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E-BALL TECHNOLOGY

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Chapter-1
INTRODUCTION
The word computer comes from the word compute, which means, to
calculate.Hence, people usually consider a computer to be a calculating device that can
perform arithmetic operations at high speed.
In fact, the original objective for inventing a computer was to create a fast calculating
machine. However, more than 80% of work done by computers today is non-mathematical or
non- numerical nature. Hence, to define a computer merely as a calculating device is to
ignore over 80% of its functions. More accurately, we can define a computer as a device that
operates upon data. Data can be anything like bio-data of applicants when computer is used
for short listing candidates for recruiting; marks obtained by students in various subjects
when used for preparing result; details (name, age, sex, etc.) of passengers when used for
making airlines or railways reservations; or number of different parameters when used for
solving scientific research problems, etc.
Hence, data comes in various shapes and sizes depending upon the type of computer
application. A computer can store, process, and retrieve data as and when desired. The fact
that computers process data is so fundamental that many people have started calling it as data
processor.
The name data processor is more inclusive because modern computers not only compute in a
usual sense but also perform other functions with data that flows to and from them. The
activity of processing data using computer is called data processing.Data processing consists
of three sub-activities: capturing input data, manipulating the data, and managing output
results. Data is basically a raw material used as input to data processing and information is
processed data obtained as output of data processing.

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1.1) Characteristics Of Computers


Increasing popularity of computers has proved that it is very powerful and useful tool.The
power and usefulness of this popular tool are mainly due to its following characteristics.

A) AUTOMATIC
An automatic machine works by itself without human intervention. Computers are automatic
machines because once started on a job, they carry out the job until it is finished. However,
computers being machines cannot start themselves and cannot go out and find problems and
solutions. We need to instruct a computer using code instructions that specify how it will do a
particular job.

B) SPEED
A computer is a very fast device. It can perform in a few seconds, the amount of work that a
human being can do in an entire year. While talking about speed of a computer we do not talk
in terms of seconds or milliseconds but in terms of micro seconds,nano seconds and even
picoseconds. A powerful computer is capable of performing several billion simple arithmetic
operations per second.

C) ACCURACY
In addition to being very fast, computers are very accurate. Accuracy of a computer is
consistently high and the degree of its accuracy depends upon its design. A computer
performs every calculation with the same accuracy.

D) VERSATILITY
Versatility is one of the most wonderful things about computer. One moment it is preparing
result of an examination, next moment it is busy preparing electricity bills etc.In brief, a
computer is capable of performing almost any task, if the task can be reduced to a finite series
of logical steps.

E) DILIGENCE
Unlike human beings, a computer is free from monotony, tiredness, and lack of
concentration. It can continuously work for hours without creating any error and without
grumbling. Hence, computer score over human beings in doing routing type jobs that require
great accuracy.

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS
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1623: Mechanical calculator Wilhelm Schickard invented first known mechanical

calculator, capable of simple arithmetic. Similar mechanical adding machine made in 1640s
by Blaise Pascal.

B) 1673: More advanced mechanical calculator.1673byGerman mathematician Gottfried


Leibniz Capable of multiplication and division purely mechanical with no source of power.

C)

1823: Charles Babbage begins work on Difference Engine. He designed, but it was

completed by a Swedish inventor in 1854. Image of the Difference Engine from Niagara
College.

D)

1833: Charles Babbage begins Analytical Engine Never completed. Important

concept: a general-purpose machine capable of performing difference functions based on


programming.

E)

1834: Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace impressed with the concept of the Analytical Engine at

a dinner party. Daughter of poet Lord Byran Created plans for how the machine could
calculate Bernoulli numbers. This is regarded as the first computer program," and she is the
first "programmer" The Department of Defense named a language Ada in her honor in
1979.

