Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

Cohesive devices

Firstly, secondly, first, second,


finally, lastly, for one thing, to
begin with, next
Also, similarly, furthermore,
likewise, moreover

Function
To show the logical order
of ideas or time sequence

Besides that, other than that,


apart from that, on top of that, in
addition
This is because, this is due to
the fact that

To add ideas and to link


the new ideas to the
previous ideas
To provide a reason to
illustrate an ideas
provided earlier

In sum, in short, in conclusion,


to conclude, all in all, overall, to
summarize

To summarize ideas either


at the end of sections or
to explicitly state that the
essay is concluding
To reinforce the previous
idea by expressing it in a
slightly different way to
make it more explicit
To provide an example in
order to illustrate an idea

Which is to say, in other wars,


this is

For example, for instance, such


as, namely, specifically

To link ideas together

Example
Firstly, the Internet plays an
important role in the world of
communication.
.the Internet also saves time
as messages can be delivered
in a matter of seconds.
Besides that, the Internet also
save time as messages can be
delivered in a matter of seconds.
This is because the Internet
offers easy and inexpensive
ways to communicate such as emails, messenger, chatting,
teleconferencing and blogger.
In conclusion, it is undeniable
that Internet brings us many
advantages.
In other wards, the Internet
helps to promote students
learning.
. the Internet offers easy and
inexpensive ways to
communicate such as e-mails,
messenger, chatting,
teleconferencing and blogger.
Therefore, I strongly disagree
with the writers opinions which
were published in your editorial
column.

Consequently, thus, as a result,


hence, so, therefore

To demonstrate that the


following idea is a result
of the previous idea

On the other hand, on the


contrary, in contrast,
alternatively, conversely, by
comparison, instead, instead of

To signal differences or
alternatives between two
ideas

Instead, we should make full


use of the Internet to benefit
mankind.

Though, however, nevertheless,


in spite of that

To state an opposing idea

Not only but also

To put ideas together and


to show that they are on
an equal level

However, I do agree up to a
certain point with the writer that
the Internet has the potential to
distract students from their
studies.
Information from various fields
such as business, education,
science and entertainment from
all over the world is not only

easily obtainable but most of it


is also free of charge.

Body Paragraphs
Body paragraphs: Moving from general to specific information
Your paper should be organized in a manner that moves from general to specific
information. Every time you begin a new subject, think of an inverted pyramid - The
broadest range of information sits at the top, and as the paragraph or paper
progresses, the author becomes more and more focused on the argument ending with
specific, detailed evidence supporting a claim. Lastly, the author explains how and why
the information she has just provided connects to and supports her thesis (a brief wrap
up or warrant).

Image Caption: Moving from General to Specific Information

The four elements of a good paragraph (TTEB)


A good paragraph should contain at least the following four elements: Transition, Topic
sentence, specific Evidence and analysis, and a Brief wrap-up sentence (also known as
a warrant) TTEB!
1. A Transition sentence leading in from a previous paragraph to assure smooth
reading. This acts as a hand off from one idea to the next.
2. A Topic sentence that tells the reader what you will be discussing in the
paragraph.

3. Specific Evidence and analysis that supports one of your claims and that
provides a deeper level of detail than your topic sentence.
4. A Brief wrap-up sentence that tells the reader how and why this information
supports the papers thesis. The brief wrap-up is also known as the warrant. The
warrant is important to your argument because it connects your reasoning and
support to your thesis, and it shows that the information in the paragraph is
related to your thesis and helps defend it.
Supporting evidence (induction and deduction)