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J Sign Process Syst (2009) 56:141153

DOI 10.1007/s11265-008-0238-y

A Low-Complexity PTS-based PAPR Reduction


Technique for OFDM Signals without Transmission
of Side Information
Theodoros Giannopoulos Vassilis Paliouras

Received: 9 May 2007 / Accepted: 18 March 2008 / Published online: 28 May 2008
2008 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC. Manufactured in The United States

Abstract Increased peak-to-average power ratio


(PAPR) imposes a design challenge for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based signals. An efficient
technique to address the increased PAPR problem
is the partial transmit sequences (PTS) approach. A
significant drawback of PTS is the fact that it multiplies
the transmitted symbol with weighting factors selected
by the transmitter. Since the weighting factors are required for decoding, they are explicitly transmitted, in
most cases. This paper proposes a new low-complexity
technique for retrieving the weighting factors in the
receiver. The proposed decoder uses the predefined
values of pilot tones and explores all the permissible
combinations of weighting factors in order to identify
the factor combination employed by the transmitter.
The proposed decoder requires no additional pilot
tones or explicit transmission of side information,
therefore no data rate loss is implied. Furthermore this
paper presents a digital very large scale integration
implementation of the proposed PTS decoder and
demonstrates its low-power properties.
Keywords OFDM PAPR reduction PTS VLSI

T. Giannopoulos (B) V. Paliouras


Electrical & Computer Engineering Department,
University of Patras, 25600 Patras, Greece
e-mail: giannop@ece.upatras.gr
V. Paliouras
e-mail: paliuras@ece.upatras.gr

1 Introduction
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)
is a very attractive technique for high-bit-rate transmission in wireless applications. Two major drawbacks
of OFDM signals are the high sensitivity to time and
frequency synchronization errors, and the high peakto-average power ratio (PAPR). In OFDM-based systems the transmitted signal obtained as the output of
an inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT), consists of a
sum of N modulated subcarriers, therefore OFDM signals exhibit large dynamic range. When passed through
nonlinear devices, such as a power amplifier (PA), the
amplified signal suffers from distortion and out-ofband noise. In order to combat the problem, highly
linear amplifiers are required [26]. High linearity normally implies low efficiency and large power dissipation
which is prohibitive for use in portable wireless applications [24]. Therefore, the use of PAPR reduction
techniques is of practical importance.
A number of PAPR reduction schemes have been
proposed to alleviate this problem. The simplest approach is clipping the OFDM signal [16]. However
clipping may cause significant in-band distortion and
out-of-band noise. Another solution is to use appropriate block coding which can achieve significant PAPR
reduction at the cost of increased complexity [14].
These schemes require large look-up tables both at the
transmitter and the receiver, limiting their usefulness
to applications with a small number of subchannels.
Two promising and distortionless techniques for improving the statistics of the PAPR are the selective
mapping (SLM) approach [1, 2] and the partial transmit
sequence (PTS) approach [4, 20].

142

The PTS approach is based on combining signal subblocks which are phase-shifted by constant weighting
factors. PTS-based PAPR reduction can be exploited
to achieve system-level low-power operation in cases
of practical interest. The major challenges in the application of PTS are: (1) the computation of the optimal
weighting factors, resulting in higher PAPR reduction
and (2) retrieval of the values of the weighting factors,
selected by the transmitter, from the receiver.
In the related bibliography [4, 20, 21] the most common set of weighting factors is the set {1, j}. The
main benefit from its use is that no actual multiplications are required for the formation of alternative
PTSs. Recently there are many works [9, 11, 13, 18, 27]
which propose PTS implementation schemes with reduced computational complexity, by exploiting either
the structure of IFFT or the process of searching the
optimal weighting factors.
Other works [10, 25] explore the values of weighting
factors. The authors in [10] have proposed two new sets
of weighting factors. For OFDM systems with 128 or
less subcarriers they have experimentally shown that by
restricting the weighting factors b w to the set {1, j} instead of bw {1, j}, PTS achieves the same PAPR
reduction but the arithmetic operations required by the
PTS algorithm decrease by 87.5%. On the other hand,
for OFDM systems with 256 or more subcarriers when
weighting factors taking values from {1, j} instead
of {1, j}, the PTS achieves the same performance,
while the computational complexity of the algorithm
is reduced by 70%. Furthermore Tellambura has proposed a new algorithm for computing weighting factors
that achieves better performance than the schemes
proposed in [4, 20, 21], but it requires more arithmetic
operations for a small number of subblocks (less than
eight) [25].
This paper proposes a new algorithm that does not
require the explicit transmission of any side information (SI), when the PTS PAPR reduction algorithm is
used in the transmitter. The proposed algorithm uses
the already existing pilot tones in order to retrieve
weighting factors from the transmitted signal. Hence
there is no data rate loss, due to the transmission of additional information. Furthermore the implementation
of the proposed PTS algorithm using the weighting factors bw {1, j} is shown to be of moderate complexity.
In addition, this paper presents the implementation of
a very large scale integration (VLSI) architecture for
the decoding PTS in the receiver. Taking into account
the power consumption of the proposed architecture
in the transmitter, the power consumption of the proposed decoder, and the resulting reduction in the power
consumption of PA due to PAPR reduction, the total

