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DOI 10.1007/s11265-008-0238-y

Technique for OFDM Signals without Transmission

of Side Information

Theodoros Giannopoulos Vassilis Paliouras

Received: 9 May 2007 / Accepted: 18 March 2008 / Published online: 28 May 2008

2008 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC. Manufactured in The United States

(PAPR) imposes a design challenge for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based signals. An efficient

technique to address the increased PAPR problem

is the partial transmit sequences (PTS) approach. A

significant drawback of PTS is the fact that it multiplies

the transmitted symbol with weighting factors selected

by the transmitter. Since the weighting factors are required for decoding, they are explicitly transmitted, in

most cases. This paper proposes a new low-complexity

technique for retrieving the weighting factors in the

receiver. The proposed decoder uses the predefined

values of pilot tones and explores all the permissible

combinations of weighting factors in order to identify

the factor combination employed by the transmitter.

The proposed decoder requires no additional pilot

tones or explicit transmission of side information,

therefore no data rate loss is implied. Furthermore this

paper presents a digital very large scale integration

implementation of the proposed PTS decoder and

demonstrates its low-power properties.

Keywords OFDM PAPR reduction PTS VLSI

Electrical & Computer Engineering Department,

University of Patras, 25600 Patras, Greece

e-mail: giannop@ece.upatras.gr

V. Paliouras

e-mail: paliuras@ece.upatras.gr

1 Introduction

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)

is a very attractive technique for high-bit-rate transmission in wireless applications. Two major drawbacks

of OFDM signals are the high sensitivity to time and

frequency synchronization errors, and the high peakto-average power ratio (PAPR). In OFDM-based systems the transmitted signal obtained as the output of

an inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT), consists of a

sum of N modulated subcarriers, therefore OFDM signals exhibit large dynamic range. When passed through

nonlinear devices, such as a power amplifier (PA), the

amplified signal suffers from distortion and out-ofband noise. In order to combat the problem, highly

linear amplifiers are required [26]. High linearity normally implies low efficiency and large power dissipation

which is prohibitive for use in portable wireless applications [24]. Therefore, the use of PAPR reduction

techniques is of practical importance.

A number of PAPR reduction schemes have been

proposed to alleviate this problem. The simplest approach is clipping the OFDM signal [16]. However

clipping may cause significant in-band distortion and

out-of-band noise. Another solution is to use appropriate block coding which can achieve significant PAPR

reduction at the cost of increased complexity [14].

These schemes require large look-up tables both at the

transmitter and the receiver, limiting their usefulness

to applications with a small number of subchannels.

Two promising and distortionless techniques for improving the statistics of the PAPR are the selective

mapping (SLM) approach [1, 2] and the partial transmit

sequence (PTS) approach [4, 20].

142

The PTS approach is based on combining signal subblocks which are phase-shifted by constant weighting

factors. PTS-based PAPR reduction can be exploited

to achieve system-level low-power operation in cases

of practical interest. The major challenges in the application of PTS are: (1) the computation of the optimal

weighting factors, resulting in higher PAPR reduction

and (2) retrieval of the values of the weighting factors,

selected by the transmitter, from the receiver.

In the related bibliography [4, 20, 21] the most common set of weighting factors is the set {1, j}. The

main benefit from its use is that no actual multiplications are required for the formation of alternative

PTSs. Recently there are many works [9, 11, 13, 18, 27]

which propose PTS implementation schemes with reduced computational complexity, by exploiting either

the structure of IFFT or the process of searching the

optimal weighting factors.

Other works [10, 25] explore the values of weighting

factors. The authors in [10] have proposed two new sets

of weighting factors. For OFDM systems with 128 or

less subcarriers they have experimentally shown that by

restricting the weighting factors b w to the set {1, j} instead of bw {1, j}, PTS achieves the same PAPR

reduction but the arithmetic operations required by the

PTS algorithm decrease by 87.5%. On the other hand,

for OFDM systems with 256 or more subcarriers when

weighting factors taking values from {1, j} instead

of {1, j}, the PTS achieves the same performance,

while the computational complexity of the algorithm

is reduced by 70%. Furthermore Tellambura has proposed a new algorithm for computing weighting factors

that achieves better performance than the schemes

proposed in [4, 20, 21], but it requires more arithmetic

operations for a small number of subblocks (less than

eight) [25].

