made
houses, buildings, roads, shops, schools,
playgrounds,
mosques, temples, pagodas and churches. Those elements of
the environment made and controlled by man make our social
environment.

Elements of Environment
Elements of environment are everything that exists in the
environment. We see many things around us. Are they all
made by man? No, many of them are not man-made. They are
given to us by nature. Let us write in the table below names of
element which are man-made and which are given to us by
nature.
Gifts of Nature

Man-made things

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.

4.

Different Forms of Environment


We can classify environment into two group:
1. Natural Environment
2. Social Environment. Trees, earth, water, air, etc., are
Natural Environment.

Introduction to Environment: Social Studies

Let us see what are social elements of environment and what


are the Elements made by man.
Man has made houses, schools, playgrounds, mosques,
temples, ponds, roads etc. These are also elements of our
environment. The elements made and controlled by man make
our social environment. Let us write the names of social and
natural elements environment in the table below.
Social elements of environment

Natural elements of environment

1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.
Our house is a very common element of social environment
Usually there are several rooms in a house, for example, living
room, a bedroom, a dinning room, a studyroom, a kitchen,
toilets, etc. Each room is used for each purpose.

Picture 1: House

We ask our guests to sit in the living room. We chat with


them. We sleep in our bed room and eat in the dinning room.
We cook in the kitchen. We have a bath in the bathroom. We
also use toilets.
We study in our schools. We learn many things from our
teachers. We spend a long time in school. During the interval
between studies in school, we also play different kinds of
games.

Picture 2: School

Every afternoon we play in the field. Playing games makes us


cheerful. It removes diseases and keeps us healthy.

Picture 3: Playground

Roads are a made of communication. We go from one house


to another by road. We go to school as well as visit others by
road. We also go to market by road. We will take care of them
and keep them neat and clean for our healthy and beautiful
life.

Picture 4: Road

Let us write about how different elements of social


environment are used in the table below.
House
School
Road
Playground

Environment Pollution
If the environment of our house is dirty, we suffer from poor
health. If the classrooms of the school remain unclean, it
causes illness. If there are holes in the playground or if the
field is uneven, we will fall and get hurt. If the road is dirty,
the bad smell of wastes will make us sick. Therefore, if our

environment gets polluted in any way, it will be harmful for


our life and for our health. To destroy environment in this way
is called environment pollution.
If the waste is gathered inside or outside our house, the bad
smell of the waste pollutes our environment. If the toilet of our
house is not properly cleaned, it pollutes the environment.
If there are ditches and stagnant water around our houses, it
breeds mosquitoes and flies. Mosquitoes and flies spread
various diseases. In addition, the environment of the house
gets polluted.
Coughing and spitting on the road, while walking, makes the
road dirty. Throwing banana peels and shells of nuts etc also
makes the road dirty. Sometimes bricks and sand are kept on
the roadside to build houses. As a result, roads become
narrow. People face difficulties to walk. In this way, the
environment of roads gets spoilt.
If we make an unnecessary noise in the school, it disturbs
schoolwork. The environment of the school gets spoilt if
people use loudspeakers and blow horns of vehicles loudly in
the neighbourhood.
Dumping wastes in the playground creates problems for
children when they play. If the cows and goats excrete on the
playground it pollute its environment.
Let us write about how the different elements of social
environment are polluted in the table below.

House
School
Road
Playground
Environment pollution is one of the main problems in
Bangladesh. We will try to keep our environment pollution Free.
For that we:
1. Will not throw litter and waste here and there. We
throw litter in the dustbin or at a particular place.
2. Will always keep houses, schools, classrooms, roads
playgrounds clean.
3. Will not urinate or defecate in open places. We will use
toilets.
4. Will not cough or spit on the road.
5. Will not throw litter and waste in ponds, canals and
rivers.
We live in the environment. It is our responsibility to keep our
environment clean and beautiful.

Exercise
1.

Fill in the blanks with the correct word :


a.
A house usually has several...............................
b.
Everything that exist is in the environment is the
element of the.............................

2.

3.

4.

c.
We ........................ at school.
d.
Road is a mode of.................
Write 'T' against the left sides of the correct statements
and F against the right sides of the incorrect ones :
a.
The elements in the environment that are made and
controlled by man form our social environment.
b.
Buildings and roads are the elements of the natural
environment.
c.
If we make an unnecessary noise at schools, it pollutes
the environment.
d.
Playing mikes loudly does not pollute the
environment.
Match the phrases on the left with the ones on the right
and write them in your exercise book.
a. The things we have around us rivers and canals
b. Gifts of nature are
form our environment
c. Every afternoon we
the
body
becomes
healthy another
d. By road, we go from one play in the field
house to rivers and canals
Give a tick () mark against the correct answer:
4.1 Which is the element of social environment?
a. Animal
b. Trees
c. Water-body
d. Houses
4.2 Which is the element of natural environment?
a. Mosques
b. Rivers
c. Temples
d. Schools

5.

4.3 Which one is not man-made?


a. Ponds
c. Buildings
b. Roads
d. Trees
4.4 Which one is man-made?
a. Soil
b. Air
c. Mosques
d. Water
Answer in brief words:
a. What is called the social environment? Write down the
names of its elements.
b. What is called the natural environment? Write down the
names of its elements.
c. What is environmental pollution? How does the
environment of the school become polluted?
d. How can we keep the environment of house free from
pollution?
e. How are roads polluted?
f. What can we do to keep our environment free from
pollution?

Chapter Two

We are all Human Beings


We read in class three. There are many students in our school.
Besides, there are teachers and staff. Each of us has a name.
We. the students, teachers and staff are all human beings.
Many of us live together in a house or home. Many of us live
in a neighbourhood or community. Many of us live in villages
or towns. Many people live in our country. Many people live
in this world, We are all human beings.

Picture 1: We are all human beings


We will now read the following table :

We Are All Human Beings


Those of us who read in class three.

Students, teachers and staff of our school.


Those of us living in our house or home.
Those of us living in our neighbourhood or community.
Those of us living in our village or town.
Those of us living in our country.

All the people of our world.

In our country -----------------

We, people of different religions live.


We, people of different professions live.
We, people of different ages live.
We, boys and girls, men and women live.
We will now fill up the following tableThose who live in our country are
1.
2.
3.
4.
Our society is formed with all of us. Let us know about
society.

the

People of Different Religions


People of four religions mainly live in Bangladesh.

These religions are- 1. Islam 2. Hinduism 3. Buddhism 4.


Christianity.
Every religion has different ceremonies and festivals. The
important festivals in Islam are:

1. Eid 2. Shab-e-Barat 3. Shab-e-Qadr 4. Eid-e-Miladunnabi.


We celebrate these festivals through different ceremonies.
The followers of Islam are called Muslims. Eid is the greatest
festival for the Muslims. Two Eids are celebrated in a year. These
Eids are Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Ajha.
Eid-ul-Fitr is celebrated after we observe fasting in the month of

Ramadan. Eid-ul-Ajha is celebrated on the 10th of the month


of Zilhaj. This Eid is also called the Eid of sacrifice.

Every Muslim wears new clothes on the Eid day. They


perform Eid prayers at the Eidgah or mosque. Delicious foods
are prepared in every house on this day. Neighbours, relatives,
friends eat these foods together. On the occasion of Eid, the
poor are helped in various ways.

Picture 2: Eid festival

The Muslim children wear different coloured dresses on the


Eid day. They wander in groups. They play. They make about
of funs in various other ways.
Shab-e-Qadr is one of the festivals of Muslims. On the night
of 27th Ramadan the Quran was revealed to Hazrat
Muhammad SM). Shab-e-Qadr is celebrated due to this event.
The Muslims pray to Allah throughout the night. They also
help the poor. Children also join the adults in prayers.
On the occasion of Shab-e-Barat, the Muslims perform special
prayers. They also recite the Holy Quran. They give away

money and food to the poor. On this occasion, special food is


prepared in every house. The children enjoy it in different
ways.s
On the occasion of the birth of Hazrat Muhammad (SM), The
12th of Rabiul Awal is celebrated as Eid-e-Miladunnabi the
Muslims celebrate this day by reciting Darud and Salam.
The Hindus arrange different Pujas throughout the year.the
greatest pujas for Hindus are 1. DurgaPuja 2. Saraswathipuja
and 3. LakshmiPuja
DurgaPuja is celebrated during Autumn. To the Hindus, Durga
is the goddess of power. During this Puja different varieties of
sweets, naru (sweet made with sugar and coconut) and fruits
are distributed. The children wear different coloured dresses
and have funs.

Picture 3: DurgaPuja

The Hindus believe that in Saraswathi is the goddess of


knowledge. The Hindu students celebrate the Sarwasbathipuja
with great fanfare. During this Puja, they distribute sweets
fruits and flowers. The children also celebrate this day with
joy.

To the Hindus Lakshmi is the goddess of wealth. Therefore,


they celebrate the LakshmiPuja with great fanfare. The
children also enjoy the day in various ways.
Buddha Purnima is the gratest festival of the Buddhists.
Buddha Pumima is celebrated on the occasion of the birth of
Buddha. During this time, the Buddhists perform special
Bandana to Gautama Buddha. The children also take part in
this Bandana.

