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Module 3

Voltage Regulation
By: Dr. Hamid Jaffari

Primary Voltage Considerations


Transmission Voltage
Impacts the distribution bus voltage

Amount of load current


peak, high, normal, light

Type of conductor
Impedance of the conductor plays significant role

What type of regulation


LTC
Bus

Circuit
Supplemental

Voltage Drop - DC
Remember Ohms Law?
The voltage drop calculation is quite easy
Only need to know the resistance of the

conductor, the load current and the


sending voltage

V IR
V L V S ( I R)
3

Voltage Drop DC
If the voltage is constant (DC) there is only the

line resistance contributing to the voltage drop


line impedance
Sending
Voltage = VS
R
Receiving Load
Voltage = VL

VD = I*R
VL

VS

Volt Drop Vs - VL IR
4

Feeder Voltage Profile


The voltage profile of the circuit is not constant

throughout the load cycle

Voltage Drop Equation-AC


(approximate)
Distribution
Transformer

line impedance

One line
representation

jx

R
Sending
Voltage = VS

Receiving Load
Voltage = VL

Graphical Representation :

VL V S I (R jX)

-jIX

Note VL VReciving & VS VSource

VL

VS VL VDrop I (R jX)

VS V R I (R jX)

-j
I Ie IRCos jIXSin

V S V0

VS

Error

-IR

IR COS

IX SIN
VS VR IZ
Vs VR (ICos jISin ) x(R jX)
VS VR IR Cos jIX Cos jIR Sin IX Sin
VS VR I ( R Cos X Sin ) jI ( X Cos R Sin )
VDrop VS VR I ( R Cos X Sin ) negligible

VDrop(Line - to - Ground) I ( R Cos X Sin ) for one conductor


6
VDrop(3 - phase) 3 x VDrop( Line to Ground )

Voltage Drop - AC
Vector diagram for lagging & leading situations
Could you identify?
Distribution
Transformer

line impedance

One line
representation

jx

R
Sending
Voltage = VS

Receiving Load
Voltage = VL

-j IX

-IR

VL
Vector
representation

VS

-IR

Vector
representation

VS
-jIX

VL

Voltage Drop - AC
Power line has inductive (jXL ) and/or capacitive (-JXc)

Reactance
The voltage drop can be reduced with the application of
a capacitor bank correcting for line inductance
The example here still has a lagging power factor
Distribution
Transformer
One line
representation

VL V S - I ( R jXL-jXC ) V S - I R-j I XL j I XC

Kvar
Bank
-jX

line impedance

jX

Sending
Voltage = VS

Receiving Load
Voltage = VL

VL V S I R j I ( XL XC )

I Ie- j

V S V0

VL

Vector
representation

-IR
VS
8

Voltage Drop Calculation


Distributed load on the line

Where:
L1 is distance from source to desired point

L is the total circuit distance

is the average power factor angle or angle between Voltage & Current.
Z RCos XSin is the line impedance to the point in question and is the

angle between the voltage and the current.

kVA( R cos X sin ) L1


L1

2
10kVl l 3
2L

Three
Phase

%Vd

Single
Phase

kVA( R cos X sin ) L1


L1
%Vd 2


2
10kVl gnd
2L

Facts about Power Systems


Distribution systems are dynamic
Circuit loads change with the load cycle

Circuits have various load types


Constant Impedance
Constant Current
Constant KVA

(i.e. Voltage Drop Calculator for DEED.xlsx)


(i.e. VoltageDropCalculator.xls)
(I.e. Motor Application Tools.xls)

Customers expand and contract


Circuits change configuration
Transmission voltages are not constant
There are many different styles and sizes of XFMRs
The distance between the loads is not the same
So, how can we reduce calculations?

10

A Typical Radial Distribution


System

A Circuit supplies many loads with varying


density

Main line 3
Lateral taps - 3, 2, and/or 1

11

Case 1: Concentrated load at


end of feeder
The ANSI C84.1 voltage range must be

maintained

Distribution
Transformer

Receiving
Voltage = VL

line impedance

jX

Sending
Voltage = VS

Concentrated
Load

Minimum Load Cu
rrent

Maximu
m

Volts

Supply

Load C
urrent

Max
Min

Load

12

Basic Application
Guideline

A uniformly distributed load on a feeder will


create half of the voltage drop of a similar
load lumped at the end of the feeder.