T. Giannopoulos, V. Paliouras

system-level power consumption decreases by up to


18%. It should be noted that PAPR reduction also
reduces the power consumption of digital-to-analog
(DAC) and analog-to-digital (ADC) converters employed in the transmitter and receiver respectively [17],
but these effects are not taken into account in this
paper.
The remainder of the paper is organized as follows:
Section 2 discusses the basics of OFDM transmission,
defines PAPR, the efficiency of a class-A PA, and its relationship to PAPR reduction, while Section 3 summarizes the related work on the subject. Section 4 outlines
the PTS part at the transmitter and Section 5 presents
the proposed algorithm for decoding of PTS, at the
receiver. Subsequently Section 6 presents a theoretical
error analysis of the proposed algorithm when OFDM
symbol is transmitted over a channel with additive
white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Section 7 discusses the
performance of the proposed algorithm, in terms of
symbol-error-rate (SER), while Section 8 presents
the implementation of a VLSI architecture and summarizes the power savings in the complete system
including the cost of the application of PTS in the
transmitter and the receiver, as well as the reduction
of PA power consumption of the transmitter. To illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach, its
impact on a real-world OFDM system is investigated in
Section 9. Finally Section 10 discusses the conclusions
of this work.

2 OFDM Basics
In an OFDM system, initially the binary input data are
mapped onto quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK)
or quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) symbols.
An IFFT/FFT pair is used as a modulator/demodulator.
The N-point IFFT output sequence is
N1
1 
2 nk
xk =
Xn e j N ,
N n=0

(1)

where Xn is the transmitted symbol sequence and N is


the block size.
The PAPR of the signal xk is defined as the ratio
of the square of the peak power magnitude and the
average power of the signal; i.e.,
PAPR =

(max |xk |)2


,
E[|xk |2 ]

(2)

where E[] is the expected value operator.


Power consumption is a critical factor in PA design. Signals with time-varying amplitudes impose time-

A low-complexity PTS-based PAPR reduction technique

143

n = Pout AVG /PinAVG .

(3)

Assuming that a PAPR reduction method is used and


the PAPR value is reduced from the value to the value
 , the average DC-input power, required to give the
same output power, is [7, 24]

PinAVG
=


PinAVG ,

(4)

and the power gain in the analog part of the transmitter


is

Pan = PinAVG PinAVG
(5)

Pan =


PinAVG ,

(6)

where  =  is the achieved PAPR reduction.


The application of any PAPR reduction method,
imposes additional processing onto the digital part of
transmitter, and additional power, Pdig , is consumed.
Hence, the power gain for the complete transmitter is
Pg = Pan Pdig .

(7)

3 Related Work
PTS combines signal subblocks, phase-shifted by constant weighting factors to form S alternative representations for the signal to be transmitted. The smin th
sequence, where 1 smin S, with the lowest PAPR
is chosen to be transmitted. The associated decoder at
the receiver needs to know the weighting factors used
by the transmitter. The value of s can be sent as SI.
Cimini and Sollenberger [3] proposed an embedded SI
transmission scheme, in which a marking algorithm is
used at the transmitting end and a decision statistic
at the receiving end. The marking algorithm embeds
the SI into the transmitted signal. Feng et al. proposes
improved embedded SI transmission schemes for PSK
and QAM symbols [6]. Mller and Huber have suggested that by allocating several pilots at transmitter
the weighting factors can be estimated at receiver [19].
Feng et al. performed separately the OFDM modulation of coded SI and that of data, achieving reduced
complexity [5]. Lei et al. have investigated the effect
of different power allocation schemes between the data
and SI on the premise that the total transmitting power
is limited [15].
Jayalath and Tellambura have proposed a maximum
likelihood decoder for SLM and PTS-based PAPR

reduction scheme without the transmission of SI [12].


The SLM and PTS decoding schemes, proposed in [12],
do not degrade bit error rate (BER) due to errors in
SI, but that comes at the cost of reduced throughput
due to the pilot tones used for channel estimation and
increased receiver complexity.
In [8] the authors have proposed that one of the
existing pilot tones used for other purposes such as
synchronization is exploited in order to decode PTS
without transmitting any additional SI. When the proposed in [8] decoder is employed neither additional SI
is transmitted nor additional pilot tones are required
as done in [12], hence the application of PTS reduces
PAPR, and correspondingly the PA power consumption, without decreasing the data rate, or degrading the
SER of the system. Furthermore the additional circuit
required for PTS decoder in the receiver is very simple
and has low implementation cost, however correctly retrieves the weighting factors, only for QPSK modulated
OFDM symbols [8].
The use of a single pilot tone for PTS decoding [8]
becomes inefficient for large constellations such as 16
or 64 QAM (Fig. 1) because BER performance degrades. In this paper we extend this approach to the
case where more than one pilot tones are used for
PTS decoding. Initially we evaluate the general case
where P = Vp, p = 1, 3, 5, . . . pilot tones are available
in the OFDM symbol; i.e., p is the number of pilot
tones included in each subblock, assuming that the
initial OFDM symbol is partitioned into V blocks.
The difference with other methods [19] based on pilot
tones is that the pilot tones are not modulated by the
index of the set of weighting factors used by PTS to
give the lowest PAPR as proposed by Feng et al. [5],
but by a constant pre-defined value, thus allowing
the use of already existing pilot tones, used for synchronization. Hence the proposed technique does not

