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DUS2022
INTRODUCTION
TOSTRATEG
IC
STUDIES
LECTURE;
The CausesOf WarAnd The Condition
Of Peace
V

o INTRODUCTION
o THE STUDYOFWAR

v
o HUMAN NATUREEXPLANATIONSOF WAR

o WARS.WITHIN, & .BEYOND,STATES


o CONCLUSION
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o Concernwith promotionof peacebut the.


phenomenonon war remainsa centralconcern.
. War asan instrumentof changebut seenasobsolete
due to destructiveness of modErnwarfare.
o zothcentqty - gholishingwar becametop priority- rs
stepls to ldentlty tne causes
o Historian seesnumerouscausesof war.
. War causesunder different heading-
r. human nature,
z. misperception,
3. the nature of states,
f

-
4. the structureof internationalsystem.

z aims:
RelatecontemDorarvscholarshipacrossa ranse of
disciplines-biology,'political science,-philosobhy&
history (problem& causationof war)
Identify different kinds of 'cause'.E.g..underlying,
immediate,consciousness & unconsciousness motives.
"a The cure of war relatesto its cause.Different causes
leadto differentpolicy recommendations.E.g.arms
race- policv of dsarmament or arms controlare
appryfriate solutions. E.g.Non Proliferation Treaty
(NPT)
Or the way to peacelie in the spreadof democracy
If causesof war deemedto'international anarchv'-
then attempt to get {d of war will geartoward
promotrng'systemchange.
E.g..strengthen IL or a systemof collectivesecurityor
worlcl government

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Someexplanationin finding a way to end armed


conflictf
If causesof war fundamental'hhuman nature-
suggesta bleakerfuture for human race
If 'learnt behavior'rather than instinctive-
eliminatethrough socialengineering
3 conclusions:
Searchfor singlecauseis futile (no practical
effect)
War comesin variety forms & multiplicity of
causes-eliminationi requiredomestic&
international actions.
'JustPeace'is unattainable

- causes war
istinctions
O.INSTINCTIVE'VS. LEARNEDBEHAVIOR
O.IMMEDIAIE, VS.'UNDERLANG'CAUSES
O.EFFICIENT'VS. PERMISSIVE'CAUSES
O.CONSCIOUS' VS.'UNCONSCIOUS'
MOTIVESOF WAR
O.NECESSARY' VS. .SUFFICIENT'CAUSES
E

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THESTUDYOFWAR
o War regardedas human disaster,sourceof misery
on a calastrophicscale,& in nuclearage-threatto
entirehuman race.
. rgtncentury- G.W.F.Hegel-war preservedthe
eihical hea'lthof nationsl
. H.Von Treitschke-condition of progress,preventa
country from going to sleep.
o E.H.Carr- war as 'the midwifeof change,
strengthenedgroupconsciousness & economic
development.
(
o War as purposive,functionalBUTabnormal,
pathologicalcondition- threatus all.

STUDYOF
r rs stepto abolishwar is to find the causes.
o War is causedby human behaviornot human nature-
modify it by reward,posiry threat by education
programmesor propaganca.
\t/ . Civilizedsocieties-makingpeoplebehavedespitetheir
nature.
o E.H.Police,Law,Schools,Mosque& Churches-
modifying human behaviorin domesticenvironment.
. Modifying statebehavior-widely recognize.E.g.
diplomac!, force,threat, aid & piopaginda -
instrument usedby leadersto effeit t-hebehaviorof
states.

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F

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ESTUDYOFWAR
o Deterrencestrategies(DS)- if human nature
is fatally flawed, statescan still be deterred
from act of aggressionby threat of
unacceptablepunishment.
o E.g.Robbers-threat of imprisonment.

. DS-policyto makethe consequences of war


\t so bad that nobody will dare to fight even if
the want to. Don't carewhy war occur.

o WAR is the blanket to describediverseactivities-


total wars, limited wars,high tech wars,low tech
wars,interstatewars,.intrastatewars,civil wars,
insurgencywars & ethnic wars.
-\y
. War fought on coalitionbaseon behalfon
international community.
o Causesof war - complicated
. War p-receded by arms racebetweenbelligerents
that i:laimsthat arms racecauseswar - no
automaticconnection.

