Sie sind auf Seite 1von 40

DEPARTMENT OF M E C H A N I C A L ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE O F E N G I N E E R I N G , KOTA,


RAJASTHAN - 324010

MACHINE TOOL
DESIGN LAB MANUAL
B.Tech IV Year, VII sem
ACADEMIC YEAR 2015-2016

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

INDEX
S.NO
EXPERIMENTS
.
1
General requirement of machine tools
Define working and auxiliary motion in various machine
2
tools
Draw a neat schematic diagram of herringbone gear and
3
explanation
Different mechanism used for transforming rotary motion
4
into translator
Discuss various device for intermittent motion and draw the
5
schematic diagram for various application
Which speed series (AP,HP) are used in machine tool gear
6
box
7
Write the design procedure of gear box design
What is the friction and explain sliding friction, sticking
8
friction, stic-slip friction

EXPERIMENT NO.1

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

PAGE
NO.

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

Object: - Study of general requirement of machine tool design.


Introduction: - Any machine should satisfy the following requirements.
1. High productivity
2. Ability to provide the required accuracy of shape and size and also necessary surface
finish
3. Simplicity of design
4. Safety and convenience of control
5. Good appearance
6. Low cost of manufacturing and operation

1. Productivity: - Productivity of a metal cutting machine tool is given by the expression


Q= (1/tc+tn0).n
tc = machine time
tn0 = non-productivity time that include job handling time.
a. Cutting down machining time: - This is possible if high cutting speeds and feed
rates are available on the machine tool in accordance with the latest development in
cutting tool material and design.
b. Machining with more than one tool simultaneously: - This principle employed in
multiple-spindle lathes, drilling machine etc.
c. Improving the reliability of the machine tool to avoid break down and adopt proper
maintenance policy to prevent unscheduled stoppages and delays.

2. Accuracy: - The accuracy of a machine tool depends upon its geometrical and kinematic
accuracy and its ability to retain this accuracy during operation. Accordingly the ability of a
machine tool to consistency machine parts with a specified accuracy with in permissible
tolerance limits can be improved by the following method.
a. Improving the geometrical accuracy of the machine tool: This is mainly determined by
the accuracy of guideways, power screw etc.
b. Improving the kinematic accuracy of the machine tool: This is determined the
relationship between velocities of two or more forming motion and it depends upon the
length of kinematic accuracy of machine tool can be improved.
c. Increasing the static and dynamic stiffness of machine tool structure. The greater in the
static stiffness of the machine tool structure the smaller will be its deformation due to cutting
forces and will be the accuracy of machining.
d. Providing accurate devices for measuring distance of travel.

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

e. Arranging the machine tools units in such a manner that the thermal deformation during the
machining operation result in the least possible change in the relative position between the
tool and the workpiece.

3. Simplicity of design: - Simplicity of design of machine tool determines the ease of its
manufacture and operation. The design of machine tool can be simplified by using standard
parts and sub assembly as far as possible. The complexity of design of a machine tool
depends to a large extend upon the degree of its university. Thus a general purpose machine
tool is a rule more complex than a special purpose machine tool design doing similar
operation.

4. Safety and convenience of control: - A machine tool cannot be deemed fit for use
unless it machine tools the requirement of safety and convenience of operation.
a. Shielding the rotating and moving parts of the machine tool with hoods.
b. Protecting the worker from chips, abrasive dust and coolant by means of screws shield etc.
c. Providing reliable clamping for the tool and workpiece.
d. Providing reliable earthing of the machine, providing device for safe handling of heavy
workpiece.

5. Appearance:- Good appearance of the machine tool influence the mood of the worker
favourably and thus facilities better operations it is generally conceded that a machine tool
that is simple in design and safe in operation and also good in appearance although factors,
such as external finish colour.
Nowadays, painting of machines in different colours according to the production purpose is
becoming popular.

6. Cost of manufacturing and operation: - The cost of manufacturing a machine


tool is determined by the complexity of its design. Therefore factors that help in simplifying
the machine tool design also contribute towards lowering its manufacturing cost.
The cost can also be brought down by reducing the amount of metal required in
manufacturing the machine tool. This is achieved by using stronger materials and more
precise design calculation pertaining to the strength and rigidly of parts to keep the safety
margins as low as possible.

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT NO.2
Object: - Study of working and auxiliary motion of machine tool.
Introduction: - Obtaining the required shape on the workpiece, it is necessary that the
cutting edge of the cutting tool should move in a particular manner with respect to the
workpiece the relative movement between the workpiece and cutting edge can be obtained
either by the motion of the workpiece the cutting tool or by a combination of the motion of
the workpiece and cutting tool.
These motion which are essential are working to impart the required shape to the workpiece
are known as working motion. Working motions are further classified into two categories:
1. Drive motion or primary cutting motion
2. Feed motion
Working motion in machine tools generally of two types:
1. Rotary
2. Translatory

Fig: lathe

Fig: shaping

fig: drilling

fig: grinding

1 .For lathes and boring machines


Drive motion: Rotary motion of workpiece
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

Feed motion: Translatory motion of cutting tool in the axial or radial direction
2 .For drilling machines
Drive motion: Rotary motion of workpiece
Feed motion: Translatory motion of drill
3 .For milling machines
Drive motion: Rotary motion of the cutter
Drive motion: Translatory motion of workpiece
4 .For shaping, planning and slotting machines
Drive motion: Reciprocating motion of cutting tool
Feed motion: Intermitted translatory motion of the workpiece
5 .For grinding machines
Drive motion: Rotary motion of grinding wheel
Feed motion: Rotary as well as translatory of the workpiece
Besides the working motion a machine tool also has provision for auxiliary motions.
In machine tool, the working motions are powered by sources of energy. The auxiliary
motion may be carried out manually or may also be power operated depending upon the
degree of automation of the machine tool. In general purpose machine tools, most of the
auxiliary motions are executed manually.