10

10

BER

varying efficiencies. In this case, a useful measure of


performance is the average output power, Pout AVG to
the average DC-input, power ratio PinAVG :

10

10

10

_1

_2

_3

Use of explicit side information


Proposed Decoder [19]

_4

10

12

14

16

SNR (dB)

Figure 1 BER vs. SNR achieved by previous algorithm [8].

18

144

T. Giannopoulos, V. Paliouras

Hence,

require additional pilots as have been suggested by


other works [12, 19] and there is no data-rate loss.


Z =b

V


Z v

v=1

4 Partial Transmit Sequence

= b F FT
In the PTS approach [4, 19, 20], the input data vector
X = [X0 , X1 , . . . , X N1 ], is partitioned into V pairwise
disjoint subblocks of equal size, each consisting of a
different set of subcarriers. PTS forms V PTS, each of
length N, represented by the vectors Yv , v = 1, . . . , V,
V
Yv . Every used subcarrier of the
such as X = v=1
initial OFDM symbol is included in exactly one of these
PTSs. In every PTS Yv , elements at positions which
correspond to subcarriers Xi included in an other PTS
Yu , u = v, are set to zero.
The objective of the PTS approach is to form
a weighted combination of the V subblocks, Yv , as
follows
Ys =

V


bw Yv ,

(8)

v=1

where bw , w = 1, 2, . . . , W are the weighting factors


appropriately selected to minimize the PAPR of ys =
I F FT{Ys }, s = 1, 2, . . . , V W . In order to calculate ys
the linearity of the IFFT is exploited as follows,

ys

= I F FT

V



bw Yv

v=1

V


bw yv ,

(9)

v=1

where yv = I F FT{Yv }. The weighting factors b, which


achieve the signal of lowest PAPR, form a vector that
satisfies [20]:
 

b = [b1 , b 2 , . . . , bW ] = arg min
max  ys  .
(10)
b1,b2,...,bW

5 Proposed Algorithm for PTS


In the absence of noise, the receiver of an OFDM
system receives the sequence ys of Eq. 9. To perform
OFDM demodulation, an FFT is used to compute Z =
F FT{ys }. Subsequently Z is partitioned to V blocks
V
Z v , such that Z = v=1
Z v , in the same way as the
transmitter partitions X into Yv , v = 1, 2, . . . V. If b is
known to the receiver, then Z is multiplied by a vector
b such that
b  b = [1, 1, . . . , 1],
where  denotes element-wise multiplication.

(11)

=b

V


F FT{zv }

v=1
V


zv

= F FT

v=1

V


(12)

bw zv

and since zv = bw yv , it follows that


 V

V



Z = F FT
yv =
F FT{yv }
v=1

V


Yv

(13)

v=1

(14)

v=1

(15)

v=1

= X.

(16)

Therefore the initial OFDM symbol is recovered.


The knowledge of b is not necessary to be explicitly
available to the receiver when the proposed PTS decoder is used. It is only assumed that all the permissible
weighting factors and the partitioning scheme of the
initial OFDM symbol are known to the receiver. The
proposed decoder uses the received values of the p
pilot tones included in the subblock i, to identify the
factor bi with which the subblock i has been multiplied
at the transmitter.
Assume that the values of pilot tones in the ith subblock, at the transmitter before IFFT modulation are
[a1 , a2 , . . . , a p ] and the received values, when PTS algorithm is applied at transmitter, after FFT demodulation
are [r1 , r2 , . . . , r p ], where rk = bi ak + nk , and nk denotes
the channel noise. The estimated weighting factor, bi ,
which corresponds to the ith subblock is identified by
the following algorithm.
Assuming that every subblock employs p pilots
per subblock, the proposed decoding algorithm initially computes the following squares of the Euclidean
distance [23],
2

M1 (i) = a1 bir1 
2

M2 (i) = a2 bir2 
...