However, the distribution circuit is not


uniformly loaded. However, it can be reduced
to sections that are assumed uniformly
loaded and then the lump sum equivalent
would be used at specific distances.

13

Modeling Your Circuit


Lumped load Method
If you combine all of the load in a

switchable section at the switch, a good


worst case model can be developed
Use peak demand for the greatest
voltage drop
Use light load for the least voltage drop
Do not forget to add in capacitors

14

Lumped Load Modeling


Diagram
kVA1

kVA2

kVA3

kVA4

Circuit1
Station

L1

L2

L3

L4

L5

DISTRIBUTED LOAD

Volts

Max
Min

Supply

Distance

Tie
Point

15

Lumped Load Modeling Steps


One can assume a uniformly distributed load
Assume balanced 3-phase load. Add KVA

total per phase (A,B,C)


Take the total load of the circuit and divide
by the distance in feet.
One can argue that only the three phase line

needs to be used but there are many instances


where a very long single phase tap can have
excessive primary voltage drop.

The load is attached to the model in even

increments at equal distances.


The smaller the distance divisions, the more

intervals that require calculation

16

Secondary Networks and


Service Drops

17

Secondary Layout considerations


Primary voltage applied at the transformer terminals
Do not assume rated voltage
Distance and conductor from the transformer to the

PCC or service entrance of the customer


For single phase services the Vd is doubled
Other customers that are served on the same
secondary conductor. Be aware of the load limit of
the secondary cable
Special equipment and motors

18

Secondary Layouts
Try to locate the transformer at the load center
This does not depend upon the number of service

drops
It is dependent upon the demand of each
service
Hs 1

Hs 3

Hs 5

150ft

Hs 2

Hs 7

170ft
Hs 4

kVA

Hs 6

Hs 8

19

Secondary Layout Problem


Where would the transformer be placed if

the load was as follows


House #4 installs Central air
Secondary is 0.16ohms per thousand feet
Service cables are 100ft and 0.39ohms per thousand

feet
Hs 1
4.2kW

Hs 3
2kW
150ft

Hs 2
3.8kW

Hs 4
3.4kW

Hs 5
1.6kW

Hs 7
2.9kW

Hs 9
4.2kW

170ft
Hs 6
4kW

Hs 8
3.2kW

Hs 10
3.8kW

20

Typical voltage drops of


system components
Residential wiring
Service drop
Secondary
Distribution transformer
Primary feeder

Total drop (sum of all)

2-4 volts
1-2 volts
2-3 volts
2-3 volts
2-3 volts

9-15 volts

As you review the circuit voltage profile, keep in mind that the
service entrance or PCC voltage should not be below 114 volts
during peak load conditions.
The peak load condition of the customer may not be at the same
time as the peak load of the circuit.

21

Typical Distribution
System voltage profile
Primary Feeder

Substation

First
Customer

Distribution
Transformer

Voltage

125

3 Volts
Primary Feeder
This point should not
exceed ANSI limits

Lower ANSI limit (114V)

115

110

Last
Customer

Upper ANSI limit (126V)

128

120

Secondary

First Customer
This point should not
be less than ANSI limit

3 Volts
Distribution Transformer

3 Volts
Secondary & Service Drop
4 Volts
Customer Wiring

Last Customer

22

Voltage Drop Example3


kVA1

kVA2

kVA3

Circuit1
Station

L1

L2

L3

L4

For the circuit shown, what is the voltage drop and

per unit value at each load center.