Parameters defining working motions of a machine tool


The working motions of the machine tool are numerically defined by their velocity, the
velocity of the primary cutting motion or drive motion is known as cutting speed while the
velocity of feed motion is known feed.
The cutting speed is denoted by v and measured in the units m/min. Feed is denoted bys
and measured in the following units.
1. mm/rev. in machine tool with rotary drive motion e.g. lathes, boring machine etc.
2. mm/tooth, in machine tool using multiple-tooth cutters e.g. milling machines.
3. mm/stroke, in machine tools with reciprocating drive motion e.g. shaping and planning
machine.
4. mm/min, in machine tools which have a separate power source for feed machines.
In machine tools with rotary primary cutting motion, the cutting speed is determined by the
relationship
v=

dn
1000

m/min

d= diameter of workpiece or cutter

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

n= revolution per minute (rpm) of the workpiece or cutter


In machine tools with reciprocating primary cutting motion, the cutting speed is determined
by
u=

L
1000 T c

m/min

L= length of stroke mm
Tc = time of cutting stroke min
If the time of the idle stroke in minutes is denoted by Ti, the number of strokes per minute can
be determined as
n=

1
T c+ T i

Generally, the time of idle stroke T i, is less than the time of cutting stroke, if the ratio T c/Ti is
denoted by K, the expression for number of strokes per minute may be written as
1
n=

Ti
Tc (1+ )
Tc

K
Tc (1+ K)

Now combining equations the relationship between cutting speed and number of strokes per
minute may be written as follows
v=

nL(K +1)
1000 K

The feed per revolution and feed per stroke are related to the feed per minute by the
relationship
Sm = s.n
Where, Sm = feed per minute
s = feed per revolution
n = number of revolution
The feed per tooth in multiple tooth cutter is related to the feed per revolutions as follows:
S = Sz.z
Where, S = feed per revolution
Sz = feed per tooth of cutter
z = number of tooth on the cutter
The matching time of any operation can be determined from the following basic expression

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

Tm =

l
Sm

min

Where, Tm = matching time, min


l = length of machined surface, mm
Sm = feed per minute

EXPERIMENT NO.3
Object: Draw a neat schematic diagram of herring bone gear
and explain
Introduction
A herringbone gear, a specific type of double helical gear, is a special type
of gear that is a side to side (not face to face) combination of two helical
gears of opposite hands. From the top, each helical groove of this gear
looks like the letter V, and many together form a herring bone
pattern (resembling the bones of a fish such as a herring). Unlike helical
gears, herringbone gears do not produce an additional axial load.
Like helical gears, they have the advantage of transferring power
smoothly because more than two teeth will be in mesh at any moment in
time. Their advantage over the helical gears is that the side-thrust of one
half is balanced by that of the other half. This means that herringbone
gears can be used in torque gearboxes without requiring a
substantial thrust bearing. Because of this herringbone gears were an
important step in the introduction of the steam turbine to marine
propulsion.
Precision herringbone gears are more difficult to manufacture than
equivalent spur or helical gears and consequently are more expensive.
They are used in heavy machinery.
Where the oppositely angled teeth meet in the middle of a herringbone
gear, the alignment may be such that tooth tip meets tooth tip, or the
alignment may be staggered, so that tooth tip meets tooth trough. The
latter alignment is the unique defining characteristic of a Wuest type
herringbone gear, named after its inventor.
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

Benefits
Since a herringbone gear is non-linear in the teeth the gears won't slip out from grabbing one
another if the axle or another force moves the gears up and down. This is also a benefit with
machinery that needs very straight movement, because a herringbone gear is designed to 'self
center' and is much less likely to skip a tooth or fall out of place. With some gears sets that use
herringbone gears; an axle can be lost and the gear will stay in place, a herringbone planetary
gear system.

Manufacture
A disadvantage of the herringbone gear is that it cannot be cut by
simple gear hobbing machines, as the cutter would run into the other half
of the gear. Solutions to this have included assembling small gears by
stacking two helical gears together, cutting the gears with a central
groove to provide clearance, and (particularly in the early days) by casting
the gears to an accurate pattern and without further machining. With the
older method of fabrication, herringbone gears had a central channel
separating the two oppositely-angled courses of teeth. This was necessary
to permit the shaving tool to run out of the groove. The development of
the Sykes gear shaper made it possible to have continuous teeth with no
central gap. Sunderland, also in England, also produced a herringbone
cutting machine. The Sykes uses cylindrical guides and round cutters; the
Sunderland uses straight guides and rack-type cutters. The W. E. Sykes
Co. dissolved in 198384. Since then it has been common practice to
obtain an older machine and rebuild it if necessary to create this unique
type of gear. Recently, the Bourn and Koch Company has developed a
CNC-controlled derivation of the W. E. Sykes design called the HDS1600300. This machine, like the Sykes gear shaper, has the ability to generate
a true apex without the need for a clearance groove cut around the gear.
This allows the gears to be used in positive displacement pumping
applications, as well as power transmission. Helical gears with low weight,
accuracy and strength may be 3D printed.
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

