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Table of Contents

Mixing Console................................................................................................................................2
Introduction...........................................................................................................................2
Structure.................................................................................................................................2
Applications............................................................................................................................3
Mixing console manufacturers.............................................................................................3
Abstract...........................................................................................................................................5
Schematic........................................................................................................................................6
Board Assembly..............................................................................................................................7
Operation........................................................................................................................................8
Printed Circuit Board Layout........................................................................................................13
Eagle CAD Design Rules.......................................................................................................14
Copper Bottom Layer..........................................................................................................15
PCB Assembly Diagram.......................................................................................................16
SPICE Simulation...........................................................................................................................17
Analysis Screen-shots...................................................................................................................18
SPICE Net-list.................................................................................................................................19
SPICE Plot Export – AC analysis...................................................................................................20
Operational Amplifier – TL071 SPICE model...............................................................................22
SPICE Analysis Graphs..................................................................................................................23
AC Frequency analysis.........................................................................................................23
Transient Analysis Graphs...................................................................................................24
Troubleshooting............................................................................................................................26
Bill of Materials.............................................................................................................................27
Conclusion.....................................................................................................................................28
Project Pictures.............................................................................................................................29
Bibliography..................................................................................................................................30
Mixing Console

Introduction
In professional audio, a mixing console, or audio mixer, also called a sound board,
soundboard, mixing desk, or mixer is an electronic device for combining (also called
"mixing"), routing, and changing the level, timbre and/or dynamics of audio signals. A
mixer can mix analog or digital signals, depending on the type of mixer. The modified
signals (voltages or digital samples) are summed to produce the combined output
signals.

Mixing consoles are used in many applications, including recording studios, public
address systems, sound reinforcement systems, broadcasting, television, and film post-
production. An example of a simple application would be to enable the signals that
originated from two separate microphones (each being used by vocalists singing a
duet, perhaps) to be heard through one set of speakers simultaneously. When used for
live performances, the signal produced by the mixer will usually be sent directly to an
amplifier, unless that particular mixer is "powered" or it is being connected to powered
speakers.

Illustration 1: Professional Mixer


Structure
A typical analog mixing board has three sections:
• Channel inputs
• Master controls
• Audio level metering

The channel inputs are replicated monaural or stereo input channels with pre-amp
controls, channel fader and pan, effects and equalization controls. The master control
section has level, tone, amplification and auxiliary return level controls. In addition it
may have solo monitoring controls, a stage talk-back microphone control, muting
controls and an output matrix mixer. Audio level meters may be provided above the
input and master sections or they may be integrated into the unit (if present).
Applications
Dub producers/engineers such as Lee "Scratch" Perry were perhaps the first musicians
to use a mixing board as a musical instrument. Public address systems will use a
mixing console to set microphones for different speakers to the correct level, and can
add in recorded sounds into the mix. A major requirement is to minimize audio
feedback. Most bands will use a mixing console to combine musical instruments and
vocals to the correct level. Radio broadcasts use a mixing desk to select audio from
different sources, such as CD players, telephones, remote feeds, or prerecorded
advertisements. Noise music musicians such as Merzbow or Wolf Eyes may create
feedback loops within mixers, creating an instrument known as a no-input mixer. The
tones generated from a no-input mixer are created by connecting an output of the
mixer into an input channel and manipulating the pitch with the mixer's dials.

Mixing console manufacturers


Some of the most popular mixing console manufacturers are listed below:
• Roland Corporation
• Soundcraft
• Shure
• Yamaha Pro Audio
• Behringer

Commercial mixing modules run into thousands of dollars and have many advanced
features like mechanized fades, pitch shift, equalization, automatic leveling, LFO
envelop generation, independent frequency synthesis and arpegiators.

Some specifications of Yahama Corporation's top mixing station, DM2000VCM, are


listed below:
• 96-input 22-bus Mix Capacity at 96 kHz
• Precise 24-bit/96-kHz Audio
• 24 microphone/line inputs with balanced XLR/TRS jacks
• Versatile MIDI control capability is provided via MIDI IN, OUT, and THRU
connectors and an independent MTC input connector.
• USB and RS422 "TO HOST" connectors, an XLR type SMPTE time code input.

Illustration 2: Controls and Illustration 3: Mixing


LFO envelope [DM2000] Curves Display [DM2000]
Abstract
Research Focus
The project we have undertaken, aims to design and construct a basic analog audio
mixer. We have attempted to design a mixer using low-cost components and passive
mixing techniques: whose actions and performance would be comparable to a basic
commercial module. The mixer is designed to be fairly tolerant to supply and other
external parameters which are inherently introduced due to interfacing with external
components.