F)

1890:Punched cards used by Herman Hollerith to automate Census Concept of

programming the machine to perform different tasks with punched cards was from Babbage.
Punch cards based on Josph Marie Jacquards device to automate weaving looms. Hollerith
founded a company that became International Business Machines(IBM) to market the
technology.
G)

1946: ENIAC completed Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. By Presper

Eckert and John Mauchly 18,000 vacuum tubes, occupied a 30 by 50 foot room Programming
by plugging wires into a patch panel. Very difficult to do, because this style programming
requires intimate knowledge of the computer.

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1.2) Computer Generations


The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different
generations of computing devices. Each generation of computer is characterized by a major
technological development that fundamentally changed the way computer separate, resulting
in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful, more efficient and reliable devices.

First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes


The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and
were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in
addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause
of malfunctions.
First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming
language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one
problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was
displayed on printouts.
The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices.
The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S.
Census Bureau in 1951. Figure (a) shows first generation computer.

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Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors


Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The
transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late
1950s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become
smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation
predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the
computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation
computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.
Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or
assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. Highlevel programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions
of COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions
in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology. The first
computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry. Figure (b) shows
second generation computer

Third Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits


The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of
computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors,
which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Instead of punched cards
and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and
monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many
different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory.
Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller
and cheaper than their predecessors Figure(c) shows second generation computer.

Fourth Generation (1971-Present) Microprocessors


The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated
circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room
could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the
components of the computerfrom the central processing unit and memory to input/output
controlson a single chip. In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and
in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of
desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to
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use microprocessors. As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked
together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet Fourth
generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices.
Figure(d) shows second generation.

Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) Artificial Intelligence


Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development,
though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The
use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a
reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the
face of computers in years to come. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop
devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and selforganization. Figure (e) shows second generation computer.

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FIGURE (e)

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Chapter-2
THE MEANING OF E-BALL TECHNOLOGY
2.1) Defining E-Ball Technology
Arent you tired of your PC? By his ugly shape and the way that it looks? Well, this is exactly
what designer Apostol Tnokovski was feeling when he decided to create the smallest PC ever
made.
Apostol Tnokovski introduced a new pc that is E-Ball Concept pc. The E-Ball concept pc is a
sphere shaped pc which is the smallest design among all the laptops and desktops. This
computer has all the feature like a traditional computer, elements like keyboard, mouse, dvd,
large screen display etc.
E-Ball is designed to be placed on two stands, opens by simultaneously pressing and holding
the two buttons located on each side. E Ball concept pc don't have any external display unit.
It has a button when you press this button a projector will pop and it focus the computer
screen on the wall which can be adjusted with navigation keys. This concept PC will measure
160mm in diameter and it was designed for Microsoft Windows OS.
For the moment there is no word on pricing or when its going to be available, however, I am
sure that everybody would like to see a small spherical PC like this E-BALL shape is
spherical because in Tnokovskis opinion this is the best shape in nature and it draws
everybodys attention.
E-Ball will feature a dual core processor, 250-500GB HDD, 2GB of RAM, integrated
graphic card and sound card, 2 x 50W speakers, HD-DVD recorder, wireless optical mouse
and laser keyboard, LAN and WLAN card, modem, Web cam and integrated LCD projector.

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2.2) Features Of E-Ball


I-TECH VIRTUAL KEYBOARD
DUAL CORE PROCESSOR
2 GBRAM
350-500 GB HARDDRIVE
INTEGRATED GRAPHICS AND SOUND CARD
SPEAKERS
WIRELESS OPTICAL MOUSE
LAN AND WLAN CARD
LCD PROJECTOR
PAPER HOLDER
MODEM

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FIGURE (G)

FIGURE (H)

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A) PROCESSOR
Intel Core is a brand name used for various mid-range to high-end consumer and business
microprocessor made by Intel. The current lineup of Core processors includes the latest
following processors:
Intel Core i7 Intel Core i5
Intel Core i3 Intel Core
Intel Core Intel Core 2 Duo
Intel Core 2 Solo Intel Core 2 Quad

The e-ball pc basically uses Intel core 2 Duo processor. Figure shown below shows the Intel
core 2 duo process.