The herring bone gear is essentially a pair of helical gear in which the
helix angel is oppositely direct.
In a gear transmission, the rpm of the drives shapes is determined as
n2=n1 .

z1
z2

Where

z1

n1

=rpm of the driven shaft

n2

=rpm of the driving shaft

=no. of teeth of the drawing gear

The ratio

z2

=no. of teeth of the driven gear

z1

z2

is known as the transmission ratio of the gear driven

and is constant for a particular gear pair.

EXPERIMENT NO.4
Object Draw the diagram of following mechanism.
1. Slider crank mechanism
2. Cam mechanism
3. Rack and pinion mechanism
4. Nut and screw mechanism

Theory These elementary transmissions are employed in feed mechanism of most of the
machine tools and also in the drives of machine tools have a reciprocating primary cutting
motion.
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

The Important elementary transmissions that are used in machine tools for transforming
rotary motion into translatory motion are:

1. Slider crank mechanism

Fig: herringbone gear


The machine consists of a crank, connecting rod and slider. The forward and reverse stroke
each take place during a revolution of crank therefore the need speed of forward and reverse
speed in slider crank mechanism since metal removal occur during one stroke. It is desirable
from the point of view of productivity to have a higher speed of the other stroke. Due to this
property of slider crank mechanism is used only in an appreciable increase of productivity
e.g. in the driving of primary cutting motion of gear shaping machine the length of stroke
may be change by adjusting the crank radius and is equal to
L = 2R,

where R is the crank radius

2. Crank and Rocker mechanism

The crank and rocker mechanism consist of a rotating crank which makes the rocker arm
oscillate by means of a block sliding along the groove in the rocker arm the clockwise
rotation. The forward cutting stroke takes place during the clockwise rotation of the crank
through angle and the reverse stroke during rotation of the crank through angle
since > and the crank rotation with uniform speed. The ideal stroke completes
transfer than the cutting stroke. The length of stroke can be varied by adjusting the crank
radius with a decrease in crank radius. The ratio of angle / decrease and the speed of
cutting and reverse stroke tend to become equal preferred in machine tool with large stroke
(up to 1000 mm) where it can be effectively employed e.g. in drive of the primary cutting
motion of shaping and slotting machine.
Length of stoke can be calculated,
L
L = 2( e ) R mm
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

L = length of rocker
e = offset distance
R = radius of crank

3. CAM Mechanism

The cam mechanism consists of a cam and a follower the cam mechanism provides the
desired translatory motion is a suitable profile is selected. The profile may be provided.
a. On the periphery of a disc-disc type mechanism.
b. On the face of a disc-face type cam mechanism.
c. On a cylindrical surface-drum type cam mechanism.
The main advantage of cam mechanical is that the velocity of the operative element is
independent of the design of driving mechanism and is controlled by the cam profile.
In a disc type cam if the radius change from R1 to R2 along an spiral while the cam rotate
through angle , the velocity of the follower can be determined from the expression.
v=

R 2R 1
. 360.

n
1000

m/min

n = rpm of the cam


R1R2 = radius mm
In face or drum type cam mechanism the speed of the follower depends upon the steepness of
the grove consider for instance. The profile development of drum cam segment a deplict the
steep rise of follower corresponding to the rapid advanced segment deplict the slow rise
corresponding to the steep full corresponding to the rapid withdraw of cutting tool.
v=

h
b

. D. n
1000

m/min

h = rise during the working stroke


b = length of the working stroke
D = diameter of the drum in mm
s = rpm of drum

4 .Nut and Screw transmission


UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

A nut and screw mechanism is schematically depicted the screw and nut have a trapezoidal
thread. The direction movement can reverse by reversing rotation of the screw. The nut and
screw transmission is compact but has a high load carrying case capacity its other advantage
are simplicity case of manufacturing the possibility of achieving slow and uniform movement
of the operating member.
The speed of operating member can be found from relationship
Sm = t.k.n mm/min
t = pitch of thread
k = number of thread
n = rpm of the screw

5. Rack and pinion transmission

Fig: rack and pinion transmission


When the rotating gear meshes with a stationary rack, the centre of the
gear moves in straight line on the other hand if the gear axis is stationary
then the rack executes translatory motion. The direction of motion can be
reversed by reversing the rotation of the pinion.
Sm = .z.n

mm/min

Sm = feed per minute of the operative member


m = module of the pinion
z = number of teeth of the pinion
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

n = rpm of the pinion


Rack and pinion transmission is the simplest and cheapest among all types of transmission
used in reversible driven. It also has high efficiency and provides a large transmission ratio
which makes it possible to use it in the feed as well as main drive mode.

EXPERIMENT NO.5
Draw the diagram of following mechanism.
1. Ratchet gear mechanisms
2. Geneva mechanism
3. Reversing mechanism
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

4. Differential mechanism

Introduction
Devices for intermittent motion
In some machine tools, it is required that the relative position between the cutting tool and
workpiece should change periodically.
a .Machine tools with a reciprocating primary cutting motion e.g. shaping machine in which
the workpiece must be intermittently upon completion of one full stroke of the cutting tool.
b .machine tools with reciprocating feed motion.