Picture 4: Buddha Purnima

Like Buddha Purnima, the Buddhists also celebrate Maghi


Purnima with great devotion. Men and women of all ages
participate in this celebration.
Christmas is the greatest festival of the Christians. Christ was
born on 25th December. That is why, the festival is celebrated
on this day. Different functions are arranged. All the
Christians pray on this day. The children wear new dresses
and have lots of fun. The Christians also celebrate Good
Friday and Easter Sunday.

Picture 5: Christmas Festival

We will now fill up the following table :


Important Festivals of Different Religions
Name of Religion
1. Islam

Name of Festival

2. Hinduism
3. Buddhism
4. Christianity
We all celebrate our own religious festivals and ceremonies.
We enjoy taking part in our own religious festivals. We will
invite our class friends of other religions to these festivals. We
will also invite our friends from school, neighbourhood or
community. On the occasion of the religious festivals, we
wish our friends of all religions. We will present them
greeting cards and other things. We will enjoy together. We
will eat delicious food. We will play together.

We will now fill up the following table :


What we will do for our friends of other religion during
the religious festivals
1.
2.
3.
4.

People of different professions


People of different professions live in our society. For
example, They are farmers, weavers, fishermen, blacksmiths,
launderers, barbers, cobblers, rickshaw pullers, van-pullers
and hawkers. There are also teachers, doctors, engineers,
judges, lawyers, businessmen, etc. We are all human beings.

People of different ages


There are people of different ages in our society. Many are
children like us. Again, many are younger than us. Many are
older than us as well. Although we are young and old in age,
we are all human beings. We will behave well with all. If
necessary, we will take help from others. We will assist others
as well.

Boys and Girls


There are many children in our society. Some of us are boys
and some are girls. We are all equal. We study together. We
play together. There are many who are older than us.

People of different income groups


Everyone does not have the same condition in society. There
are people of different incomes. Some are rich, some are poor.

But all are human beings. Therefore, we will respect all we


will help the poor living around our house. We will . our
poor playmates and classmates. What things can them with?
We will help them according to their need with food, clothes,
books, notebooks, pens, pencils etc. We will always behave
well with them.
We will now fill up the following table :
With what things can we will help our poor play and class
1.
4.
2.
5.
3.
6.
Helping hands in household work
There are many people to help us in our household work. They
help in agriculture in various homes in the village. The help
rearing cattle, goats, ducks and chickens. They assist in doing
various works in different homes in the towns. They are all
human beings. Just like us, they also have desires and likings.
We always will be kind to them. We will always behave well
with them. We will never cause grief to them. We will help
them in their needs and difficulties.
We have learnt about the people of different religions,
professions, age, income groups, etc. in our country. People of
different religions, professions, age, income groups and
colours also live in different countries of the world.
Though we live in different countries we are all human beings.
We will always love one another. We will come forward in
one another's difficulties. We will cooperate with one another.

We will respect the religions of others. In this way, we will


establish peace in the world.

Exercise
1.

Fill in the blanks with the correct word:


a. People of four ....................... mainly live in Bangladesh.

2.

b. Girls and boys or.................. we are all human beings.


c. We will help our .................. playmates and classmates.
d. In spite of living in different countries we are all..............
Write 'T' against the correct statement and F against the
incorrect ones:
a. People of different religions live in our country.
b. Everyone in our society has the same income.
c. Everyone in our society is of the same age.

3.

d. We will respect all human beings of the world.


Match the words on the left with the ones on the right:
12th Rabiul Awal
a. We are all
Hazrat Muhammad's (SM) we will show respect
birthday is25th December
To others religionhuman beings
Jesus Christ's birthday isnight of 27th Ramadan

4.

Give a tick () mark against the correct answer:

4.1 Which festival is celebrated after fasting for One


month during Ramadan?
a. Eid-ul-Adha
b. Eid-ul-Fitr
c. Shab-e-Barat
d. Shab-e-Qadr

4.2 Who is the goddess of power for the Hindus?


a. Durga
b. Lakshmi
c. Saraswathi
d. Kali
4.3 Which occasion is celebrated on the birthday
Gautama Buddha?
a. Maghi Purnima
b. Pindadan festival
c. Buddha Purnima d. Kathin Chibardan festival
4.4 Which is the main festival of Christianity?
a. Good Friday
b. Easter Sunday
c. Talpatra Sunday d. Christmas Day
5. Answer in few words:
a. During our religious festival, what shall we do with
our friends of other religions?
b. What things shall we do for our poor playmate and
classmates?
c. How shall we behave with the people assisting our
different household works?
d. How shall we establish peace in the world?

Chapter- Three

Our work in the Family and School


We all live in a family. The members of a family love and
respect one another. Love, affection, care and respect keep one
another very close.
Everyone in the family does some work. What kind of work
does each of us do in the family? Let us write in the table
below the work we do in the family daily.
Daily work a family
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Work of parents
Our parents work very hard to bring us up. They always look
after us so that we never face miseries. From our birth, they
bring us up by working very hard and taking great care of us.
Our mother prepares food for us. Our parents keep an eye on
us when we go to school, study, eat and do other things..
Particularly, mothers remain more cautious about these things.
They remain awake for the whole night when we are sick and
arrange for immediate medical care.

Father works very hard. He works in the office, industries,


fields and runs business. In some families, the mother also
goes out to work and earn money. Someone's mother is a
teacher, Someone's mother is a doctor or nurse. Someone's
mother is an engineer. Again, some mothers work in the
offices or counts. Parents arrange necessary things for the
family. For example, they buy food, clothes, shoes, books,
notebooks, pens, pencils, and all other necessary things for the
family. Besides, fathers help the mothers in different
household works.
Our work
We can also do some work in the family. We can arrange
reading table and school bag. We can also arrange our clothes,
toys and other things of our younger brothers and sisters. We
can arrange the dining table. We can bring our mother water.
We can feed the poultry. We can water the vegetable gardens
or flower and fruit plants around the house. We can plant trees
and take care of them. Besides, we can clean the courtyard and
the areas around the house. We can go to the field with food
and water for our father. We can also feed and give water the
goats. Besides, at intervals, we can help our parents in incomegenerating work like poultry, goats and cattle raising beekeeping, fish-farming, growing vegetables, fruits and flowers,
etc.

Let us fill up the table below:


Our work in the family
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Besides parents, brothers and sisters, there are also


grandparents, uncles and aunts living in the family. We can
also help them. For example, we can help our paternal or
maternal grandparents to take their medicines. We can bring
their food on time. In the morning and in the afternoon, we
can

Picture 1: Helping the grandparents

walk a little with them around the house. We can read the
newspapers for them. Sometimes we can accompany.
Besides, we can help uncles and aunts in their work.

Our work in the school


We go to school to study. Beside studies, we also have other
work. For example, we can keep the classroom, school,
buildings and schoolyards neat and clean. We can help the
teachers in different works. We will keep chairs, tables,
benches and other furniture of the school clean. We will look
after them so that they are not spoiled.
We shall do these works with discipline. We will learn through
scouting to do things in a disciplined manner. The boy and
girls of 5 to 25 years old can join the scouts. There are three
sections of scouts. For example, there are Cub Scout, Scout
and Rover Scout. Scouting helps make the boys and girls
patriotic, good and ideal citizens. In 1907, Lord Baden Powel
of Britain started the scout movement. He established the Cup
Scout Section for children of 6 to 11 years young ones old.
Cub means 'offspring of the lion'. Almost every primary school
in the country has Cub Scout Section, In the same way, Lady
Baden Powel, established the Girls Guide for the girls. The
first section of the Girls' Guide is named "Flocks of Yellow
Birds" with girls of 6 to 10 years old. Through Cub Scout and
Flocks of Yellow Birds, we will do different works for our
school. We will learn how to build up our character and to do
good to the society.

Picture 2: Taking care of the school garden

Other development work of the school


There are many works in the school which are not possible to
be done alone. All the students are to work together to do
those works. For the development of the school, we can grow
flowers and vegetables. We can take part in planting trees
during the "Tree Plantation Week". We can help the elders in
fish farming in the school pond. We will take part in these
development works along with our studies.

Picture 3: Keeping the classrooms and the school premises neat and clean.

Let us fill up the table with the development works we do at


school.
1.
2.
3.

Development work of the locality


Besides family and school, we can participate in different
development works of the locality. We can help in repairing a
damaged road and bridge of our neighbourhood
or
community. We can fix a particular place for dumping wastes.
We can also make a small library in our neighbourhood or
community.

All of us from the area will plant trees in various open spaces.
We will take care of them. Sometimes we will take part in
cleaning our area. As a result, our environment will not be
polluted. We will also save ourselves somewhat from the
attack of dengue and other serious diseases. In this way, we
can develop our family, school and the area.