2

M p (i) = a p bir p 

(17)

where ak , k = 1, 2, . . . , p are the transmitted values


of the pilot tones, predefined by a wireless standard,
rk , k = 1, 2, . . . , p are the received values of pilot tones,
and bi = 1/bi , i = 1, 2, , W are the multiplicative
inverses of weighting factors.
Subsequently the proposed algorithm identifies for
every Mk (i), k = 1, 2, ..., p the value of bi which, for

A low-complexity PTS-based PAPR reduction technique

145

each pilot tone, minimizes the square of the Euclidean


distance of the received from the transmitted pilot tone
value. Finally the bi that minimizes the majority of Mk
is chosen as the suitable factor to decode the subblock
k of the OFDM symbol.
In the following it is shown that the use of the set
of weighting factors bi {1, j}, simplifies the proposed
retrieval of weighting factors. Since bi {1, j}, it follows
that bi {1, j} In that case the computation of the
minimum square of the Euclidean distance for a subblock is computed as following:

2
Mk (i) = |ak b i rk |
(18)



= ak birk ak birk
(19)



= ak birk ak birk
(20)
= ak ak ak birk ak birk +bi birkrk
 
= |ak | + bi |rk | ak birk ak birk ,

(21)

In order to identify which of Mk (1) and Mk (2) is


closer to the value of weighting factor, it suffices to
compute the sign of Dfk = Mk (1) Mk (2).
(24)

= |ak | + |rk | akrk akrk


|ak | |rk | + jakrk jakrk

(25)

= akrk (1 + j) + akrk (1 j)

(26)

= akrk (1 + j) + akrk (1 + j)


= 2Re akrk (1 + j) ,

(27)
(28)

where Re(x) denotes the real part of x. The values of


the pilot tones in the receiver, result from FFT. Hence,
in general it would be a complex number. In Eq. 28
we can substitute rk = rk + jrk where rk and rk are real
numbers. Furthermore ak is a real value because it is
the value of a pilot tone. Hence,


(29)
akrk (1 + j) = ak rk jrk (1 + j)
= akrk + jakrk + jakrk + akrk .

bi =

1,
j,

rk rk 0
.
rk rk > 0

(33)

The opposite applies if the transmitted value of pilot


tone is negative. The above decision rule is applied
directly when we have one pilot per subblock. Otherwise, the bi that minimizes the majority of Mk is chosen
as the suitable factor to decode the subblock k of the
OFDM symbol.
In the next section, the impact of the proposed
algorithm on the SER behavior of an OFDM-based
system is theoretically studied for a gaussian channel.
Theoretical results are found to be in agreement with
experiments.

(22)

where x denotes the complex conjugate of x. Expanding


Eq. 22 for the two possible values of bi it follows that
   
b 1 = 1, Mk (1) = ak  + rk  akrk akrk
   
b 2 = j, Mk (2) = ak  + rk  jrk ak + jrk ak .
(23)

Dfk = Mk (1) Mk (2)

Assuming that the transmitted value of pilot tone is


positive the decision rule of the proposed algorithm is
simplified to

(30)

Substituting Eq. 30 in Eq. 28 and taking into account


that ak , rk , and rk are real numbers, it follows that


Dfk = 2 akrk + akrk
(31)
 

= 2ak rk rk .
(32)

6 Error Probability
In this section bounds on the SER achieved by the
proposed decoder when the OFDM symbol is transmitted over AWGN channel are theoretically derived.
Initially the probability of receiving erroneously a pilot
tone is calculated. Subsequently the probability of the
proposed algorithm taking a wrong decision is derived,
in relationship to the number of pilot tones and number
of affected data carriers.
Assume that the initial OFDM symbols has N carriers and is divided into V subblocks, each one including
N/V subcarriers. Assuming p pilot tones per subblock,
each subblock includes N/V p carriers with useful
data. Each pilot tone is modulated by a constant value
ak . For example in 802.11a a pilot tone can be equal
to 1 or 1 and in DVB a Continual Pilot Tone may
take the value 4/3 or 4/3. Applying the proposed PTS
algorithm the transmitted value for a particular pilot
tone would be ak or jak . In both cases the transmitted
values have the same amplitude, denoted by A.
Assume two orthogonal signals of amplitude A and
distance d, which is the magnitude of their difference.
The associated probability of error is [23]


E
Pb = Q
,
(34)
N0
where E = A2 , is the average symbol energy.



2
A
= Q A
Pb = Q
.
N0
N0

(35)

146

T. Giannopoulos, V. Paliouras
0

10

In statistics a trial whose outcome can be classified as


either a success or a failure, is called a Bernoulli trial.
Let X = 1 denote that the trial ends in a success and
X = 0, otherwise. Then the probability function, or the
probability mass function (PMF) of X is

_2

SER

10

_4

10

_6

Proposed algorithm (1 pilot)


Proposed algorithm (3 pilots)
Proposed algorithm (5 pilots)

10

_8

10

10
12
SNR (dB)

14

16

18

Figure 2 Theoretical SER for the proposed decoder (256


carriers).

