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# Module 3

Voltage Regulation
By: Dr. Hamid Jaffari

## Primary Voltage Considerations

Transmission Voltage
Impacts the distribution bus voltage

peak, high, normal, light

Type of conductor
Impedance of the conductor plays significant role

## What type of regulation

LTC
Bus

Circuit
Supplemental

Voltage Drop - DC
Remember Ohms Law?
The voltage drop calculation is quite easy
Only need to know the resistance of the

## conductor, the load current and the

sending voltage

V IR
V L V S ( I R)
3

Voltage Drop DC
If the voltage is constant (DC) there is only the

## line resistance contributing to the voltage drop

line impedance
Sending
Voltage = VS
R
Voltage = VL

VD = I*R
VL

VS

Volt Drop Vs - VL IR
4

## Feeder Voltage Profile

The voltage profile of the circuit is not constant

## Voltage Drop Equation-AC

(approximate)
Distribution
Transformer

line impedance

One line
representation

jx

R
Sending
Voltage = VS

Voltage = VL

Graphical Representation :

VL V S I (R jX)

-jIX

## Note VL VReciving & VS VSource

VL

VS VL VDrop I (R jX)

VS V R I (R jX)

-j
I Ie IRCos jIXSin

V S V0

VS

Error

-IR

IR COS

IX SIN
VS VR IZ
Vs VR (ICos jISin ) x(R jX)
VS VR IR Cos jIX Cos jIR Sin IX Sin
VS VR I ( R Cos X Sin ) jI ( X Cos R Sin )
VDrop VS VR I ( R Cos X Sin ) negligible

## VDrop(Line - to - Ground) I ( R Cos X Sin ) for one conductor

6
VDrop(3 - phase) 3 x VDrop( Line to Ground )

Voltage Drop - AC
Vector diagram for lagging & leading situations
Could you identify?
Distribution
Transformer

line impedance

One line
representation

jx

R
Sending
Voltage = VS

Voltage = VL

-j IX

-IR

VL
Vector
representation

VS

-IR

Vector
representation

VS
-jIX

VL

Voltage Drop - AC
Power line has inductive (jXL ) and/or capacitive (-JXc)

Reactance
The voltage drop can be reduced with the application of
a capacitor bank correcting for line inductance
The example here still has a lagging power factor
Distribution
Transformer
One line
representation

VL V S - I ( R jXL-jXC ) V S - I R-j I XL j I XC

Kvar
Bank
-jX

line impedance

jX

Sending
Voltage = VS

Voltage = VL

VL V S I R j I ( XL XC )

I Ie- j

V S V0

VL

Vector
representation

-IR
VS
8

## Voltage Drop Calculation

Where:
L1 is distance from source to desired point

## L is the total circuit distance

is the average power factor angle or angle between Voltage & Current.
Z RCos XSin is the line impedance to the point in question and is the

L1

2
10kVl l 3
2L

Three
Phase

%Vd

Single
Phase

## kVA( R cos X sin ) L1

L1
%Vd 2

2
10kVl gnd
2L

Distribution systems are dynamic

## Circuits have various load types

Constant Impedance
Constant Current
Constant KVA

## (i.e. Voltage Drop Calculator for DEED.xlsx)

(i.e. VoltageDropCalculator.xls)
(I.e. Motor Application Tools.xls)

## Customers expand and contract

Circuits change configuration
Transmission voltages are not constant
There are many different styles and sizes of XFMRs
The distance between the loads is not the same
So, how can we reduce calculations?

10

System

## A Circuit supplies many loads with varying

density

Main line 3
Lateral taps - 3, 2, and/or 1

11

## Case 1: Concentrated load at

end of feeder
The ANSI C84.1 voltage range must be

maintained

Distribution
Transformer

Receiving
Voltage = VL

line impedance

jX

Sending
Voltage = VS

Concentrated

rrent

Maximu
m

Volts

Supply

urrent

Max
Min

12

Basic Application
Guideline

## A uniformly distributed load on a feeder will

create half of the voltage drop of a similar
load lumped at the end of the feeder.

## However, the distribution circuit is not

uniformly loaded. However, it can be reduced
to sections that are assumed uniformly
loaded and then the lump sum equivalent
would be used at specific distances.

