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Table. 1.

Comparison of preferred ranges of operating


parameters in MBR and CAS
Design
Parameter

F/M

F/V
MLSS
MLVSS
SRT
SOUR
OUR
DO

Unit

MBR

CAS

g BOD/g MLSS/day
g COD/g MLSS/day
g BOD/g
MLVSS/day
g COD/g
MLVSS/day
g BOD/L/day
g COD/L/day
g/L
g/L
days
mg O2/g MVLSS/hr
mg O2/L/hr
mg/L

0.04-0.12
0.08-0.24

0.16-0.24
0.32-0.48

0.05-0.151), 2)

0.2-0.3

0.1-0.303)

0.4-0.6

0.5-1.5
1.0-3.0
8-121)
6-10
10-30
2-54)
15-50
1-2

0.6-0.9
1.2-1.8
2-4
1.7-3.4
5-10
6-12
20-40
1-2

COD/BOD= 1.25-2.5 take 2.0 for municipal wastewater


MLVSS/MLSS = 0.8 for municipal wastewater
Sludge production = 0.35-0.5 kgDS/kgBOD for mbr
DO (mg/L) = anoxic ( 0-0.5 take 0.2 mg/L )
= aerobic (1.5-3 mg/L)
= membrane ( 2-6 mg/L)
HRT = 6-15 Hour for mbr
Mixed liqour recycle from membrane tank to aerobic tank = 2-5Q typical
COD/MLSS = Ranges 1.1 - 1.2
F/M ratio in anoxic tank = 0.5-1.0 typical (g COD/g MLSS/d )
F/M ratio in aeration tank = 0.08-0.24 from Table 1 (g COD/g MLSS/d )
Sol-BOD/Total BOD :Soluble-BOD = Total BOD (0.5-0.7 ) total suspended solids
Total BOD ( 170 mg/L ) = Soluble-BOD ( 105 mg/L) + Particulate- BOD (65 mg/L)
Total nitrogen removal efficiency by nitrification and de-nitrification = 0.8 0.85
TKN = NH4-N + ON
bCOD/BOD ratio varies between 1.6-1.7.

Total Nitrogen (TN) is the sum of the nitrogen forms, Total Nitrogen = TKN + NO2 +
NO3

TKN stands for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen which is the sum of NH3 + Organic Nitrogen
NH3 stands for Ammonia Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen is delivered from amino acids and proteins
NO2 stands for Nitrite
NO3 stands for Nitrate
N2 stands for Nitrogen Gas
Refractory Nitrogen is the nitrogen that can not be biologically decomposed
Alkalinity, as CaCO3, is easiest defined as the ability to resist a drop in Ph
What is nitrification?
Nitrification is the conversion of ammonia (NH3) to nitrate (NO3). This is a twostep
process in the presence of
oxygen and two types of nitrifying bacteria, nitrosomonas and nitrobacter.
Ammonia (NH3) + Oxygen (O2) + Alkalinity + Nitrosomonas = Nitrite (NO2)
Nitrate (NO2) + Oxygen (O2) + Alkalinity + Nitrobacter = Nitrate (NO3)
The ammonia values are approximately 60% of the total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN)
values in raw wastewater& Also, TKN generally equals 15 to
20% of the BOD of the raw sewage.

What is De- nitrification?


Denitrification is the conversion of nitrate (N03) to nitrogen gas (N2)
An anoxic zone is established which is an unaerated basin where the dissolved
oxygen levels are kept below 1
mg/l and must be as close, without reaching 0 mg/l, as possible. A target would be
0.2 to 0.5 mg/

NH3 (ammonia) is a gas and sometimes called toxic or free ammonia. It is the unionised
.form of NH4
.NH4 (ammonium) is a nontoxic salt it is the ionised form of ammonia
NH3 and NH4 together are often refered to as total ammonia nitrogen (TAN)

TN = Total nitrogen;
NOx = NO2 + NO3;
TKN = Total Kjeldahl nitrogen;
TN-K = TKN + NOx;
TN-A = Total nitrogen by alkaline-persulfate digestion of whole-water samples;
DN = Dissolved nitrogen by alkaline-persulfate digestion of filtered water samples;
PN = Particulate nitrogen from high temperature combustion of suspended
sediment;
and
TN-C = DN + PN
Filtration : 480-600 sec & relaxation = 120 sec
Energy consumption of membrane related modules was in the range of 0.5-0.7 kWh/m(3) and
specific energy consumption for membrane aeration in flat sheet (FS) was 33-37% higher
than in a hollow fibre (HF) system. Aeration is a major energy consumer, often exceeding
50% share of total energy consumption.

