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DC/DC conversion Cookbook

A simple step by step guide to select the most appropriate voltage regulator for your application

Piercarlo Scimonelli

Presentation outline

What you need to know, to discuss intelligently

Checklist and Selection Procedure

Examples / ST products

2

Voltage Regulators

A Voltage Regulator keeps a constant Output Voltage with varying:

Output current

Input voltage

line regulation

Input Voltage
(Vin)
Output Voltage
(Vout)
Voltage
Regulator
Output Current
(Iout)

The three most important parameters: Vin, Vout, Iout

3

Ideal Voltage Regulator V-I Characteristic

Vout
Iout

4

Voltage Regulator simplified block diagram

Voltage regulators operate by comparing the output voltage to an internal fixed reference. The difference is amplified and used to control the output voltage. This is what we call a closed-loop feedback.

5

Classification of power switching topologies

Source: APPLICATION BRIEF 0014 (N.Siciliano)

6

Step down Converter (Buck)

SW1
I L
T
I
ON
o
SW2

V

O

V IN

D

T

ON

T

I SW1
I SW2
I L
Vsw
T ON
T

Io

Vo

Closing the loop Voltage Mode

Closed Loop Feedback (Voltage Mode)

V C

sawtooth
D·T s
T s

L597x

L598x

L798x

Closing the loop Current Mode

V in

R
SEN
L
K
R
V o
i
PWM
Co
i L signal
Slope
R
2
Compensation
V
FB
Network
R
1
Comparator
v
c
Error
V ref

Op-Amp

Closed Loop Feedback (Current Mode)

Error OpAmp output (Vc)
Slope comp
Inductor
current signal
D·T s
T s

ST1Sx

L692x

1)

2)

Power dissipation in Voltage Regulators

Power dissipated when the switches are closed (conduction losses):

P ON = I OUT 2 x (R DSONHS x D + R DSONLS x (1-D) + R L )

Power dissipated during the commutations (switching losses):

P SW = V IN x I OUT x F SW x (T ON + T OFF )/2

3)

Power dissipated when the device is not switching:

P Q = V IN x I Q

Power dissipated in a linear regulator:

P D = (V IN -V OUT ) x I OUT + V IN x I Q

Example: low Iq regulators in powering STM32

Current consumption:

Depends on operating mode

Decreases at lower VDD

Inreases with temperature

Increases with clock speed

STM32L Vcc: 1.8V to 3.6V, Icc: 1uA to 100mA

Supply current in standby is the same order of magnitude as the quiescent current

of voltage regulators

STLQ015

150mA, Ultra Low Quiescent Current LDO regulator

Input Voltage from 1.5V to 5.5V

Ultra Low Quiescent Current:

1.0 μA (typ) at no load

1 nA (typ) in OFF mode

Fixed V OUT : 0.8V to 3.3V

Stable with low ESR, SMD ceramic caps

SOT666-6L (1.2x1.6mm)

Switching Frequency Impact

Performance

Efficiency

(needs low frequency) (needs low frequency)

(needs high frequency)

(need high frequency) (needs high frequency)

 • Thermal • Output Voltage Ripple • Dynamic Performance • Board space availability
Typical cases:

~100kHz

To maximize efficiency (Energy harvesting) SPV1040

250-500KHz

High voltage buck

regulators

(Industrial/Autom otive) L7985, L7986,

PM668x

600KHz-1MHz

Cost/performance

(Consumer/Compu

ter) ST1S40, L6738

1MHz-3MHz

Portable

applications / size constraints (Trade off between board space and efficiency)

ST1S31/32,

STBB1, STLA02

3MHz up to

6MHz

Extreme board

space

constraints (Portable Fitness, Smart phones/tablets)

STBB2,

ST1S15

PFM vs. PWM switching control

PWM (pulse-width modulation)

.

Low noise and better EMI control due to constant switching

frequency (easy to filter out);

Lower power efficiency at light load (because of swithing losses)

PFM (pulse-frequency modulation)

PFM

High power efficiency over a wide range of load.