13

If you combine all of the load in a

## switchable section at the switch, a good

worst case model can be developed
Use peak demand for the greatest
voltage drop
Use light load for the least voltage drop
Do not forget to add in capacitors

14

Diagram
kVA1

kVA2

kVA3

kVA4

Circuit1
Station

L1

L2

L3

L4

L5

Volts

Max
Min

Supply

Distance

Tie
Point

15

One can assume a uniformly distributed load

## total per phase (A,B,C)

Take the total load of the circuit and divide
by the distance in feet.
One can argue that only the three phase line

## needs to be used but there are many instances

where a very long single phase tap can have
excessive primary voltage drop.

## increments at equal distances.

The smaller the distance divisions, the more

16

Service Drops

17

## Secondary Layout considerations

Primary voltage applied at the transformer terminals
Do not assume rated voltage
Distance and conductor from the transformer to the

## PCC or service entrance of the customer

For single phase services the Vd is doubled
Other customers that are served on the same
secondary conductor. Be aware of the load limit of
the secondary cable
Special equipment and motors

18

Secondary Layouts
Try to locate the transformer at the load center
This does not depend upon the number of service

drops
It is dependent upon the demand of each
service
Hs 1

Hs 3

Hs 5

150ft

Hs 2

Hs 7

170ft
Hs 4

kVA

Hs 6

Hs 8

19

## Secondary Layout Problem

Where would the transformer be placed if

## the load was as follows

House #4 installs Central air
Secondary is 0.16ohms per thousand feet
Service cables are 100ft and 0.39ohms per thousand

feet
Hs 1
4.2kW

Hs 3
2kW
150ft

Hs 2
3.8kW

Hs 4
3.4kW

Hs 5
1.6kW

Hs 7
2.9kW

Hs 9
4.2kW

170ft
Hs 6
4kW

Hs 8
3.2kW

Hs 10
3.8kW

20

## Typical voltage drops of

system components
Residential wiring
Service drop
Secondary
Distribution transformer
Primary feeder

## Total drop (sum of all)

2-4 volts
1-2 volts
2-3 volts
2-3 volts
2-3 volts

9-15 volts

As you review the circuit voltage profile, keep in mind that the
service entrance or PCC voltage should not be below 114 volts
The peak load condition of the customer may not be at the same
time as the peak load of the circuit.

21

Typical Distribution
System voltage profile
Primary Feeder

Substation

First
Customer

Distribution
Transformer

Voltage

125

3 Volts
Primary Feeder
This point should not
exceed ANSI limits

115

110

Last
Customer

## Upper ANSI limit (126V)

128

120

Secondary

First Customer
This point should not
be less than ANSI limit

3 Volts
Distribution Transformer

3 Volts
Secondary & Service Drop
4 Volts
Customer Wiring

Last Customer

22

kVA1

kVA2

kVA3

Circuit1
Station

L1

L2

L3

L4

## per unit value at each load center.

Circuit is 13.2/7.62kV GrdY
Voltage at the bus is 1.00 during peak and 1.04 at light loads

## Peak load demand is 6.3MVA and balanced

L1, kVA1 = 3.5kft, 2.1MVA

## L2, kVA2 = 5.7kft, 2.9 MVA

L3, kVA3 = 2.8kft, 1.3MVA

## Light load demand is 40% of peak

Assume Z Line 0.053 j0.125 0.13578

23

## Voltage Drop Example4

A single phase tap off a 12.47GrdY/7.2kV

mainline is shown
What is the current at each load level?
What is the voltage drop?

## unit, what is the per unit voltage level at the load?

kVA
250 at peak
500ft of 1/0 Al single
phase w/neutral
Circuit1
Mainline

per kft

## Answer: Voltage Drop Examples4 (2) new.doc

24

Application of Shunt
Capacitors
What is a Capacitor?
Energy storage device

plates separated by an
insulating medium (oil,
Vacuum)
Used in power system
mainly to improve PF and
increase voltage
25

## Applying Shunt Capacitors

Improves the power factor

## Reduces voltage drop

Improves voltage regulation

## Reduces system losses

Reduces peak kW and kVar demands on

system, thus:
Increasing feeder capacity
Releasing transmission & generation capacity

26

## Two ways to operate the bank

Fixed bank
This bank is always on the system supplying VArs
as long (as the fuse is in service)
Switched Bank
This bank is placed in service only when the VAr
demand of the system exceeds the fixed supply
The banks can be placed
At the Transmission/Distribution substation
On the Utilitys distribution system
On the customers system