Exercise
1. Fill in the blanks with the correct word:
a. All of us live in a ................................
b. There are many works in the school which are not
possible to be done..........................
c. We can also build a small.......................... in our
neighbourhood or community.
d. Besides, at intervals, we can help our parents
.................... jobs.

in

2. Write 'T' beside the correct statement and 'F' beside


the incorrect ones:
a. Father works very hard to bring us up
b. We go to school to study.
c. In some families mother also works outside the house.
d. In household work, father does not help mother.
3. Match the words on the left with the ones on the right:
a. Mother
Medicine
b. Father
All the students together
c. Paternal Grandparents
Domestic helper
d. School's developmental Preparing food
work
To arrange for treatment

4. Give a tick () mark against the correct answer:


4.1 What does mother do when we are sick?
a. Gives medicine
b. Remains awake for the whole night
c. Takes care
d. She does all these works
4.2 Besides parents and siblings, who are the others
that generally live in our family?
a. Paternal grandparents
b. Maternal aunts and uncles
c. Paternal uncles and aunts
d. Maternal uncles and aunts
4.3 What are the things that we do during the 'Tree
Plantation Week?
a.

We plant trees

b. We come to school on time


c. We work according to the group leader
d. We respect the teachers
5. Answer in few words:
a. What kind of work do we do in the family?
b. What kind of work do we do in the school?
c. What kind of work do we do in the neighbourhood or
community?
d. Why will we make 'Cub' and flocks of Yellow Birds
in the school?

Chapter Four

Rules And Disciplines In The


Family And School
The family has some general rules. Everyone should obey
them. Everyday we will obey the rules of the family.
What will we do in the morning?
We will wake up early in the morning. We shall go to toilet or
bathroom. We will brush our teeth, wash our hands and faces and
eat our breakfast. Then we will sit to study or go to school.
Write down in the table below what are things we do in the
morning.
1.
2.
3.
4.

What we will do after returning from school?


After returning from school we will change our school dress
and keep it in its place. We will keep the school bag and books
and notebooks properly. We will take bath or wash our hands
and face. We will eat. After eating we will take rest. Then we
will play, learn singing, draw or read story books. Besides, if
our parents tell us to do some work we will do that.

Picture : 1 Drawing during free time

Write in table below what we will do after returing from


school.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

We will respect and honour our parents and other senior


members of the family. We will behave well with them. If
father, mother or any other member of the family is sick, we
will not make an unnecessary noise. We will try our best to
take care of them.
What we will do in the evening
In the evening, we will eat something after washing our hands
and face. Then we will study. After studying, we will sit
together with other members of the family to eat. After eating

We will brush our teeth. We will talk to them for some time.
We will not remain awake late at night but go to sleep quickly.

Picture 2 : Eating together

Let us write in the table below what we will do in the


evening,
1.
2.
3.
4.

Rules and regulations of School


As in the family, we also obey some rules at school. We will
follow these rules so we can do better in studies. Everyday, we
will come to school in time. We will bring books, notebooks,
pencils, eraser, etc., to school in a proper way. We will join the

the assembly of the school. We will obey the advice of our


teachers. We will behave well with our classmates and others.
During tiffin hour break time we will take tiffin and play
games. When the bell rings, we will come back to our
classroom in time. We will take part in the annual cultural
functions, sports competition and other functions of the
school. We will keep the classroom and the school premises
neat and clean. When the school breaks up, we will get out of
the classroom in a queue. Afterwards, we will go to our own
houses.

Picture 3: Standing to respect the teacher

Write down in the table below what rules we obey at school


1.
2.
3.
4.

We will live together in our family and school. In this way,


peace and discipline will be maintained in our family and
school.

Exercise
1.

Fill in the blanks with the correct word:


a. The family has some general...............................
b. We will learn our daily ........................ everyday.
c. During .................... we will be attentive .
d. We will never make an unnecessary ................. in the
classroom.
2. Write 'T' beside the correct statement and 'F beside the
incorrect ones:
a. We will behave well with all members of the family.
b. We will not wake up very early in the morning.
c. We will not take off school dress after returning from school.
d. We will behave well with classmates and others.
3. Match the words on the left with the ones on the right:
Good behaviour
Family
In queue
Lesson
Parents, siblings
School breaks up
Attentive
Classmates
Eat snacks
4. Give a tick () against the correct answer :
4.1 What will we do after waking up?
a. We will play
b. We will wash our hands and face
c. We will draw
d. We will make noise

4.2 What will we do after returning from school?


a. We will change our dress
b. We will talk
c. We will watch TV
d. We will have snacks
4.3 What will we do during tiffin hour at school?
a. We will make noise
b. We will draw
c.

We will eat tiffin

d. We will go home
5. Answer with a few words:
a. What will we do at home in the evening?
b. What are the rules and regulations we obey in school?
c. What are things we will do after returning home from

school?
d. What will we do after the ringing of the closing bell?

Chapter Five

Our Country
The name of our country is Bangladesh. This country is our
motherland. We love our motherland. The full name of our
country is The Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. It is an
independent country.

Write down the full name of Bangladesh in the table below:

Full name of Bangladesh


Bangladesh was born
through the war of
independence in 1971.
After fighting for nine
months,
we
have
earned a new country.
Along with it, we have
got a map a national
flag, a national anthem,
a national emblem and
national days.

Our Map
The map on the right is
the map of Bangladesh.
We got this map
through the war of
independence. Our map
is our pride.

Picture 1 : The Map of Bangladesh

Our National Flag


Every country has a national flag. We also have a national
flag. The flag in the picture is our national flag. Everywhere in
the world this flag bears our identity. There are two colours in
our national flag : red and green. Inside the green there is a
bright red circle. Our national flag is rectangular. There is a
definite measurement of how much green and how much red
will occupy the area.

Picture 2: The National Flag

The ratio of the length and width of our national flag is 10:6.
The radius of the red circle will be one fifth of the length of
flag. For example, if the national flag is ten inches or twentyfive centimetres in length, its width will be six inches or
fifteen centimetres. And the red circle will cover the middle
with a radius of two inches or five centimetres.
According to the measurement we will now draw our national
flag in green and red in the table below :

How to use the national flag


We will always honour our national flag. That is way we will
know how to use our national flag. Everyday, the national flag
is not put up everywhere. It is hoisted daily only in the
educational institutions, courts and important public places. In
the embassies of Bangladesh abroad the national flag is also
hoisted daily.

Picture 3 : The national flag is hoisted at schools

Let us now write below the names of places where


national flag is hoisted daily.

the

The places where the national flag is hoisted


everyday
1.
2.
3.
4.

The 26th March is our Independence Day. On this day our


national flag is hoisted everywhere in the country. The 16th
December is our Victory Day. On this day the national flag is
also hoisted everywhere. On these two days, besides educational
institutions, courts and government buildings, the national flag
is hoisted in the places like commercial buildings, markets and
in transports etc. The national flag is also waved on the houses.
The 21st February is our
Martyrs' Day. On this day the Picture 4: The national flag kept half
mast
national flag is also waved in
educational institution, courts
and public buildings. However,
it is not hoisted fully, it is kept
half mast. At the event of the
death of our Head of the State
or Government, the flag is kept
half mast as a sign of
mourning. Besides at the death
of a very important person, the
national flag is also kept half
mast.

According to the decision of the Government the national flag is


sometimes kept half mast at the death of the Head of the other
State or of the Government of the other country.
It is not justified to keep the national flag sometimes at night.
We will put down the national flag before sunset.

Our National Anthem


All countries have had national anthems. Bangladesh also has
its national anthem. It has been composed by global poet
Rabindranath Tagore. We have learnt our national anthem in
Class Two. It is sung everyday at the school assembly. Besides
the national anthem is also sung at different functions of the
state.

Our State Emblem


Let us look at the picture on
the right. A water-lily is
floating on water. Two paddy
sheafs on its two sides. Above
the lotus there are three jute
leaves put together. there are
two stars are on each of the
leaves. It is our state emblem.
It is used at
different activities of the state.

Our National Emblem

Picture 5: The State Emblem

Every country has some national emblems. Our national


emblems re: 1. The National Flower, 2. The National Fruit, 3.
The National Fish, 4. The National Animal and 5. The
National Bird.
1. Our National Flower
The white water-lily is our
national flower. The white
water-lily blossoms in lakes,
open water, ponds, etc. Lakes
and ponds which are full of
Water-lilies look Very beautiful.
Picture6: The National Flower (whiter-Lily)

2. Our National Fruit Jackfruit


is our national fruit. Jackfruit
is
grown
more or
less in all parts of the country.
The pods in to the Jackfruit
are very juicy. It is a very
nutritious food. We eat green
Jackfruit by cooking.
Picture 7: Jackfruit

Picture 8: The hilsha

3. Our National Fish


The Hilsha is our national
fish. The Hilsha is silvery. It
looks very beautiful. It is very
tasty. The Hilsha abounds in
the Meghna and the Padma
rivers of Bangladesh and in
the Bay of Bengal.

4. Our National Animal


The Royal Bengal Tiger is our
national animal. This tiger
with yellow with black stripes
on its body lives in the
Sundarbans. It is not found
anywhere else in the world.
This tiger is quite big in size.
It looks very beautiful. But it
is ferocious.

Picture 9: The Royal Bengal Tiger

5. Our National Bird


Doyel (the magpie robin) is
our national bird. Doyel is
small in Size. Its body is
covered with black and white
feathers. It looks beautiful.
Doyel is seen everywhere in
Bangladesh. They fly away
here and there and chirp
sweetly.

Picture 10: Doyel

Let us now fill up the table below :


The names of our national emblems
1. Our national flower
2. Our national fruit
3. Our national fish
4. Our national animal
5. Our national bird

Our National Day


In our country there are some important days. These are our
national days. The national days are :
1.The Martyrs Day, 2.The Independence Day & 3.The Victory Day.
These days have special meanings in our lives. Every year we
celebrate these days.