Issue(s) Addressed
The major issues faced in the construction of the project can be broadly bifurcated as:
design considerations and construction limitations.
A balance between performance and cost was to be struck, which was the determining
factor in choice of operational amplifier. Typically low cost operational amplifiers
suffer from noise degradation during rail to rail performance. The input impedance is
also considerable. Hence a high input impedance operational amplifier with good
near-rail performance was chosen. The standard 3.5mm input connector was chosen
due to its popularity in audio circuits and easy availability. Converters for this jack are
also easily available. These were the major considerations in the design stage.
For the construction, It was our aim to keep the circuit fairly well spaced for easy
manufacture and verification. So 16 thou tracks were chosen with with 18 thou
clearances. These values were determined experimentally and observed to lend
themselves to good repeatability and accurate manufacture. These also sufficed for our
space constraints, and were thus chosen.

Research Methods
Parameters for design were determined experimentally, through construction on the
solder-less breadboard and through simulation in Spice software.
Limitations for the manufacture, was determined by etching and constructing other
small circuits in progressively finer tolerances till the optimum values between area of
board and ease of manufacture was not obtained. These, as mentioned above are
found to be: 16 thou tracks with 18 thou clearances.
The layout of the PCB was prepared in board layout tool 'Eagle CAD' by Cadsoft.
Simulation was conducted on 'Ltspice' by Linear Technologies.

Conclusions and Recommendations


We find that by using the components described herewith, it is possible to manufacture
a low cost, practical mixing solution, whose performance matches commercially
available modules.
Further, we have determined that for easy and accurate manufacture the track width
should be atleast 16 thou and clearance should be at-least 18 thou. Drill size of 0.6 mm
is suitable for all components save the 3.5 mm female TRS connector, which require a
1.1 mm drill.
Schematic
Board Assembly
Operation
At the heart of the circuit is the TL071P operational amplifier.
The JFET-input operational amplifiers in the TL07x series are similar to the TL08x
series, with low input bias and offset currents and fast slew rate. The low harmonic
distortion and low noise make the TL07x series ideally suited for high-fidelity and
audio preamplifier applications. Each amplifier features JFET inputs (for high input
impedance) coupled with bipolar output stages integrated on a single monolithic chip.
Some features of the TL071 operational amplifier that warranted its choice include:
• Low Power Consumption
• Wide Common-Mode and Differential
• Voltage Ranges
• Low Input Bias and Offset Currents
• Output Short-Circuit Protection
• Low Total Harmonic Distortion - 0.003% Typ
• Low Noise
• Vn = 18 nV/√Hz Typically at f = 1 kHz
• High Input Impedance . . . JFET Input Stage
• Internal Frequency Compensation
• Latch-Up-Free Operation
• High Slew Rate - 13 V/µs Typical
• Common-Mode Input Voltage Range
• Includes VCC+
The pin-outs of Tl071 are as follows:

Illustration 4: Pin Configuration of Tl071


The typical response of the TL071 operational amplifier is shown below. Low peak
overshoot and quick damping make it suitable for use in audio circuits. This response
is favorable for linear mixing.

Illustration 5: Typical response of TL072


Operational Amplifier

Illustration 6: Block Diagram of Operational Amplifier

The input stage is a differential amplifier. The differential amplifier used as an input
stage provides differential inputs and a frequency response down to d/c. Special
techniques are used to provide the high input impedance necessary for the operational
amplifier. The second stage is a high-gain voltage amplifier.
This stage may be made from several transistors to provide high gain. A typical
operational amplifier could have a voltage gain of 200,000. Most of this gain comes
from the voltage amplifier stage. The final stage of the OP AMP is an output amplifier.
The output amplifier provides low output impedance. The actual circuit used could be
an emitter follower. The output stage should allow the operational amplifier to deliver
several mili-amperes to a load.
Notice that the operational amplifier has a positive power supply (+Vss) and a negative
power supply (- Vdd). This arrangement enables the operational amplifier to produce
either a positive or a negative output. The two input terminals are labeled "inverting
input" (-) and "non-inverting input" (+). The operational amplifier can be used with
three different input conditions (modes). With differential inputs (first mode), both
input terminals are used and two input signals which are 180 degrees out of phase
with each other are used. This produces an output signal that is in phase with the
signal on the non-inverting input. If the non-inverting input is grounded and a signal is
applied to the inverting input (second mode), the output signal will be 180 degrees out
of phase with the input signal (and one-half the amplitude of the first mode output). If
the inverting input is grounded and a signal is applied to the non-inverting input (third
mode), the output signal will be in phase with the input signal (and one-half the
amplitude of the first mode output).