This paper proposes a new algorithm that does not

require the explicit transmission of any side information (SI), when the PTS PAPR reduction algorithm is

used in the transmitter. The proposed algorithm uses

the already existing pilot tones in order to retrieve

weighting factors from the transmitted signal. Hence

there is no data rate loss, due to the transmission of additional information. Furthermore the implementation

of the proposed PTS algorithm using the weighting factors bw {1, j} is shown to be of moderate complexity.

In addition, this paper presents the implementation of

a very large scale integration (VLSI) architecture for

the decoding PTS in the receiver. Taking into account

the power consumption of the proposed architecture

in the transmitter, the power consumption of the proposed decoder, and the resulting reduction in the power

consumption of PA due to PAPR reduction, the total

T. Giannopoulos, V. Paliouras

18%. It should be noted that PAPR reduction also

reduces the power consumption of digital-to-analog

(DAC) and analog-to-digital (ADC) converters employed in the transmitter and receiver respectively [17],

but these effects are not taken into account in this

paper.

The remainder of the paper is organized as follows:

Section 2 discusses the basics of OFDM transmission,

defines PAPR, the efficiency of a class-A PA, and its relationship to PAPR reduction, while Section 3 summarizes the related work on the subject. Section 4 outlines

the PTS part at the transmitter and Section 5 presents

the proposed algorithm for decoding of PTS, at the

receiver. Subsequently Section 6 presents a theoretical

error analysis of the proposed algorithm when OFDM

symbol is transmitted over a channel with additive

white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Section 7 discusses the

performance of the proposed algorithm, in terms of

symbol-error-rate (SER), while Section 8 presents

the implementation of a VLSI architecture and summarizes the power savings in the complete system

including the cost of the application of PTS in the

transmitter and the receiver, as well as the reduction

of PA power consumption of the transmitter. To illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach, its

impact on a real-world OFDM system is investigated in

Section 9. Finally Section 10 discusses the conclusions

of this work.

2 OFDM Basics

In an OFDM system, initially the binary input data are

mapped onto quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK)

or quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) symbols.

An IFFT/FFT pair is used as a modulator/demodulator.

The N-point IFFT output sequence is

N1

1

2 nk

xk =

Xn e j N ,

N n=0

(1)

the block size.

The PAPR of the signal xk is defined as the ratio

of the square of the peak power magnitude and the

average power of the signal; i.e.,

PAPR =

,

E[|xk |2 ]

(2)

Power consumption is a critical factor in PA design. Signals with time-varying amplitudes impose time-

143

(3)

the PAPR value is reduced from the value to the value

, the average DC-input power, required to give the

same output power, is [7, 24]

PinAVG

=

PinAVG ,

(4)

is

Pan = PinAVG PinAVG

(5)

Pan =

PinAVG ,

(6)

The application of any PAPR reduction method,

imposes additional processing onto the digital part of

transmitter, and additional power, Pdig , is consumed.

Hence, the power gain for the complete transmitter is

Pg = Pan Pdig .

(7)

3 Related Work

PTS combines signal subblocks, phase-shifted by constant weighting factors to form S alternative representations for the signal to be transmitted. The smin th

sequence, where 1 smin S, with the lowest PAPR

is chosen to be transmitted. The associated decoder at

the receiver needs to know the weighting factors used

by the transmitter. The value of s can be sent as SI.

Cimini and Sollenberger [3] proposed an embedded SI

transmission scheme, in which a marking algorithm is

used at the transmitting end and a decision statistic

at the receiving end. The marking algorithm embeds

the SI into the transmitted signal. Feng et al. proposes

improved embedded SI transmission schemes for PSK

and QAM symbols [6]. Mller and Huber have suggested that by allocating several pilots at transmitter

the weighting factors can be estimated at receiver [19].

Feng et al. performed separately the OFDM modulation of coded SI and that of data, achieving reduced

complexity [5]. Lei et al. have investigated the effect

of different power allocation schemes between the data

and SI on the premise that the total transmitting power

is limited [15].

Jayalath and Tellambura have proposed a maximum

likelihood decoder for SLM and PTS-based PAPR

The SLM and PTS decoding schemes, proposed in [12],

do not degrade bit error rate (BER) due to errors in

SI, but that comes at the cost of reduced throughput

due to the pilot tones used for channel estimation and

increased receiver complexity.

In [8] the authors have proposed that one of the

existing pilot tones used for other purposes such as

synchronization is exploited in order to decode PTS

without transmitting any additional SI. When the proposed in [8] decoder is employed neither additional SI

is transmitted nor additional pilot tones are required

as done in [12], hence the application of PTS reduces

PAPR, and correspondingly the PA power consumption, without decreasing the data rate, or degrading the

SER of the system. Furthermore the additional circuit

required for PTS decoder in the receiver is very simple

and has low implementation cost, however correctly retrieves the weighting factors, only for QPSK modulated

OFDM symbols [8].