B) RAM
RAM stands for Random Access memory. It gets the word random Because information
can be accessed in non-sequential order. Though the data itself is stored tighter, it could be
anywhere in the container or amount of RAM available. RAM is measure in bits, and 8
bits equal to 1 byte.
A kilobyte is equal to 1024 bits, and megabyte is equal to 1024 kilobyte. The E-BALL pc
uses 2 GB of RAM.

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1) SRAM dont require external refresh circuitry.


2) SRAM is faster than DRAM.
3) SRAM is more power-efficient when idle.
4) SRAM is several times more expensive than DRAM

C) HARD DRIVE
1) Hard drive is basically a secondary storage device. It is non-volatile in nature. It consists of
metal platter coated with oxide that can be magnetized to represents data. We can directly
access the data from hard drive. The e-ball pc basically consists 350-500GB of hard drive

D) GRAPHIC & SOUND CARD


A video card, display card, graphics card, or graphics adapter is an expansion card which
generates output images to a display. Most video cards offer various functions such as
accelerated rendering of 3D scenes and 2D graphics, MPEG 2/MPEG-4 decoding, TV
output, or the ability to connect multiple monitors(multi-monitor ). Other modern high
performance video cards are used for more graphically demanding purposes, such as PC
games. Video hardware is often integrated into the motherboard, however all modern
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motherboards provide expansion ports to which a video card can be attached. In this
configuration it is sometimes referred to as a video controller or graphics, a video card,
display card, graphics card, or graphics adapter is an expansion card controll

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Chapter-3
VIRTUAL KEYBOARD
3.1) Virtual Keyboard
Virtual Keyboard is just another example of todays computer trend of smaller and faster. It
uses sensor technology and artificial intelligence to let users work on any surface as if it were
a keyboard.
Virtual Keyboard is a small Java application that lets you easily create multilingual text
content on almost any existing platform and output it directly to web pages. Virtual
Keyboard, being a small, handy, well-designed and easy to use application, turns into a
perfect solution for cross platform multilingual text input.
The main features are: platform-independent multilingual support for keyboard text input,
built-in language layouts and settings, copy/paste etc. operations support just as in a regular
text editor, already existing system language settings remain intact, easy and user-friendly
interface and design, and small file size.

The Virtual Keyboard uses light to project a full-sized computer keyboard onto almost any
surface, and disappears when not in use. Used with Smart Phones and PDAs, theVKey (TM)
provides a practical way to do email, word processing and spreadsheet tasks, allowing the
user to leave the laptop computer at home.
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VKey technology has many applications in various high-tech and industrial Sectors. These
include data entry and control panel applications in hazardous and harsh environments and
medical markets.
Projection key boards or virtual key boards claim to provide the convenience of compactness
with the advantages of a full-blown QWERTY keyboard. An interesting use of such
keyboards would be in sterile environments where silence or low noise is essential like
operation theaters. The advantage of such a system is that you do not need a surface for
typing, you can even type in plain air. The company's Virtual Keyboard is designed for
anyone who's become frustrated with trying to put information into a hand held but doesn't
want to carry a notebook computer around. There is also the provision for a pause function to
avoid translating extraneous hand movements function, so that users can stop to eat, drink etc

3.2) Components
This system comprises of three modules,
1. The sensor module,
2. IR-light source
3. The pattern projector

1) SENSOR MODULE
The Sensor Module serves as the eyes of the Keyboard Perception technology. The Sensor
Module operates by locating the user's fingers in 3-D space and tracking the intended
keystrokes, or mouse movements. Mouse tracking and keystroke information is processed
and can then be output to the host device via a USB or other interface. Electronic Perception
Technology:
Electronic perception technology enables ordinary electronic devices to see the world
around them so they can perceive and interact with it. Now everyday electronic devices in a
variety of markets can perceive users actions, gaining functionality and ease of use.
The tiny electronic perception chips and embedded software work by developing a
3Ddistance map to nearby objects in real-time. This information is factored through anonchip processor running imaging software that translates the image into defined events before
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sending it off-chip for application-specific processing. Its an action that is continually


repeated, generating over 30 frames of 3D information per second.