Summing and Mixing Operation


The Summing Amplifier is a very flexible circuit based upon the standard Inverting
Operational Amplifier configuration.
Illustration 7: Summing Amplifier

The summing action of this circuit is easy to understand if you keep in mind the main
"mission" of the op amp. It's a simple one: keep the potential of the negative terminal
very close to the positive terminal. In this case, keep the negative terminal close to 0V
(virtual ground). The op amp essentially nails one leg of R1, R2 and R3 to a 0V potential.
This makes it easy to write the currents in these resistors.
Consider the inverting configuration of an operational amplifier. If we add another
input resistor equal in value to the original input resistor, Rin we end up with other
operational amplifier circuit called a Summing Amplifier, "Summing Inverter" or even
a "Voltage Adder" circuit as shown below.
The output voltage, (Vout) now becomes proportional to the sum of the input voltages,
V1, V2, V3 etc. Then we can modify the original equation for the inverting amplifier to
take account of these new inputs thus:
If,

I = I1 + I2 + I3 = - (V1/Rin + V2/Rin + V3/Rin )


then,

Vout = - { (Rf/Rin) V1 + (Rf/Rin) V2 + (Rf/Rin) V3 }

However, if all the input impedances, (Rin) are equal in value the final equation for the
output voltage is given as:

Vout = - Rf/Rin ( V1 + V2 + V3 + ....VN)


We now have an operational amplifier circuit that will amplify each individual input
voltage and produce an output voltage signal that is proportional to the algebraic
"SUM" of the three individual input voltages V1, V2 and V3. We can also add more inputs
if required as each individual input "see's" their respective resistance, Rin as the only
input impedance. This is because the input signals are effectively isolated from each
other by the "virtual earth" node at the inverting input of the op-amp. A direct voltage
addition can also be obtained when all the resistances are of equal value and Rf is
equal to Rin. A Scaling Summing Amplifier can be made if the individual input resistors
are not equal. The resistances would then modify to:

Vout = -Rf {(V1/R1) + (V2/R2) + (V3/R3) }


The Summing Amplifier is a very flexible circuit indeed, enabling us to effectively
"Add" or "Sum" together several individual input signals. If the inputs resistors, R1, R2,
R3 etc, are all equal a unity gain inverting adder can be made. However, if the input
resistors are of different values a "scaling summing amplifier" is produced which gives
a weighted sum of the input signals.

This is the fundamental concept behind the Audio Mixer. The diagram below illustrates
this.

Illustration 8: Fundamental of Operation


Printed Circuit Board Layout
The printed circuit board was designed using Cadsoft's “Eagle Cad” software. The name
EAGLE is an acronym, which stands for 'Easily Applicable Graphical Layout Editor'. It
consists of a schematic entry software, a layout editor and design rules checker.
The schematic was laid down in the schematic editor. Operational amplifier footprint
was sourced from the library 'Linear' by Linear Devices Inc. The 3.5 mm TRS connector
was sourced from the library 'Conn-Hiershmann' by Hiershmann Connectors. All
footprints were checked for dimensional accuracy.
The design rules were modified to suit the limitations of manual manufacture. A
summary of the design rules are as follows:
• Minimum track width: 16 thou
• Minimum Clearance: 24 thou
• Routing grid: 50 thou
• Minimum Drill: 8 thou
• Restring: 20 thou
The design was exported to a image with the settings: DPI = 300, Mirror = False,
Monochrome = True. This image was subsequently printed and used for manufacture.
The image is the top view of 'Copper Bottom Layer' looking through the board.
The complete 'Design Rules File', 'PCB Layout' and 'Copper Bottom Image' are included
included subsequent pages.
Eagle CAD Design Rules