The use of a single pilot tone for PTS decoding [8]

becomes inefficient for large constellations such as 16

or 64 QAM (Fig. 1) because BER performance degrades. In this paper we extend this approach to the

case where more than one pilot tones are used for

PTS decoding. Initially we evaluate the general case

where P = Vp, p = 1, 3, 5, . . . pilot tones are available

in the OFDM symbol; i.e., p is the number of pilot

tones included in each subblock, assuming that the

initial OFDM symbol is partitioned into V blocks.

The difference with other methods [19] based on pilot

tones is that the pilot tones are not modulated by the

index of the set of weighting factors used by PTS to

give the lowest PAPR as proposed by Feng et al. [5],

but by a constant pre-defined value, thus allowing

the use of already existing pilot tones, used for synchronization. Hence the proposed technique does not

10

10

BER

performance is the average output power, Pout AVG to

the average DC-input, power ratio PinAVG :

10

10

10

_1

_2

_3

Proposed Decoder [19]

_4

10

12

14

16

SNR (dB)

18

144

T. Giannopoulos, V. Paliouras

Hence,

other works [12, 19] and there is no data-rate loss.

Z =b

V

Z v

v=1

= b F FT

In the PTS approach [4, 19, 20], the input data vector

X = [X0 , X1 , . . . , X N1 ], is partitioned into V pairwise

disjoint subblocks of equal size, each consisting of a

different set of subcarriers. PTS forms V PTS, each of

length N, represented by the vectors Yv , v = 1, . . . , V,

V

Yv . Every used subcarrier of the

such as X = v=1

initial OFDM symbol is included in exactly one of these

PTSs. In every PTS Yv , elements at positions which

correspond to subcarriers Xi included in an other PTS

Yu , u = v, are set to zero.

The objective of the PTS approach is to form

a weighted combination of the V subblocks, Yv , as

follows

Ys =

V

bw Yv ,

(8)

v=1

appropriately selected to minimize the PAPR of ys =

I F FT{Ys }, s = 1, 2, . . . , V W . In order to calculate ys

the linearity of the IFFT is exploited as follows,

ys

= I F FT

V

bw Yv

v=1

V

bw yv ,

(9)

v=1

achieve the signal of lowest PAPR, form a vector that

satisfies [20]:

b = [b1 , b 2 , . . . , bW ] = arg min

max ys .

(10)

b1,b2,...,bW

In the absence of noise, the receiver of an OFDM

system receives the sequence ys of Eq. 9. To perform

OFDM demodulation, an FFT is used to compute Z =

F FT{ys }. Subsequently Z is partitioned to V blocks

V

Z v , such that Z = v=1

Z v , in the same way as the

transmitter partitions X into Yv , v = 1, 2, . . . V. If b is

known to the receiver, then Z is multiplied by a vector

b such that

b b = [1, 1, . . . , 1],

where denotes element-wise multiplication.

(11)

=b

V

F FT{zv }

v=1

V

zv

= F FT

v=1

V

(12)

bw zv

V

V

Z = F FT

yv =

F FT{yv }

v=1

V

Yv

(13)

v=1

(14)

v=1

(15)

v=1

= X.

(16)

The knowledge of b is not necessary to be explicitly

available to the receiver when the proposed PTS decoder is used. It is only assumed that all the permissible

weighting factors and the partitioning scheme of the

initial OFDM symbol are known to the receiver. The

proposed decoder uses the received values of the p

pilot tones included in the subblock i, to identify the

factor bi with which the subblock i has been multiplied

at the transmitter.

Assume that the values of pilot tones in the ith subblock, at the transmitter before IFFT modulation are

[a1 , a2 , . . . , a p ] and the received values, when PTS algorithm is applied at transmitter, after FFT demodulation

are [r1 , r2 , . . . , r p ], where rk = bi ak + nk , and nk denotes

the channel noise. The estimated weighting factor, bi ,

which corresponds to the ith subblock is identified by

the following algorithm.

Assuming that every subblock employs p pilots

per subblock, the proposed decoding algorithm initially computes the following squares of the Euclidean

distance [23],

2

M1 (i) = a1 bir1

2

M2 (i) = a2 bir2

...

