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Interviewfragen zur Mediensituation in Rumnien/Interview

Regarding The Media Situation In Romania

Kernfrage: Welche Bedeutung hat die ffentliche Kommunikation im Internet
angesichts der Medienlandschaft in Rumnien? Welche Rolle spielen dabei
Medienpolitik und Medienbildung?
(Inwiefern haben Onlinemedien Einfluss auf die Entwicklung der Meinungsfreiheit?)
Core question: What ist he signification of the public communication in the Internet
compared to the media landscape in Romania? Which role do media politics and
media education play? (In which way do Onlinemedia have influence on the
development of media freedom?

Medienlandschaft und Medienfreiheit/Media landscape and media freedom

- Wie sieht die Medienlandschaft in der ffentlichen Kommunikation im Internet
in Rumnien aus? Vor allem im Bezug auf unabhngige Anbieter(private
Anbieter, Social Media, Plattformen usw) der gesellschaftlich- politischen
What does the media landscape in the online public communication in
Rumania look like? Espacially regarding independent vendors(private
vendors, social media, platforms etc.) of social- politic topics.
Unfortunately this is not an easy question to answer. All major online media
conglomerates are either owned by an individual/group of individuals that are
only interested in their own political agendas, or are perceived as following
such an agenda. This discredits the media platform and splits the user base
into with and against users.
In regards to public institutions this is non-existent. The Romanian institutions
are well behind the norm in regards to online public communication. It is
basically impossible for them to communicate online since a vast majority of
them do not have the possibility of hiring an online media specialist. This
tends to increase citizen dissatisfaction because of the uncertainty of certain
aspects related to how the public institutions work and because it ends up with
increasing the bureaucracy.

Gibt es dort auerrechtliche Einschrnkungen bezglich Medienfreiheit?

Are there any extralegal restrictions regarding media freedom?
In regards to media freedom Romania doesnt have any restrictions. It has
long been argued that since the fall of communism media freedom has been
limited by the National Audiovisual Council. But its laws are nothing but
permissive in comparison with countries that have a long tradition regarding
media freedom.

Wie aktiv und in welchen Bereichen werden Onlinemedien zur ffentlichen

Kommunikation ihrer Ansicht nach genutzt? Welche Bedeutung wrden sie
ihnen zuschreiben?
How much and in which fields are the Onlinemedia used for the public
communication in your view? What signification would you attribute to them?

It really depends on the age and education of the public that we speak of. The
young generation uses almost exclusively the online for communication, but
the older generation tends to trust the offline media communication. This was
proven two times in the last two years: during the presidential campaign in
2014 and after the Colectiv tragedy in 2015. On both times the offline media
was arguing from different standpoints than the young generation online,
which led to a clash of generations on the streets.

Gesetzlich ist die Meinungsfreiheit in Rumnien verankert. Gibt es trotzdem

Einflsse die auf diese einwirken und sie einschrnken?
Legally the freedom of expression is anchored in the Romanian law. Are there
still influences that restrict or act on it?
Yes. There are talks in recent times in the Romanian parliament that a law
should be passed that would limit the freedom of expression. The law hasnt
passed on the first try, but it was slightly changed and they are trying to vote
for it again. It was regarding the freedom of expression online, which at the
moment, as I stated before, was the catalyst for changes in the Romanian

Falls ja, haben diese Auswirkungen auf die ffentliche Kommunikation im

Internet? (bezglich Angebot, Nutzung,...)
If so, does it have effects on the online public communication? (regarding
offer, usage,..)
At the moment it only caused outrage in the public and online communication.
If it were to pass it will have a significant impact in online public
communication due to its overall abusive aspect.

Kann insgesamt von einer Ergnzung der Onlinemedien zur sonstigen

Medienlandschaft Rumniens, bezglich der ffentlichen Kommuniaktion,
gesprochen werden oder schlieen sie sich aus?
Are the online media a supplement to the rest of the media landscape in
Romania, regarding the public communication, or do they exclude the other?
Online media communication is the best way to reach the younger generation.
In Romania the consumption of traditional media is dropping at an exponential
rate due to the younger generation moving away from it and towards the
online communication. Because of this, the media networks have developed
one of the best online media communication strategies available in the EU,
with strong ties between traditional and new-age media like social sharing in
website integration.