Variable sw frequency (Noise and EMI);

Higher output voltage ripple

High efficiency at light load: L6925/6/8 Step-down switching regulators

V IN : 2V 5.5V (2.7V 5.5V for L6925)

Differentiating functions:

L6925: LBI & LBO, UVLO @ 2.7V L6926/L6928: PGOOD & RUN

V OUT : adjustable 0.6V V IN (100% DC)

1% output voltage accuracy

I OUT up to 800mA

25uA quiescent current

Selectable Low noise or low consumption mode (PWM/PFM)

Freq.: 600KHz, synchronizable up to 1.4 MHz (L6925/6)

Freq.: 1.4MHz synchronizable up to 2 MHz (L6928)

Current Mode Control

Thermal shut down (150C)

L6925

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L6928 low noise or low power (burst) mode

Burst mode
High efficiency
Low noise
Forced PWM
Vin 4.2V
Vout 1.5V
Iout 30mA
Rc
Cc
330pF

20Kohm

Cin/Cout 10uF

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Switching regulator selection based on output current

HS1
LS1

Switching Converter: internal mosfet(s), up to 5A load, compact

HS1
LS1

Single Output Switching Controller: external mosfets, up to 30A load, very high efficiency

HS1
LS1
HS2
LS2
HS1
LS1
HS2
LS2

Multi-Output Controller or Converter Compactness

Multiphase controller Load higher than 30A High efficiency, low ripple, fast transient response, small i/o filters

Switching Regulator vs. Linear Voltage Regulator

Linear Regulator:

No inductor MOSFET or Bipolar pass element <500mA typ, up to 7A

Low noise, low efficiency

LDO: Low Drop-Out (voltage regulator)

The drop-out voltage is the minimum voltage across the regulator to maintain regulation

Vin

Vin

Vin

Vin

Vin - Vout
Vin - Vout
Vin - Vout
Vin - Vout

Vout

Vout

Vout

Vout

Vin

Vout

Standard Linear Regulators (L78xx, LM317)

Vdrop >2V

Semi Low-Drop

(LD1117/LD108x)

Vdrop 0.8V-1.5V

Very Low-Drop

(LFxx/LD29xxx)

Vdrop 0.2V-0.7V

Ultra LDO (LD39xxx) Vdrop <0.2V

V OUT
AC coupled
100mV/div
C OUT =47uF
L=6.8uH
F SW =500kHz
I L
0.5A/div
Timescale
100us/div

V IN =12V, V OUT =3.3V, SR ILOAD =2.5A/us

VIN=5.5V C IN =1µF, C OUT =10µF, I OUT = from 1µA to 10mA

Vout
{
{
BW of Error Amplifier
vs.
Power consumption
Iout

Soft-Start

L598x

Staircase ramp on internal V REF

64 steps, 9mV each step

32 clock cycles each step

SR

VREF

SR

VOUT

0 . 6
F
SW
2048

SR

VREF

1
R
1
R
2

Synchronous rectification vs. non-synchronous

12V Vin
3.3V Vout
3A Iout
ST1S10
L7981

23

Synchronous rectification vs. non-synchronous

L7981
Is a synchr. converter
always more efficient
than a non-synchr?
ST1S10
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Application requirements in a DC/DC conversion - summary

 • Input Voltage (V IN ) • Output Voltage (V OUT ) • Output DC current (I OUT ) • Power Conversion Efficiency: a measure of power losses smaller package Switching frequency: ON/OFF time of power switch Impacts size of external • and longer battery life components and efficiency • Quiescent Current (Iq): required to power internal circuitry Impact on light load efficiency • Package Thermal Resistance Rth: ability to dissipate heat impact on board space and robust thermal design • Switching control (PWM – PFM): noise vs. efficiency at light load • Feedback loop (Voltage Mode vs. Current Mode) •

The best device is that which fits

the application

DC/DC Selection Procedure Summary

From Vin and Vout, select the topology (step-up, step down, buck-boost)

Based on the output current and efficiency, choose between controller (ext. FETs), converter (int. FETs) or Linear

Select the device starting from the input voltage spec and max DC current (if integrated FETs) to meet the application requirements of input voltage range and load

Consider any other design constraint: operating temperature range, switching frequency, quiescent current, light load efficiency, synchronization, board space, transient response, power good, soft start, output ripple etc… etc…

Always ask what is “key” to the application

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DC-DC Conversion Portfolio

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Linear Voltage Regulators
Low Drop Out (LDOs)
Shunt Voltage Ref.
Battery & Power Management
PMICs
ASSP
ASICs
Switching Controllers (ext. FETs)
Switching Converters (int. FET)
& LED drivers
Single and Multi output
Single and Multi phase
Power over Ethernet (PoE)