2

M p (i) = a p bir p

(17)

of the pilot tones, predefined by a wireless standard,

rk , k = 1, 2, . . . , p are the received values of pilot tones,

and bi = 1/bi , i = 1, 2, , W are the multiplicative

inverses of weighting factors.

Subsequently the proposed algorithm identifies for

every Mk (i), k = 1, 2, ..., p the value of bi which, for

145

distance of the received from the transmitted pilot tone

value. Finally the bi that minimizes the majority of Mk

is chosen as the suitable factor to decode the subblock

k of the OFDM symbol.

In the following it is shown that the use of the set

of weighting factors bi {1, j}, simplifies the proposed

retrieval of weighting factors. Since bi {1, j}, it follows

that bi {1, j} In that case the computation of the

minimum square of the Euclidean distance for a subblock is computed as following:

2

Mk (i) = |ak b i rk |

(18)

= ak birk ak birk

(19)

= ak birk ak birk

(20)

= ak ak ak birk ak birk +bi birkrk

= |ak | + bi |rk | ak birk ak birk ,

(21)

closer to the value of weighting factor, it suffices to

compute the sign of Dfk = Mk (1) Mk (2).

(24)

|ak | |rk | + jakrk jakrk

(25)

= akrk (1 + j) + akrk (1 j)

(26)

= akrk (1 + j) + akrk (1 + j)

= 2Re akrk (1 + j) ,

(27)

(28)

the pilot tones in the receiver, result from FFT. Hence,

in general it would be a complex number. In Eq. 28

we can substitute rk = rk + jrk where rk and rk are real

numbers. Furthermore ak is a real value because it is

the value of a pilot tone. Hence,

(29)

akrk (1 + j) = ak rk jrk (1 + j)

= akrk + jakrk + jakrk + akrk .

bi =

1,

j,

rk rk 0

.

rk rk > 0

(33)

tone is negative. The above decision rule is applied

directly when we have one pilot per subblock. Otherwise, the bi that minimizes the majority of Mk is chosen

as the suitable factor to decode the subblock k of the

OFDM symbol.

In the next section, the impact of the proposed

algorithm on the SER behavior of an OFDM-based

system is theoretically studied for a gaussian channel.

Theoretical results are found to be in agreement with

experiments.

(22)

Eq. 22 for the two possible values of bi it follows that

b 1 = 1, Mk (1) = ak + rk akrk akrk

b 2 = j, Mk (2) = ak + rk jrk ak + jrk ak .

(23)

positive the decision rule of the proposed algorithm is

simplified to

(30)

that ak , rk , and rk are real numbers, it follows that

Dfk = 2 akrk + akrk

(31)

= 2ak rk rk .

(32)

6 Error Probability

In this section bounds on the SER achieved by the

proposed decoder when the OFDM symbol is transmitted over AWGN channel are theoretically derived.

Initially the probability of receiving erroneously a pilot

tone is calculated. Subsequently the probability of the

proposed algorithm taking a wrong decision is derived,

in relationship to the number of pilot tones and number

of affected data carriers.

Assume that the initial OFDM symbols has N carriers and is divided into V subblocks, each one including

N/V subcarriers. Assuming p pilot tones per subblock,

each subblock includes N/V p carriers with useful

data. Each pilot tone is modulated by a constant value

ak . For example in 802.11a a pilot tone can be equal

to 1 or 1 and in DVB a Continual Pilot Tone may

take the value 4/3 or 4/3. Applying the proposed PTS

algorithm the transmitted value for a particular pilot

tone would be ak or jak . In both cases the transmitted

values have the same amplitude, denoted by A.

Assume two orthogonal signals of amplitude A and

distance d, which is the magnitude of their difference.

The associated probability of error is [23]

E

Pb = Q

,

(34)

N0

where E = A2 , is the average symbol energy.

2

A

= Q A

Pb = Q

.

N0

N0

(35)

146

T. Giannopoulos, V. Paliouras

0

10

either a success or a failure, is called a Bernoulli trial.

Let X = 1 denote that the trial ends in a success and

X = 0, otherwise. Then the probability function, or the

probability mass function (PMF) of X is

_2

SER

10

_4

10

_6

Proposed algorithm (3 pilots)

Proposed algorithm (5 pilots)

10

_8

10

10

12

SNR (dB)

14

16

18

carriers).

QAM, and the noise imposed by the AWGN channel is

evaluated in accordance to the average symbol power.

Assume that the average power of a QAM signal is

PQAM . Then,

SN R = 10 log10

PQAM

.