The associated pilots are transmitted in a context of a


QAM, and the noise imposed by the AWGN channel is
evaluated in accordance to the average symbol power.
Assume that the average power of a QAM signal is
PQAM . Then,
SN R = 10 log10

PQAM
.
N0

P[X = 0] = 1 pr

(41)

P[X = 1] = pr,

(42)

where pr, 0 pr 1 is the probability of success. Such


an X is a Bernoulli random variable which follows a
probability distribution dictated as Ber( pr), where pr
is called the parameter of the distribution. Now, when a
Bernoulli trial with probability of success pr is repeated
n times, and R is the total number of successes, then R
is called a binomial random variable with parameters n
and pr, and is denoted by B(n, p).
The PMF of a B(n, pr) variable R is easily
 obtained:

n
j successes out of n trials can be chosen in
ways.
j

(36)
0

10

Therefore the noise power in relationship to the transmitted symbol energy is,
(37)

SER

N0 = PQAM 10SN R/10 .

_1

10

Finally, the probability of erroneous detection of an


orthogonal symbol out of two possible, when these
are transmitted in a context of a QAM stream over a
gaussian channel is given by combining Eqs. 35 and 37,

A SN R/10
.
(38)
Pb = Q 
10
PQAM

_3

Channel
Theoretical Model(1 pilot)
experiment

10

_4

10

1
M

|ck |2 ,

16

18

14

16

18

14

16

18

_2

10

_3

Channel
Theoretical Model (3 pilots)
experiment

_4

10

k=1

10

12

SNR (dB)

NVp

Vp


1
=
|ck |2 +
A2 .
N
k=1

14

_1

(39)

where ck , k = 1, 2, . . . , M are all the possible symbols


of the constellation. For example for QAM-16, PQAM =
10. In our case, the transmitted OFDM symbol includes
Vp pilot tones, i.e.; p pilot tones in each one of the V
subblocks. These pilot tones have predetermined values which affect the average power of the transmitted
signal. Hence the average power PQAM is given by,
PQAM

12
SNR (dB)

10

k=1

10

_1

10

SER

PQAM =

10

10

M


10

SER

The average power of an M-QAM signal is calculated as

_2

10

_2

10

_3

Channel
Theoretical Model (5 pilots)
experiment

10

_4

10

10

12

SNR (dB)

(40)

Figure 3 Theoretical evaluation of proposed algorithms performance (256 carriers).

A low-complexity PTS-based PAPR reduction technique

147

10 0

10

Side Information
Proposed Decoder (1 pilot)
Proposed Decoder (3 pilots)
Proposed Decoder (5 pilots)

_1

SER

10

10 1

_2

10

10 2

_3

10

_4

10

10

12
SNR (dB)

SER

Channel
Theoretical Model(1 pilot)
experiment

10 3

14

16

18

10

10 4

_1

10

SER

10 5
_2

10

_3

10

12
SNR (dB)

14

16

18

10

_1

10

16

18

_2

Pb . Therefore and by taking into consideration Eqs. 38


and 43, it follows that
 
p

p
Per (i) =
(Pb ) j(1 Pb ) p j.
(45)
j
j= p/2

10

_3

For example, if p = 3 the probability of error for the


proposed decoder is the probability that two or all three
pilot tones are erroneously detected,

Channel
Theoretical Model (5 pilots)
experiment

10

_4

10

14

Figure 5 Experimental results of the proposed decoder (64


carriers).

Channel
Theoretical Model (3 pilots)
experiment

_4

10

12

SNR (dB)

10

SER

10

10

12
SNR (dB)

14

16

18

Figure 4 Theoretical evaluation of proposed algorithms performance (2048 carriers).

Per (i) =

3  

3

j=2

(Pb ) j(1 Pb )3 j

(46)

= 3Pb2 2Pb3
Since probability of each success is pr and each failure
is 1 pr,the following expression is obtained

10

 
n
P[ j] =
pr j(1 pr)n j, j = 0, 1, . . . , n
j

10

(47)

Side Information
Proposed Decoder (1 pilot)
Proposed Decoder (3 pilots)
Proposed Decoder (5 pilots)

(43)

_1

P[ j] = 0, otherwise.

SER

and
_2

10

(44)

In the proposed algorithm p pilots are used in every


subblock. The proposed algorithm takes an erroneous
decision; i.e., it does not detect the weighting factor that
has been used in the transmitter, when more than p/2
pilots are erroneously detected. Hence, the probability
Per (i) of erroneously detecting the ith weighting factor
is a binomial random variable with parameters p and

_3

10

_4

10

10

12
SNR (dB)

14

16

18

Figure 6 Experimental results of the proposed decoder (256


carriers).

148

T. Giannopoulos, V. Paliouras
0

Side Information
Proposed Decoder (1 pilot)
Proposed Decoder (3 pilots)
Proposed Decoder (5 pilots)

_1

10

SER

Probability of correct decisions

10

_2

10

Double precision
Fixed Point (3 bits)
Fixed Point (4 bits)
Fixed Point (5 bits)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

SNR

Figure 9 Fixed-point simulation of the proposed decoder (2048


carriers).

_3

10

_4

10

10

12

14

16

18

SNR (dB)

Figure 7 Experimental results of the proposed decoder (2048


carriers).

