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5/17/2011

Deep Foundation Design

When the soil directly below a building is not strong


enough, or the footing size would be larger than practical,
a deep foundation can be used.
Deep foundations can be divided into two types.. A drilled
and poured in place pier, or a driven pile.

Piers and piles have two components to their load capacity:


End bearing and shaft friction.
Piles are made of:

Steel; H- piles, Steel pipe

Concrete; Site cast or Precast

Wood;.. Often used as temporary
piling today...but wood was used for
permanent piling in the past. These
are 100+ year old piles under city hall.
Wood piles will last forever as long
as they stay wet.

Deep Foundation Design


Driven Piles:
8 to 10 pipe piles driven 25 to 35 are very common In this area.
H piles are used for soil retaining systems
and to support buildings where the required
pile strength and depth is greater than can be
carried by pipe. H piles under the US bank
building in Milwaukee go150 deep.

5/17/2011

Deep Foundations
Drilled Piers

Bell Creator

Shaft Casing

Deep Foundations
Drilled Piers

Rebar Cage Insertion

Rebar Cage

Shaft Casing

5/17/2011

Piles and Piers are always Load Tested

Sometimes the pile is loaded by


pressing against a static dead
load.

Piles and Piers are always Load Tested


Sometimes they are
tested by reacting
against other piles.

5/17/2011

Deep Foundation Design


Piles and piers are typically put in set patterns.

Deep Foundation Design


Piles and piers are typically put in set patterns.

5/17/2011

Pile caps are footings used to tie a group of piers or


piles together to support and transmit column loads
to them.

Pile caps: ACI Rules:

5/17/2011

Deep Foundation Design


Group Efficiency.
Stresses coming from the piers or piles in the soil mass overlap
when they are placed too close to each other. The load-bearing
capacity of the group is less than the sum of the individual
capacities .

There are a number


of methods for
predicting the
capacity of groups.

Deep Foundation Design


Group Efficiency, here are three representative methods of calculation.
1) The Converse-LaBarr method. In this method, represents the groups
efficiency expressed as a percentage of the theoretical total group load. The
theoretical group load is the ultimate load of each pile multiplied by the total
number of piles.

The ni represents the number of rows and columns, d is the pile diameter and s is
the spacing between piles (center-to-center).
2) The Feld rule reduces the calculated load capacity of each pile in a group by
0.0625 for each adjacent pile. The pile spacing s is not taken into account.
3) The Contractors rule reduces the calculated load capacity of each pile by a
factor I for each adjacent pile, where,