1. Ratchet gear mechanism

The Ratchet gear mechanism is generally consists of a pawl mounted on an oscillating pin.
During each oscillation in the anticlockwise direction, the pawl turns the ratchet wheel
through a particular angle. During the clockwise oscillating in the opposite direction, the
pawl simply slides over the ratchet teeth and the latter remain stationary. The ratchet wheel is
linked to the machine tool table through a nut and screw transmission. Therefore the periodic
rotation of the ratchet wheel is transformed into the intermittent translator motion of the table
for a particular nut and screw pair of some constant transmission ratio. The feed of the table
during each oscillation depends upon the swing of the oscillating pawl. The rotation of the
ratchet wheel in one stroke of the pawl should not exceed 45. The ratchet gear mechanism is
most suitable in case when the periodic displacement must be completed in a short time.

2. Geneva mechanism -

Fig: Geneva mechanism


Geneva mechanism consists of a driving disc which rotates continuously and a wheel a wheel
with four radial slots. The arc on the driving disc and wheel provide a locking effect against
rotation of the slotted wheel e.g. position of the wheel cannot rotate. As the disc continuous to
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

rotate, point A of the disc comes out of contact with the arc and immediately thereafter pin p
mounted at the end of the driving arm enters the radial slot.
The wheel now begins to rotate when it has turned an angle 90

the pin comes out of the

radial slot and immediately thereafter point B comes in contact with the next arc of the
wheel preventing its further rotation. In the Geneva mechanism the angle of rotation of the
wheel cannot varied.
Application
(i)

Mainly used in torrents.

(ii)

Single spindle automatic machine for indexing cutting tools.

(iii)

Multi spindle automatic machines for indexing spindle through a constant angle.

3. Reversing mechanism

These mechanisms are used for changing the direction of motion of the operative member.
Reversing is accomplished generally through spur and helical gears. A few reversing
arrangements using spur and helical gear. In this arrangement the gear on the driving shaft are
mounted rigidly. While the idle gear and gears on the driven shaft are mounted freely. The
jaw clutch is mounted on a key, rotation may be transmitted to the driven shaft either through
gear (A/B), (B/C) or through D/E depending upon whether the jaw clutch is shifted to the left
to mesh with gear C or to the right to mesh with gear E.
In the second arrangement, the gears on the driving shaft are again rigidly mounted and the
idle gear is free. On the driven shaft a double cluster gear is mounted on a spline. By sliding
the cluster gear transmission to the driven shaft may again be achieved either through gear
(A/B), (B/C) or through gear pair D/E.
In the third arrangement gear A on the driving shaft and gear D on the driven shaft are both
rigidly mounted. A quadrant with constantly meshing gear B and C can be swivelling about
the axis of the driven shaft. By swivelling the quadrant with the help of a lever transmission
to the driven shaft may be achieved through (A/C), (C/D) or through (A/B) (B/C)(C/D).

4. Differential mechanism

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

Differential mechanisms are used for summing two motions in machine tools in which
operative member gets input from two separate kinematics trains. They are generally
employed in thread and gear cutting machines where the machined surface is obtained as a
result of the summation of two or more forming motions.
A simple differential mechanism using spur or helical gears is shown. The mechanism is
essentially a planetary gear mechanism consisting of sun gear A, planetary gear B and arm C.
The planetary gear is mounted on the arm which can rotate about axis of gear A. suppose gear
A makes nA and arm C, nC revolutions per minute in the clockwise direction. The relative
motion between the elements of the mechanism will remain unaffected if the whole
mechanism is rotated in the anticlockwise direction with nC revolution per minute.
The transmission ratio of the mechanism may be written as
nA nC/nB nC =- zB/zA
Where zA and zB are the number of teeth of gear A and B, respectively. The above expression
may be written as follows.
nB = nC(1+zA/zB) nA(zA/zB)
Differential mechanisms are using a double cluster planetary gear. The mechanism consists of
gear A, cluster gear block B-B mounted on arm C and gear D. If nA, nB, nC are the rpms of
gear A, arm C and gear D, respectively then the transmission ratio of the kinematic train
between gear A and D may be expressed as
nD nC/nA nC = zA/zB . zB/zD
The mechanism consist of bevel gears A and D and planetary level gears B and C. Planetary
gear can be rotated about the common axes of gear A and D.
1. By means of a ring gear this differential is used in automobiles.
2. By means of a T- shaped shaft this differential is used in machine tools.
3. if gear A,B and D make nA, nB, nD revolutions per minute, respectively, then the
transmission ratio of the kinematic train between gear A and D can be written as
nA nB/nD nB = - zA/zB . zB/zD
Where zA, zB, zD are the number of teeth of gears A, B and D respectively.

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT NO.6
Object: Which Speed Series are used in machine tool gear box. Justify the
insure with process reason.
Gear boxes
-Ap & Gp for steeping speeds of gears.
-Structural Formula & Structural diagrams.

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

Gear boxes
Machine tool characterized by their large number of spindle speeds and feeds of cape with
the requirements of machine parts of different materials and dimension using different types
of cutting tool materials and geometries. The cutting speed is determined on the bases of the
cutting ability of the tool used. Surfaces finish required and economical consideration.