Circuit is 13.2/7.62kV GrdY
Voltage at the bus is 1.00 during peak and 1.04 at light loads

Peak load demand is 6.3MVA and balanced


L1, kVA1 = 3.5kft, 2.1MVA

L2, kVA2 = 5.7kft, 2.9 MVA


L3, kVA3 = 2.8kft, 1.3MVA

Light load demand is 40% of peak


Assume Z Line 0.053 j0.125 0.13578

Answer: Voltage Drop Examples3.doc


23

Voltage Drop Example4


A single phase tap off a 12.47GrdY/7.2kV

mainline is shown
What is the current at each load level?
What is the voltage drop?

If the primary mainline is at operating 0.98 volts per

unit, what is the per unit voltage level at the load?


kVA
250 at peak
115 at light load
500ft of 1/0 Al single
phase w/neutral
Circuit1
Mainline

0.167 + j0.139 ohm


per kft

Answer: Voltage Drop Examples4 (2) new.doc

24

Application of Shunt
Capacitors
What is a Capacitor?
Energy storage device

made of parallel conductive


plates separated by an
insulating medium (oil,
Vacuum)
Used in power system
mainly to improve PF and
increase voltage
25

Applying Shunt Capacitors


Improves the power factor

Reduces voltage drop


Improves voltage regulation

(switched capacitors only)

Reduces system losses


Reduces peak kW and kVar demands on

system, thus:
Increasing feeder capacity
Releasing transmission & generation capacity

26

Two ways to operate the bank


Fixed bank
This bank is always on the system supplying VArs
as long (as the fuse is in service)
Switched Bank
This bank is placed in service only when the VAr
demand of the system exceeds the fixed supply
The banks can be placed
At the Transmission/Distribution substation
On the Utilitys distribution system
On the customers system

27

Methods of Control Signals


Voltage

Current
Power Factor or VAr flow
Time
Temperature
Radio Dispatch

28

Capacitor: Current Leads Voltage


by 90o

29

Inductor: Current Lags Voltage


by 90o

30

Power in a Circuit with a


PF of 0.7

31

Power in a Circuit with


Unity PF

32

Capacitors Release Capacity

33

Example:
A 13.2kV circuit is supplying 6895kVA at 90

percent power factor. Calculate the consumed


kW and kVAr
Apply 1800kVAr to the circuit
Calculate the new pf, and kVA
How much kVAr is required for unity pf?
kVA
6895
1800
6321

kW
6205.5
6205.5

kVAr
3005.5
-1800
1205.5

pf
0.90
0.98

34

Placement of Capacitor
banks

35

Tips
Try to maintain the voltage rise between 2 and 5

percent.
Locate as close as possible to the demand for kVAr.
The total voltage rise is dependent upon the circuit impedance back

to the source.
The resulting decrease in the reactive current flow will also
contribute to the voltage increase.
Pay attention to the feeder regulation and the voltage level at the
application point.
Keep in mind that the core losses of the distribution line transformers
will increase with the increase in voltage.

Use computer models for better accuracy

36

Voltage Profile With a


Capacitor Bank
Vs
Feeder

end

Substation

With Capacitor

Voltage

Without Capacitor

Sub.

Cap. Bank

end

Distance from Substation


37

Voltage Rise due to Capacitor


I is the total current

before correction
Once the switch is
closed, Ic reduces I by
supplying the needed
VArs at the application
point
Due to the reduced total
current, the voltage
drop between the
sending and receiving
points is reduced
This is why capacitors
are viewed as a voltage
source

38

Calculating Voltage Rise


Relationship
This can be seen

graphically by
solving the vector
diagram with
segregated
capacitor current
and load current
vectors

Voltage Rise X C I C Note : Try to M aintain ( 2% VRise 5%)


where :
X C reactance between capacitor and source
IC

kVAr of capacitor per phase


kVline to neutral

39

Voltage Rise Calculation


How to calculate Voltage Rise?
%Voltage Rise

KVACapacitor x X x d
10 x kV 2

where :
X The line Reactance per mile
d Distance from substation in mile
kV line - to - line voltage

Example: Calculate the Voltage Rise for a 22.86kV

system with a 1800 KVAR Cap bank installed 3miles


away from the substation. Note Assume XL=0.8/mile
Assume XL 0.8 / mile
1800 x 0.8 x 3
%Voltage Rise
0.826%
2
10 x (22.86)
40