The Martyrs' Day


The 21st of February is our Martyrs' day. Every year we
celebrate this day with great importance.
In 1947 the Subcontinent was divided and India and Pakistan
were born. There were two parts of Pakistan : West Pakistan
and East Pakistan. Our Banlgadesh was East Bengal befor and
later it became East Pakistan. The majority of the people of
Pakistan Used to speall to speak Bangla, but from the very
beginning, the rulers of Pakistan were trying to make 'Urdu'
the state language of Pakistan. But the people of East Pakistan
did not accept it. They started a movement to make 'Bengali'
the state language. Gradually this demand took the from of a
Mass Movement. In 1948 Dhirendranath Dutta for the first time
raised the demand in Pakistan National Assembly to make
'Bangla' the state language. On 21st February 1952 a few
students and general public were martyred by police firing on a
procession. We call them 'The Language Martyrs.' Few
'Language Martyrs' are Salam, Barkat, Rafique, Jabbar and
Shafiul, The 21st February is called Martyrs' Day because they
were martyred for the language. We celebrate this day nationally.

Picture 11: Flowers at the Martyrs' Memorial

In Dhaka, the Central Martyrs' Memorial Shahid Minar has


been built in their memory. In many educational institutions
and important places Martyrs' Memorial have also been built
in the model of the Central Martyrs' Memorial. Very early
morning the 21st February, we walk bare footed to the Martyrs'
Memorial with flowers and banners.
At that time we all chant "Can we forget the 21st of February
tinged with the blood of our brothers". Abdul Gaffar
Choudhury has composed the song and its musician is Shahid
Altaf Mahmud. Every year on this day we show respect to our

martyrs. Our Matyred Day (Shahid Dibosh) has now earned the
recognition of the whole world. Today this day is observed all over
the world as the Intarnational Mother Language dat.

Our Independence Day

We have learnt before that the 26th of March


Independence Day. This day is also a national day.

is

our

Right from 1947, the West Pakistani rulers started to oppress and to
do injustice to the people of East Pakistan. The West Pakistanis
were favoured more in education, in jobs, in trade and commerce
etc.The people of East Pakistan always raised protest against these.
Following this, in 1966 Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
laid down the 6 Point Demand for Autonomy, and the mass
movement was started. In 1969, the movement turned into a mass
uprising. In 1970 a general election was held all over Pakistan. In
this election The Awami League under the leadership of Bangabandhu
won the majority seats in Pakistan National Assembly. But they were
not allowed to form a Government. As a result people of East
Pakistan started a strong movement against the leaders in West
Pakistan.
On 7 March Bangabandhu called for Independence. And the
Non- Cooperation Movement started. The rulers of Pakistan
chose to suppress the movement with an iron hand. On the
night of 25th March 1971, the Pakistani army attacked the
Bengalis. They killed many Bengalis. After this killing the
people of East Pakistan became agitated.

The Pakistani army arrested Bangabandhu on that very night.


Before he was arrested, at midnight, that is on 26 March,
Bangabandhu declared the independence of Bangladesh. This
declaration was broadcast from the Swadin Bangla Beter Kendra in
Chittagong. In the evening of 27 March, Major Ziaur Rahman on
behalf of Bangabandhu read out the declaration of independence
from the same radio centre. For this reason the 26th of March is our
national day. We celebrate the day by different functions. On this
day we put flowers at the National Monument.

Picture 12: Independence Day

Our Victory Day

From the 26th of March the war of independence started against


the cruel occupation forces. The war continued for nine months.
On the 16th December, 1971 thepakistan Force accepted defeat
and surrendered. We became Free from the enemis and earned
our victory. This day is our Victory Day. We celebrate this day
like the independence day. Now let us fill up the table below.
Our national day
Name of the Day
Date
1. Martyrs' Day
2. Independence Day
3. Victory Day

We will always keep in mind the names of our national days.


We will honour these days. We will take part in the functions
arranged on these occasions.

Our Social Festivals


We have some social festivals. Our main social festival is
Bengali New Year.

Bangla New Year


Tne month of Baishakh is the first month of the Bengali year.
Pahela Baishakh the first day of Baishakh is celebrated as a
New Year. In our social life this day is very important.
We celebrate this day by different functions and activities. On
this day fairs are organized at many places in our country.
Various toys and things made in our country are sold in these
fairs. Various sports and games are organized in these fairs.

Picture 13: New Years Fair

Different places in the country celebrate the New Year in


different ways. The important ones are music, sports, boat
races, puppet shows, merry-go-rounds etc. The business
communities organize open new account books on the New
Year day. The indigenous people of this country also celebrate
their New Year at this time.
Our Religious Festivals
We celebrate different religious festivals. For example, the
Muslims celebrate the Eid-ul-Fitr, the Eid-ul- Ajha, the Shabe-Barat, the Eid-e-Miladunnabi, etc. the Hindus celebrate, the
DurgaPuja, the SarwasathiPuja, LaxmiPuja, etc.
The
Buddhists celebrate the Buddho Purnima, the Maghi Purnima,
etc. The Christians celebrate the Christmas Day, the Good
Friday, the Easter Sunday, etc.
In our life the national flag, the national anthem, the national
emblem, the national day and social and religious festivals
have special importance. We will try our best to attend the
functions organized on the occasion of these events and
festivals. Through these events we will love our country

Exercise
1.

Fill in the blanks with the correct word :


a. The full name of our country is Bangladesh.
b. Bangladesh came into being through the of 1971.
c. Just on the middle of our national flag there is a circle
d. The 21st of February is Day.

2.

3.

4.

Write 'T' against the correct statements and F against


the incorrect ones.
a. There is red and green color in our national flag.
b. In 1952 the Subcontinent was divided and India and
Pakistan came into being.
c. On Independence Day and Victory Day we put flowers at
the National Monument in Saver.
d. Fairs are organized on Bengli New Year day in many
places of Bangladesh.
Match the words on the left with the words on the right.
a. Our Independence Day is
The National Flag is hoisted
at half mast.
b. Our Victory Day is
the 16th December.
c. On the Martyrs' Day
the White water-lily.
d. Our national flower is
the 26th March.
Give a tick () mark against the correct answer.
4.1 Which are the places we hoist the national flag
everyday?
a. Educational Institutions, houses and shops
b. Important government buildings, houses and market
places
c. Educational institutions, courts and important
government buildings
d. Courts, transports and government buildings
4.2 What is our national fish?
a. Hilsha
b. Climbing perch
c. Cat fish
d. Carp

4.3 On which date do we celebrate Bengali New Year festival?


a. 1st Chaitra
b. 30th Chaitra
c. 1st Baishakh
d. 30th Baishakh
5.

Answer in brief:
a. Describe the colours of the national flag of Bangladesh.
b. In which places are the national flag waved on the
Independence Day and the Victory Day?
c. Describe our state emblem.
d. Describe two of our national emblems.
e. What do we do on the Martyr's Day?
f. How do we observe the Bengali New Year?

Chapter- Six

The Geographical Environment Of


Bangladesh
The boundary of Bangladesh.

Let us see our country in the map. We know the upper portion
of the map is north. The lower portion is south. If we stand
facing the north the east is on the right and the west is on the
left. Now let us see which countries are there around
Bangladesh. There are West Bengal, Asam and Megalaya of
India on the north. In the east there are Asam and Tripura of
India and Myanmar. West Bengal of India is on the west and
in the south there is a vast water body. It is called the Bay of
Bengal.
Let us fill in the following Table
In the North of Bangladesh there is
In the East of Bangladesh there is
In the West of Bangladesh there is
In the South of Bangladesh there is
Drawing the Map of Bangladesh
Let us draw our country's map. How shall we drawn it? Let us
take a thin paper. The paper will be transparent so that the
map will be visible if it is put on the map. Let us put the paper
on the map. Let it be fixed with pin all around. The map will
be visible through the paper clearly. Let us draw the lines
around it with the pencil. What a beautiful map has been
drawn. The map has been drawn by sketch. So it is called a
sketch map.

Area
The map of Bangladesh occupies a small space in the world
map. The area of Bangladesh is one lac forty seven thousand
and five hundred seventy kilometres.
River
Bangladesh is a land of rivers. There are many rivers in the
country. Some rivers are small. Some rivers are big.
Sometimes tributaries flow from the big rivers. And many
rivers fall into the big rivers.
The Padma, The Jamuna, The Meghna, and the Karnafuly are
the big rivers of our country There is another big river. It's
name is Brahmaputra. The big rivers are generally originated
from the hills. Rivers flow.
Let us see in the map,
where these rivers have
come from and where
they are flowing. The
Padma
flows
into
Bangladesh
in
the
district of Rajshahi, the
western boundary of
the country from India.
The
Brahmaputra
comes from India to
Bangladesh near the
district of Kurigram in
the north. This river is
divided into two parts
near the Dewanganj.
Picture :Rivers of Bangladesh in the Map

One branch of it is called the Jamuna flowing towards the


south. The other branch is called the Brahmaputra. The
Jamuna meets the Padma near Dawlatdia. The Meghna is
flowing from the north-east of the country.
The Padma falls into the Meghna near Chandpur. Then the
Meghna Falls into the Bay of Bengal. The Karnanfuly enters
into Bangladesh from along the south-east boundary and falls
into the Bay of Bengals.
Now write the names of main rivers in the following table.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Let us fill up the table below:


Where does the Meghna fall?