Switching Converter segmentation

Non synchronous, high Vin
Synchronous, high
ST1S14, L798x, L597x, L598x
PMxx, ST1Sxx, L692x

Consumer Value Line 12V Vin, 3-4A, synchr. ST1S40, ST1S41

Battery powered applications L692x, PM6644, ST1S1x

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A597x, A798x

High performance, 3-5A synchr. PM8903, ST1S31/2, L5988/89

Continuous output current from 350mA to 4A

Wide range of max input voltage: 5V TO 60V

SOT23, Q/DFN3x3 and 4x4mm, HSO8, and TSSOP

Step Down Converters First buying choice

L4976
L4971

Synchronuos

NON-Synchronous

L7986

ST1S10

ST1S31

L7985

L5970

 L5972/3A L5973/4A L5974/5A L5975 L7980 L7981
L6902
PM6644
L5980
L5981
L5983
L5985/45
L5986
L5987/47
ST1S03
ST2S06
ST2S08
ST1S03A
ST1S15
ST1S12
L6925/6/8
ST1S06
ST1S09
ST1S30

ST1S40

PM8903

L5988/89

PGood

ST1S41

ST1S32

L4978

ST1S14

L4973

Synchr. high

0

1

2

3

4

MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT

5

6

L7985-L7986

2-3A output current in QFN3x3-10L and HSOP8 packages

P-channel power MOS: 100% DC operation and no bootstrap capacitor

High switching frequency (250KHz, adjustable up to 1MHz) with Synchronization capability (180° out of phase)

Wide input voltage range (4.5V up to 38V)

200ns minimum Ton

Internal Soft-start

Enable pin

Embedded protection features

Suitable for MLCC output filter

Typ R DSon =150mΩ

QFN10 3x3
HSOP8
L7986/A
L7985/A

3A / up to 1MHz

2A / up to 1MHz

QFN 3x3 10L - Rth j-amb 60 C/W
HSO8 - Rth j-amb 40° C/W
 Package Output Commercial Code Current SO8 3A ST1S40IDR SO8-BW 3A ST1S40IPHR DFN4x4 – 8L 3A ST1S40IPUR DFN4x4 – 8L 4A ST1S41PUR HSOP8 4A ST1S41PHR

ST1S40/41

Switching Frequency: 800kHz

Continuous output Current Capability: 3/4A

4/5A peak current limit

Operating Input voltage 4V to 18V

Ceramic Capacitors and small Inductor

Soft-Start integrated circuit

Integrated 69mOhm Low side R DSon

Integrated 95mOhm High side R DSon

Efficiency: up to 95%

Enable pin or Power Good

SO8, HSOP8 and MLP4x4 packages

Pin-to-pin with ST1S10

SO-8

ST1S41
ST1S40

4A / 850kHz

DFN 8L

4x4mm

3A / 800kHz

HSOP-8

PM6644

350mA step down and 3.3V voltage reference

4.5V to 25V input voltage range (35V AMR)

Vout: fixed 3.465V or adjustable 0.9V to 8V

350mA valley current limit

Constant On-Time Control

Progr. switching frequency in PWM mode

Pulse skipping mode at light load

Latched OVP and UVP

High accuracy (±0.6%) 3.3V reference

32

LDO Positioning (≤500mA)

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

Semi-low drop 0.8V<VDROP<1.7V
Very-low drop 0.2V<VDROP<0.7V
ST715
Ultra-low drop VDROP<0.2V
L4931
KFxx
LD2979
LD2980
LD2981
LD2985
LFxx
LDFMxx
LK112
LK112S
STLQ50
LD39115
LD3985
LDS3985
LD39015
LD59015
LD39030
LDCL015
LD39130
LDLN015
LD39050
STLQ015
LDK115
LD3980
LDK120

AG

0
100
200
300
400
500
600
MINIMUM GUARANTEED OUTPUT CURRENT

P. Scimonelli - APM Jun 2011

LDO Positioning (≥500mA)