27

## Methods of Control Signals

Voltage

Current
Power Factor or VAr flow
Time
Temperature

28

by 90o

29

by 90o

30

PF of 0.7

31

Unity PF

32

## Capacitors Release Capacity

33

Example:
A 13.2kV circuit is supplying 6895kVA at 90

## percent power factor. Calculate the consumed

kW and kVAr
Apply 1800kVAr to the circuit
Calculate the new pf, and kVA
How much kVAr is required for unity pf?
kVA
6895
1800
6321

kW
6205.5
6205.5

kVAr
3005.5
-1800
1205.5

pf
0.90
0.98

34

Placement of Capacitor
banks

35

Tips
Try to maintain the voltage rise between 2 and 5

percent.
Locate as close as possible to the demand for kVAr.
The total voltage rise is dependent upon the circuit impedance back

to the source.
The resulting decrease in the reactive current flow will also
contribute to the voltage increase.
Pay attention to the feeder regulation and the voltage level at the
application point.
Keep in mind that the core losses of the distribution line transformers
will increase with the increase in voltage.

36

## Voltage Profile With a

Capacitor Bank
Vs
Feeder

end

Substation

With Capacitor

Voltage

Without Capacitor

Sub.

Cap. Bank

end

37

## Voltage Rise due to Capacitor

I is the total current

before correction
Once the switch is
closed, Ic reduces I by
supplying the needed
VArs at the application
point
Due to the reduced total
current, the voltage
drop between the
sending and receiving
points is reduced
This is why capacitors
are viewed as a voltage
source

38

## Calculating Voltage Rise

Relationship
This can be seen

graphically by
solving the vector
diagram with
segregated
capacitor current
vectors

## Voltage Rise X C I C Note : Try to M aintain ( 2% VRise 5%)

where :
X C reactance between capacitor and source
IC

## kVAr of capacitor per phase

kVline to neutral

39

## Voltage Rise Calculation

How to calculate Voltage Rise?
%Voltage Rise

KVACapacitor x X x d
10 x kV 2

where :
X The line Reactance per mile
d Distance from substation in mile
kV line - to - line voltage

## system with a 1800 KVAR Cap bank installed 3miles

away from the substation. Note Assume XL=0.8/mile
Assume XL 0.8 / mile
1800 x 0.8 x 3
%Voltage Rise
0.826%
2
10 x (22.86)
40

Voltage calculation
The effect of leading power factor or

overcompensation.
VR VS Voltage Drop
VD I(R cos X sin )
0 90 90
- 90

cos (-90) 0
sin (-90) - 1

VR VS I ( X ) VS IX
41

## The modified 2/3 Rule

Calculate or record the demand kVA and pf between

## switch points on the circuit

Determine the kVA and pf for the four load levels
Place 2/3 of the required capacitors at 2/3 of the
distance down the feeder between switching points.
If more capacitor banks are required for peak loads,
install one or two switched banks.
If one, 1/2 of the distance of the circuit
If two, 1/3 and 2/3 of the distance
Watch the voltage rise!

42

## Example of cap banks

An example of the

relationship between kW
and kVAr demand.
Assume station capacitor
is on during peak.
Fixed would be
300kVAr.
Switched would be
450kVAr
One 300 timed
One 150 current

43

## Fixed and Switched Capacitors

An effective program of capacitor placement for

## distribution feeders is to determine the size of a fixed

bank by the 2/3 rule to meet the VAr demand
requirements for the normal load demand located
between two switch points.
Note that the power factor for customer classification during

normal load demand periods will not be the same for peak
periods.