Furthermore we have to take into consideration


gaussian noise of the channel. For rectangular M-QAM
signal constellations in which M = 2k , where k is even,
the probability of a symbol error P M is [23],
P M = 1 (1 P M )2 ,

(48)

where




1
3 Eav

P M = 2 1
Q
,
M 1 N0
M
 2
1
t
Q(x) =
e 2 dt,
2 x


PSER = P M + Per (1 P M ).
(49)

Probability of correct decisions

Double precision
Fixed Point (3 bits)
Fixed Point (4 bits)
Fixed Point (5 bits)

0.8

(51)

The first term of Eq. 51 refers to the erroneously received signals due to channel noise and the second term

(50)

and ENav0 is the average SNR per symbol.


Figure 2 depicts the theoretically derived performance of the proposed algorithm. It shows that for
low values of SNR the performance of the proposed
algorithm is similar for different numbers of pilot tones.
However for high values of SNR the probability of
error diminishes to almost one error out of 1000000

symbols. In a typical OFDM system, where no PAPR


reduction technique is used, a symbol might be received
erroneously only due to channel noise, assuming a
gaussian noise channel and perfect synchronization. In
the case that PTS algorithm is employed to reduce
PAPR, combined with the proposed PTS decoder, a
symbol may be received erroneously due to channel
noise or an erroneous decoder decision. The proposed
decoder estimates the weighting factor independently
for each subblock. Therefore taking into account both
the channel noise and the noise due to the proposed decoder the probability of detecting erroneously a symbol
PSER is equal to

carry

r1
r

carry

carry

0.6
r' 3
r' ' 3

0.4

0.2
7

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

SNR

Figure 8 Fixed-point simulation of the proposed decoder (256


carriers).

carry

Sign

r''3
r '' 3

carry

Figure 10 Basic circuit for the calculation of the sign of Df .

A low-complexity PTS-based PAPR reduction technique


,
r1

,
r2

...

,
rV

,
r' 1

,
r' 2

...

149

,
r' V

Block C
r 1,1

Basic
Block

SGN 1

Basic
Block

...

Basic
Block

SGN V-1

SGN 2

Basic
Block

r 1,2

SGN V

Basic
Block
Basic
Block

Add

r 1,3

Basic
Block

r 1,4

Basic
Block

Figure 11 Block diagram of proposed decoder employing 1 pilot


tone (The block basic circuit is depicted in Fig. 10).

r 1,5

refers to symbols that were not affected by the channel


noise but for which the decoder took an erroneous
decision.

r 1,2

r 1,1

SGN 1
5 bits

Basic
Block

Block C

r 1,3

SGN

SGN

SGN

r 1,4
r 1,5

7 Experimental Results
r 1,1

In an OFDM symbol the signal amplitude is approximately Rayleigh distributed and the large peaks

r 1,2

Block C

r 1,3
r 1,4
r 1,5

r 1,1

Block B
r 1,1

r 1,2

Basic
Block

r 1,3

Block C

r 1,4
r 1,2

Basic
Block

r 1,3

Basic
Block

r 2,1

SGN

Figure 13 Block diagram of proposed decoder employing five


pilot tones (The block basic circuit is depicted in Fig. 10).

Block B

r 2,2

SGN

SGN

SGN

r 2,3

r 3,1

Block B

r 3,2
r 3,3

r 4,1
r 4,2

r 1,5

Block B

r 4,3

Figure 12 Block diagram of proposed decoder employing three


pilot tones (The block basic circuit is depicted in Fig. 10).

occur with very low probability. Therefore, the upper


bound may not be meaningful for characterizing the
PAPR of OFDM signals, and the statistical distribution of the PAPR should be taken into account [22].
Therefore, the complementary cumulative distribution
function CCDF = Pr(PAPR > PAPRo ) is used. The
transmitted signal is oversampled by a factor of four [4],
in order to better approximate the continuous-time
PAPR. The weighting factors are chosen from the set
{1, j}, as they derive high performance with minimal
extra complexity.
Figures 3 and 4 illustrate the theoretical results derived in Section 6 for the cases of OFDM system with
256 and 2048 subcarriers and compare the SER derived
by Eq. 51 to the experimentally derived results. In both
cases both the channel noise and the noise imposed by
the decoder is considered. As we can see, the experimental derived SER always agrees with the theoretical
model. Also Figs. 3 and 4 compare the resulting SER