N0

P[X = 0] = 1 pr

(41)

P[X = 1] = pr,

(42)

an X is a Bernoulli random variable which follows a

probability distribution dictated as Ber( pr), where pr

is called the parameter of the distribution. Now, when a

Bernoulli trial with probability of success pr is repeated

n times, and R is the total number of successes, then R

is called a binomial random variable with parameters n

and pr, and is denoted by B(n, p).

The PMF of a B(n, pr) variable R is easily

obtained:

n

j successes out of n trials can be chosen in

ways.

j

(36)

0

10

Therefore the noise power in relationship to the transmitted symbol energy is,

(37)

SER

_1

10

orthogonal symbol out of two possible, when these

are transmitted in a context of a QAM stream over a

gaussian channel is given by combining Eqs. 35 and 37,

A SN R/10

.

(38)

Pb = Q

10

PQAM

_3

Channel

Theoretical Model(1 pilot)

experiment

10

_4

10

1

M

|ck |2 ,

16

18

14

16

18

14

16

18

_2

10

_3

Channel

Theoretical Model (3 pilots)

experiment

_4

10

k=1

10

12

SNR (dB)

NVp

Vp

1

=

|ck |2 +

A2 .

N

k=1

14

_1

(39)

of the constellation. For example for QAM-16, PQAM =

10. In our case, the transmitted OFDM symbol includes

Vp pilot tones, i.e.; p pilot tones in each one of the V

subblocks. These pilot tones have predetermined values which affect the average power of the transmitted

signal. Hence the average power PQAM is given by,

PQAM

12

SNR (dB)

10

k=1

10

_1

10

SER

PQAM =

10

10

M

10

SER

_2

10

_2

10

_3

Channel

Theoretical Model (5 pilots)

experiment

10

_4

10

10

12

SNR (dB)

(40)

147

10 0

10

Side Information

Proposed Decoder (1 pilot)

Proposed Decoder (3 pilots)

Proposed Decoder (5 pilots)

_1

SER

10

10 1

_2

10

10 2

_3

10

_4

10

10

12

SNR (dB)

SER

Channel

Theoretical Model(1 pilot)

experiment

10 3

14

16

18

10

10 4

_1

10

SER

10 5

_2

10

_3

10

12

SNR (dB)

14

16

18

10

_1

10

16

18

_2

and 43, it follows that

p

p

Per (i) =

(Pb ) j(1 Pb ) p j.

(45)

j

j= p/2

10

_3

proposed decoder is the probability that two or all three

pilot tones are erroneously detected,

Channel

Theoretical Model (5 pilots)

experiment

10

_4

10

14

carriers).

Channel

Theoretical Model (3 pilots)

experiment

_4

10

12

SNR (dB)

10

SER

10

10

12

SNR (dB)

14

16

18

Per (i) =

3

3

j=2

(Pb ) j(1 Pb )3 j

(46)

= 3Pb2 2Pb3

Since probability of each success is pr and each failure

is 1 pr,the following expression is obtained

10

n

P[ j] =

pr j(1 pr)n j, j = 0, 1, . . . , n

j

10

(47)

Side Information

Proposed Decoder (1 pilot)

Proposed Decoder (3 pilots)

Proposed Decoder (5 pilots)

(43)

_1

P[ j] = 0, otherwise.

SER

and

_2

10

(44)

subblock. The proposed algorithm takes an erroneous

decision; i.e., it does not detect the weighting factor that

has been used in the transmitter, when more than p/2

pilots are erroneously detected. Hence, the probability

Per (i) of erroneously detecting the ith weighting factor

is a binomial random variable with parameters p and

_3

10

_4

10

10

12

SNR (dB)

14

16

18

carriers).

148

T. Giannopoulos, V. Paliouras

0

Side Information

Proposed Decoder (1 pilot)

Proposed Decoder (3 pilots)

Proposed Decoder (5 pilots)

_1

10

SER

10

_2

10

Double precision

Fixed Point (3 bits)

Fixed Point (4 bits)

Fixed Point (5 bits)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

SNR

carriers).

_3

10

_4

10

10

12

14

16

18

SNR (dB)

carriers).

gaussian noise of the channel. For rectangular M-QAM

signal constellations in which M = 2k , where k is even,

the probability of a symbol error P M is [23],

P M = 1 (1 P M )2 ,

(48)

where

1

3 Eav

P M = 2 1

Q

,

M 1 N0

M

2

1

t

Q(x) =

e 2 dt,

2 x

PSER = P M + Per (1 P M ).