Which river has the Jamuna met?


Where does the Padma met the Maghna.
Where does the Karnafuly fall?
There are many rivers in our country. So our main communication
is water ways. People use boats launches, steamers to journey on
the river. Goods are also carried on the way.
In the rainy season generally the water of the rivers rise. Then the
river water enters the land. Everything around us goes under
water. It is called flood. People suffer much when flood occurs.
But silt is deposited there when the flood water goes away. Thus
land becomes fertile. Good crops are cultivated there. Now fill up
the following chart.

Which is our main communication?


What do we use in the river way?
What happens when the river water enters the land?
What is deposited after river water goes away?

The capital of Bangladesh and Divisional Cities


The name of the capital
of Bangladesh
is
Dhaka.
Where
is
Dhaka? Let us see in
the map. Dhaka is in
the middle of the
country.
Bangladesh is divided
into six
divisions.
These six divisions are
Dhaka,
Chittagong,
Rajshahi, Khulna, B
arisal
and
Sylhet.
Dhaka is the main city
of Dhaka Division.
Chittagong is the main
city
of Chittagong
Picture 2: The capital of Bangladesh
Division
and divisional pities
situated in the east-south region division of the country. The
main city of Rajshahi Division Rajshahi which is situated in
the north-west. The main city of the country's south-western
division, Khulna Division is Khulna. Barisal is the main city

of Barisal Division. The main city of Sylhet Division is Sylhet


which is situated on the north- east.

Exercise
1.

Fill in the gaps with appropriate words


a. Big rivers are generally originated from .

b. The Meghna has fallen.


c. Silt is deposited after the flood water goes away.

2.

3.

d. Bangladesh is divided into divisions.


Write "T" against the true sentence and write "F" against
the false sentence:
a. The upper side of the map is North
b. The Karnafully has fallen into the Bay of Bengal.
c. Water rises in the river in winter.
d. Jessore is the main city of Khulna Division.
Match the words on the left with the one on the right
The name of our country is
River way
Bangladesh is a land of
Dhaka Division
Rivers
The main communication of our country
is the
In the middle of the country
is situated
Bangladesh country.

4.

Write a tick (V) mark against the right answer.


4.1 What is situated on the south of our country.
a. The Bay of Bengal
b. Myanmar
c. KhutchBihar
d. Asam
4.2 Which country is on the west of Bangladesh?
a. Myanmar
b. Nepal
c. Bhutan
d. India
4.3 How many kilometres is the area of Bangladesh?
a. 1,48,960
b. 1,46,660
c. 1,47,570
d. 1,45,870
4.4 What is the name of the capital of Bangladesh?
a. Rajshahi
b. Sylhet
c. Dhaka
d. Barisal

5.

Answer to the question in short.


a. Which countries are there on the east of Bangladesh?
b. How many big rivers are there in our country and what are
they?
c. Write about the course of the Karnafuly.
d. How many divisions is Bangladesh divided into and what are

they?
e. What is called flood?

Chapter Seven

Our Wealth
In our daily work we use various things from around us in
various ways. For example, we study in schools. We pray at
mosques. We cook with gas. Electricity gives us light. When
we are sick, we go to hospitals. We get wood from forests. We
use wood in many ways. So, the useful things that comes to
our use and removes our want are called wealth. Wealth plays
a very important role in our personal and national life.

Kinds of Wealth
Wealth can be of two kinds.
1.
2.

National Wealth
Social Wealth

National Wealth
The wealth which the state controls is called national wealth.
Every one has the right to use this wealth. Water, gas,
electricity and forests are our main national wealth.

Water
Water is a kind of wealth we use a lot everyday. We get water
from rivers, canals, ponds and lakes. We cannot live without
water. So the other name of water is life. But we should drink
pure and arsenic free water. We use water for cooking, washing
hands, bathing etc. We cannot cultivate land without water.
Water is used in mills and factories. Our life cannot go

on without water. We will not waste water. We will turn off


taps tightly after using tap water. We must not waste water
from tube wells. We must use pond water properly.

Now we will write about the usefulness of water in the


table below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Natural Gas:
Those of us who live in cities use gas for cooking. Now-adays, in many villages, gas is also used for cooking.
Natural gas produces heat light and power. So in the mills and
factories gas is used as fuel. Gas is used for the production of
fertilizer and pesticide. Our house is lit with gas. Now-a-days
we use gas for running cars. Gas is our national wealth. We
get this wealth from nature. If we waste gas it will be finished
quickly. We must not keep the burners on when we do not need
it. We must turn off the burners after we finish cooking. We
have to use gas in the mills and factories when we need it.

Now we shall write about the uses of gas in the table


below
1.
2.
3.
4.

Electricity
Electricity lights our houses and roads. Fans are run by
electricity. Radio and television inform us of what is
happening in the world. All these happens with the help of
electricity. X-ray machine is used to diagnose different
diseases. It is also run with the help of electricity. Computer is
also run with the help of electricity. We also use water pumps
which are used in agricultural land and in industries.
We shall write about the uses of electricity in the table
below
1.
2.
3.
4.

Electricity plays a very important role in the development of


our country. Our industries, agricultures and societies are
being developed with the help of electricity. We will use
electricity properly. Often we go out of the house without
switching off the light and fan. This waste electricity. We
must turn off the switch of the light and fan when we go out of
a room. We shall not turn on the light or fan when we do not
need it. We must not use electricity in houses, schools, streets,
shops and factories when we do not need it.
Forest
When we sit down to study in school or at home we use chair,
table or bench. These are made of wood. Where do we get
wood from? We get wood mainly from forest. We make beds,

stools, almirahs, windows and doors of the rooms from We


use a lot of wood in our life. We get wood from forest the
1
wealth of the country will increase with the increase forest
land. Trees give us shade, fruits and fuel. Besides we many
kinds of medicines from plants and leaves, Medic protects us
from diseases. It rains less if there are not enc trees. The
climate becomes hot. Trees prevent of soil erosion and
increase the fertility of the land.

Let us write about the usefulness of trees in the table


below :
1.
2.
3.
4.

We have to increase our forest if we want to keep our


environment healthy and beautiful. We can increase our forest
by planting new trees.
We shall read in the table below from where we shall plant
trees
1. around our houses
3. around playgrounds
5. on both sides of rail lines
7. on the banks of the rivers

2. in school compounds
4. on both sides of roads
6. in the fallow lands
8. around ponds

We should stop cutting trees unnecessarily. We will plant two|


trees if we cut one. We should take care of trees and in this
way our forest wealth will increase.

Besides, trains, railways roads, hospitals, parks, big bridges are


also our national wealth. We shall take care of these too.

Picture 1: Stopping misuses of different wealth

Social Wealth
We build up many things for the need of the people. For
example, we set up schools for children to study. We make
small bridges or culverts over the canals and small rivers so that
people can cross rivers and canals. We build roads so that
people can move from place to place.
We build mosques, temples, churches and pagodas so that we
can use them for religious purposes. These are our social wealth.

We shall write the names of some social wealth in the table


below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Picture of building schools Picture of repairing bridges Picture of making roads

Picture 2: Picture of Social Wealth

Besides national and social wealth, there are personal wealth


too, such as our houses, lands, cars, buffaloes and goats etc.
National wealth, social wealth and personal wealth are important
for our social life. It is the duty of all, big and small, to take care
of all wealth and maintain them properly.

Exercise
1.

2.

3.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

4.

Fill in the blank with right words


a. Electricity us light.
b. We cook gas.
c. It is not possible to live water.
d. It less if there are few trees.
Write down 'T' against true statements and 'F against
false statements
a. Whatever removes our want is known as wealth..
b. Gas is our national wealth.
c. Gas is used for the production of fertilizer and pesticide.
d. Computer is run by electricity.
Match the words on the left with the ones on the right:
No trees can grow
very important
The water of tube-well
without water
We shall not keep the burner on when we do not need it
The proper use of electricity is should not be wasted is very
useful
Put a tick (\) mark against the correct answer.
4.1 What is our national wealth?
a. Water
b. School
c. Mosque d. Temple

4.2 What is our social wealth ?


a. culvert
b. wind
c. gas
d. electricity
4.3 Which prevents crosion of soil?
a. river/canals
b. fuel
c. trees
d. birds
4.4 What is used as fuel in the mills and factories?
a. water
b. gas
c. trees
d. fertilizer
5.

Answer briefly:
a. What is wealth and how many kinds of wealth are there?
b. Write about the importance of water as wealth.
c. What harm will happen if we waste gas?
d. Describe the importance of trees.
e. What is the usefulness of social wealth?
f. Write down the names of places where we shall plant trees,
g. What problems will we face if we waste electricity?