Based on past results in Japan, a


retention time of 6.0 hours is common for the recycled nitrification/denitrification process
operates with a retention time of 6.3 (summer) to 7.8 (winter) hours. In the
EU countries, a retention time of 3.0 to 8.5 hours*28has been reported

VSS/TSS ratio around 0.80.9)

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Texas Administrative Code

TITLE 30
PART 1
CHAPTER 217
SUBCHAPTER F
RULE 217.157

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
TEXAS COMMISSION ON ENVIRONMENTAL
QUALITY
DESIGN CRITERIA FOR DOMESTIC
WASTEWATER SYSTEMS
ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS
Membrane Bioreactor Systems

(a) Applicability.
(1) This section contains criteria for low-pressure, vacuum, and gravity
ultrafiltration or microfiltration membrane bioreactors.
(2) Other types of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are considered innovative
technology and are subject to the requirements of 217.7(b)(2) of this title (relating to
Types of Plans and Specifications Approvals).
(b) Performance Standards.
(1) MBR performance standards for conventional pollutants and nutrients are shown
in the following table:
Attached Graphic
(2) An owner may be required to submit a pilot study report or data from a similar
facility if a proposed facility is designed to achieve higher quality effluent than the
performance standards listed in the table in paragraph (1) of this subsection.
(c) Facility Design.
(1) Pretreatment.
(A) Each MBR system must have fine screening to prevent damage from abrasive
particles or fibrous, stringy material.
(i) Fine screens must be rotary drum or traveling band screen with either
perforated plate or wire mesh with an opening size of 0.5 - 2.0 millimeter (mm) for
hollow fiber systems and tubular systems and 2.0 - 3.0 mm for flat plate systems.
(ii) Bypass of a fine screen must be prevented with either a duplicate fine screen,
overflow to a wet well, or an alternative that has been approved by the executive
director.
(iii) A fine screen must be designed to prevent overflow at the peak flow.
(iv) Coarse screens followed by fine screens may be used in larger facilities to
minimize the complications of fine screening.
(B) The economic feasibility of primary clarification must be evaluated for
facilities designed for an average daily flow of 5.0 million gallons per day (mgd) or
more. The evaluation must be included in the report.
(C) Oil and grease removal is required if the oil and grease levels in the influent
may cause damage to the membranes. The specific detrimental concentration must be
determined by the equipment manufacturer. However, influent concentrations of oil
and grease equal to or more than 100 milligram per liter (mg/l) must have oil and
grease removal.
(D) The necessity of grit removal must be evaluated for a facility that has a
collection system with excessive inflow and infiltration. An evaluation must be
included in the report.
(2) Biological treatment.
(A) The reactor volume for any biological treatment zone must be determined