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IN STUD
CULTIES
o Human being do not fieht becausethey haveweapon
but thev acqiire weapo"nto fieht. Not all arms rac'e
leadto war. E.e.ColdWar arrilsracebtwn US & USSR-
led to a deterrEdstalemate-most prolongedperiod of
peacein Europeanhistory
o Historian - origins rather than causes
r Bestway to describehow they comeabout in term of
social contefi & eventthey spring.
. E.g.WWII- Treatyof Versailles,the world depression,
the rise of Hitler, Germanrearmament, Foreign
policies of Britain & France.

IMMEDIAIE & UNDERLYINGCAUSES

o Immediate,proximate& underlyitg - fundamental


causes.
o E.s.WWI - ienite bv the assassination of Austrian
Aichduke Frinz Fertlinand- tragedy- provide
explanationfor the momentousEveirtthat followed.
r War broke in Europein r9r4- hostile alliancesystem,
tensionwereraising& arms raceunder way.
. Shouldfocuson underlyingcausesrather than
immediatetriggering events.
o War often comeabout result of aggression,reckless,
thoughtless& deliberateactsby statesmen.
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IMMEDIATE& UNDERLYINGCAUSES

o Impossibleto discusscausesof 'vVWIIwithout


loo'kingat aggressive behaviorof Hitler & the
weak,ippea-slngpoliciesof Chamberlain.
o Seizingthe SuezCanal& Eden- - resDondine
v it
with riilitary action causeof SuezWa^r.
o Falkland& Gulf War - Arsentineandecisionto
invadeSouth Georgia& MarsaretThatcher's
decisionto resistseiemsto be"themajor structural
causes.
r Gulf War - Saddamdecisionto seizeKuwait &
decisionof westerngovt not to allow to get away-
moreobviouscauses.

Efficient & Permissivecauses


o Efficient:to particularcircumstances surroundins individual
wars.Resultdue to stateA hassomethingstateB"wants.
Efficient causeis the desireof state B.
o E.g.Gulf War btwn lraq-Iran - Saddamto resainthe Shatt-al-
Arab wateyay; the effiiient causeof Gulf W-arI: to acquire
,9 Kuwait Territory & resources.2'd Gulf war: efficient causewasto
topple Saddam& bring democracyto Iraq - If there was no
decisionby Blair & BuJhto interv6nemilitarily, there will be no
WAR.
o stateshasno businessmeddling in the internal affair of other
states-non intervention hasbeEomebasicprinciple of
internationalorder.Oqly on exceptionalcasesas'lastresort,
justifiesmorally & legally- genocide,grossviolation of human
right, statescollapsinginto chaos& seriousthreat to
INTERNATIONALPFACE& STABILITY.
o Success & failure- 2oozlraq War - recentexampleof
difficulties bringing military intervention to a sa^tisfactory
conclusion

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Efficient & Permissivecauses


o Permissive:warasfeaturesof internationalsystem,while not
promoting it but allows to happen.
o E.s.Independentstateswith no authoritv abovethem & no
in5tituticinsufficientlypowerfulto reguldtetheir relations.
o KennethWaltz - bestexplainedin "internationalanarchy"-
ungovernedinternationil systemthere is nothing to prevent
conrllcErTomoccurrlng.
o Sovereignstatespursuetheir interestwith the constraintof
World Governm6nt- no choice.
o World of IndependencestatessincePeaceof Westphalia1648.
r HobbesianAnarchy - Statesdo not live in the state of
permanentterror.
3 o International society is regulated, rule-governed&
environmentstatestan b[ild their comtron interestwhere
international-org,customs,habits,mores& law built up over
roo yearsmoder6te& order statebehavior.

Necessary& Sufficient causesof War


o Necessary:must be present if war occur.
o If war cannot break without that condition existing then its
necessary.
. E.g.armament* necessarycondition forwar.
o An effectiveworld government- interstatewarwouldnt occur &
.tY
powerful state govt-- no civil wars.Absenceof both mechanism
is a necessaryc-onditionof war.
o War occurwhen one party is non democraticgovt.
o A causeof war can be necessary without beine sufficient.E.e.
weaponnecessarycondition of war but not su"fficientcause"of
warlince high levelof armamentdoesnot alwaysleadto war.
o Necessary& sufficient- do not coverall possiblecausesof war.
Shouldtrap ourselvesby thinkine that ciusesof war must be
sufficientdr necessary-perhapsbecauseof deterrence.