Voltage calculation
The effect of leading power factor or

overcompensation.
VR VS Voltage Drop
VD I(R cos X sin )
0 90 90
- 90

cos (-90) 0
sin (-90) - 1

VR VS I ( X ) VS IX
41

The modified 2/3 Rule


Calculate or record the demand kVA and pf between

switch points on the circuit


Determine the kVA and pf for the four load levels
Place 2/3 of the required capacitors at 2/3 of the
distance down the feeder between switching points.
If more capacitor banks are required for peak loads,
install one or two switched banks.
If one, 1/2 of the distance of the circuit
If two, 1/3 and 2/3 of the distance
Watch the voltage rise!

42

Example of cap banks


added
An example of the

relationship between kW
and kVAr demand.
Assume station capacitor
is on during peak.
Fixed would be
300kVAr.
Switched would be
450kVAr
One 300 timed
One 150 current

43

Fixed and Switched Capacitors


An effective program of capacitor placement for

distribution feeders is to determine the size of a fixed


bank by the 2/3 rule to meet the VAr demand
requirements for the normal load demand located
between two switch points.
Note that the power factor for customer classification during

normal load demand periods will not be the same for peak
periods.

Add a switched bank equal to the VAr demand at high

load periods
Then add an optimally sized switched bank which is
switched on during the period of peak reactive demand
Make sure that voltage rise does not exceed 5%

44

Example: Consider the following


Find the total complex power of the system

and the total power for each element of the


system shown in this figure.
S1

R1=10

Load

X1 = j20

E1

S3

S2

I1
Source
100 00
rms

V1

X2= -j200

X3= j200

I2

S4

R4=100

I3

I4

Source: Courtesy of Power Distribution Engineering, JJ Burke

45

Example 1
The net impedance is
ZTOTAL R1 jX 1

1
1
1
1

jX 2
jX 3 R4

10 j 20

1
1
1

100
j 200 j 200

ZTotal 110 j 20 11210.3o Z

The source current is


I

E
Z TOTAL

0.89 10.3

Source: Courtesy of Power Distribution Engineering, JJ Burke

46

Example 1
The total complex power, S, as seen by the source is
E 1000 & I 0.89 10.3

Complex Power :
S E I * 1000 x 0.8910.3 8910.3

S 87.1 watts j 15.8 vars

Source: Courtesy of Power Distribution Engineering, JJ Burke

47

Example 1

The power factor seen by the source is


cos cos 10.3 0.98

The voltage at the load node is


V1 E I1 ( R1 jX 1 )
1000 .89 10.3 (10 j 20)
1000 19.953.1 100 11.94 j15.9
V1 88.06 j15.9 89 10.3
48
Source: Courtesy of Power Distribution Engineering, JJ Burke

Example 1
The power (S2) consumed by X2

~ *
~ ~ * ~ V1
S 2 V1 I 2 V1

jX 2
2
2
~ ~*
V1
V1
V1V1

j
*
( jX 2 )
jX 2
X2

892
j
j 39.8
200
Note: The sign (-)on the power indicates
that it is supplying VArs.

Source: Courtesy of Power Distribution Engineering, JJ Burke

49

Example
The power (S3) consumed by X3 is
S3

V1

( jX 3 )

V1

jX 3

V1

X3

j 39.8 VArs

The power (S4) consumed by R4 is


S4

V1
R4

2
*

79.2 watts

Source: Courtesy of Power Distribution Engineering, JJ Burke

50

Example

The power consumed by R1 is


S P jQ I ( R1 ) 7.92 j 0 watts
2

The power consumed by X1 is


S P jQ I1 ( jX 1 ) 0 j15.8 VArs
2

Source: Courtesy of Power Distribution Engineering, JJ Burke

51

Example
The total power of the circuit is

R1
X1
X2
X3
R4
TOTAL

P
7.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
79.2
87.1

Q
0.0
15.8
-39.8
39.8
0.0
15.8

52

Example 2 - remove the


capacitor
What is the impact if the customers capacitor bank is

taken off line (or does not install one)?