EAGLE CAD DESIGN RULES export rlMinViaInner = 10mil


rlMaxViaInner = 20mil
description[en] = <b>Wide rlMinMicroViaOuter = 4mil
Tolatances</b>\n<p>\nDesign rules to rlMaxMicroViaOuter = 20mil
facilitate\nmanufacture of board with rlMinMicroViaInner = 4mil
\n high accuracy & repeatability</p> rlMaxMicroViaInner = 20mil
psTop = -1
layerSetup = (1*16) psBottom = -1
mtCopper = 0.035mm 0.035mm 0.035mm psFirst = -1
0.035mm 0.035mm 0.035mm 0.035mm psElongationLong = 100
0.035mm 0.035mm 0.035mm 0.035mm psElongationOffset = 100
0.035mm 0.035mm 0.035mm 0.035mm mvStopFrame = 1.000000
0.035mm mvCreamFrame = 0.000000
mtIsolate = 1.5mm 0.15mm 0.2mm 0.15mm mlMinStopFrame = 4mil
0.2mm 0.15mm 0.2mm 0.15mm 0.2mm mlMaxStopFrame = 4mil
0.15mm 0.2mm 0.15mm 0.2mm 0.15mm mlMinCreamFrame = 0mil
0.2mm mlMaxCreamFrame = 0mil
mdWireWire = 18mil mlViaStopLimit = 25mil
mdWirePad = 18mil srRoundness = 0.000000
mdWireVia = 8mil srMinRoundness = 0mil
mdPadPad = 12mil srMaxRoundness = 0mil
mdPadVia = 8mil slThermalGap = 0.500000
mdViaVia = 8mil slMinThermalGap = 20mil
mdSmdPad = 8mil slMaxThermalGap = 100mil
mdSmdVia = 8mil slAnnulusIsolate = 20mil
mdSmdSmd = 8mil slThermalIsolate = 10mil
mdViaViaSameLayer = 8mil slAnnulusRestring = 0
mnLayersViaInSmd = 2 slThermalRestring = 1
mdCopperDimension = 10mil slThermalsForVias = 0
mdDrill = 8mil checkGrid = 0
mdSmdStop = 0mil checkAngle = 0
msWidth = 16mil checkFont = 1
msDrill = 20mil checkRestrict = 1
msMicroVia = 9.99mm useDiameter = 13
msBlindViaRatio = 0.500000 maxErrors = 50
rvPadTop = 0.250000
rvPadInner = 0.250000
rvPadBottom = 0.300000
rvViaOuter = 0.250000
rvViaInner = 0.250000
rvMicroViaOuter = 0.250000
rvMicroViaInner = 0.250000
rlMinPadTop = 12mil
rlMaxPadTop = 20mil
rlMinPadInner = 10mil
rlMaxPadInner = 20mil
rlMinPadBottom = 20mil
rlMaxPadBottom = 30mil
rlMinViaOuter = 10mil
rlMaxViaOuter = 20mil
Copper Bottom Layer

Replace Page
PCB Assembly Diagram

Replace Page
SPICE Simulation
SPICE simulation of the circuit was performed using the software “LTSpice IV” from
Linear Corporation. Operational amplifier TL071 model was obtained from National
Semiconductor's library.
Transient analysis and AC frequency analysis was carried out in the software.
Transient analysis was run for a simulated time of 10ms and showed sufficient analog
mixing of signals.
AC response was near about flat between 100 Hz and 18 KHz indicating good audio
frequency response. The resultant graphs of the analysis, SPICE netlist files and
simulation files are attached on subsequent pages.
Analysis Screen-shots

Illustration 9: Transient analysis: 10ms

Illustration 10: AC analysis of circuit.