(49)

Double precision

Fixed Point (3 bits)

Fixed Point (4 bits)

Fixed Point (5 bits)

0.8

(51)

The first term of Eq. 51 refers to the erroneously received signals due to channel noise and the second term

(50)

Figure 2 depicts the theoretically derived performance of the proposed algorithm. It shows that for

low values of SNR the performance of the proposed

algorithm is similar for different numbers of pilot tones.

However for high values of SNR the probability of

error diminishes to almost one error out of 1000000

reduction technique is used, a symbol might be received

erroneously only due to channel noise, assuming a

gaussian noise channel and perfect synchronization. In

the case that PTS algorithm is employed to reduce

PAPR, combined with the proposed PTS decoder, a

symbol may be received erroneously due to channel

noise or an erroneous decoder decision. The proposed

decoder estimates the weighting factor independently

for each subblock. Therefore taking into account both

the channel noise and the noise due to the proposed decoder the probability of detecting erroneously a symbol

PSER is equal to

carry

r1

r

carry

carry

0.6

r' 3

r' ' 3

0.4

0.2

7

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

SNR

carriers).

carry

Sign

r''3

r '' 3

carry

,

r1

,

r2

...

,

rV

,

r' 1

,

r' 2

...

149

,

r' V

Block C

r 1,1

Basic

Block

SGN 1

Basic

Block

...

Basic

Block

SGN V-1

SGN 2

Basic

Block

r 1,2

SGN V

Basic

Block

Basic

Block

Add

r 1,3

Basic

Block

r 1,4

Basic

Block

tone (The block basic circuit is depicted in Fig. 10).

r 1,5

noise but for which the decoder took an erroneous

decision.

r 1,2

r 1,1

SGN 1

5 bits

Basic

Block

Block C

r 1,3

SGN

SGN

SGN

r 1,4

r 1,5

7 Experimental Results

r 1,1

In an OFDM symbol the signal amplitude is approximately Rayleigh distributed and the large peaks

r 1,2

Block C

r 1,3

r 1,4

r 1,5

r 1,1

Block B

r 1,1

r 1,2

Basic

Block

r 1,3

Block C

r 1,4

r 1,2

Basic

Block

r 1,3

Basic

Block

r 2,1

SGN

pilot tones (The block basic circuit is depicted in Fig. 10).

Block B

r 2,2

SGN

SGN

SGN

r 2,3

r 3,1

Block B

r 3,2

r 3,3

r 4,1

r 4,2

r 1,5

Block B

r 4,3

pilot tones (The block basic circuit is depicted in Fig. 10).

bound may not be meaningful for characterizing the

PAPR of OFDM signals, and the statistical distribution of the PAPR should be taken into account [22].

Therefore, the complementary cumulative distribution

function CCDF = Pr(PAPR > PAPRo ) is used. The

transmitted signal is oversampled by a factor of four [4],

in order to better approximate the continuous-time

PAPR. The weighting factors are chosen from the set

{1, j}, as they derive high performance with minimal

extra complexity.

Figures 3 and 4 illustrate the theoretical results derived in Section 6 for the cases of OFDM system with

256 and 2048 subcarriers and compare the SER derived

by Eq. 51 to the experimentally derived results. In both

cases both the channel noise and the noise imposed by

the decoder is considered. As we can see, the experimental derived SER always agrees with the theoretical

model. Also Figs. 3 and 4 compare the resulting SER

150

T. Giannopoulos, V. Paliouras

SER when no PAPR-reduction algorithm is used and

the only noise source is the channel. The proposed algorithm employing five pilot tones achieves exactly the

same performance with the case of only AWGN noise.

In other words with the use of the proposed decoder,

there are almost no errors due to the application of PTS

algorithm, while PAPR is significantly reduced.

Figures 5, 6, and 7 compare the performance of the

proposed PTS decoder, in terms of SER, to the case

that the receiver already knows the weighting factors

(through transmission of additional SI). In the later

case PTS imposes no additional noise to the complete

transmission system, assuming that the SI is always

received correctly. The proposed decoder using five

pilot tones achieves the same performance, in terms of

SER, to the case that the receiver knows the weighting

factors via transmission of explicit SI.

Even for the case of four pilot tones per subblock

the performance of the proposed decoder is very close

to that of the case that the weighting factors are known

to receiver. Due to the large numbers of required pilot tones, the proposed decoder is more suitable for

OFDM systems with a large number of subcarriers,

which already have a large number of pilot tones, to be

exploited by the proposed decoder. On the other hand

the proposed decoder may be inefficient for systems

with a few number of subcarriers, such as 802.11a which

has only four pilot tones. In the later case for the application of the proposed decoder additional pilot tones

should be introduced in order to efficiently decode the

transmitted signal.

