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1-Globalization, inclusive to the same concept as Buy American
provisions, are inevitable. NOVO 12 (Luis M Novo Olivas is associated with Tequila
Organico, LLC with the role of Managing Member)

This solution reflects the values of competition, innovation, and

globalization. The solution will encourage competition not only
nationally, but internationally, while also taking into consideration
the consequences of international alliances. Competition fosters
innovation which means that peoples lives will improve. Finally,
globalization is inevitable since the world is growing ever smaller so
that all countries need to figure out ways to work together as a
2- Buy American popular policy now 12 (manufacturethis, Senate Passes Amendment for
Stronger Buy America Preferences in Transportation Projects, 03/13/2012, T. Lee
Today the U.S. Senate passed an amendment offered by Senators Sherrod Brown (D-OH) and
Jeff Merkley (D-OR) to strengthen Buy America preferences for transportation projects. The
Brown-Merkley amendment #1819 improves the effectiveness of existing Buy America
preferences for transportation projects by boosting transparency, requiring annual reporting
on the use of waivers, and closing an egregious "segmenting" loophole that can be used to evade Buy
America. The amendment was adopted unanimously by voice vote. Meanwhile, in the House of Representatives,
Representative Chip Cravaack (R-MN) was successful in attaching similar language to a House version during consideration by the Committee on
Transportation and Infrastructure. The Alliance for American Manufacturing (AAM) AAM congratulates Senators Brown and Merkley for their leadership on

these improvements will help to ensure that tax dollars spent on

transportation projects support American workers and do not unnecessarily subsidize
workers in China or elsewhere
Buy America. Together,

3-No Threshold-They never give you a threshold for the DA happening and weve
already passed the threshold so their impacts should have happened.

4-Congress will inevitably want Buy American. Rahall 12 (Nick Rahall, US

Rep and Ranking Member of the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, Donna F. Edwards, Edwards,
Rahall lead 69 Members of Congress to Urge President Obama to Protect "Buy American" Policies in TPP, 05/03/12,
sectionid=24&parentid=23&sectiontree=23,24&itemid=511) T.Lee
We must buy American to build America, and government procurement policy is no
exception, said Congresswoman Edwards. We are focused on creating jobs and revitalizing our
manufacturing base, and our trade agreements must not take away this important policy tool. Since 1933, Buy American
policies have helped invest large sums of U.S tax dollars to create jobs, grow our economy,
and strengthen domestic manufacturing. That is why my 68 colleagues and I urge President Obama to ensure that this trade
pact does not limit our rights to spend U.S. tax dollars on U.S. goods and services. Lets continue to use government
procurement to support our manufacturing sector and create good, high-wage American
jobs. American innovation is once again fueling our nations manufacturing base. The
American taxpayer has invested mightily in education, research and development to drive
innovative manufacturing. We have waivered goodbye to too many good American jobs through trade agreements signed on a tilted
table somebody cleverly decided to name, free trade. The American taxpayer and worker deserve a fair shot at


the global marketplace. While trading partners may initially have concerns about fair trade, a vibrant marketplace
supported by American ingenuity and hard work will lift all economies. Its time we stood our
ground for this basic American value. U.S. Rep. Nick Rahall

5- Transit procurement is exempt from international trade
agreements the plan wouldnt create an actionable case
that the US was violating the WTO
Alliance for American Manufacturing 10 Buy America Works: Longstanding United States
Policy Enhances the Job Creating Effect of Government Spending, FEBRUAR
International Trade Agreements and Buy America. America rules, as it always has, in full compliance with its
obligations under international trade agreements. It is important to note, that such negotiated trade

agreements already allow for domestic preferences under a number of

circumstances. These preferences were carefully negotiated and it would be
unwise not to utilize them to the fullest extent possible, just as our trading
partners do. For example, funding for highway and transit programs is exempt under all
international agreements. It is also worth noting that the United States does not have any trade
agreements with many trading partners, including the so-called BRICK countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and
Korea). These issues are examined in more detail below with respect to our NAFTA and WTO obligations. Buy
America Requirement and NAFTA and WTO. As described below, neither of these agreements apply

where the federal government provides grants and other funding to state and
local authorities for highway, transit or airport projects . Other exceptions and limitations in
the WTO Procurement Code substantially limit its application.