Chapter-Eight

Our Rights And Duties


Rights and duties:
We know that we need some help to make our life beautiful.
We need food to live. We need education to become good
human beings. We need treatment if we are sick. We need
many types of assistance to lead a healthy life. These are
called rights. We get all these from our family, society and
state. In our family our parents give us love, affection, care,
food and treatment, Our parents help us get education. We get
these rights from our families. All that our parents do for us
are their duties. So, we have some duties when we enjoy such
rights. Duty is what we do for others.
Our rights and duties as children

Picture 1: We are all children

We are children. Slowly we will grow up. We will make


ourselves good human beings. We will work for the good of
our family, society and country. For this we need to build up
career in a nice way.
We need some help to build up our career properly. These
called rights of all children.
We will know about some important rights of children from
table below.

4.

Children's rights
Right to get love and affection
Right to get a name and nationality
Right to get healthy food and treatment
Right to play games and right to recreation

5.

Right to education

6.

Equal rights for boys and girls

1.
2.
3.

We have learnt about some rights of children. These are very


useful to build up our career. All the children of our society
have got equal rights. For this reason, every year on the first
Monday of October we observe the "World Children Day"
We will learn about the rights of children and let other
children know about them. We may be able to build up our
career in a beautiful way if we get these rights. Now we shall
draw a table below in our exercise book. We shall write down
five rights of child in it.

Our rights as children


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Our rights in the family

We are born in the family. We grow up in the family. Our


parents give us food and treatment for our good wealth. These
are necessary for us to live.
Besides, our parents love us. They make arrangements for our
education. They take care of our study. We get our name from
the family. We are known by these names in society. Family
plays a great role in building up our character. Family teaches
us how to behave with others, how to respect elders and also
how to love our country. These help us to build up our career
nicely. Our right is to get all these from the family. A family
may have both boys and girls. Both boys and girls have equal
rights in the family.

Picture 2: Brother and sister are


having the same meal

Picture 3: Both boys and girls are equal.

It is the duty of parents to give equal opportunities to both and


girls. Children are different from their elders respect of their
choice, likes, dislikes and thoughts. So the needs and rights of
children should be taken care of. We have learnt about the
rights of children in the family. Now let us fill in the table
below:
Child's rights in the family
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Our rights in school


Besides the family, we have some rights to our schools. It is
our greatest right to get education in school. All children
regardless of rich, poor, religion have this right. Besides these
we have some other rights to school, such as good school
environment and love and care from teachers. We have the
right to play games, dance, sing, draw pictures and to have
other pastimes.
Our duty to the family and school
We know that to have our rights, we must do our duties. We
have learnt earlier that duty is the work that we do for others.
We have many rights in the family and school. So we have
some duties too to do. We can learn about these from the table
below:

Our duties to the family

Our duties to the school

1. To obey the rules of our 1. To obey the rules of schools


family
2. To respect the teachers
2. To respect our parents and
elders
3. To behave well with all
3. To follow the advice of the
teachers
4. To nurse the sick in the family 4. To behave well with classmates and others
5. To help parents and others in
5. To take part in all activities
household work
and functions school.
6. To respect elder brothers and
6. To keep class-rooms,
sisters and to love the younger
playground and schools clean
etc.

Our duty to society


Besides family and school, we have also some duties to
society. There are many kinds of people in society. Our main
duty is to live with all. Apart from these, we will respect the
elders, behave well with our neighbours, help them in times of
need. We will be hospitable to our neighbours when they visit
our home.
Besides, we will be kind to the poor and helpless.
Now let us fill in the table below by writing five of our duties
to family, school and society each.
Duty to family
Duty to school
Duty to society
1.
1.
1
2.
2.
3.
3.
3
4.
4.
4.
5.
5.
5.

Our rights and duties as citizens


We are the citizens of Bangladesh. Usually citizens are thoise
who live permanently in a country. For example, we are born
in Bangladesh and also live in this country. So, we are all
citizens of Bangladesh. In the same way the people of India
are the citizens of India, the people of Nepal are the citizens of
Nepal.
We have learnt before that different kinds of benefits or rights
are needed to build up our career properly. We get these
opportunities from family, school and society. As citizens we
have also some rights to our state.
We will know about some rights as citizens from the table
below.
Our rights as citizens
1. Right to live
2. Right to set education
3, Right to medical treatment
4. Right to get property and right to protection
5. Right to follow our religions
6. Right to get freedom of expression
7. Right to save the dignity of our mother language
These rights are very important in the life of a citizen. It is the
duty of the state to ensure these rights. We cannot simply have
these rights as citizens. We have some also duties to the state.
It is the main duty of a citizen to love his/her country and to
protect the freedom of his/her motherland.

The other duties are to obey the rules of the country, to pay
taxes timely, to cast vote in election, to honour all religions
and to take care of the national wealth.
There are many organizations to ensure the rights of citizens.
In rural areas every union has a Union Council. Chairman is
the head of the Union Council. There are some members also.
All of them are elected by the people of the union . The duty
of the Union Council is to protect the rights and facilities of its
people.
In cities there are city corporations. Each city has a chairman
and a few members. The members of the city-corporation are
called commissioners. The main duties of city- corporation are
to keep the city clean and beautiful and to ensure welfare of
the people living there.
We will know about who are the voters. No person under the
age of eighteen and who are not the citizens Bangladesh can
cast votes. So the persons who are eighteen must become
voters. They should cast votes in elections.
Now let us make a table about the rights and duties of a citizen
Rights of a citizen
Duties of a citizen
1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.

4.

5.

5.

It can be mentioned that no foreigner, no mad person and no


convict can cast votes. So we can see that we are the members
of a family and society. We also have various rights as citizens
of a country. We do some duties and in exchange of these
duties we enjoy some rights. We all should remember that we
will do our duties if we want to enjoy rights.
Human rights
We are all human beings. We live in different countries of the
world. The right to live well as human beings is called human
rights. The United Nations has made a declaration on human
rights.
All countries obey this declaration. This declaration has stated
rights for the thoughts, actions, religions, security of every
human being. AIL people regardless of male, female, religion
and caste will enjoy these rights equally.
According to this declaration people cannot be oppressed and
suppressed. We shall obey the UN declaration of human rights
so that all can live in a good environment. Many organizations
work for human rights. The Amnesty International is a
remarkable one. It works for the rights of the people of all
countries. 'Legal Aid Centre' 'Adhikar' are other human rights
organizations of our country. All the countries of the world
observe Human Rights Day on 10th of December.

Exercise
1.

Fill in the gaps with the right words.


a. To be a good human being we need education and
facilities.
b. To enjoy are rights we must do our also
c. Children have the rights to get love and .
d. Both boys and girls have the rights.

2.

Write down 'T' for true and 'F' for false statements below:
a. In a family boys have more rights than girls.
b. Our greatest right in school is the right to get education,
c. Children and elders have the same likes and dislikes.
d. We have different types of duties to our neighbours.

3.

Match the sentences on the left with the ones on the right.
a. is a child right
a. To develop children's life in a
beautiful way
b. To obey the rules in schools is our b. duty
c. To observe one's religion is
c. our right
d. A citizen's duty is
d. to love the country
e. right of the citizen

4.

Put a tick (V) mark against the correct answer.


4.1 Which one is a children's right?
a. To get education
b. to pay tax
c. to cast vote
d. to obey law

4.2 What is Human Right?


a. Right as a child
b. Right as a person
c. Right as a citizen
d. Right as human being
4.3 What do we call people who live permanently in a
country?
a. citizen
b. foreigner
c. local
d. outsider
4.4 Which of is our duty to our family?
a. to study regularly
b. to play games
c. to take part in election d. to respect our elders
At what age can a citizen become a voter?
a. 16 years
b. 18 years
c. 20 Years
d. 22 years
4.6 The members of a city corporation are called
a. citizen
b. chief of the corporation
c.
chairman
d. commissioners

4.5

5.

Answer briefly.
a. What is needed to build up a healthy life?
b. Write about three rights of a child.
c. What are our rights in school?
d. What are our duties to society?
e. What is the main duty of a citizen?
f. What are the rights of children in a family ?
g. Write down our duties in school.
h. What is Human Right?
i. Make a list of the duties of a child to family.

Chapter Nine

Dignity Of Labour
Some of us live in villages and some in towns. We all live in
houses. Our houses should always be clean. We feel well to
live in clean houses. Our health will also be good. We can
study better. So we will always keep our houses clean and
tidy. What should we do to keep our houses nice and tidy? Let
us read the table below.
To keep houses nice and tidy
1. We will sweep the compound every morning and evening.
2. We will dust the furniture everyday.
3. We will arrange things in the house everyday.
4. We will clean the toilet and bathroom every morning and
evening.
5. The rubbish should be thrown in a particular place.
It is not enough to keep the house clean. We will keep the
surroundings clean also. Or dust and dirt will be piled up. This
makes our environment dirty. Nobody likes a dirty
environment. We will be attacked with diseases if we live in
this kind of environment.
Our parents work to keep the house clean; others also work for
it. They sweep the rooms and the compound. They make beds,
chairs and tables and almirahs clean. They wash plates,
glasses, jugs and bowls.

They clean our bathrooms and toilets. They clear up the


rubbish. They also do different kinds of works to keep the
surroundings of the house clean.
We will always take care to keep our house clean and tidy. We
will help our parents and other persons in this work.
Now we shall fill in the table below.
In what respect we shall help our parents to keep the house
clean
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Besides we shall arrange neatly our own books, exercise
books, pens and pencils. We shall keep our clothes and other
things clean.