Electronic perception technology has a fundamental advantage over classical image


processing that struggles to construct three-dimensional representations using complex
mathematics and images from multiple cameras or points of view. This single chip contour
mapping approach results in a high reduction of complexity, making it possible to embed the
application independent processing software directly into the chips themselvesso they may
be used in the most modestly-priced, and even pocket-sized electronic devices.

2) IR-LIGHT SOURCE
The Infrared Light Source emits a beam of infrared light. This light beam I designed to
overlap the area on which the keyboard pattern projector or printed image resides. This is
done so as to illuminate the users fingers by the infra-red light beam. This helps in
recognizing the hand movements and the pressing of keys. The light beam facilitates in
scanning the image. Accordingly the information is passed on to the sensor module which
decodes the information. An invisible infra-red beam is projected above the virtual keyboard.
Finger makes keystroke on virtual keyboard. This breaks infrared beam and infrared light is
reflected back to projector. Reflected infrared beam passes through infrared filter to camera.
The camera photographs angle of incoming infrared light. The Sensor chip in the sensor
module determines where the infrared beam was broken, detected co-ordinates determine
actions or characters to be generated.

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3)THE PATTERN PROJECTOR


The Pattern Projector or optional printed image presents the image of the keyboard or mouse
zone of the system. This image can be projected on any flat surface.
The projected image is that of a standard qwerty-keyboard, with all the keys and control
functions as in the keyboard.
The Projector features a wide-angle lens so that a large pattern can be projected from
relatively low elevations. A printed image, with replaceable templates allows system
flexibility, permitting most any kind of keyboard configuration for greater functionality. In
some types of virtual keyboards, a second infra-red beam is not necessary.
Here the projector itself takes the inputs, providing dual functionality. A sensor or camera in
the projector picks up the finger movements, and passes the information onto the sensor
modules.

(a) Advantages
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1. Portability
2. Accuracy
3. Speed of text entry
4. Lack of need for flat or large typing surface
5. Ability to minimize the risk for repetitive strain injuries
6. Flexibility

(b) Disadvantages
1. Virtual keyboard is hard to get used to. Since it involves typing in thin air, it requires a
little practice. Only people who are good at typing can use a virtual keyboard efficiently.
2. It is very costly ranging from 150 to 200 dollars.
3. The room in which the projected keyboard is used should not be very bright so that the
keyboard is properly visible.

Applications
1. High-tech and industrial Sectors
2. Used with Smart phones, PDAs, email, word processing and spreadsheet tasks
3. Operation Theatres
4. As computer/PDA input
5. Gaming control
6. TV remote control

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WORKING OF E-BALL
5.1 Working
E Ball concept pc don't have any external display unit, It has a button when you press this
button a projector will pop and it focus the computer screen on the wall which can be
adjusted with navigation keys.
If there is no wall then it has a paper sheet holder that divides into three pieces like an
umbrella just after popping up, and it will show desktop on the paper sheet. Also, the E-Ball
PC supports a paper holder and the paper sheet on the holder could act like a screen where
you can watch movies or something.
This concept PC will measure 160mm in diameter and it was designed for Microsoft
Windows OS, sorry about the others. For the moment there is no word on pricing or when its
going to be available, however, I am sure that everybody would like to see a small spherical
PC like this one.
E-Ball concept pc has a laser keyboard that is fully a concept keyboard that is visible when
the pc is in working. The keyboard is not physical - it is interpreted by lasers that appear after
you press the respective button. It recognizes your fingers with the help of an IR sensor when
you are typing at a particular place, while the mouse is a pop out wonder making this an
unique piece of technology.
The software interface of E-Ball concept pc is highly stylized with icons that can be
remembered easily that support all type of windows operating system. E-Ball concept pc
work very easy while you are making video presentations, listening music watching large
screen movies, and chatting on the net.
As year passes, the computer size is becoming smaller. This ball is known as E-Ball and its
design is given by Apostol Tnokovski. He was trying to create the smallest PC in the world
when he came across this idea. It is shaped like a sphere because in Tnokovskis opinion this
is the best shape in nature and it draws everybodys attention. You'll see the pop-out laser
mouse, a projector inside that illuminates either the wall or a sheet of paper for a screen, and
that laser keyboard that would almost certainly be a clumsy input device. Fix that, and find a
motherboard thatll fit inside this palm-sized baby, and Apostol might be onto something
here.