8 VLSI Implementation

According to Eq. 33 in order to derive at the receiver

the weighting factors used in the transmitter, the real

part of the received value of the each pilot tone should

be subtracted from the imaginary part. Equation 33

reveals that only the sign of the difference rk rk is

required. Figures 8 and 9 depict the impact of fixedpoint representation of the values of the pilots on the

number of correct decisions of the decoder. From experimental results it is derived that five bits for each

of the real and the imaginary part are enough for the

fixed-point implementation of PTS decoding algorithm

to achieve identical performance to that of a doubleprecision floating-point implementation. Figure 10 depicts the digital circuit for the computation of the sign,

which is reduced to the carry chain of a 5-bit subtractor.

For the case of one pilot tone, the decision circuit for

the complete OFDM symbol is the replication of V

identical circuits; i.e., one for each weighting factor

(Fig. 11).

Figure 12 depicts the proposed architecture for the

proposed PTS decoder for the case of three pilot tones

per subblock and 4 subblocks. Hence, for each subblock, three blocks of the basic circuit are required.

In order to identify if there are more ones than zeros

in the output of basic circuits we have to derive the

output carry of a full adder that has as input the three

outputs of the basic blocks. If the output carry is equal

to one then there exist more negative than positive

results in the previous step, therefore b k = 1 is chosen

as the output value of the transmitter. Here it should

be noted that the proposed receiver multiplies all the

carriers of the OFDM symbol by 1 or j. However this

computation is reduced to merely swapping of the real

and imaginary part. Hence the cost of this computation

is omitted. The proposed decoder requires twelve instances of the basic circuit and three instances of the

circuit that computes the output carry of a full adder.

Following a similar approach the proposed architecture for the PTS decoder which uses five pilot tones

per subblock, is depicted in Fig. 13. The five-pilot case

requires twenty instances of the basic circuit and four

circuits which add five bits, implemented using two full

adders and one half adder.

Table 1 tabulates the implementation cost of proposed PTS decoder in the receiver. The digital implementation cost is evaluated by the area and the

total power dissipation of the decoder, which includes

dynamic and leakage components. The corresponding

results are obtained using Synopsys Design Compiler

using an 0.18 m ASIC library. The power consumption

is estimated assuming that the clock period is 4 ns.

Wordlength

3

4

5

1 pilot

3 pilot

5 pilot

Area (m2 )

Power (mW)

Area (m2 )

Power (mW)

Area (m2 )

Power (mW)

731.76

1154.60

1447.32

917.52

790.25

997.04

2528.58

3854.08

4732.24

2.99

2.37

3.01

5252.32

9529.56

10041.83

2.35

4.12

4.65

151

10

SER

CCDF

10

10

10

_5

10

10

11

12

10

PTS

Normal OFDM

10

13

_1

_2

Side Information

Proposed Decoder (1 pilot)

Proposed Decoder (3 pilots)

Proposed Decoder (5 pilots)

_3

_4

PAPR

10

12

14

16

18

SNR (dB)

Figure 15 Evaluation of the application of the proposed algorithm on the DVB-T standard.

(52)

are the estimated values obtained after the synthesis

of the corresponding circuits. Furthermore it should

be taken into account that the power consumption

of the transmitter DAC and of the receiver ADC is

also reduced when the PAPR of the transmitted signal

decreases [17].

In order to evaluate the application of the proposed

PTS decoding algorithm and the total power savings

due to the application of PTS in the complete system

that comprises a transmitter and a receiver, this paper

focuses on a real-world system, considering the European standard DVB-T for digital TV. The basic DVB-T

modes and parameters important to the inner receiver

are: B = 8 MHz; 1/T = 64/7 MHz; Tg = 1/4Tu , 1/8Tu ,

1/16Tu , 1/32Tu ; Outer code: Reed Solomon RS (204,

188, t = 8); Inner code: punctured convolutional code

with code rates; Modulation: 4-QAM, 16-QAM, or

64-QAM (optionally hierarchical). The 8K Mode has

Nu = 6816 data carriers with baseband symbol duration

Tu = 896 s and the 2K mode has Nu = 1704 data

carriers with baseband symbol duration Tu = 224s.