## Add a switched bank equal to the VAr demand at high

Then add an optimally sized switched bank which is
switched on during the period of peak reactive demand
Make sure that voltage rise does not exceed 5%

44

## Example: Consider the following

Find the total complex power of the system

## and the total power for each element of the

system shown in this figure.
S1

R1=10

X1 = j20

E1

S3

S2

I1
Source
100 00
rms

V1

X2= -j200

X3= j200

I2

S4

R4=100

I3

I4

## Source: Courtesy of Power Distribution Engineering, JJ Burke

45

Example 1
The net impedance is
ZTOTAL R1 jX 1

1
1
1
1

jX 2
jX 3 R4

10 j 20

1
1
1

100
j 200 j 200

I

E
Z TOTAL

0.89 10.3

## Source: Courtesy of Power Distribution Engineering, JJ Burke

46

Example 1
The total complex power, S, as seen by the source is
E 1000 & I 0.89 10.3

Complex Power :
S E I * 1000 x 0.8910.3 8910.3

47

Example 1

## The power factor seen by the source is

cos cos 10.3 0.98

## The voltage at the load node is

V1 E I1 ( R1 jX 1 )
1000 .89 10.3 (10 j 20)
1000 19.953.1 100 11.94 j15.9
V1 88.06 j15.9 89 10.3
48
Source: Courtesy of Power Distribution Engineering, JJ Burke

Example 1
The power (S2) consumed by X2

~ *
~ ~ * ~ V1
S 2 V1 I 2 V1

jX 2
2
2
~ ~*
V1
V1
V1V1

j
*
( jX 2 )
jX 2
X2

892
j
j 39.8
200
Note: The sign (-)on the power indicates
that it is supplying VArs.

## Source: Courtesy of Power Distribution Engineering, JJ Burke

49

Example
The power (S3) consumed by X3 is
S3

V1

( jX 3 )

V1

jX 3

V1

X3

j 39.8 VArs

S4

V1
R4

2
*

79.2 watts

50

Example

## The power consumed by R1 is

S P jQ I ( R1 ) 7.92 j 0 watts
2

## The power consumed by X1 is

S P jQ I1 ( jX 1 ) 0 j15.8 VArs
2

## Source: Courtesy of Power Distribution Engineering, JJ Burke

51

Example
The total power of the circuit is

R1
X1
X2
X3
R4
TOTAL

P
7.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
79.2
87.1

Q
0.0
15.8
-39.8
39.8
0.0
15.8

52

## Example 2 - remove the

capacitor
What is the impact if the customers capacitor bank is

R1=10

S1

X1 =j20

S3

I1
E1

Source
100 00
rms

V1

X3=j200

R4=100
I3

S4

I4

53

## Example 2: The changed impedance

Ztotal R1 jX 1

10 j 20

1
1
1

jX 3
R4
1
1
1

j 200 100

j 200
10 j 20
1 j2

10 j 20 80 j 40
Ztotal 90 J 60 10833.7

## Source: Courtesy of Power Distribution Engineering, JJ Burke

54

Example 2 continued
The current is now
E
1000
I

0.926 33.7
Z Total 10833.7

## The total complex power is

~
S E I * 1000 x .92633.7
92.633.7
77.0 watts 51.4 VArs
Source: Courtesy of Power Distribution Engineering, JJ Burke

55

Example 2 continued
And the voltage across the load is

V1 E I1 ( R1 jX 1 )
1000 0 .926 33.7 (10 j 20)
1000 20.729.7 100 17.93 j10.35
V1 92 j10.35 82.7 89

56

With CAP X3

Without CAP X3

## Current Demand 0.89 A

0.926 A

Total Real
Power

87.1 W

77 W

Total Reactive
Power

15.8 VAr

51.4 VAr

Total supplied
Power

89 VA

92.6 VA

Voltage @ the

89 V

82.7 V

PF= 98.39%

PF= 83.17%
57

Summarizing Points
Capacitors
Are used to provide VAr support (power factor

correction)
Are not a voltage source
By reducing the reactive current, provide less
voltage drop
Can be applied as fixed or switched
Fixed banks are on all the time and should be sized
appropriately
Switched banks should be in two stages
The application of the capacitors will improve the
efficiency of the system and relieve capacity

58

Voltage Control

59

## Common Voltage Problems

Common problem are:
Low Voltage
This can be corrected via line regulation, the addition

## of capacitor banks, transformer taps, decreasing the

resistance by changing conductor or by using
combinations
Flickering lights
More common during low voltage (peak) situations
Happens due to rapid changes in the voltage seen by
the light fixture
High Voltage
Causes increased losses in transformer cores

60

## Voltage Control Objective

Objective: to provide each customer with

## a voltage that conforms to the voltage

design limitations of the utilization
equipment
Engineering objective is to maintain the ANSI
defined operational voltage limits.