using rate equations for substrate utilization and biomass growth in a manner similar
to determining basin sizes for conventional activated sludge processes.
(B) The design sludge retention time (SRT) for an MBR must be at least 10 days
but no more than 25 days.
(C) The design operational range of mixed liquor suspended solids concentration
(MLSS) must be:
(i) at least 4,000 mg/l but not more than 10,000 mg/l in the bioreactor; and
(ii) at least 4,000 mg/l but not more than 14,000 mg/l in the membrane tank.
(D) A system designed for an SRT or MLSS outside theses ranges requires a pilot
study in compliance with paragraph (8) of this subsection, or data from a similar
facility that demonstrates that the design parameters are sustainable and can achieve
the expected performance.
(3) Aeration.
(A) An aeration system in a bioreactor must be capable of maintaining dissolved
oxygen levels as listed in subparagraph (C) of this paragraph.
(B) A bioreactor aeration system must compensate for a low oxygen transfer
efficiency due to the higher MLSS concentrations with a justified alpha value of 0.5
or lower.
(C) The design oxygen concentration range used for sizing aeration systems for
treatment zones must be:
(i) Anoxic: not more than 0.5 mg/l;
(ii) Aerobic: at least 1.5 mg/l but not more than 3.0 mg/l; and
(iii) Membranes: at least 2.0 mg/l but not more than 8.0 mg/l.
(D) A design must include oxygen monitoring and an alarm to notify an operator of
potential or actual oxygen depravation.
(4) Recycle Rates. Facilities without advanced treatment must be designed with
recycle rates sufficient to sustain the design mixed liquor concentrations; typically
from 200% to 400% of the facility's influent flow.
(5) Nutrient removal.
(A) A system designed for enhanced nutrient removal must include an isolated tank
or baffled zone for anoxic treatment, anaerobic treatment, or both.
(B) Calculations for sizing the reactor volumes must be based on one of these
models for nutrient removal:
(i) Bardenpho;
(ii) modified Ludzak-Etinger;
(iii) University of Capetown; or
(iv) an alternative approved by the executive director.
(C) A facility designed for nitrogen or biological nutrient removal must contain a
deoxygenation basin, a larger anoxic basin, or another method approved by the
executive director of decreasing dissolved oxygen concentration, if the recycled
activated sludge is returned to an anoxic or anaerobic basin.
(D) An advanced nutrient removal system must be designed with recycle rates
sufficient to sustain the designed mixed liquor concentrations in both the aeration and
anoxic basins; typically totaling 600% or more of the influent flow.
(6) Use of Membranes.
(A) Use of a membrane system other than a hollow fiber system, tubular system, or
a flat plate system must be considered innovative treatment technology and is subject
to 217.7(b)(2) of this title.
(B) Use of a membrane material other than one of the following must be justified
in the report:

(i) polyethersulfone (PES);


(ii) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF);
(iii) polypropylene (PP);
(iv) polyethylene (PE);
(v) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP); or
(vi) chlorinated polyethylene (CPE).
(C) The nominal pore size used in an MBR for microfiltration membranes must be
at least 0.10 micrometers (microns) but not more than 0.4 microns.
(D) The nominal pore size used in an MBR for ultrafiltration must be at least 0.02
microns but not more than 0.10 microns.
(E) Any chemical used for cleaning must not adversely affect the membrane
material.
(7) Membrane design parameters.
(A) MBRs must be designed for:
(i) An average daily net flux rate of not more than 15 gallons per day per squarefoot of membrane area (gfd);
(ii) A peak daily net flux rate equal to or less than 1.25 times the average daily net
flux rate; and
(iii) A two-hour peak net flux rate equal to or less than 1.5 times the average daily
net flux rate.
(B) The executive director may approve larger net flux rates if the rates are
substantiated with a pilot study or data from a similar facility that substantiate the
proposed duration, frequency, and recovery time from peak flow.
(C) A system with a peak flow rate that is greater than 2.5 times the average daily
flow must use equalization volume, off-line storage, or reserve membrane capacity to
accommodate the higher peak flow.
(D) Hollow fiber transmembrane pressure (TMP).
(i) The operational pressure range must be at least 2.0 pounds per square inch
(psi) but not more than 10.0 psi.
(ii) The maximum pressure must not exceed 12.0 psi.
(E) Flat plate TMP.
(i) The operational pressure range must be at least 0.3 psi but not more than 3.0
psi.
(ii) The maximum pressure must not exceed 4.5 psi.
(F) Tubular, Out of Basin TMP.
(i) The operational pressure range must be at least 0.5 psi but not more than 5.0
psi.
(ii) The maximum pressure must not exceed 10.0 psi.
(8) Supporting Data. Pilot study reports or data from similar facilities must be
provided if a facility is designed to achieve better than the performance standards in
Table F.7 in subsection (b)(1) of this section, or outside normal operating parameters
defined within this section.
(A) A pilot study must be operated at least 30 days after the initial start-up and
acclimation period.
(B) A pilot study must be designed to evaluate the membrane performance during
actual operational conditions including flow variations and influent wastewater
characteristics.
(C) The treatment and pretreatment processes in a pilot study or similar facility
must be equivalent to the proposed facility.
(D) The results of the pilot study must include the following recommendations:

