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Guidelines for Changing from Steady State to Dynamic

Guidelines for Changing from Steady State to Dynamic Simulation

Add a resistance unit Operation (e.g. valve, Pump, Compressor) between all pressure nodes in the
flow sheet.
Internal Flow rates will be calculated by the pressure gradients throughout the flow sheet
One P/F specification should be made on each boundary streams ( Feeds and products)
Make Pressure Specification n boundary streams attached to pressure equipment that use a
resistance equation to calculate flow rates (e.g. valve, Pump, Compressor, heat exchangers)
Recommendation :-Add Valve to all boundary streams
(You will use them for flow controllers anyway once you add the control Strategy to the Dynamic

Common Mistakes in Steady State Process Simulation

Common Mistakes in Steady State Process

(Some points are ASPEN HYSYS Specific but can be generalized for other process Simulators)
Better Check before starting rather than trapped in the simulators un-convergence frustration
1. Not use correct property package
Now days ASPEN HYSYS 7.3 new version itself can tell you about the best suitable property package
for the component of the system but still one should have done literature survey for the correct
package for the process.
2. Not have done homework on paper like mass balance & azeotrope formation.
When you need to specify the variables it should be a smart guess rather than any arbitrary value
exception that simulator will calculate the correct value. Simulation Engine converges within the
vicinity of the guess given and if there is no minima than it will not converge (read numerical methods
for how simulator works).
Remember simulator does not solve the process itself. Its a gun to shoot the problem but you are the
one have to aim the target.
3. Not create Case specific Unit set by customizing standard unit set
While putting valves in different unit set than the values of your initial guess ( homework) there would
certainly one- or two times you would landed up by putting the value mistakenly in wrong unit and
even you dont know where you have made that mistake.
4. Over specifying the simulation.
This is the most common mistacke in simulation and hardest one to identifiy.
Do not make the full flow sheet at once and then start converging unit operation one by one until you
are quite familiar with the whole process. Instead of that make flow sheet bit by bit and make it
converge step by step and proceed. After giving all input to the unit operation. Check with the degree
of freedom of the unit operation and then carefully give the specification which you desire out of that

unit operation (Equipment duty). This way you will give minimum specification and never conflict the
variable specified and variable calculated.

Common Mistakes in Steady State Process Simulation page

5. Using Recycle without recycling block.
It wont be possible for simulation to converge the whole system or run the simulation without using it
recycle block. Use lots of recycle block but initial value should be again a smart guess again
(approximate to the value you expect as a final value after conversion.
6. Not Checking Final result with expected or estimated value.
Engineering judgment is always require to check weather Simulation results are expected.
7. Not knowing their simulator accuracy and capability for a particular unit operation. e. g.
HYSYS value for compressor power is still not reliable (thumb rule calculation are still use to report
compressor power consumption.
Horizontal Separator dont have hemispherical head type vessel
For scrubbers or separators, Standard Flow for Actual
rule of thumb : Actual volume =~ Standard volume / pressure (barg)
When dealing with gas compressors (especially reciprocating), people have the tendency to believe
that compressor discharge pressure is set by the compressor.
Absorber and reactors modeling is still very property so we cant realy on HYSYS results except initial
Your comments are welcome and I will discuss more on Dynamic Simulation on my next blog
8. Trying to make robust simulation at once.
Start with simple over all model of process, converge it properly. Check with the system inlet and
outlet streams and check their value. Than one should start complexion the model by replacing the
cooler & heater with exchangers, Shot cut column to proper distillation column etc.
Take outside all around view , be confident than go inside

Determining Vessel Design Pressure and Design

Vessel Design Pressure can be considered as Follow:
What should be my Vessel Design Pressure This Question is very basic and usually answered by
thumb rule, based on experience.
The design pressure of a vessel shall be taken as of the following;
Operating Pressure (barg)

Design Pressure (barg)

1. P=0- 10

MOP + 1 bar MOP z Maximum Process Operating

2. 10 - 50

MOP t 10 % Pressure

3. 50 - I00

MOP + 5 barg

4. > 100


Vessels subject to vacuum during operation shall be designed for the maximum external
Operating pressure plus a margin of 0.15 bar.

If the internal pressure Is 0.35 bara or less the vessel will be designed for full vacuum.

Design pressure for pump discharges shall be calculated by taking 120 % of the normal Pump
(DP) when operating at design conditions.
Vessel Design Temperature can be considered as Follow:
Maximum design temperature = max. Operating Temp + 15 C

Minimum design temperature = min. operating Temp - 5 C or minimum ambient temperature