61

## ANSI Voltage parameters

ANSI C84.1 Voltage Standard
(Allowable voltage limits for systems with service voltages less than 600 volts)
Classification

Range A (Normal)

Range B (Emerg.)

Service Voltage

## 110 to 127 volts

Utilization Voltage

## exceed 3% - under no-load conditions.

The electric utility is responsible only for satisfying the service
entrance or PCC voltage requirements!
Customers are responsible for maintaining proper voltage
downstream of the service entrance or PCC

62

## Voltage Regulation Definitions

Voltage Regulation

## points on the distribution system in percent of

nominal voltage.
PCC - Point of Common Coupling
The point where utility equipment is connected to the

customer equipment

63

## Typical Feeder voltage profile

First
Customer

Last
Customer
Upper ANSI limit (126V)

Voltage

125

3 Volts
Primary Feeder
3 Volts
Distribution Transformer

120
3 Volts
Secondary Drop

3 Volts
Service Drop

115
Lower ANSI limit (114V)

110

Last Customer

64

## Feeder voltage profile

Typical profile - no voltage compensation
First
Customer

Last
Customer
Upper ANSI limit (126V)

Voltage

125

120

115
Lower ANSI limit (114V)

110

Last Customer

65

GE Flicker Curve
Elevators, etc.

Ar
Furnaces,
c
etc.

Spot
Welders,
etc.

% Voltage Fluctuation

Lights &
Refrigerators, etc.

Per Hour
Border Line of
visibility

Per Minute

Per Second

Fluctuations

66

## Voltage Regulation Equipment

Substation bus regulators
Circuit regulators
Supplementary line regulators
Transformers with taps
Equipment that has an impact on system

## voltage but is not a voltage source

Fixed capacitors
Switched capacitors
Explained in the capacitor application section

67

115 kV Supply

115 kV Supply

changer
13.8 kV Side

Substation Bus
Breaker

Breaker

Circuit
main line

Substation Bus
Breaker

Breaker

Circuit
main line

Breaker

Breaker

Circuit
main line

Bus
Regulation
13.8 kV
Side

Breaker

Breaker

Circuit
main line

68

115 kV Supply
115 kV Supply

13.8 kV Side

13.8 kV Side

Substation Bus

Substation Bus
Breaker

Breaker

Breaker

Breaker

Dedicated
circuit
regulation
Circuit
main line

Circuit
main line

Breaker

Breaker

Breaker

Breaker

Circuit
main line

Circuit
main line

Supplemental
circuit
regulation

69

## Three Phase or Single Phase?

The decision involves cost and application
Three Phase units
Work best for circuits serving 3 phase balanced load
Phase control is gang operated therefore one phase can be

## Single phase units

Allows the engineers to regulate each phase independently
Best application for circuits that serve large percentage of
Higher maintenance costs

70

## What Regulator is Made of?

The main components

A tapped autotransformer
A tap/switch that can operate

A voltage sensing circuit
Requires a PT, CT & a reactor

## A controller to operate the

tap/switch

71

Voltage Regulator
Typical regulation has a range of +/- 10% voltage
Uses taps at set new ratio, called steps, 32 of them
Diagram below is only the increase steps
+10%

6.25%

Source
(Input)
Volts

(Output)
Volts
0%

72

73

## Conservation Voltage Regulation

(Reduction) or CVR
Definition: CVR is way to improve energy
efficiency and lower electrical demand
without impacting power quality.
How? by lowering distribution feeder
voltage while maintaining ANSI C84.1
Standard
Lowers losses

74

## Operational Tips Utilizing

Regulators
Maintain proper voltage at first and last

customer (114Voltage126)
Line Drop Compensation (LDC)

## Maintain voltage at the desired point on a feeder

equipment (Regulators??)
Be aware of Capacitors

75

## Feeder voltage profile

Feeder profile with supplemental regulation
kVA1

Circuit1

kVA2

B
First
Customer

Last
Customer
Upper ANSI limit (126V)

125

Voltage

Station

Supplemental
circuit
regulation

120

115
Lower ANSI limit (114V)

110

76

Operational considerations
Time delay settings
Regulator should not respond to short
duration voltage sags.
Time delays of downstream regulators
must be coordinated.
Delays in the range of 30 to 90 seconds
are typical.
Bandwidth or sensitivity settings
Cannot be smaller than smallest possible
tap change amount.
Most utilities use 1.5 to 3 volts.