6- Encouraging local production is not the same thing as prohibiting

Merco Press 11


criticism of protectionism is a very easy criticism to make and can be leveled

at any measure, Pimentel said. We're implementing, with many years of delay, the Buy America
Act. That isn't protectionism. The Buy America Act was signed into law in the U.S. by President Franklin
Roosevelt in 1933. Protectionism would be if we prohibited imports. For example, we
aren't going to prohibit car imports, but we are going to encourage those that
produce locally, Pimentel said.

7-We would still have to import the minute technology from other
countries. China proves. Maglev. Net 10 ( is dedicated to the magnetic
levitation technology, especially the maglev trains. There is currently only one maglev mass transit in work in
Shanghai, but in the near future we can expect some more operating lines in the world. The maglev trains are
holding the world record of highest speed among trains with 581 km/h. The maximum speed of the Shanghai
maglev in normal operation is 431 km/h)

The maglev train contains materials that are used on airplanes and
is the fastest mode of ground transportation in the world. Earlier
China used to import maglev technology from developed countries.
But after years of research and development, the country has now
mastered the complete range of production from building the rails
to developing the control system. Currently China only imports


some parts from Germany and the design and manufacturing are
totally home grown.
8-None of their evidence is specific to maglev whereas our number 7
arguments warrants are based on maglev thus the only debate at the end of
the round you can default is AFf for specificity of evidence.


9-turn- The US will use Buy America expansions as negotiating

leverage for greater market access. Rayner May 8th

-Martin is an independent consultant with more than 27 years of experience working in customs brokerage and
international trade logistics -- held executive-level positions with a number of leading trade service providers across
Canada, International Trade Compliance Strategies, 5-8,

Pressured by Canadian exporters complaining that the latest Buy America

measures violated market access exemptions under the North American Free Trade Agreement
and were therefore unfairly costing them business and jobs, the Harper government entered into
negotiations with the Obama administration that eventually reached a
procurement agreement in early 2010 which provided limited relief and access to some Recovery Act
projects for Canadian goods. Key to the accord was persuading the Canadian provinces
and territories to finally open up their procurement markets to U.S. suppliers by
signing onto the WTOs Government Procurement Agreement (GPA); a multilateral arrangement mandating that
member countries provide reciprocal access to federal procurement projects and, in some cases, at the sub-federal
level (i.e. states, provinces and cities).

10-Cross apply the James 05 solvency card saying that maglev is key to the
U.S economy and can help economic growth and as such, they can never
claim their econ based scenario because Maglev is essentially key to the
world economy.
11-No Warrants-none of their evidence gives specific reasons as to why
their claim is ture thus they cant access their impacts because theyre not
telling why they would happen.
12- Turn US/Canada Buy America disputes created a fast track
consultation process AND economy. Rayner May 8th -- Martin is an
independent consultant with more than 27 years of experience working in customs brokerage and
international trade logistics -- held executive-level positions with a number of leading trade service
providers across Canada, International Trade Compliance Strategies, 5-8,

One of the more clearly positive outcomes of the dispute regarding the Buy
America measures in the Recovery Act was a provision in the Canada-US
Procurement Agreement offering a fast track consultation process to address
future concerns related to procurement issues, such as new legislation. While yet to be put to
the test, in the case of the American Jobs Act and its scaled-down Rebuild American Jobs sequel, the Canadian


government immediately declared its readiness in both instances to utilize this
expedited process to obtain waivers for Canadian exporters from the Buy America exclusions similar to
those secured with respect to the Recovery Act (only sooner and, presumably, with more practical effect).

13-alt causality-there would be other things such as the decline of economic
port growth or auto industry collapse like the internal links in the AC to be more
likely to access economic collapse.

14-Not Intrinsic-other things such as our agent of action would prevent the

economic collapse from going forward to their terminal impacts through things such
as bailouts and stimulus packages.

15-No Timeframe-they give you no timeframe to when their impacts will occur,
and because we give you one on the flow, the ___________________ ____ card, you
have to default because we do the work and so our impacts will occur first.