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E-Ball will feature a dual core processor, 250-500GB HDD, 2GB of RAM, integrated graphic
card and sound card, 2 x 50W speakers, HD-DVD recorder, wireless optical mouse and laser
keyboard, LAN and WLAN card, modem, Web cam and integrated LCD projector.

FIGURE (R)

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FIGURE (S)
5.2 If there is no wall
1) When we are working in an open place we can make use of a paper sheet as a screen.
2) Paper sheet holder is placed at the back panel of this computer.
3) The holder can be opened by pressing it in the lower part

5.3 Scenario In Use

5.4 (A) Advantages


1) E-BALL is portable.
2) E-BALL has large memory.
3) E-BALL is useful for making video presentation.
4) E-BALL support user defined keyboard layouts.
5) E-BALL is efficient.
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6) E-BALL is very easy to use


7) E-BALL is more secure than other computer.

5.4(B) Disadvantages
1) Normal operating systems cannot work in these computers.
2) Cost of E-BALL is very high.
3) It is difficult to understand if any problems occur in hardware part.

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CONCLUSION, AND REFERENCE


CONCLUSION
1) As the year passes, the computer size is becoming smaller.
2) Todays technology is at its peak point beyond what we could ever imagine.
3) New inventions and innovations are emerging on daily basis.
4) Our imaginations have dressed into reality and today it has become possible to have a
whole computer in our pocket all the time.
5) At last this ball technology has taken the computer technology to new horizons

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REFERENCES
[1] History of embedded devices,
http://www.discussionsworld.com/forum_posts.asp?TID=42603
[2] About E ball, http://www.eballi.org/about/
[3] Early prototype of eball, http://www.eball.org/raspberry-pi-2006-edition/
[4] eball Hardware information, http://elinux.org/RPi_Hardware
[5] How SoC works, http://www.androidauthority.com/how-it-works-systems-on-achip-soc-93587/
[6] Boot process, http://thekandyancode.wordpress.com/2013/09/21/how-theeball-boots-up/
[7] NOOBS, http://wwweballi.org/introducing-noobs/
[8] List of available OS, http://elinux.org/RPi_Distributions
[9] Home automation project, http://www.instructables.com/id/Raspberry-Pi-GPIOhome-automation
[10] Arcade gaming machine project, http://www.cnet.com/how-to/25-fun-thingsto-do-with-a-eball/
[11] Robot project, http://www.wired.com/2013/01/raspberry-pi-r2d2/
[12] Landline telephone project, https://www.twilio.com/blog/2013/03/build-atwilio-hard-phone-with-sip-from-twilio-raspberry-pi-asterisk-freepbx-and-theobihai-obi100.html
[13] Decoration lights project,
http://www.element14.com/community/community/raspberrypi/raspberrypi_projects/blog/2013/12/12/raspberry-pi-enabled-christmas-lights
[14] Advantages-Disadvantages,
https://sites.google.com/site/mis237groupprojectraspberrypi/home/what-israspberry-pi/pros-and-cons-of-the-eball

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