150

T. Giannopoulos, V. Paliouras

when the proposed algorithm is used, to the achieved


SER when no PAPR-reduction algorithm is used and
the only noise source is the channel. The proposed algorithm employing five pilot tones achieves exactly the
same performance with the case of only AWGN noise.
In other words with the use of the proposed decoder,
there are almost no errors due to the application of PTS
algorithm, while PAPR is significantly reduced.
Figures 5, 6, and 7 compare the performance of the
proposed PTS decoder, in terms of SER, to the case
that the receiver already knows the weighting factors
(through transmission of additional SI). In the later
case PTS imposes no additional noise to the complete
transmission system, assuming that the SI is always
received correctly. The proposed decoder using five
pilot tones achieves the same performance, in terms of
SER, to the case that the receiver knows the weighting
factors via transmission of explicit SI.
Even for the case of four pilot tones per subblock
the performance of the proposed decoder is very close
to that of the case that the weighting factors are known
to receiver. Due to the large numbers of required pilot tones, the proposed decoder is more suitable for
OFDM systems with a large number of subcarriers,
which already have a large number of pilot tones, to be
exploited by the proposed decoder. On the other hand
the proposed decoder may be inefficient for systems
with a few number of subcarriers, such as 802.11a which
has only four pilot tones. In the later case for the application of the proposed decoder additional pilot tones
should be introduced in order to efficiently decode the
transmitted signal.

8 VLSI Implementation
According to Eq. 33 in order to derive at the receiver
the weighting factors used in the transmitter, the real
part of the received value of the each pilot tone should
be subtracted from the imaginary part. Equation 33
reveals that only the sign of the difference rk rk is
required. Figures 8 and 9 depict the impact of fixedpoint representation of the values of the pilots on the

number of correct decisions of the decoder. From experimental results it is derived that five bits for each
of the real and the imaginary part are enough for the
fixed-point implementation of PTS decoding algorithm
to achieve identical performance to that of a doubleprecision floating-point implementation. Figure 10 depicts the digital circuit for the computation of the sign,
which is reduced to the carry chain of a 5-bit subtractor.
For the case of one pilot tone, the decision circuit for
the complete OFDM symbol is the replication of V
identical circuits; i.e., one for each weighting factor
(Fig. 11).
Figure 12 depicts the proposed architecture for the
proposed PTS decoder for the case of three pilot tones
per subblock and 4 subblocks. Hence, for each subblock, three blocks of the basic circuit are required.
In order to identify if there are more ones than zeros
in the output of basic circuits we have to derive the
output carry of a full adder that has as input the three
outputs of the basic blocks. If the output carry is equal
to one then there exist more negative than positive
results in the previous step, therefore b k = 1 is chosen
as the output value of the transmitter. Here it should
be noted that the proposed receiver multiplies all the
carriers of the OFDM symbol by 1 or j. However this
computation is reduced to merely swapping of the real
and imaginary part. Hence the cost of this computation
is omitted. The proposed decoder requires twelve instances of the basic circuit and three instances of the
circuit that computes the output carry of a full adder.
Following a similar approach the proposed architecture for the PTS decoder which uses five pilot tones
per subblock, is depicted in Fig. 13. The five-pilot case
requires twenty instances of the basic circuit and four
circuits which add five bits, implemented using two full
adders and one half adder.
Table 1 tabulates the implementation cost of proposed PTS decoder in the receiver. The digital implementation cost is evaluated by the area and the
total power dissipation of the decoder, which includes
dynamic and leakage components. The corresponding
results are obtained using Synopsys Design Compiler
using an 0.18 m ASIC library. The power consumption
is estimated assuming that the clock period is 4 ns.

Table 1 VLSI implementation details of the proposed PTS decoder.


Wordlength

3
4
5

1 pilot

3 pilot

5 pilot

Area (m2 )

Power (mW)

Area (m2 )

Power (mW)

Area (m2 )

Power (mW)

731.76
1154.60
1447.32

917.52
790.25
997.04

2528.58
3854.08
4732.24

2.99
2.37
3.01

5252.32
9529.56
10041.83

2.35
4.12
4.65

A low-complexity PTS-based PAPR reduction technique

151

10

SER

CCDF

10

10

10
_5

10

10

11

12

10

PTS
Normal OFDM

10

13

_1

_2

Side Information
Proposed Decoder (1 pilot)
Proposed Decoder (3 pilots)
Proposed Decoder (5 pilots)

_3

_4

PAPR

10

12

14

16

18

SNR (dB)

Figure 14 PAPR reduction due to application of PTS.

Figure 15 Evaluation of the application of the proposed algorithm on the DVB-T standard.

9 Case Study: DVB-T

Pg = Pan Ptran Prec ,

(52)

where Pan is evaluated by Eq. 6 and Ptran and Prec


are the estimated values obtained after the synthesis
of the corresponding circuits. Furthermore it should
be taken into account that the power consumption
of the transmitter DAC and of the receiver ADC is
also reduced when the PAPR of the transmitted signal
decreases [17].
In order to evaluate the application of the proposed
PTS decoding algorithm and the total power savings
due to the application of PTS in the complete system
that comprises a transmitter and a receiver, this paper
focuses on a real-world system, considering the European standard DVB-T for digital TV. The basic DVB-T
modes and parameters important to the inner receiver
are: B = 8 MHz; 1/T = 64/7 MHz; Tg = 1/4Tu , 1/8Tu ,
1/16Tu , 1/32Tu ; Outer code: Reed Solomon RS (204,
188, t = 8); Inner code: punctured convolutional code
with code rates; Modulation: 4-QAM, 16-QAM, or
64-QAM (optionally hierarchical). The 8K Mode has
Nu = 6816 data carriers with baseband symbol duration
Tu = 896 s and the 2K mode has Nu = 1704 data
carriers with baseband symbol duration Tu = 224s.
The standard further defines interleaving across subcarriers, the data frame structure, a mechanism for
robust signaling of transmission parameters, and dedicated synchronization symbols pl,k embedded into the
OFDM data stream: 1) Continual pilot carriers which
are time-invariant training symbols: 45 in 2k mode and
177 in 8k mode and 2) Scattered pilot cells which are