16-Emperically denied-When we look to the recession of 2006; we see that

none of their impacts happened because their internal link warrants are based upon
recession leading to depression, triggering their internal link and terminal impacts.

17-The Private market would prevent U.S economic collapse in their

spending scenario. Edwards, 10 (Chris, director of tax policy studies@CATO,
30 June 2010, p.

Governments on every continent have sold off state-owned assets to

private investors in recent decades.11 Airports, railroads, and many other assets
have been privatized. The U.S. government privatized some activities during
the 1980s and 1990s, but we lag behind other nations in realizing the potential of this type
of reform. Germany and the Netherlands, for example, have privatized their postal services, while Chile, Australia, and other nations have
privatized their Social Security systems. The Department of Transportation is a good target for privatization reforms.12 Rising federal
control over transportation has resulted in the political misallocation of


funds, bureaucratic mismanagement, and costly one-size-fits-all
regulations on the states. The solution is to devolve DOT activities back to state governments and the private sector. The federal government
should end highway aid, and the states should seek private funding for their highways. Virginia is adding toll lanes on
the Capitol Beltway, which are partly privately financed, and that state is
also home to the Dulles Greenway, a 14-mile private highway in operation
since 1995. Ending federal highway aid would accelerate the trend toward such innovative projects. The federal government should end
subsidies to Amtrak and high-speed rail. Amtrak has a poor on-time record, its infrastructure is in bad shape, and it carries only a tiny fraction of intercity

. Politicians prevent Amtrak from making cost-effective decisions

regarding its routes, workforce polices, and capital investments. Amtrak should be

privatized to save money and give the firm flexibility to operate efficiently. As for high-speed rail, even in countries such as Japan and France virtually all
high-speed rail lines are money losers, and they carry only a small fraction of intercity passengers. The federal government should end aid to airports,
which are owned by state and local governments. State and local governments should be encouraged to privatize their airports and have them operate

many airports have been partly or fully privatized in

major cities such as Amsterdam, Auckland, Frankfurt, London, Melbourne,
Sydney, and Vienna. Finally, the air traffic control system should be privatized. The Federal Aviation
Administration has a poor record in implementing new technologies in a
timely and cost-effective manner. Many nations have moved towards a
commercialized ATC structure, and the results have been very positive.
without subsidies. In recent decades,

Canada privatized its ATC system in 1996 in the form of a nonprofit corporation, NavCanada, which has a very good record on safety and innovation.


This DA is not a net benefit: States will be more protectionist
Rayner May 8th -- Martin is an independent consultant with more
than 27 years of experience working in customs brokerage and
international trade logistics -- held executive-level positions
with a number of leading trade service providers across
Canada, International Trade Compliance Strategies, 5-8,
Further complicating matters are various Buy America measures at the state
level that continually arise in response to pressure by organized labour and
industry lobby groups such as the Alliance for American Manufacturing. An example of one such action is

Californias Assembly Bill 1097 signed into law by incoming Governor Jerry Brown last October that allows public
transit systems in the state to set their own requirements for the minimum percentage of American-made content
and components in federally funded buses and rail cars. As a result, transit agencies in California can

now impose a higher U.S. content minimum, in addition to the federal

requirement of 60 per cent (provided they dont increase the purchase price beyond certain thresholds).
With our economy still feeling the effects of the great recession, we need to keep working to create every job we
can, said Democratic representative Nancy Skinner, the author of the bill. AB 1097 supports American jobs and
the recovery of manufacturing at no cost to state or local governments. Many other examples could be

cited of similar protectionist initiatives in various states across the country within
the past year. In light of the foregoing patchwork of laws, its little wonder so



much confusion exists in the U.S. supply and distribution chain these days about what is or
is not subject to Buy America requirements.

AND The CP wont be perceived as upholding international

trade obligations
Washington Post 11 9-21,
Yes, the presidents new bill includes another pledge that international treaties will be respected. But, as was the
case with the Recovery Act, most of the funds will be channeled through state

governments, and most U.S. international trade obligations do not apply when
states and municipalities are the procuring entities.