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-- Ir

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The ideathat war is endemic Efficientcausesof war


in the human condition is relateto the particular
psychologicallyunpalatable circumstancessurrounding
but it may neverthelessbe individual wars.
true. If human naturecannot
be changed,it maybe Permissivecausesof war
possibleto modi$rhuman are those featuresof
behaviorsothatwas areless international system
frequent. which, while not actively
Sincethere is manydifferent promoting war, allow it to
kind of war; it is not happen.
surprisingthat no single A'necessary'condition of
causeof war can be war is one which must be
identified.
Y It is often usefulto
presentif war is to occur.A
'sufficient' causeof war is
distinguishbetween onewhich,ifpresent,
underlyingcausesof war and
guaranteesthe occurrence
the eventsthat triggerthem.
ofwar.

HUMANNATURE
EXPLANATIONS
OFWAR
Frustration
o SocialPsychologisthavearguedthat aggressionis
\> the result of frustration.
o Somebelievefeelingsof aggression can be
channeledinto harmlessactivitieslike sport.
o Emphasizethe connectionbtwn violenceand the
failure of human beingsto achievetheir objectives.
o Canchannelthe aggressionto harmlessactivities-
socialengineering

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HUMAN NATUREEXPLANATIONS
OFWAR
Misperception
o Warsthat resultfrom misperceptions,
misunderstandinss & mistalculationsbv
statesmenmight 6e preuentedby belter'
communicatiSns& riroreaccurafeinformation.
r Hatred& suspicioncan be reducedif understand
better- but the morethev understandmore thev
will hateoneanother- Sir EvelynBaring(Britisti
Governorin Egypt r883-r9o7)
. FalklandWar

HUMANNATURE
EXPLANATIONS
OFWAR
Conscious& unconsciousmotivesfor war
o Psychologisttrying to look behind statesmen's
I decision,tend to seewar asa resultof
unconsciousness drives& weaknessesin the
human psyche.Practitionersareunlikely to agree.
. Official (statesmen)believethat war resultsfrom a
calculated,purposive,consciousdecision.
e Philosopher- war asa resultof unconsciousdrives
& weaknesses in human psyche.

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HUMAN NATUREEXPLANATIONS
OFWAR
I Somebelievethat there is something about human
collectivesthat encouragesviolencb.
o Crowd psychology-Lessresponsibility on individual but
diffused in crowds* lessweight on individual.
o There is someevidence,howeverthat though democratic
statesfight as frequently as other states,they do not fight
eachother.
o E.g.Democracy& Peacedemocratictheory

,WITHIN' 'BEYOND'
& STA
o As interstatewar haswaned,intra stateconflict
hasbecomemore frequent.
o E.g.identity conflict, protractedconflict, ethnic
9. conflict.
-v
o Ethnic conflicts do not easilyfit the Clausewitzian
model.
o Theyare particularlyviolent & peopleareoften
killed becauseof they areratherthan becauseof
their behavior& politics.In the future,some
writers suggest,wars may be between'civilizations'
rather than betweenstatesor ethnicsgroups.

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a CureforWAR:
l. Changeof human nature/behavior
2. To reconstruct the system

3. To distribute equitably the world,swealth


4. To abolish armaments OR
5. To'reeducate'mankind - follow with
faultlesslogic from variouscausesof war
identified

No prospectto implement them in foreseeable


- solutions future - not
o Maybeway forward improving
pI our techniquesof diplomacy,
communications,crisis avoidance& crisis management
o By dev.eloping a conceptof enlightenself interestwhich is
sensitiveto others;
o Byextendingscopeof international
law & buirding on existing
moral constraints;
o By l-earninghoe to.manage
military power through responsibre
civil-military relations
r Sophisticatedmethod/measures
of armscontrol;
o By strengthening cooperation
through international
organization & world trade.
r Peaceis absenceof war NOT
absenceof conflict.

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