Picture 1: Helping parents in household works

We will not be afraid of any work. We shall not dislike to do


any work. We will love do work with our own hands.
We have learnt about different kinds of works in the house.
We need many needs in society, such as we need food,
clothes, houses, transport, education, medical services etc.
People from different professions meet our needs.

Workers
Some people do physical work. They are called labourers. The
main types of labours of our country are:
9. Porter
1 . Farmer
2. Weaver

10. Hawker

3. Fisherman

11. Boatman

4. Blacksmith

12. Rickshawpuller

5. Potter

13. Mason

6. Tailor

14. Carpenter

7. Barber

15. Electrician

8. Cobbler

16. Factory Worker etc

Now we will learn about these workers


Farmer : A farmer grows paddy, wheat, pulse and vegetables.
We get food from them.
Weaver : A weaver weaves clothes. We make dresses from this
cloth.

Fisherman: A fisherman catches fish in canals rivers and seas Fish


is our favourite food.

Blacksmith: A blacksmith makes ploughs, scissors and knives


We use them for various works.

Potter : A potter makes flower pots, jars, pots, water jars with
clay. We use them for various works.
Tailor : A tailor makes our dresses.
Barber : A barber cuts hair.
Cobbler : A cobbler mends our shoes.

Porter : A porter works at railway stations, steamer ghats, bus


terminals and bazars. They carry our goods.
Hawker : A hawker sells things in lanes and localities.

Boatman : A boatman rows boats. He carries us as well as our


goods.
Rickshawpuller: A rickshawpuller takes us to different places
and carries our goods to different places as well.

Mason : A mason builds our house with bricks, cement, sand,


iron rods etc.

Carpenter : A carpenter makes chairs, tables, beds, doors


windows amirahs with wood.
Electrician : An electrician installs electric lines, electrical
goods and also repairs them.

Factory Workers: They work in different factories. They


make many useful goods for us.

There are many workmen around us. We will write some


name of the workmen in the table below.
1.
2.

Workers around us
3.
4.

Professional:
There are some professions also. Their professions do not
need physical labour. People do their work with their
knowledge and intelligence. They are called professionals.
In our country the main professionals are
1. Teacher
5. Doctor
2. Judge
6. Engineer
3. Lawyer
7. Agriculturist
4. Journalist
8. Nurse
Now we will learn about the works of different professionals.
Teacher : A teacher helps his students with his teachings to be
good human beings.
Judge : A judge passes judgment in courts.
Lawyer : A lawyer assists in matters of judgment in courts.
Journalist : A journalist collects information and news from
home and abroad. We can know it from journalists, from
newspapers, from radios and televisions.

Doctor : A doctor treats our diseases.


Engineer : An engineer makes plans of roads, bridges and big
buildings. They supervise the making of these things. They
also make different types of machines.
Agriculturist: An agriculturist works for the development of
agriculture. He does research about how to breed new seeds of
crops.
Nurse : A nurse looks after the sick.

We shall write about more professionals in the table below:

1.
3.
2.
4.
We have learnt about some workers and professionals. We
have also learnt about their works. All the workers and
professionals

are important. We depend on them for various reasons. We


respect all workers and professionals and all their works.

Exercise
1.

Fill in the blanks with right words.


1.
2.
3.
4.

2.

3.

She will always keep our houses .


To keep our house beautiful and clean we shall
our parents and other.
Those who do physical work are called .
We shall
all workers and professionals.

Write 'T for true and F for false by the left of the
following statements
1.

We shall love to work with our own hands.

2.
3.
4.

A farmer weaves clothes in a loom.


A blacksmith makes pots with clay.
In our society we need workers and professionals.

Match the words on the right with the ones on the left.
a. No work will make us
fisherman
b. In a court the work of a
a lawyer
judge is helped by
afraid
c. Fish is caught from canals respected
and rivers by
Judge
d. All works should be

4.

Put a tick () mark against the correct answer.


4.1 Who cultivates paddy, wheat, pulse and vegetables?
a. Fisherman
b. Blacksmith
c. Farmer
d. Potter
4.2 Who builds our house with bricks, cement, sand and
iron rods etc?
a. Mason
b. Blacksmith
c. Hawker
d. Tailor
4.3 Who helps the judge in his works?
a. Judge
b. Lawyer
c. Teacher
d. Doctor
4.4 Who teaches us?
a. Agriculturist
c. Engineer
b. Judge
d. Teacher

5.

Answer briefly
a. In which works should we help our parents to keep the
house clean?
b. What are the needs we have in society?
c. Write down the names of five workers and five
professionals.
d. Why should we respect all workers and professionals?

Chapter Ten

Democratic Attitude
We are young. We live in a family with our parents, brother
and sister. Besides, there are many neighbours, relatives and
friends. We have classmates and teachers and others in the
school. All of them are part of our society. People of different
ages live in our society. Some are senior to us and some are
junior to us. We shall think for a while about who are senior to
us and who are junior to us in our houses and schools.
Now we will write the names in the table below.
Senior to us

Junior to us

In the house-

In the house-

In school -

In school-

What can we learn from the table? In our house and school
there are some people who are senior to us. The senior persons
give their opinion on different matters. Sometimes the young
also express their views. A person can express his personal
views, give advice on different matters. Different persons can
have different ideas on different matters.
No work can be done properly if the opinions differ. For this
the majority must have the same opinion. All should come to a
conclusion. We must accept the opinion of the majority. When
we obey the opinion of the majority, it is called democratic

attitude. We can solve many problems in the house and in the


school if we are democratic. We must listen to our seniors in
the house and in the school. We shall respect the opinion of
the majority. We shall show democratic attitude in all
activities.
How to choose a class captain or class leader?
In school every class has a captain or a class-leader. Many of
us would like to be a captain. But is it possible to make all
captains? How is it possible to make one a captain? A story
will let us know all about it.
It is class III Section 'C'. The year begins. The class has thirty
students. One student will be elected captain. Naila expresses
her desire that she wants to be a captain. Seeing it, Mamun
also wants to be the captain. Three or four other students also
express the same desire. The teacher face a problem as many
students want to become captain. How to elect the captain? At
last the captain was elected according to a rule. It was
At first the teacher wrote the names of the students who
wanted to be captain. He then called their names one by one.
Then he asked the students to raise their hands on behalf of a
particular student they wanted to choose as the captain.
Counting the hands he wrote the number against the name of
the prospective candidate. It was seen that the number against
Naila's name was the largest. In other words, the majority of
the students were in Naila's favour so she was elected captain.

Picture: 1. Election of captain in a classroom

From the story we have learnt about how to choose a captain in


the classroom. Besides captain can be elected by writing the
name on paper. In this way the opinions of all can be brought
into a single opinion. We all shall take part in electing a class
leader.
The works of a class- leader
The class leader is our classmate. He is one of us. He is our
friend. He is elected by all. So he has a lot of duties to his
classmates. Everyday he has a lot of works to do. Now we shall
remember the duties of a class captain and write them in the
table below.
The responsibilities and duties of a class-leader.
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
A class-leader does many duties everybody, for example (a) to
keep the blackboard clean (b) to collect the homework from
his classmates and submit them to the teacher (c) to inform the
class teacher or headmaster of the illness of any student or of
any problem (d) to keep the classroom clean with the help of
other classmates. So a class captain does many things. But the
main duty of the captain is to help the class teacher in his
work and also to maintain discipline in the classroom, A
Captain cannot perform duties alone. In our house we cannot
do without the help of our parents, brothers and sisters. In our
school we cannot study without the help of our class captain.
So in the class we shall help the class captain in different
activities. For, he is our elected leader. We will always keep in
mind that he is our classmate and friend.
It is not that there will be only one leader in a class all the year
round. Many of us may strongly desire to be the class leader.
What can we do then? New leader may be elected from time
to time. This may fulfill the desire of many. This will create
new leaders also. We will always show democratic attitude in
electing a leader. In other words, we will elected a new leader
on the basis of the opinion of the majority.

Exercise
1.

Fill in the blanks with the right words


a. It is the of a person to give his own opinion and
advice.
b. If the opinion no work can be done properly.
c. We will show attitude in our work.
d. It is the duty of the class leader to in works of
the class.

2.

Write T' for true and 'F' for to false against the following
sentences.
a. In our house all the people have the same opinions.
b. Nobody can become the captain in the classroom on his
own will. ;
c. Only one class-leader will remain in the classroom all the
year round.
d. A class-leader himself will do all the duties.

3.

Match the words on the left with the ones of the right.
a. The class leader is
of the elders
b. We shall respect the opinion our classmates
of
c. To maintain discipline in the democratic attitude
class-room is the duty of
the class captain co-operation
d. To accept the opinion of the
majority is

4.

Put a tick () mark against the correct answer.


4.1 What is democratic attitude?
a. To respect the opinions of all
b. To impose upon others
c. To respect the opinion of the majority.
d. Not to accept the opinion of the majority.
4.2 Why should we help our class captain in various
works?
a. Our classmate
b. Our elected leader
c. Good at study
d. Teacher likes it
4.3 Why was Naila made captain in the story of the
election of a class leader?
a. No other student wanted to become captain.
b. The teacher liked Naila more.
c. The majority of the students chose Naila as their
captain.
d. Naila became captain by force.