(i) average, peak day, and peak two-hour design net flux rates;
(ii) average and maximum TMP;
(iii) cleaning and backwash intervals;
(iv) expected percent recovery after chemical cleaning;
(v) dissolved oxygen concentrations for reactors and membrane basins;
(vi) MLSS concentrations for reactors and membrane basins;
(vii) SRTs for reactors and membrane basins; and
(viii) expected effluent concentrations of conventional pollutants and nutrients,
including the pollutants and nutrients that will be limited or monitored in the facility's
wastewater permit.
(9) Redundancy.
(A) A facility must be able to operate at normal operating parameters and
conditions for daily average flow with one MBR unit or train out of service.
(B) Acceptable methods of providing redundancy are additional treatment trains,
additional treatment units, or storage. Calculations must be included in the report to
demonstrate adequate redundancy.
(10) Other components.
(A) Mixers.
(i) Unaerated (deoxygenation, pre/post anoxic, and anaerobic) zones must have
submersible mixers or an alternative mixer that has been approved by the executive
director.
(ii) Coarse bubble air diffusers may be used for mixing in a pre-anoxic tank.
(B) Scum and Foam Handling.
(i) Scum and foam must not interfere with treatment or overflow a treatment unit.
(ii) Surface wasting of excess mixed liquor or skimmers may be used to control
scum and foam.
(iii) Surface wasting may be performed in a aerated basin, a membrane basin, or
both.
(C) Cranes and Hoists. A crane, hoist or some other process or mechanism must be
provided for periodic cleaning and maintenance.
(11) Disinfection.
(A) An owner may request and the executive director may grant decreased
ultraviolet light or chlorine dosing requirements for MBR effluent.
(B) Design for ultraviolet light disinfection for MBR effluent that is based on
greater than 75% transmissivity must be justified in the report.
(d) MBR operation.
(1) Membrane cleaning. The following methods may be used:
(A) Air scouring of at least 0.01 standard cubic feet per minute of air per square
foot of membrane area but not more than 0.04 standard cubic feet per minute of air
per square foot of membrane area;
(B) A mixture of air scouring with mixed liquor jet feed;
(C) Back-flushing;
(D) Relaxation, which is short periods of air scouring without filtration; or
(E) Chemical cleaning.
(2) Operational control parameters.
(A) In-line continuous turbidity monitoring of filtrate from each membrane train or
cassette or an equivalent must be provided for operational control and indirect
membrane integrity monitoring. If turbidity is used for indirect integrity monitoring,
the value that indicates problems must be less than or equal to 1.0 nephelometric
turbidity units (NTU).

(B) An owner must follow the manufacturer's recommended frequency for MBR
component inspection, testing, and maintenance. The inspection, testing, and
maintenance procedures and frequencies must be included in the facility's operation
and maintenance manual.
(C) An owner must provide a facility operator access to any specialized tool
necessary for the operation or maintenance of an MBR system. A description of all
specialized tools and instructions for their use must be included in a operation and
maintenance manual for the facility.
(3) Control instrumentation.
(A) A facility must have the ability to run in full manual mode in case of an
automatic control failure; or
(B) An operational backup programmable logic control center (PLC) is required if
manual control is not possible.
(e) Chemical Use and Disposal.
(1) The chemicals used in treatment and maintenance must not harm the MBR
system or interfere with treatment.
(2) The chemicals, including concentrations and disposal methods, must be
identified in the report.
(f) Training.
(1) Key staff must be trained to operate the particular MBR at a facility. They must
be familiar with the sequencing and set points of all operations and actions typically
controlled by automated systems in order to identify and respond to irregularities.
(2) Proposals for staff training must be included in the report.
(g) Warranty and Bonds.
(1) The membranes must have a warranty of at least five years.
(2) The executive director may require a performance bond that meets the
requirements of 217.7(b)(2)(E) of this title.
Source Note: The provisions of this 217.157 adopted to be effective August 28,
2008, 33 TexReg 6843

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