35
L4940
L4941
LD1085
LD1086
30
Semi-low drop 0.8V<VDROP<1.7V
25
Very-low drop 0.2V<VDROP<0.7V
KFxx
Ultra-low drop VDROP<0.2V
LDFMxx
20
LD1117
LD1117A
AG
LFxx
15
LDFMxx
ST1L02
ST1L04
LD29080
LD29150
LD29300
10
LD39080
LD39150
LD39300
5
ST1L05
LD49150
LD49300
LD39050
LD39100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
MINIMUM GUARANTEED OUTPUT CURRENT
P. Scimonelli - APM – Jun 2011
MAXIMUM OPERATING INPUT VOLTAGE

LDOs in portable applications

LD39015J: 150mA - CSP4 bumps 1x1mm 2

LD39115J: 150mA - CSP4 bumps 0.8x0.8mm 2

LD39030SJ : 300mA, Soft-Start - CSP4 bumps 0.8x0.8mm 2

LD59015: 150mA, Very High PSRR, SC70

LDCL015: 150mA Capless, SOT23

LDLN015: 150mA Very Low Noise, DFN2x2

LD39130: 300mA - CSP4 bumps 0.69x0.69mm2 and DFN 1.2x1.3

DC/DC conversion for 5V Vin or lower

Voltage Regulation & Battery Chargers

STBB1 Buck boost STLQ015 1.7uA Iq, 150mA Iout, LDO

STLQ50 3 μA Iq, 50 mA Iout, LDO

LD39015/LD39115 Low noise, 150 mA Iout, on/off

L6924D Lithium battery charger STW4102 Lithium Battery charger L6920D 1 A step-up, low Iq, down to 0.6 Vin L6928 Sync step-down, 95 % 2-5.5 Vin ST1S15 - 500mA, 6MHz, high efficiency buck

PM6644 - 350mA, high efficiency buck + 3.3V Vref

SPV1040 boost with MPPT for solar battery chargers
LMV4041- 1.2V Vref with 0.1% accuracy in SC70
Display drivers
STLA02 (6 LED backlight driver)
STLED25 (2x5 LED backlight driver)
STP2/4CMP (2/4 ch charge pump)
STODxx (AMOLED)

DC/DC conversion for 12V Vin

CONVERTERS (Int.FETs)

• Consumer
• Computer
• Anything powered off your friendly wall wart
CONTROLLERS (Ext.FETs)
Part Number
features
Package
V INPUT /V OUT range
F SW
L6726A, L6727
Up to 19V V INPUT ,
0.8V min V OUT
270/300khZ
EN, SS, OCP, OVP, UVP
SO8
L6728
Up to 13,2V (15V ABS) V INPUT ,
0.8V min V OUT
300/600KHz
EN, SS, OVP, OCP, PGOOD
DFN10
SO16N
OVP(Latch - No Latch), UVP, OCP (CC or HICCUP),
L6725, L6730
4.5V to 14V V INPUT ,
0.6V min V OUT
HTSSOP16
Up to 1MHz
PGOOD (with adj. delay) , SS (Sink - No Sink), IHN, Ext
L6731, L6732
QFN24 4x4
or Internal REF, Adj UVLO, SYNC., Sink- No sink cap.
HTSSOP20
L6738
Up to 19V V INPUT ,
0.8V min V OUT
EN, SS, OVP, OCP, PGOOD, differential CS &
“GREEN low power mode”
QFN16 3x3

DC/DC conversion for 24V to 55V Vin

CONTROLLERS (Ext.FETs)

 PN V OUT # V OUTSW V OUTSW V OUTS V I V IN range package (SW +LDO) 1 2 W 3 OUTLDO(S) LDO PM6670/A 1+1 Adj. - - V INLDO /2 2A Up to 28V /36V QFN 4x4 PM6675/A 1+1 Adj. - - Adj. 2A Up to 28V/36V QFN 4x4 PM6680/A 2+1 Adj. Adj. - 5V 200mA Up to 28V/36V QFN 5x5 PM6681/86 2+1 Adj. Adj. - Adj. 100mA Up to 28V QFN 5x5 PM6685 2+2 3.3V 5V - (1)3.3V + (2)5V 100mA up to 28V QFN 5x5

CONVERTERS (Int.FETs)

• Industrial Applications
• Printers

Automotive/Marine battery Powered applications

Tools and resources

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40

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Presentation Title

25/04/2012

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