5.

Answer briefly:
a. How can we come to a conclusion if we differ in our
opinion in a particular matter?
b. What is democratic attitude?
c. Why should we show democratic attitude in different
matters?
d. What are the responsibilities and duties of a class leader?
e. Why should we help the class leader in different works?

Chapter Eleven

Different Cultures of Different people


We eat different kinds of food. We wear different kinds of
clothes We speak in different languages. We play different
kinds of games. We observe different kinds of festivals. All
these form the culture of a country. Culture shows us different
sides of the life of a man.
In the world culture differs from one region to another.
;
Culture of other regions are sometimes similar and sometime
dissimilar to that of Bangladesh.
Our neighbouring countries are India, Mayanmar, Nepal and
Bhutan.
Here we will learn about the cultures of the two neighbouring
countries. The countries are India and Mayanmar.
India
India is a large country. This large country surrounds three
sides of our own country. Many people live in India.
People of different areas in India look different. Some are
black, some are fair and some are of mixed colour some have
sharp noses and some have blunt noses and some have flat
noses.
In India, different of ethnicity ethic groups speak in different
languages. There are seventeen main languages in that country.
Among them Bangla, Urdu, Punjabi, Assomia, Uria, Gujrati,
Marathi, Telegu, Tamil are important. Besides these, different
small ethnic groups of peoples have their own languages.

Like the people of Bangladesh, most of the people of India eat


rice, fish, pulse and vegetables. Many of them eat bread, pulse
and vegetables. Some of them eat bread and meat as staple
foods.
Different ethnic of India wear different kinds of dresses. Like
our women, many women of India wear saris and blouses.
Some wear shalwar and kameez. Some wear frock-skirt and
other wear long skirt and blouse. Men wear trousers and shirts.
Many wear pyjamakorta. Men from many areas wear shirt and
dhuti-punjabi.

Picture 1: People of India are wearing various types of clothes.

A list of the dresses of the people of India and Bangladesh


Man's dress
Woman's dress
India
Bangladesh
India
Bangladesh
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.

Most of the people of India are followers of Hinduism. But in


that country there are also people who are Muslims,
Buddhists, Christians, Shikhs, Persi and Jains.
As in Bangladesh, football, cricket, kite-flying are popular in
India. Besides they play local games like
ha-do-do,
gollachhut, kanamasi etc.
As in Bangladesh, in India the singers sing classical music,
folk-song, and modern songs. Some famous dances of India
are Orisi, Bharat Natyam, Monipuri, Kathak etc.
Mayanmar:
Mayanmar is on the south-east coast of Bangladesh. The
previous name of the country was Burma. The eyes of the
people of this country are small. The faces are somewhat
round. Noses are not sharp. Most of the people of Mayanmar
speak Barmi, Some of them speak 'Arakani'
Most of the people of Mayanmar are the Buddhist religion.
But there are many people in that country who are Muslims,
Hindus and Christians. In Mayanmar there are 'Maths' in both
towns and villages. The Buddhist priests live in these pagodas
and teach religious education. Pagodas or Buddhist temples
are loved by the people of Mayanmar.
Like the people of our country, most of the people of
Mayanmar live in villages. Most of the houses in the villages
are made of bamboos and fences. But the rich families live in
wooden houses. In cities most of the houses are brick-built.
The women of Mayanmar wear coloured lungis and blouses.
They stick

flowers in their hair. Men wear shirt with lungi. Now-a-days


many people of Mayanmar wear modern cloths. Women
wear frock-shirt and men wear trouser and shirt.

Picture 2: Various kinds of dresses of the people of Mayanmar.

The people of Mayanmar mainly eat rice. They eat rice from
small round bowls instead of plates. Their favorite dish is
'khaushay.'
It is cooked with noodles mixed with chickens. Another
favourite dish is fish-kopta
The birth anniversary of Goutama Buddha is the greatest
festival of Mayanmar. The pappet dance is also popular in
Mayanmar. Their favourite games are football, kite flying
hide and seek and boat-race etc, Tobin tong, Ouzi and ai yak
are favourite dances of the people of Mayangmar.
The cultures of India and Mayanmar are sometimes different
and sometimes similar.

We shall fill in the table below.


Name of
the country
Bangladesh
India
Mayanmar

Main Main
Language

Main Food
Religion

Dress

games

We shall respect different cultures.

Exercise
1.

Fill in the blanks with right words


a. In India different ethic groups speak in languages.
b. Mayanmar is on the of Bangladesh.
c. The majority of the people of Mayanmar speak .
d. The people of India wear different kinds of .

2.

Write 'T' against the true statement ant 'F' against false
statement.
a. Culture shows all sides of human life.
b. India is a small country.
c. Many people live in India.
d. Most of the people in Mayanmar are Muslims.

3.

Match the words on the right with the ones on left.


a. The main language of India is Barmi
b. The main religion of India is
Hindi
c. The main language of Cricket
Mayanmar is
Hindu Religion

d. Thefavouritegameof Mayanmar
Puppet-dance
is
4.

Put a tick () mark against the correct answer.


4.1 What is culture?
a. Dress of people
b. Food for people
c. Language of people
d. All
4.2 What is the main language of India?
a. Bangla
b. English
c. Hindi
d. Marathi
4.3 Which is the favourite dish of the people of
Mayanmar?
(a) Khaushay
b. Rice
(c) Game birth
d. Sweets
4.4 What is the favorite game of the people of India?
(a) Kanamasi
b. Tennis
(c) Volly-ball
d. Cricket

5.

Answer briefly:
a. What kinds of clothes do the people of India wear?
b. What kinds of games do the people of India play?
c. Describe the food of the people of Mayanmar.
d. Which are the popular dances of Mayanmar?

Chapter Twelve

The High Growth of Population in


Bangladesh and its Problems
The area and population of Bangladesh:
In world map Bangladesh is a very small country. Its area is
187.570 square kilometer. Our country is very small in
comparison to the neighbouring countries like India and
Mayanmar. Though Bangladesh is a small country, it has a
large population. The census of 2001 says that the population
of the country was thirteen crores and thirty thousand. This
population is larger than that of any country. The number of
male is 51 percent and the number of female is 49.
We have learnt about the area and population of our small but
beautiful country. Now we shall fill in the table below writing
in our exercise book.
Area
Population
Percentage of the females
Percentage of the males
In respect of area Bangladesh is the ninetieth country of the
world, but in respect of population it holds the ninth position.
So we can realize that the population of our country is very
large. Its main reason is the very fast growth of population.

The population of our country is increasing fast. If we look


around, we can only see large crowds. Large number of people
are seen on roads and in transports. So, the growing
population is the main problem of Bangladesh
The
government has marked this If as its main problem.

Picture 1 : Crowds of people can be seen on roads and in transports.

Family and population


We live in families. Usually a family consists of parents,
children, grandfather, grandmother, uncles and aunts. Besides,
there are other persons also. All the members of all the
families in the country form the total population of the
country. The population of the country is less if each family
has few members. The population increases fast if the
members in the family are large in number.
There are pictures of two families below. We shall count the
members of the families and write down below.

Picture 2: the number of members

Picture 3: number of members

What can we see in the pictures? In the picture in the left hand
side we see a family with two children-there are four
members. In the picture in the right hand side we see a family
with nine members. Let us decide which family is big and
which is small.
Usually, a small family consists of few children. And a big
family consists of a large number of children. In our country a
small family consists of two children.
We have learnt about a small and a big family. Now we shall
count our family members and the numbers of members in
some families we know, and write them down in our exercise
books. Now we shall compare the size of the family. In this
way we can identify a big and a small family easily.
The advantages of a small family
We need foods, clothes, books, exercise books, pencils etc. for
our daily use in the family. The needs of a small family can be
easily fulfilled. Parents can provide nutritious food if there are
few children. Besides, we can wear nice clothes. We can live
in

nice houses. We can sleep comfortably. We can get medical


care easily if we are sick. We can also study happily. This is
good for our health and mind.

Picture 4: The advantages of a small family

The disadvantages of a big family


Can all these demands be
met if the family is big? It
is not possible at all.
Because income does not
increase
with
the
increasing number of
people in the family. As a
result, members do not
get enough
nutritious
food and suffer from
malnutrition and get sick.
If they are ill, they often
cannot effort treatment.
Picture 5: The disadvantages of a big family

Besides necessary clothes are not available for all. For this,
children suffer in winter. In a big family many people huddle
together in one room and many have to sleep on one bed. It
causes troubles to all. In big families the children do not get
chance. So they remain illiterate. A big family can only give
the boys opportunity for education and other facilities. As a
result the girls lag behind in education. They also do not get
other facilities. But the education for girls is necessary for the
development of a country.
There are two pictures of a small and a big families in the
previous page. We will look at the pictures carefully and fill
the table below by writing down some advantages and
disadvantages of big and small families.
The advantages of a small family

The disadvantages of a big family

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

Population and environment


A good environment is very necessary for a healthy living,
But the environment is becoming unhealthy day by day. we
can find out its reason easily. Its main reason is the rapid
growth of population. Growth of population spoils the
environment of homes and on the other hand it affects the
surrounding environment also.
A large family needs more rooms. So we build rooms in
empty spaces, Due to this, children cannot walk and play in
open