SPICE Net-list
Transient Analysis AC Frequency Analysis
* E:\Projects and Papers\SE * E:\Projects and Papers\SE
project\Audio Mixer\CAD project\Audio Mixer\CAD
Files\Spice\Audio Mixer -2.asc Files\Spice\Audio Mixer -2.asc
XU1 0 N001 V+ V- N002 TL071 XU1 0 N001 V+ V- N002 TL071
R1 N001 P001 1K tol=1 pwr=0.1 R1 N001 P001 1K tol=1 pwr=0.1
R12 N002 N001 100k R12 N002 N001 100k
V3 N005 0 SINE(0 0.010 1.5k) AC 0.01 V3 N005 0 SINE(0 0.010 1.5k) AC 0.01
V1 V+ 0 9 V1 V+ 0 9
V2 0 V- 9 V2 0 V- 9
XU2 0 N003 V+ V- N004 TL071 XU2 0 N003 V+ V- N004 TL071
C2 N006 N002 10µ C2 N006 N002 10µ
R2 N003 N006 47K R2 N003 N006 47K
R3 N004 N003 100k R3 N004 N003 100k
C1 P001 N005 10µ C1 P001 N005 10µ
XU3 0 N007 V+ V- N008 TL071 XU3 0 N007 V+ V- N008 TL071
XU4 0 N011 V+ V- N012 TL071 XU4 0 N011 V+ V- N012 TL071
R4 N007 N009 1K R4 N007 N009 1K
R5 N011 N014 1K R5 N011 N014 1K
R6 N003 N010 47K R6 N003 N010 47K
R7 N003 N013 47K R7 N003 N013 47K
C3 N010 N008 10µ C3 N010 N008 10µ
C4 N013 N012 10µ C4 N013 N012 10µ
V4 N009 0 SINE(0 0.010 1K) AC 0.01 V4 N009 0 SINE(0 0.010 1K) AC 0.01
V5 N014 0 SINE(0 0.010 2K) AC 0.01 V5 N014 0 SINE(0 0.010 2K) AC 0.01
R8 N008 N007 100k R8 N008 N007 100k
R9 N012 N011 100k R9 N012 N011 100k
.include TL071.MOD .include TL071.MOD
.tran 10m .ac oct 10 20 20000
.backanno .backanno
.end .end
SPICE Plot Export – AC analysis
Freq. V(n004) 5.65685e+001 (1.60739e+001dB,1.71904e+000°)
2.00000e+001 1.71484e+002
(1.59168e+001dB,5.33292e+000°)
(1.50426e+001dB,1.15028e+001°) 6.06287e+001 (1.60769e+001dB,1.56533e+000°)
2.14355e+001 1.83792e+002
(1.59391e+001dB,4.99410e+000°)
(1.51411e+001dB,1.11283e+001°) 6.49802e+001 (1.60795e+001dB,1.41875e+000°)
2.29740e+001 1.96983e+002
(1.59588e+001dB,4.67121e+000°)
(1.52338e+001dB,1.07297e+001°) 6.96440e+001 (1.60818e+001dB,1.27864e+000°)
2.46229e+001 2.11121e+002
(1.59761e+001dB,4.36408e+000°)
(1.53202e+001dB,1.03122e+001°) 7.46426e+001 (1.60838e+001dB,1.14442e+000°)
2.63902e+001 2.26274e+002
(1.59913e+001dB,4.07240e+000°)
(1.54003e+001dB,9.88121e+000°) 8.00000e+001 (1.60856e+001dB,1.01548e+000°)
2.82843e+001 2.42515e+002
(1.60047e+001dB,3.79574e+000°)
(1.54740e+001dB,9.44148e+000°) 8.57419e+001 (1.60871e+001dB,8.91235e-001°)
3.03143e+001 2.59921e+002
(1.60164e+001dB,3.53358e+000°)
(1.55416e+001dB,8.99763e+000°) 9.18959e+001 (1.60884e+001dB,7.71133e-001°)