Speed Range for different Machine Tools


Machine

Range

Numerically Controlled lathes

250

Boring

100

Milling

50

Drilling

10

Surface Finish

Stepping of Speed According to Arithmetic Progression (AP)Let


Then

n1

n2

n1

,..,

nn

n2

n3

be arranged according to arithmetic progression.


-

n2

= Constant

The saw tooth diagram in such a case is show in fig. Accordingly, for an economical cutting
v
v
Speed 0 , the lowest speed 1 is not constant, it decrees with increasing dia. Therefore
, the arithmetic progression does not permit economical machine at large diameter ranges.
The main disadvantage of such an arrangement is that the percentage drop from step to step
decrees as the speed increase. Thus the speed are not evenly distribution and more
concentrated and closely stepped , in the small diameter range than in the large one. Stepping
speeds according to arithmetic progression are used in Norton gear box with a sliding key
when the number of shaft is only two.

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

Speed stepping according to arithmetic progression

Stepping of Speed According to Geometric Progression (GP)As show in Figure, the percentage drop from one step to the other is constant, and the
absolute loss of economically expedient cutting speed v is constant all over the whole
V min
V
diagram range. The relative loss of cutting speed
/ 0 is also constant Geometric
progression. Therefore, allow machining to take place between limits
independent of the WP diagram, where

V0

V0

is the economical cutting speed and

the allowable minimum cutting speed. Now suppose that

n1

n2

,..,

Vu

and

nz

Vu

is

are the

spindle speeds. According to the geometric progression


n2 n 2
= =
n1 n 1

Where is the progression ratio. The spindle speed can be expressed in term of the minimal
speed n1 and progression ratio
n1
n1

n2
n1

n3
n1 2

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

n4
n1 3

nz
n1 z-1

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

Hence, the maximum spindle speed nz is given by


n z=n 1

z1

Where z is the number of spindle speed, therefore


=

z1

z=

n2 z1
= Rn
n1

log R n
+1
log

ISO Standard values of progression ratio


(1.06, 1.12, 1.26, 1.4, 1.6, 1.78, 2.0)
Justify ensuring with reason
1. Transmission ratio imax =2, imax =1/4, ig = imax/ imin=8
2. Minimum total shaft size

The torque transmitted by a shaft is given by


T

1
N

From the strength consideration:

d1
N
= 2
d2
N1

1 /3

( )( )

3. For last radial dimensions of gear box imax* imin = 1


4. No of gears on last shaft should be minimum.
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

5. No of gears on any shaft should be limited to 3

EXPERIMENT NO.7
Object: Design Procedure of machine tool gear box design
Gear Box
Machine tools are characterized by their large number of spindle speeds
and feeds to cope with the requirements of machining parts of different
materials and dimensions using different types of cutting tool materials
and geometries. The cutting speed is determined on the bases of the
cutting ability of the tool used, surface finish required, and economical
considerations. A wide variety of gearboxes utilize sliding gears or friction
or jaw coupling. The selection of a particular mechanism depends on the
purpose of the machine tool, the frequency of speed change, and the
duration of the working movement. The advantage of a sliding gear
transmission is that it is capable of transmitting higher torque and is small
in radial dimensions. Among the disadvantages of these gearboxes is the
impossibility of changing speeds during running. Clutch-type gearboxes
require small axial displacement needed for speed changing, less
engagement force compared with sliding gear mechanisms, and therefore
can employ helical gears. The extreme spindle speeds of a machine tool
main gearbox nmax and nmin can be determined by
nmax =

1000V max
d min

nmin =

1000V min
d max

where Vmax = maximum cutting speed (m/min) used for machining the
most soft and machinable material with a cutting tool of the best cutting
property Vmin = minimum cutting speed (m/min) used for machining the
hardest material using a cutting tool of the lowest cutting property or the
necessary speed for thread cutting dmax, dmin = maximum and minimum
diameters (mm) of WP to be machined
The speed range Rn becomes
R n=

nmax V max d max


=
.
=R v Rd
nmin V min d min

Rv = cutting speed range Rd = diameter range In case of machine tools


having rectilinear main motion (planers and shapers), the speed range R n
is dependent only on Rv. For other machine tools, Rn is a function of Rv and
Rd, large cutting speeds and diameter ranges are required. Generally,

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

when selecting a machine tool, the speed range Rn is increased by 25% for
future developments in the cutting tool materials.

Design procedure for gear box


1. Determine the maximum and minimum speed of the output shaft.
Then calculate the number of steps or speeds reduction stages for
this range. This depends on the application as well as space
optimization. Higher reduction stages require more space because
of more number of gears and shafts requirements.

2. Select types of speed reduction or gear box based on the power


transmission requirements, gear ratio, and position of axis space
available for speed reducer.
Also make sure that for low gear ratio requires single speed
reduction. Select worm gear for silent operation and level gear for
interesting axis.
3. Determine the progression ratio which is ratio maximum speed and
minimum speed of output shaft of the gear box the nearest
progression ratio should be a standard one and it taken either from
R20 or R40 series.

4. Draw the structural diagram and kinematic arrangement indicating


various arrangement possibilities during speed reduction or
increment.