The standard further defines interleaving across subcarriers, the data frame structure, a mechanism for

robust signaling of transmission parameters, and dedicated synchronization symbols pl,k embedded into the

OFDM data stream: 1) Continual pilot carriers which

are time-invariant training symbols: 45 in 2k mode and

177 in 8k mode and 2) Scattered pilot cells which are

in time Dt = 4 and period in frequency Df = 12. Both

continual and scattered pilot symbols are transmitted at

a boosted power level of E{| pl,k |2 } = 2 = 16/9. Conducted simulations focus on the 2k mode of the DVB-T

standard. This particular mode is intended for mobile

reception of standard definition DTV.

Figure 14 illustrates that the application of PTS in

the transmitter reduces the probability of P(PAPRo) =

104 in the range of 9.2 dB, instead of 11.7 dB for

normal OFDM. The data symbols are 16-QAM with

the energy normalized to unity. According to Eq. 6 this

PAPR reduction results in a 21.36% reduction of the

power consumption in the PA.

Figure 15 depicts the SER of a DVB-T system, when

the PTS algorithm is applied on the transmitter, and the

proposed decoder in the receiver. It is assumed that

the signal is transmitted through an AWGN channel.

The proposed decoder uses the Continual pilot carriers, which are already included in the OFDM symbol,

hence there is no data rate loss. The proposed decoder

requires 5 pilot tones in order to achieve the same SER

with the case that the weighting factors are known to

receiver. Taking into consideration the implementation

cost, in terms of power, of PTS in the transmitter [9]

and the implementation cost of the proposed decoder,

10

imposes additional processing onto the digital part of

transmitter and the receiver respectively. Assume that

the additional power consumed by the digital implementation of PTS algorithm at the transmitter is Ptran ,

and the additional power consumed by the proposed

PTS decoder at the receiver is Prec . Hence, the power

gain for the complete transmitter is

10

10

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

152

T. Giannopoulos, V. Paliouras

to PAPR reduction, the power savings in the complete

system transmitter-receiver is

Pg = Pan 60.22 4.65,

7.

(53)

DC-input power of PA.

8.

9.

10 Conclusions

This paper presents a new algorithm and the corresponding VLSI architecture for PTS decoding without

transmitting any additional SI. The proposed algorithm

exploits the already existing pilot tones of the OFDM

symbol, hence there is no data rate loss. A theoretical

analysis for the achieved SER, has been presented for

the case of a gaussian channel. In addition it has been

shown that the proposed technique achieves identical

performance with the case that explicit SI is used.

The application of PTS combined by proposed decoder

has very low implementation cost and reduces the PA

power consumption by 21.36% for practical cases.

Acknowledgements We thank the European Social Fund

(ESF), Operational Program for Educational and Vocational

Training II (EPEAEK II), and particularly the Program

PYTHAGORAS-II, for funding the above work.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

References

16.

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23. Proakis, J. G., & Salehi, M. (1998). Contemporary communication systems using MATLAB (1st edn.). Boston: PWS

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24. Razavi, B. (1998). RF microelectronics. Englewood Cliffs:

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25. Tellambura, C. (2001). Improved phase factor computation

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26. Van Nee, R., & Prasad, R. (2000). OFDM wireless multimedia

communications. Cormano: Artech House.

27. Yang, L., Chen, R., Siu, Y., & Soo, K. (2006). PAPR reduction of an OFDM signal by use of PTS with low computational complexity. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, 52(1),

8386.

He received the Diploma of Engineering in Computer Engineering and Informatics in 2001, and the MSc in Integrated Software

and Hardware Systems from University of Patras, Greece, in

2003. He is currently a PhD candidate at the Electrical and

153

Computer Engineering Department, University of Patras, where

he is researching algorithms and VLSI architectures for signal

processing and communications.

Computer Engineering Department, University of Patras. His

research interests are in the areas of VLSI architectures for signal

processing and communications, low-power digital design and

computer arithmetic. He has published more than 70 articles

in international journals and conferences. Dr. Paliouras has received the Guillemin Cauer best paper award from the IEEE

CASS for the year 2000. Dr. Paliouras serves in the technical

programme committee of numerous conferences in the areas of

circuits, systems, signal processing, and communications, while

he has served as the general co-chair for international workshop

on Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization and Simulation

(PATMOS 2004), technical programme co-chair for PATMOS

2005, and technical co-chair for the IEEE Workshop on Signal

Processing Systems Implementation (SiPS) 2005. Dr. Paliouras is

a member of the IEEE CASS Technical Committee on Circuits

for communications and a member of the IEEE SPS Technical

Committee on the Design and Implementation of Signal Processing Systems. Dr. Paliouras serves as an associate editor for IEEE

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