3.24901e+001 2.78576e+002
(1.60267e+001dB,3.28533e+000°)
(1.56031e+001dB,8.55378e+000°) 9.84916e+001 (1.60895e+001dB,6.54619e-001°)
3.48220e+001 2.98571e+002
(1.60357e+001dB,3.05035e+000°)
(1.56588e+001dB,8.11357e+000°) 1.05561e+002 (1.60905e+001dB,5.41156e-001°)
3.73213e+001 3.20000e+002
(1.60436e+001dB,2.82796e+000°)
(1.57091e+001dB,7.68008e+000°) 1.13137e+002 (1.60913e+001dB,4.30217e-001°)
4.00000e+001 3.42968e+002
(1.60505e+001dB,2.61748e+000°)
(1.57543e+001dB,7.25591e+000°) 1.21257e+002 (1.60920e+001dB,3.21282e-001°)
4.28709e+001 3.67583e+002
(1.60565e+001dB,2.41819e+000°)
(1.57948e+001dB,6.84315e+000°) 1.29960e+002 (1.60927e+001dB,2.13841e-001°)
4.59479e+001 3.93966e+002
(1.60618e+001dB,2.22940e+000°)
(1.58309e+001dB,6.44343e+000°) 1.39288e+002 (1.60932e+001dB,1.07387e-001°)
4.92458e+001 4.22243e+002
(1.60664e+001dB,2.05040e+000°)
(1.58630e+001dB,6.05797e+000°) 1.49285e+002 (1.60936e+001dB,1.41578e-003°)
5.27803e+001 4.52548e+002 (1.60939e+001dB,-
(1.60704e+001dB,1.88051e+000°)
1.04575e-001°)
(1.58915e+001dB,5.68763e+000°) 1.60000e+002
4.85029e+002 (1.60942e+001dB,-
2.11089e-001°) 1.81019e+003 (1.60852e+001dB,- 1.12359e+001°)
3.09368e+000°)
5.19842e+002 (1.60944e+001dB,- 6.75588e+003 (1.59302e+001dB,-
3.18634e-001°) 1.94012e+003 (1.60835e+001dB,- 1.20311e+001°)
3.34006e+000°)
5.57152e+002 (1.60945e+001dB,- 7.24077e+003 (1.59058e+001dB,-
4.27722e-001°) 2.07937e+003 (1.60814e+001dB,- 1.28788e+001°)
3.60237e+000°)
5.97141e+002 (1.60946e+001dB,- 7.76047e+003 (1.58780e+001dB,-
5.38876e-001°) 2.22861e+003 (1.60790e+001dB,- 1.37819e+001°)
3.88182e+000°)
6.40000e+002 (1.60947e+001dB,- 8.31746e+003 (1.58462e+001dB,-
6.52625e-001°) 2.38856e+003 (1.60763e+001dB,- 1.47434e+001°)
4.17972e+000°)
6.85935e+002 (1.60946e+001dB,- 8.91444e+003 (1.58100e+001dB,-
7.69514e-001°) 2.56000e+003 (1.60731e+001dB,- 1.57661e+001°)
4.49747e+000°)
7.35167e+002 (1.60945e+001dB,- 9.55426e+003 (1.57688e+001dB,-
8.90102e-001°) 2.74374e+003 (1.60695e+001dB,- 1.68530e+001°)
4.83652e+000°)
7.87932e+002 (1.60944e+001dB,- 1.02400e+004 (1.57220e+001dB,-
1.01497e+000°) 2.94067e+003 (1.60654e+001dB,- 1.80068e+001°)
5.19845e+000°)
8.44485e+002 (1.60942e+001dB,- 1.09750e+004 (1.56687e+001dB,-
1.14470e+000°) 3.15173e+003 (1.60606e+001dB,- 1.92301e+001°)
5.58489e+000°)