5. Select materials for gears so that gear should sustain the operating
condition and operating load. Normally cast iron is chosen for
housing and cast steel or other all can be selected as per the load
requirements.

6. Note down the maximum power output in horse power (H.P) or


transmission power and revolution per minute of shaft i.e. rpm of
each shaft.

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

7. Determine the centre distance between the driven and driver shaft
based on the surface compressive stress.

8. Determine the module of gear by beam strength as well as fix the


number of teeth required.

9. Calculate the diameter of the shaft by torque requirements and


bending moment consideration.

10.
Calculate the key size, shape or type of transmission key for
each gears.

11.
Select appropriate fit and tolerance for matting parts like shaft
and gear.

12.
Select bearing types or the loading and operating conditions.
Also make sure to include consideration of maximum speed and
expected life of gear and gear box.

13.
Make the shaft stepped or provide collar to prevent axial
displacement of bearing and gear.

14.
Provide suitable clearance between gear and walls of the
housing of gear box and based on this considerations design the
casing/housing of gear box.

15.
Complete the design of casing in drawing by providing fires if
necessary to have increased heat transfer by convection and
conduction. Put inspection hole/man hole as well as drain hole to
drain lubricating oil. Also provide oil level indicator to have proper
amount of oil during operation, if not out, this will lead to failure of
gear and shaft due to over heating or due to friction failure.

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

16.
Draw neat a clean working drawing in suitable software like
auto cad, pro engineer etc. indicating required details during
manufacturing or assembly.

17.
One can also perform finite element analysis of the complete
gear box after it completely designed.

EXPERIMENT NO.8
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

Object: Description of stick-slip and sliding friction in machine tool design.

Stick-slip Friction
Stick-slip can be described as surface alternate between sticking to each other and sliding
over each other with a corresponding change in the force of friction coefficient between two
surfaces is larger than the reduction of the friction to the kinetic friction can cause a sudden
jump in the velocity of the movements. The attached picture shows symbolically an example
of stick-slip.
V is the drive system, R is the elasticity in the system and M is the load i.e. lying on floor and
is being pushed horizontally. When the drive is started, the spring R is loaded and its pushing
force against load M increases until the static friction coefficient between load M and floor is
not able to hold the load anymore. The load start sliding and the friction coefficient decreases
from its static value to its dynamic value. At this moment, the spring can give more power
and accelerate M.
During Ms movements, the force of the spring decreases, until it is insufficient to the
overcome the dynamic friction. From this point M de-accelerate to a stop. The drive system
however, continues and the spring is loaded again etc.

Fig.- Stick-Slip Phenomenon

Sliding (motion) Friction


Sliding is a type of friction motion between two surfaces in contact. This can be constructed
to rolling friction. Both types of motion may occur in bearing.
Friction may damage or wear the surface in contact. However, it can be reduced by
lubrication. The science and technology of friction, lubrication, and wear is known as
tribology.

Sliding may occur between two objects of arbitrary shape, whereas rolling friction is the
friction force associated with the rotational movement of a somewhat dislike or other circular
object along the surface.
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

In engg sliding friction occur in numerous types of sliding components such as journal
bearing, cams, linkage, and pistons in cylinders. Static friction is the friction required to move
two surfaces that are not in relative motion.

EXPERIMENT NO.9
Object: Free body diagram of following machines:
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

(1) Lathe
(2) Drilling
(3) Shaping
(4) Milling
Introduction
Lathe
The lathe is a machine tool used principally for shaping articles of metal (and sometimes
wood or other materials) by causing the workpiece to be held and rotated by the lathe while a
tool bit is advanced into the work causing the cutting action. The basic lathe that was
designed to cut cylindrical metal stock has been developed further to produce screw threads,
tapered work, Drilled holes, knurled surfaces, and crankshafts. The typical lathe provides a
variety of rotating speeds and a means to manually and automatically move the cutting tool
into the workpiece. Machinists and maintenance shop personnel must be thoroughly familiar
with the lathe and its operations to accomplish the repair and fabrication of needed parts.

Types of lathe
Lathes can be divided into three types for easy identification: engine lathes, turret lathes, and
special purpose lathes. Small lathes can be bench mounted, are lightweight, and can be
transported in wheeled vehicles easily. The larger lathes are floor mounted and may require
special transportation if they must be moved. Field and maintenance shops generally use a
lathe that can be adapted to many operations and that is not too large to be moved from one
work site to another. The engine lathe is ideally suited for this purpose. A trained operator can
accomplish more machining jobs with the engine lathe than with any other machine tool.
Turret lathes and special purpose lathes are usually used in production or job shops for mass
production or specialized parts. While basic engine lathes are usually used for any type of
lathe work. Further reference to lathes in this chapter will be about the various engine lathes.