Spielt die mediale Partizipation im Internet folglich eine wichtige Rolle im

Bezug auf die ffentliche Kommunikation im Allgemeinen?
Hence, does the media participation in the internet play an important role in
terms of public communication in total?

Yes, but because of the perception of subjective and bought media, it is

difficult to say that the public communication has a true and important role in
the Romanian society.

Rezeptionsmglichkeiten/Opportunities of Access
52% der Rumnen ber 16 sind aktive Internetnutzer(3h und mehr pro Tag), davon
leben 67% in Stdten und nur ein Drittel in lndlichen Regionen.
52% of the Romanians over 16 are active internet users(3h and more per day), therof
live 67% in towns and cities and only one third in rural areas.

Wie lsst sich dieser Unterschied erklren?

How can these differences be explained?
The differences are explained by the lack of access to online media in the
rural areas of Romania. Most of the rural area of Romania is underdeveloped
and below the poverty line, thus making it hard for internet service providers to
make it worth the investment to provide internet access to the rural areas of

Gibt es auerdem Einschrnkungen der Zugangsmglichkeiten?

Are there further restrictions of the opportunities of access?
It would be extremely easy to say that the cost of access to the internet is too
high in rural areas of Romania, but that is simply not true. Romania has one of
the cheapest internet bills in the world, so this couldnt be a problem. What
might be a limiting factor is the influence the church has in certain groups. And
these groups are mostly found in the rural areas of Romania.

Wie sind die Rezeptionsmglichkeiten der Onlinemedia in Rumnien?

What are the opportunities of perception of the online media in Romania?
I dont understand this question

Falls ja, machen sich diese Einschrnkungen der Zugangsmglichkeiten im

Angebot der ffentlichen Kommunikation im Internet(z.B unzureichende
Vertretung lndlicher Interessen, Institutionen,...)
If so, are the restrictions in opportunities of access noticeable in the offer of
online public communication?( e.g. insufficient representation of rural intrests,
This neither.

Andersrum: Haben diese Einschrnkungen merkliche Auswirkungen auf die

benachteiligten Personen? (z.B bezglich Zukunftschancen)
Or the other way round: Do this possible restrictions have noticible impacts on
the disadvantaged people?(e.g. regarding future chances)
Yes! This is true anywhere in the world. Internet access should be a human
rights issue, a necessity for every society in order for it to develop and thrive.

A lack of access to online media has been proven to be detrimental in the

development of an individual, especially if the said individual is living in a rural
area, an area that by definition is lacking many of the opportunities that arise if
the individual was living in an urban area.
Medienbildung/ Media Education
- Inwiefern ist Medienbildung sowohl im Bezug auf Internetnutzung als auch
Medienkompetenz im Allgemeinen in Rumnien vorhanden? Auerschulisch,
In what way does media education exist in Romania, regarding internet usage
and media competence in general? Extra-school/ in school
It is basically non-existent. Some universities allow the teaching of courses
that engage the students in real-time internet usage skills, but they are few
and far apart.

Welche Rolle spielt die Medienbildung im Bezug auf Partizipation an der

ffentlichen Kommunikation im Internet?
What part plays the media education regarding participation in the online
public communication?
Since there is no media education in Romania, it is hard to estimate the
impact of it onto the online public communication.

Gibt es nderungen oder Entwicklungen in der Medienbildung seit dem EUBeitritt oder eventuell geplante staatliche Programme?
Are there developments or changes in the media education since the
accession to the EU or planned state programs?
Romanias entry into the European Union has brought nothing new into the
media education industry of Romania. There is no interest in educating the
people because this would lead to a better understanding of the manipulation
that takes place in the media industry of Romania.

Mchten sie noch etwas hinzufgen?/ Is there something you want to add?