R1=10

S1

X1 =j20

Load
S3

I1
E1

Source
100 00
rms

V1

X3=j200

R4=100
I3

Source: Courtesy of Power Distribution Engineering, JJ Burke

S4

I4

53

Example 2: The changed impedance


Ztotal R1 jX 1

10 j 20

1
1
1

jX 3
R4
1
1
1

j 200 100

j 200
10 j 20
1 j2

10 j 20 80 j 40
Ztotal 90 J 60 10833.7

Source: Courtesy of Power Distribution Engineering, JJ Burke

54

Example 2 continued
The current is now
E
1000
I

0.926 33.7
Z Total 10833.7

The total complex power is


~
S E I * 1000 x .92633.7
92.633.7
77.0 watts 51.4 VArs
Source: Courtesy of Power Distribution Engineering, JJ Burke

55

Example 2 continued
And the voltage across the load is

V1 E I1 ( R1 jX 1 )
1000 0 .926 33.7 (10 j 20)
1000 20.729.7 100 17.93 j10.35
V1 92 j10.35 82.7 89

Source: Courtesy of Power Distribution Engineering, JJ Burke

56

What is the change?


With CAP X3

Without CAP X3

Current Demand 0.89 A

0.926 A

Total Real
Power

87.1 W

77 W

Total Reactive
Power

15.8 VAr

51.4 VAr

Total supplied
Power

89 VA

92.6 VA

Voltage @ the
load

89 V

82.7 V

PF= 98.39%

PF= 83.17%
57

Summarizing Points
Capacitors
Are used to provide VAr support (power factor

correction)
Are not a voltage source
By reducing the reactive current, provide less
voltage drop
Can be applied as fixed or switched
Fixed banks are on all the time and should be sized
appropriately
Switched banks should be in two stages
The application of the capacitors will improve the
efficiency of the system and relieve capacity

58

Voltage Control

59

Common Voltage Problems


Common problem are:
Low Voltage
This can be corrected via line regulation, the addition

of capacitor banks, transformer taps, decreasing the


resistance by changing conductor or by using
combinations
Flickering lights
More common during low voltage (peak) situations
Happens due to rapid changes in the voltage seen by
the light fixture
High Voltage
Causes increased losses in transformer cores

60

Voltage Control Objective


Objective: to provide each customer with

a voltage that conforms to the voltage


design limitations of the utilization
equipment
Engineering objective is to maintain the ANSI
defined operational voltage limits.

61

ANSI Voltage parameters


ANSI C84.1 Voltage Standard
(Allowable voltage limits for systems with service voltages less than 600 volts)
Classification

Range A (Normal)

Range B (Emerg.)

Service Voltage

114 to 126 volts

110 to 127 volts

Utilization Voltage

110 to 125 volts

106 to 127 volts

Voltage unbalance at the PCC or service entrance shall not

exceed 3% - under no-load conditions.


The electric utility is responsible only for satisfying the service
entrance or PCC voltage requirements!
Customers are responsible for maintaining proper voltage
downstream of the service entrance or PCC

62

Voltage Regulation Definitions


Voltage Regulation

The voltage drop between two sending & receiving

points on the distribution system in percent of


nominal voltage.
PCC - Point of Common Coupling
The point where utility equipment is connected to the

customer equipment

63

Typical Feeder voltage profile


First
Customer

Last
Customer
Upper ANSI limit (126V)

Voltage

125

3 Volts
Primary Feeder
3 Volts
Distribution Transformer

120
3 Volts
Secondary Drop

3 Volts
Service Drop

115
Lower ANSI limit (114V)

110

Last Customer

64

Feeder voltage profile


Typical profile - no voltage compensation
First
Customer

Last
Customer
Upper ANSI limit (126V)

Voltage

125

Light Load

120

High Load

115
Lower ANSI limit (114V)

110

Last Customer

65

GE Flicker Curve
Elevators, etc.

Ar
Furnaces,
c
etc.

Spot
Welders,
etc.

% Voltage Fluctuation

Lights &
Refrigerators, etc.