9.05097e+002 (1.60939e+001dB,- 1.17627e+004 (1.56084e+001dB,-
1.27994e+000°) 3.37794e+003 (1.60551e+001dB,- 2.05254e+001°)
5.99761e+000°)
9.70059e+002 (1.60935e+001dB,- 1.26069e+004 (1.55401e+001dB,-
1.42131e+000°) 3.62039e+003 (1.60489e+001dB,- 2.18947e+001°)
6.43845e+000°)
1.03968e+003 (1.60931e+001dB,- 1.35118e+004 (1.54629e+001dB,-
1.56950e+000°) 3.88023e+003 (1.60417e+001dB,- 2.33397e+001°)
6.90938e+000°)
1.11430e+003 (1.60925e+001dB,- 1.44815e+004 (1.53759e+001dB,-
1.72522e+000°) 4.15873e+003 (1.60334e+001dB,- 2.48619e+001°)
7.41247e+000°)
1.19428e+003 (1.60919e+001dB,- 1.55209e+004 (1.52780e+001dB,-
1.88920e+000°) 4.45722e+003 (1.60239e+001dB,- 2.64617e+001°)
7.94988e+000°)
1.28000e+003 (1.60912e+001dB,- 1.66349e+004 (1.51683e+001dB,-
2.06223e+000°) 4.77713e+003 (1.60131e+001dB,- 2.81394e+001°)
8.52392e+000°)
1.37187e+003 (1.60903e+001dB,- 1.78289e+004 (1.50454e+001dB,-
2.24514e+000°) 5.12000e+003 (1.60007e+001dB,- 2.98942e+001°)
9.13697e+000°)
1.47033e+003 (1.60893e+001dB,- 1.91085e+004 (1.49085e+001dB,-
2.43879e+000°) 5.48748e+003 (1.59864e+001dB,- 3.17246e+001°)
9.79156e+000°)
1.57586e+003 (1.60882e+001dB,- 2.00000e+004 (1.48101e+001dB,-
2.64411e+000°) 5.88134e+003 (1.59701e+001dB,- 3.29689e+001°)
1.04903e+001°)
1.68897e+003 (1.60868e+001dB,-
2.86206e+000°) 6.30346e+003 (1.59515e+001dB,-
Operational Amplifier – TL071 SPICE model
* TL071 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER "MACROMODEL" SUBCIRCUIT
* CREATED USING PARTS RELEASE 4.01 ON 06/16/89 AT 13:08
* (REV N/A) SUPPLY VOLTAGE: +/-15V
* CONNECTIONS: NON-INVERTING INPUT
* | INVERTING INPUT
* | | POSITIVE POWER SUPPLY
* | | | NEGATIVE POWER SUPPLY
* | | | | OUTPUT
* | | | | |
.SUBCKT TL071 1 2 3 4 5
*
C1 11 12 3.498E-12
C2 6 7 15.00E-12
DC 5 53 DX
DE 54 5 DX
DLP 90 91 DX
DLN 92 90 DX
DP 4 3 DX
EGND 99 0 POLY(2) (3,0) (4,0) 0 .5 .5
FB 7 99 POLY(5) VB VC VE VLP VLN 0 4.715E6 -5E6 5E6 5E6 -5E6
GA 6 0 11 12 282.8E-6
GCM 0 6 10 99 8.942E-9
ISS 3 10 DC 195.0E-6
HLIM 90 0 VLIM 1K
J1 11 2 10 JX
J2 12 1 10 JX
R2 6 9 100.0E3
RD1 4 11 3.536E3
RD2 4 12 3.536E3
RO1 8 5 150
RO2 7 99 150
RP 3 4 2.143E3
RSS 10 99 1.026E6
VB 9 0 DC 0
VC 3 53 DC 2.200
VE 54 4 DC 2.200
VLIM 7 8 DC 0
VLP 91 0 DC 25
VLN 0 92 DC 25
.MODEL DX D(IS=800.0E-18)
.MODEL JX PJF(IS=15.00E-12 BETA=270.1E-6 VTO=-1)
.ENDS
SPICE Analysis Graphs