Drilling Machine
A drilling machine comes in many shapes and sizes, from small hand-held power drills to
bench mounted and finally floor-mounted models. They can perform operations other than
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

drilling, such as counter sinking; counter boring, reaming, and tapping large or small holes.
Because the drilling machines can perform all of these operations, this chapter will also cover
the types of drill bits, took, and shop formulas for setting up each operation. Safety plays a
critical part in any operation involving power equipment. This chapter will cover procedures
for servicing, maintaining, and setting up the work, proper methods of selecting tools, and
work holding devices to get the job done safely without causing damage to the equipment,
yourself, or someone nearby. A drilling machine, called a drill press, is used to cut holes into
or through metal, wood, or other materials. Drilling machines use a drilling tool that has
cutting edges at its point. This cutting tool is held in the drill press by a chuck or Morse taper
and is rotated and fed into the work at variable speeds. Drilling machines may be used to
perform other operations. They can perform countersinking, boring, counter-boring, spot
facing, reaming, and tapping.
Drill press operators must know how to set up the work, set speed and feed, and provide
for coolant to get an acceptable finished product. The size or capacity of the drilling machine
is usually determined by the largest piece of stock that can be center-drilled. For instance, a
15-inch drilling machine cans center-drill a 30-inch-diameter piece of stock. Other ways to
determine the size of the drill press are by the largest hole that can be drilled, the distance
between the spindle and column, and the vertical distance between the worktable and spindle.
All drilling machines have the following construction characteristics: a spindle, sleeve or
quill, column, head, worktable, and base.
1. The spindle holds the drill or cutting tools and revolves in a fixed position in a sleeve. In
most drilling machines, the spindle is vertical and the work is supported on a horizontal table.
2. The sleeve or quill assembly does not revolve but may slide in its bearing in a direction
parallel to its axis. When the sleeve carrying the spindle with a cutting tool is lowered, the
cutting tool is fed into the work: and when it is moved upward, the cutting tool is withdrawn
from the work. Feed pressure applied to the sleeve by hand or power causes the revolving
drill to cut its way into the work a few thousandths of an inch per revolution.
3. The column of most drill presses is circular and built rugged and solid. The column
supports the head and the sleeve or quill assembly.
4. The head of the drill press is composed of the sleeve, spindle, electric motor, and feed
mechanism. The head is bolted to the column.
5. The worktable is supported on an arm mounted to the column. The worktable can be
adjusted vertically to accommodate different heights of work. or it may be swung completely
out of the way. It may be tilted up to 90 in either direction, to allow for long pieces to be end
or angled drilled.
6. The base of the drilling machine supports the entire machine and when bolted to the floor,
provides for vibration-free operation and best machining accuracy.
7. The top of the base is similar to a worktable and maybe equipped with T-slots for mounting
work too large for the table.

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

Shaping Machine
The main functions of shaping machines are to produce flat surfaces in
different planes. The cutting motion provided by the linear forward motion
of the reciprocating tool and the intermittent feed motion provided by the
slow transverse motion of the job along with the bed result in producing a
flat surface by gradual removal of excess material layer by layer in the
form of chips. The vertical infeed is given either by descending the tool
holder or raising the bed or both. Straight grooves of various curved
sections are also made in shaping machines by using specific form tools.
The single point straight or form tool is clamped in the vertical slide which
is mounted at the front face of the reciprocating ram whereas the
workpiece is directly or indirectly through a vice is mounted on the bed.

Milling Machine
Milling is the process of machining flat, curved, or irregular surfaces by feeding the
workpiece against a rotating cutter containing a number of cutting edges. The milling
machine consists basically of a motor driven spindle, which mounts and revolves the milling
cutter, and a reciprocating adjustable worktable, which mounts and feeds the workpiece.
Milling machines are basically classified as vertical or horizontal. These machines are also
classified as knee-type, ram-type, manufacturing or bed type, and planer-type. Most milling
machines have self-contained electric drive motors, coolant systems, variable spindle speeds,
and power-operated table feeds. Free body diagram of the milling machine shown in figure
below

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT NO.10
Object: Application of slideways profiles and their combinations
Slideway
Profile
and
Combinat
ion for
Bads
Open V +
Open V

Sketch

Application

Planning
Machines

Closed V
+ Closed
V

Precision
lathes and
turret lathes

Open flat
+ Open V

Surfacegrinding
machines

Closed flat
+ Closed
V

Genralpurpose
lathes &
heavy duty
boring
machine

For vertical columns


Closed flat
+ Closed
flat

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

Most
Commonly
used for all
types of
vertical
columne

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

Closed flat
+ Closed
flat

Closed flat
+ heavyclosed
dovetail

For cross slides and compound rests


Closed
devotail

Closed flat
+ Closed
flat

For Rotary Blades


Flat

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

Knee types
milling
machine
small vertical
drilling
machine and
traverses of
radial drilling
machine
Same us
above