Per Hour
Border Line of
visibility

Per Minute

Per Second

Fluctuations

66

Voltage Regulation Equipment


Load Tap Changing (LTC) transformer
Substation bus regulators
Circuit regulators
Supplementary line regulators
Transformers with taps
Equipment that has an impact on system

voltage but is not a voltage source


Fixed capacitors
Switched capacitors
Explained in the capacitor application section

67

Voltage Regulation Techniques


115 kV Supply

115 kV Supply

Load tap
changer
13.8 kV Side

Substation Bus
Breaker

Breaker

Circuit
main line

Substation Bus
Breaker

Breaker

Circuit
main line

Breaker

Breaker

Circuit
main line

Bus
Regulation
13.8 kV
Side

Breaker

Breaker

Circuit
main line

68

Voltage Regulation Techniques


115 kV Supply
115 kV Supply

13.8 kV Side

13.8 kV Side

Substation Bus

Substation Bus
Breaker

Breaker

Breaker

Breaker

Dedicated
circuit
regulation
Circuit
main line

Circuit
main line

Breaker

Breaker

Breaker

Breaker

Circuit
main line

Circuit
main line

Supplemental
circuit
regulation

69

Three Phase or Single Phase?


The decision involves cost and application
Three Phase units
Work best for circuits serving 3 phase balanced load
Phase control is gang operated therefore one phase can be

outside the desired bandwidth

Single phase units


Allows the engineers to regulate each phase independently
Best application for circuits that serve large percentage of
single phase load
Higher maintenance costs

70

What Regulator is Made of?


The main components

A tapped autotransformer
A tap/switch that can operate

under load
A voltage sensing circuit
Requires a PT, CT & a reactor

A controller to operate the

tap/switch

71

Voltage Regulator
Typical regulation has a range of +/- 10% voltage
Uses taps at set new ratio, called steps, 32 of them
Diagram below is only the increase steps
+10%

6.25%

Source
(Input)
Volts

Load
(Output)
Volts
0%

72

Typical Regulator Control Panel

73

Conservation Voltage Regulation


(Reduction) or CVR
Definition: CVR is way to improve energy
efficiency and lower electrical demand
without impacting power quality.
How? by lowering distribution feeder
voltage while maintaining ANSI C84.1
Standard
Provides peak load reduction
Lowers losses

74

Operational Tips Utilizing


Regulators
Maintain proper voltage at first and last

customer (114Voltage126)
Line Drop Compensation (LDC)

Maintain voltage at the desired point on a feeder

Load Distribution
Works best on uniform load.
Non-uniform load may require supplemental
equipment (Regulators??)
Be aware of Capacitors

75

Feeder voltage profile


Feeder profile with supplemental regulation
kVA1

Circuit1

kVA2

B
First
Customer

Last
Customer
Upper ANSI limit (126V)

125

Voltage

Station

Supplemental
circuit
regulation

120

Light Load

High Load

115
Lower ANSI limit (114V)

110

76

Operational considerations
Time delay settings
Regulator should not respond to short
duration voltage sags.
Time delays of downstream regulators
must be coordinated.
Delays in the range of 30 to 90 seconds
are typical.
Bandwidth or sensitivity settings
Cannot be smaller than smallest possible
tap change amount.
Most utilities use 1.5 to 3 volts.

77

Operational considerations
Place Regulator to Neutral and Non-

auto when switching or tying to other


sources.
Check to make sure the float voltage is

not too high, the bandwidth is correct


and that the LDC is correctly
established.

78

How to Size 3 Regulator?


3 regulator
4160 V system (3 or 4 wire)
2000 kVA 3 load 278A
+ 10% regulation

278 A

2000 kVA
4.16kV
Load

KVA 3 Range KVREG 3 I LOAD


.1 4.16 3 278
200 kVA

1 - 200 kVA, 3, 4.16kV, + 10% Regulator


79

How to Size S Regulator?


