Sie sind auf Seite 1von 21

Introduction to Research in

Communication

(08-01-16)

Subject: Module Communication Degree in Publicity and Public Relations

January 2016

Teacher: Jordi Serra

Let’s start with 6 presentations….

6 candidates + examples & questions

+ doubts related to the lectures (test)

Different phases in the process of research

Conceptual phase (I)

Design phase (II)

Empirical phase (III)

Analytical phase (IV)

Different phases in the process of research

Conceptual phase (I)

We are supposed to have determined our topic of research.

1 st : Initial question (in relationship our topic of research)

2 nd : Initial conception (wider than initial question)

3 rd : we have to define the objectives of our investigation.

Setting objectives…

Are all the verbs the same?

(These actions are required in the process of investigating. Therefore, they are not a goal by themselves).

Objective:

Therefore, they are not a goal by themselves). Objective: Establish, Identify, In this context, these verbs

Establish, Identify,

In this context, these verbs are wrong!
In this context, these verbs are wrong!

Analyse, Calculate, Investigate,…

WHY?

These actions are not an objective by themselves. They are just a consequence of the process of research.

Different phases in the process of research

Conceptual phase (I)

We are supposed to have determined our topic of research.

1 st : Initial question (in relationship our topic of research)

: Initial question (in relationship our topic of research) 2 n d : Initial conception (wider

2 nd : Initial conception (wider than initial question)

3 rd : we have to define the objectives of our investigation.

In the process of research, we need internal coherence. We have to provide an answer to these questions at the end of the research. (Conclusions)

Different phases in the process of research

Conceptual phase (I)

4 th : We have to write our theoretical framework.

it must take into consideration:

our theoretical framework. it must take into consideration: - Antecedents (compulsory) -Theoretical approach

-Antecedents (compulsory) -Theoretical approach

-Conceptualization

In the process of research, we need internal coherence. We have to provide an answer to these questions at the end of the research. (Conclusions)

Different phases in the process of research

Conceptual phase (I)

We are supposed to have determined our topic of research.

GENERAL OBJECTIVE

to have determined our topic of research. GENERAL OBJECTIVE Specific objective 1 Specific objective 2 Specific

Specific objective 1

Specific objective 2

Specific objective 3

They have to give an answer to

the initial question

(if there is a lack of coherence , the quality of research decreases)

As researchers, we are supposed to provide an answer for every single

specific objective.

Different phases in the process of research

Design phase (II).

Methodology (which criteria will we follow?)

Depending on the finality of the research:

Different phases in the process of research

Design phase (II).

-Some criteria, depending on:

-finality

-temporal scope -depth

-sources of information

-character

-nature

Different phases in the process of research

Design phase (II). Criteria:

Methodology (which criteria will we follow?)

Depending on the finality of the research:

we follow?) Depending on the finality of the research: - basic: it just focuses on theoretical

- basic: it just focuses on theoretical research. (concept)

- applied: it investigates any phenomena using

observation. Ex: city image

Different phases in the process of research

Design phase (II)hodology (which criteria will we

follow?)

Depending on the temporal scope of the research:

follow?) Depending on the temporal scope of the research: - sectional: research based in a particular

- sectional: research based in a particular period of

time.

- longitudinal: research that spreads within time.

(we study something through years)

- Retrospective

- Prospective

- Panel

- Tendency

Depend on time(we study something through years) - Retrospective - Prospective - Panel - Tendency Depend on cases/

Depend on cases/ objects of studywithin time. (we study something through years) - Retrospective - Prospective - Panel - Tendency Depend

Different phases in the process of research

Design phase (II)hodology (which criteria will we

follow?)

Depending on the temporal scope of the research:

-sectional

- longitudinal: research that spreads within time. (we study something through years)

- Retrospective: series of time referred to the past.

- Prospective: series of time referred to the present/ future.

Ex: Willingness to vote X political party in 2016 and 2020.

- Panel: when we study the same person in different moments.

- Tendency: when we study similar people* in different

moments. Ex: grade of happiness of students 1r Publicity and

Public Relations (2015-2016); (2020-2021)

Different phases in the process of research

Design phase (II)hodology (which criteria will we

follow?)

Depending on the depth of the research:

-exploratory: the investigation just consists in looking for

information

-descriptive: the investigation consists in describing what is

going on (regarding the research)

-explicative: the investigation gives reasons why something happens (regarding the research)

Different phases in the process of research

Design phase (II)hodology (which criteria will we

follow?)

Depending on the sources of information:

of research • Design phase (II) hodology (which criteria will we follow?) Depending on the sources

Different phases in the process of research

Design phase (II)hodology (which criteria will we

follow?)

Depending on the sources of information:

-Primary: interview, questionnaires, observation,

-Secondary: documents which exist before our investigation. Ex: (studies, %, data, ex 1)

-Combined: depending on the research

Different phases in the process of research

Design phase (II)hodology (which criteria will we

follow?)

Depending on the character of our investigation:

-Qualitative

-Quantitative

Qualitative Character

Main ideas:

they crave to discover the sense and the meanings of the topic of research (qualitative techniques)

Ex: in-depth interviews, focus group,….

Quantitative Character

Main ideas:

They pay attention to objective aspects and easy to quantify. They require quantitative techniques. They are used to describe situations as well as explain them.

Ex: survey, quantitative analysis of content….

Different phases in the process of research

Design phase (II)hodology (which criteria will we

follow?)

Depending on the nature of the research:

-Empirical: they work with facts from direct experience, no

treaten data.

-Experimental: to induce phenomena or situations created in

laboratory.

-Documental: direct observation from documental sources.

-Surveys: data provided by verbal or written information

provided by objects of research.

Different phases in the process of research

METHODOLOGY(which criteria will we follow?)

If it is not coherent, the whole process fails.

(I) Unity of observation

(II) Population and Sample

(III)

Techniques of investigation

(IV)

Tools to collect data