training symbols forming a periodic pattern with period


in time Dt = 4 and period in frequency Df = 12. Both
continual and scattered pilot symbols are transmitted at
a boosted power level of E{| pl,k |2 } = 2 = 16/9. Conducted simulations focus on the 2k mode of the DVB-T
standard. This particular mode is intended for mobile
reception of standard definition DTV.
Figure 14 illustrates that the application of PTS in
the transmitter reduces the probability of P(PAPRo) =
104 in the range of 9.2 dB, instead of 11.7 dB for
normal OFDM. The data symbols are 16-QAM with
the energy normalized to unity. According to Eq. 6 this
PAPR reduction results in a 21.36% reduction of the
power consumption in the PA.
Figure 15 depicts the SER of a DVB-T system, when
the PTS algorithm is applied on the transmitter, and the
proposed decoder in the receiver. It is assumed that
the signal is transmitted through an AWGN channel.
The proposed decoder uses the Continual pilot carriers, which are already included in the OFDM symbol,
hence there is no data rate loss. The proposed decoder
requires 5 pilot tones in order to achieve the same SER
with the case that the weighting factors are known to
receiver. Taking into consideration the implementation
cost, in terms of power, of PTS in the transmitter [9]
and the implementation cost of the proposed decoder,

10

Power Reduction (dB)

The application of the PTS PAPR reduction method


imposes additional processing onto the digital part of
transmitter and the receiver respectively. Assume that
the additional power consumed by the digital implementation of PTS algorithm at the transmitter is Ptran ,
and the additional power consumed by the proposed
PTS decoder at the receiver is Prec . Hence, the power
gain for the complete transmitter is

10

10

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

average DC-input power of PA (mW)

Figure 16 Reduction of PA power consumption due to application of PTS.

152

T. Giannopoulos, V. Paliouras

as well the reduction of PA power consumption due


to PAPR reduction, the power savings in the complete
system transmitter-receiver is
Pg = Pan 60.22 4.65,

7.

(53)

and is depicted in Fig. 16 for various values of average


DC-input power of PA.

8.

9.

10 Conclusions
This paper presents a new algorithm and the corresponding VLSI architecture for PTS decoding without
transmitting any additional SI. The proposed algorithm
exploits the already existing pilot tones of the OFDM
symbol, hence there is no data rate loss. A theoretical
analysis for the achieved SER, has been presented for
the case of a gaussian channel. In addition it has been
shown that the proposed technique achieves identical
performance with the case that explicit SI is used.
The application of PTS combined by proposed decoder
has very low implementation cost and reduces the PA
power consumption by 21.36% for practical cases.
Acknowledgements We thank the European Social Fund
(ESF), Operational Program for Educational and Vocational
Training II (EPEAEK II), and particularly the Program
PYTHAGORAS-II, for funding the above work.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

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Theodoros Giannopoulos was born in Atalanti, Greece, in 1978.


He received the Diploma of Engineering in Computer Engineering and Informatics in 2001, and the MSc in Integrated Software
and Hardware Systems from University of Patras, Greece, in
2003. He is currently a PhD candidate at the Electrical and

153
Computer Engineering Department, University of Patras, where
he is researching algorithms and VLSI architectures for signal
processing and communications.

Vassilis Paliouras is an assistant professor at the Electrical and


Computer Engineering Department, University of Patras. His
research interests are in the areas of VLSI architectures for signal
processing and communications, low-power digital design and
computer arithmetic. He has published more than 70 articles
in international journals and conferences. Dr. Paliouras has received the Guillemin Cauer best paper award from the IEEE
CASS for the year 2000. Dr. Paliouras serves in the technical
programme committee of numerous conferences in the areas of
circuits, systems, signal processing, and communications, while
he has served as the general co-chair for international workshop
on Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization and Simulation
(PATMOS 2004), technical programme co-chair for PATMOS
2005, and technical co-chair for the IEEE Workshop on Signal
Processing Systems Implementation (SiPS) 2005. Dr. Paliouras is
a member of the IEEE CASS Technical Committee on Circuits
for communications and a member of the IEEE SPS Technical
Committee on the Design and Implementation of Signal Processing Systems. Dr. Paliouras serves as an associate editor for IEEE
Transactions on Circuits and Systems Part I.