77

Operational considerations
Place Regulator to Neutral and Non-

## auto when switching or tying to other

sources.
Check to make sure the float voltage is

## not too high, the bandwidth is correct

and that the LDC is correctly
established.

78

## How to Size 3 Regulator?

3 regulator
4160 V system (3 or 4 wire)
+ 10% regulation

278 A

2000 kVA
4.16kV

.1 4.16 3 278
200 kVA

79

## How to Size S Regulator?

1 Regulators
4160 Volt 3, 4-wire system
2000 kVA 3 load, 278 amps
+ 10% regulator

278 A

4160 V
2000 kVA

kVA 1

.1 2.4 278
66.67 kVA
3 - 66.67 kVA, 1, 2.4kV, + 10% Regulators
80

## Line Drop Compensation (LDC)

LDC is used to correct for voltage drop on the circuit
Must know the CT and PT ratio of the regulator control circuit
Requires knowing the distance and the impedance of the circuit

(R&X value)
Need to know the existing voltage levels before changing the
compensation
Factor in all capacitor banks
Watch out for the voltage regulation impact on transformers with
secondary taps

## Where is the best starting point?

Answer: where the voltage drop from the source to

## the application point is equal to the voltage drop from

the application point to the end of the circuit

81

## Equations to Calculate LDC Settings

In the case of 3f regulators; 3 single f regulators; or
one 1f regulator on the circuit
To calculate RLDC and XLDC in ohms:
RLDC = RL x (CT Ratio/PT Ratio)

## XLDC = XL x (CT Ratio/PT Ratio)

To calculate RLDC and XLDC in volts:

## RLDC = RL x (CT Primary Rating/PT Ratio)

XLDC = XL x (CT Primary Rating/PT Ratio)

82

Compensation
100:0.2A

IL
RL=1.5

XL=2

Source

ERO

2400V

RLDC

XLDC

ER

VBR

120V

RLDC RL

C.T. RATIO
100 2400
1.5

37.5
P.T. RATIO
.2
120

XLDC XL

C.T. RATIO
100 2400
2

50
P.T. RATIO
.2
120

RLDC RL

100
1.5
7.5 Volts
P.T. RATIO
20

XLDC XL

100
2
10 Volts
P.T. RATIO
20

83

## Why Regulators have time delay?

Why controller of the regulator has a time delay feature?
To avoid reaction to rapid changes in the load demand occur which

## can cause the voltage to exceed the settings

Capacitor switching, Motor Starting

## To prevent arc caused by movement of regulators contacts

There is a maximum number of changes that the regulator can do before failure may

occur

84

settings?

30 Sec.
Time Delay

40 Sec.
Time Delay

## delay settings. Allow the station regulators

to operate before any supplemental line
regulators

85

## 30-second time delay setting

The voltage level must exceed the

## bandwidth for 30 seconds before the tap

changer will respond
In this case, no tap change occurs
Controller Volts

120.75V

120.00V

119.25V

118.50V
12

10

20

30

40

Seconds
86

Equations to Calculate
Regulator Ratings
Single phase application

## kVA Regulator Iload kVL-G Regulator Range

Three-Phase application
kVA Regulator Iload kVL-L Regulator Range 1.732

## Note: Open delta - consists of 2 single-phase regulators

Each Regulator kVA Iload kVL-L Regulator Range
87

Summarizing points
Know the ANSI C84.1 voltage standards
Obtain voltage and current readings from the circuit

## before and after setting the voltage regulation

Voltage Drop Equation
Primary and secondary must be considered
Be sure to check both the light and peak load
conditions
Understand Line Drop Compensators
Watch out for season changes
Regulator KVA is less than power passing through it.

88

References
1. J.D. Golver, M.S. Sarma, Power System Analysis and design,
4th ed., (Thomson Crop, 2008).
2. M.S. Sarma, Electric Machines, 2nd ed., (West Publishing Company,
1985).
3. A.E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley, and S. Umans, Electric
Machinery, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983).
4. P.M. Anderson, Analysis of Faulted Power systems(Ames, IA: Iowa
Satate university Press, 1973).
5.W.D. Stevenson, Jr., Elements of Power System Analysis, 4th
ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982).
6. J.J.Burke, Power Distribution Engineering (Marcel Dekker, INC, 1994).

Solution
Break
Time !!!!!