AC Frequency analysis
Transient Analysis Graphs
Troubleshooting
The circuit functioned as designed for the most part, except on two counts: both
mechanical.
The 3.5 mm TRS connector had flat pins which did not fit correctly in the 1.1 mm drill
hole. We had to carefully extend the holes laterally to allow the pins to slide through.
This was done using a 0.3mm drill bit. The fine drill bit was mounted onto the drill
chuck and lowered into the hole and the PCB was moved from side to side. This
extended the size of the hole by a hair width and the jack slid inside.

Illustration 11: TRS connector mechanical fitting was a problem

The second bug arose in the fit of the TRS connector. As the connector was not
mounted at the extreme edge of the board, the fitting with the audio jacks were not
ideal. This was solved by grinding the edge of the board to reduce its dimensions. 400
grit sandpaper and a laminate blade was used for the purpose.
We also provided two external Male 3.5 mm TRS connectors as we noted that most
devices seemed to have Female ports.
Bill of Materials

Part-list exported from C:/Documents and Settings/Shaunak/My


Documents/eagle/Audio Mixer V2/Audio Mixer V2.sch at 28/4/2010 12:16:21 PM

Part Value Device Package Description


C1 10u CAP_POLPTH2 CPOL-RADIAL-10UF-25V Capacitor Polarized
C2 10u CAP_POLPTH2 CPOL-RADIAL-10UF-25V Capacitor Polarized
C3 10u CAP_POLPTH2 CPOL-RADIAL-10UF-25V Capacitor Polarized
C4 1u CAP_POLPTH2 CPOL-RADIAL-10UF-25V Capacitor Polarized
C5 1u CAP_POLPTH2 CPOL-RADIAL-10UF-25V Capacitor Polarized
C6 1u CAP_POLPTH2 CPOL-RADIAL-10UF-25V Capacitor Polarized
C7 10u CAP_POLPTH2 CPOL-RADIAL-10UF-25V Capacitor Polarized
G1 AB9V AB9V AB9V 9-V BATTERY CLIP
G2 AB9V AB9V AB9V 9-V BATTERY CLIP
IC1 TL071P TL071P DIL08 OP AMP
IC2 TL071P TL071P DIL08 OP AMP
IC3 TL071P TL071P DIL08 OP AMP
IC4 TL071P TL071P DIL08 OP AMP
R1 10K TRIM_EU-CIP20C-4MM CIP20C-4MM POTENTIOMETER
R2 10K TRIM_EU-CIP20C-4MM CIP20C-4MM POTENTIOMETER
R3 10K TRIM_EU-CIP20C-4MM CIP20C-4MM POTENTIOMETER
R4 100K R-US_0207/10 0207/10 RESISTOR, American symbol
R5 100K R-US_0207/10 0207/10 RESISTOR, American symbol
R6 100K R-US_0207/10 0207/10 RESISTOR, American symbol
R7 47K R-US_0207/10 0207/10 RESISTOR, American symbol
R8 47K R-US_0207/10 0207/10 RESISTOR, American symbol
R9 47K R-US_0207/10 0207/10 RESISTOR, American symbol
R10 100K R-US_0207/10 0207/10 RESISTOR, American symbol
R11 10K R-US_0207/10 0207/10 RESISTOR, American symbol
R12 1K R-US_0207/10 0207/10 RESISTOR, American symbol
R13 1K R-US_0207/10 0207/10 RESISTOR, American symbol
R14 1K R-US_0207/10 0207/10 RESISTOR, American symbol
X1 PG203J PG203J PG203J MIC/HEADPHONE JACK
X2 PG203J PG203J PG203J MIC/HEADPHONE JACK
X3 PG203J PG203J PG203J MIC/HEADPHONE JACK
X4 PG203J PG203J PG203J MIC/HEADPHONE JACK
Conclusion
We have successfully simulated, prototyped and designed a analog audio mixer with
the help of Computer Aided Tools.

The final construction was carried out on a 3 by 4 inch Phenolic Laminate board with a
copper layer on one side. The board was drilled, cut and checked. Components were
then tested and assembled/soldered on it.

Mechanical fixture and support was provided with a Cyanoacrylate compount which
serves as both an adhesive as well as an insulator.

Through the project we have enlisted the following CAD tools:


• EAGLE Cad: Schematic entry and board layout design
• LTSpice: Circuit simulation
• OpenOffice Writer: Latex entry and report compilation
• GIMP: Image and graph editing.

The output of the project can easily be demonstrated on a speaker or a pair of


headphones.

The practical a commercial considerations of the project are clear. It can be used for
mixing two audio sources, be it from microphones, mobile-phones, portable media
players or computers.

The project can be used as a viable alternative to basic commercial solutions.


Project Pictures

Illustration 12: Before Assembly

Illustration 13: After Assembly


Bibliography
Books, Journals and Periodicals
• Circuit Cellar – September 2009
• Silicon Chip Magazine – August 2009
• OP-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits – Gayakwad
• Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory – Boylestad – Nashelsky
• Basic Electricity and Semiconductor Devices – Patil – Chitnis
• Applied and Digital Electronics - Patil – Chitnis
• The essence of Printed Circuit Boards Design with EAGLE - Tetsuya Gokan
• SPICE Simulation Fundamentals – National Instruments
• Fundamentals of Physics – Resnick – Halliday - Walker

Websites
• SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis):
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SPICE
• Cyanoacrylate: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanoacrylate
• Operational amplifier: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Op_amps
• SPICE overview:
http://bwrc.eecs.berkeley.edu/classes/icbook/spice/UserGuide/overview_fr.html
• Phenolic Laminates: http://k-mac-plastics.net/phenolics.htm
• Toner Transfer method: http://www.dr-lex.be/hardware/tonertransfer.html
• Edaboards: http://www.edaboard.com/viewtopic.php?t=35875&highlight=eagle

Multimedia
• PCB using toner transfer: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQupRXEqOz4
• Etch a PCB: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kQk6b3MvzkU
Illustration Index
Illustration 1: Professional Mixer..............................................................................................................2
Illustration 2: Controls and LFO envelope [DM2000]..............................................................................3
Illustration 3: Mixing Curves Display [DM2000].....................................................................................3
Illustration 4: Pin Configuration of Tl071.................................................................................................7
Illustration 5: Typical response of TL072..................................................................................................8
Illustration 6: Block Diagram of Operational Amplifier............................................................................9
Illustration 7: Summing Amplifier...........................................................................................................10
Illustration 8: Fundamental of Operation.................................................................................................11
Illustration 9: Transient analysis: 10ms...................................................................................................17
Illustration 10: AC analysis of circuit......................................................................................................17
Illustration 11: TRS connector mechanical fitting was a problem...........................................................25
Illustration 12: Before Assembly.............................................................................................................28
Illustration 13: After Assembly................................................................................................................28