1 Regulators
4160 Volt 3, 4-wire system
2000 kVA 3 load, 278 amps
+ 10% regulator

278 A

4160 V
2000 kVA
Load

kVA 1

Range kVREG I LOAD


.1 2.4 278
66.67 kVA
3 - 66.67 kVA, 1, 2.4kV, + 10% Regulators
80

Line Drop Compensation (LDC)


LDC is used to correct for voltage drop on the circuit
Must know the CT and PT ratio of the regulator control circuit
Requires knowing the distance and the impedance of the circuit

(R&X value)
Need to know the existing voltage levels before changing the
compensation
Factor in all capacitor banks
Watch out for the voltage regulation impact on transformers with
secondary taps

Where is the best starting point?


Answer: where the voltage drop from the source to

the application point is equal to the voltage drop from


the application point to the end of the circuit

81

Equations to Calculate LDC Settings


In the case of 3f regulators; 3 single f regulators; or
one 1f regulator on the circuit
To calculate RLDC and XLDC in ohms:
RLDC = RL x (CT Ratio/PT Ratio)

XLDC = XL x (CT Ratio/PT Ratio)


To calculate RLDC and XLDC in volts:

RLDC = RL x (CT Primary Rating/PT Ratio)


XLDC = XL x (CT Primary Rating/PT Ratio)

82

Example - Line Drop


Compensation
100:0.2A

IL
RL=1.5

XL=2

Source

ERO

2400V

RLDC

XLDC

ER

VBR

120V

Express RLDC, XLDC in Ohms:

Express RLDC, XLDC in Volts:

RLDC RL

C.T. RATIO
100 2400
1.5

37.5
P.T. RATIO
.2
120

XLDC XL

C.T. RATIO
100 2400
2

50
P.T. RATIO
.2
120

RLDC RL

C.T. PRI. RATING


100
1.5
7.5 Volts
P.T. RATIO
20

XLDC XL

C.T. PRI. RATING


100
2
10 Volts
P.T. RATIO
20

83

Why Regulators have time delay?


Why controller of the regulator has a time delay feature?
To avoid reaction to rapid changes in the load demand occur which

can cause the voltage to exceed the settings


Capacitor switching, Motor Starting

To prevent arc caused by movement of regulators contacts


There is a maximum number of changes that the regulator can do before failure may

occur

To maintain the voltage without excessive operations of the controller

84

Why Regulators have Time delay


settings?

30 Sec.
Time Delay

40 Sec.
Time Delay

Cascading regulators requires proper time

delay settings. Allow the station regulators


to operate before any supplemental line
regulators

85

30-second time delay setting


The voltage level must exceed the

bandwidth for 30 seconds before the tap


changer will respond
In this case, no tap change occurs
Controller Volts

120.75V

120.00V

119.25V

118.50V
12

10

20

30

40

Seconds
86

Equations to Calculate
Regulator Ratings
Single phase application

kVA Regulator Iload kVL-G Regulator Range


Three-Phase application
kVA Regulator Iload kVL-L Regulator Range 1.732

kVA Regulator Iload kVL-G Regulator Range 3

Note: Open delta - consists of 2 single-phase regulators


Each Regulator kVA Iload kVL-L Regulator Range
87

Summarizing points
Know the ANSI C84.1 voltage standards
Obtain voltage and current readings from the circuit

before and after setting the voltage regulation


Voltage Drop Equation
Primary and secondary must be considered
Be sure to check both the light and peak load
conditions
Distributed versus lumped load rule
Understand Line Drop Compensators
Watch out for season changes
Regulator KVA is less than power passing through it.

88

References
1. J.D. Golver, M.S. Sarma, Power System Analysis and design,
4th ed., (Thomson Crop, 2008).
2. M.S. Sarma, Electric Machines, 2nd ed., (West Publishing Company,
1985).
3. A.E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley, and S. Umans, Electric
Machinery, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983).
4. P.M. Anderson, Analysis of Faulted Power systems(Ames, IA: Iowa
Satate university Press, 1973).
5.W.D. Stevenson, Jr., Elements of Power System Analysis, 4th
ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982).
6. J.J.Burke, Power Distribution Engineering (Marcel Dekker, INC, 1994).

Solution
Break
Time !!!!!

Answer: 37.5 KVA