Cross slides
& compound
rests

Cross slides
of heavy
duty
machine
tools

Surfacegrinding
machine and
small
hobbing
machine
Precission
gear-hobby
machine

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT NO.11
Object: Functions and types of Guide ways
Machine Tool Guide Ways
In 30 years in the machine tool business, Ive learned a lot about guide
ways to share with end-users and builders alike. Much like spindles, cast
iron beds, and weldments, each type of guide way has its place. Guide
ways now give you the choices to run faster or cheaper, and yet the
debate over which guide way is best still rages.
In 1999, American Machinist described state-of-the-art linear, ball, and
box ways. Some machine builders who shared their views are no longer in
business, and at least one who is endorsed one design at the time, but
has since switched camps. This isnt surprising given how far way design
has come.
The primary enhancement for linear systems is additional contact on the
rail, whereas box ways now sport a better mating surface between the box
and hardened way and better oils for reduced friction. Small machines are
now split between linear ways and, when more rigidity for heavy cutting
or tool life is a priority, box ways. Though some large machines are built
with linear systems too, hydrostatic ways are far more popular for big
applications.
Linear systems were once considered more cost efficient for production
and assembly of machine tools. However, in the case of a heavy or large
linear system, the cost savings are likely offset by expenses later on,
leveling the playing field with box ways.
Ultimately, the choice of guide way depends on the end-users priorities.
Are they after speed, rigidity, tool life, acceleration, accuracy, torque, hard
metal machining, or cost savings? A 20 HP 40-taper VMC could be built
with linear or box ways to meet any cutting criteria. In the marketplace,
however, linear rules for machines of this size: almost 80% of the 40 taper
VMCs built worldwide are linear. For 40 HP to 60 HP HMCs, though, more
builders are using box ways or hybrid-designed ways to meet strict speed
and rigidity requirements.
This debate has raged for at least 16 years and theres still no winner. End
users are pushing builders for more speed and better accuracy. These
improvements, however, may come at the cost of tool life and the quality
of the finished part. In 1998, I lost an order for a large VMC to cut Inconel
knives for the steel industry. They bought a more expensive box-way VMC
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

over my linear system since they thought it would last longer, provide
better tool life, and yield better finished parts. Did they make the right
choice? Its hard to tell, especially when technology is changing at a
breakneck pace, and the answer to, Which is best? is always, It
depends.
The Guideway is one of the important elements of machine tool. The main
function of the guideway is to make sure that the cutting tool or machine
tool operative element moves along predetermined path. The machine
tool operative element carries workpiece along with it. The motion is
generally circular for boring mills, vertical lathe, etc. while it is straight
line for lathe, drilling, boring machines, etc.

The basic function of guideways is to ensure that the machine tool


operation element carrying the workpiece or cutting tool moves along a
predetermined path which is generally a straight line as in lathe, drilling,
boring machines etc. or circular as in vertical turret lathe and boring
mills. The major requirements that the guideways must satisfy are:

1) High accuracy and surface finish of guideways surface.


2) High accuracy of travel which is possible only when the deviation of
the actual path of travel of the operative element from the
predetermined path is minimum.
3) Durability which depend upon the ability of guideways, to retain the
initial accuracy of manufacturing and travel.
4) Low value of frictional forces acting on the guideways surface to
ensure less wear.
5) Minimum possible variation of the coefficient of friction.
6) High rigidity.
7) Good damping properties.

Surface of the guideways and operate element. Guideways can be


classified as:
(a) Guideways with sliding friction
(b) Guideways with rolling friction
Guideways with Sliding Friction
The friction between the sliding surfaces is called as guideways with
sliding friction. These guideways are also called as slideways. The
slideways are further classified according to the lubrication at the
interface of contacting surfaces. The friction between the sliding surfaces
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

may be dry, semi-liquid, and liquid. When the lubrication is absent in


between contacting surfaces, it is called as dry friction. Dry friction is
rarely occurred in machine tools.
When two bodies slide with respect to each other having lubrication
between them, the sliding body tends to rise or float due to hydrodynamic
action of the lubricant film. The principle of slider is shown in Figure 1.

Figure1. Principle of a Slider


The hydrodynamic force,
Fh =Cv s
(1)
Where C is constant and depends upon wedge angle , the geometry of
sliding surfaces, viscosity of the lubricant and parameter of lubricant film.
vs is sliding velocity.
W is weight of the sliding body.
The resultant normal force acting on sliding body,
R = Fh W
From Eq. (1), it is clear that the hydrodynamic force increases with
increase in sliding velocity. The sliding body rests on the stationary body
when hydrodynamic force is less than the weight of the sliding body. Here,
there are semi-liquid type friction conditions and under these conditions
the two bodies are partially separated by the lubricant film and partially
have metal to metal contact. The resultant normal force on sliding body
starts to act upwards and the body floats as hydrodynamic force is greater
than the sliding weight of the body. The sliding surfaces are completely
separated by the lubricant film and liquid friction occurs at their interface.
The slideways in which the sliding surfaces are separated by the
permanent lubricant layer are known as hydrodynamic slideways. This
permanent lubrication layer is due to hydrodynamic action. A permanent
lubricant layer between the sliding surfaces can be obtained by pumping
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

the liquid into the interface under pressure at low sliding speed. The
sliding body is lifted by this permanent lubricant layer. Such slideways are
called as hydrostatic slideways.
Guideways with Rolling Friction
These are also called as anti friction ways. The anti friction slideways may
be classified according to the shape of the rolling element as:
(a) Roller type anti friction ways using cylindrical rollers.
(b) Ball type anti friction ways using spherical balls.

EXPERIMENT NO.12
Object: Shapes of slideways

(a)

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

(b)

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

(c)

(d)

(e)

Slideways profiles: (a) Flat; (b) Symmetrical V; (c) Asymmetrical V; (d) dovetail
(e) Cylindrical

EXPERIMENT NO.13
Object: Commonly used bed section and wall arrangement and their
applications.
Wall Arrangement

Applications
1.) Beds on logs or sheas
a.) without stiffening, diagonal wall,
used in lathe, turrets, etc.
b.) without stiffening diagonal wall
has 30-40% height stiffness than
arrangement (a); used in multiple
tool and height production lathes.

(a)

(b)

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA

MACHINE TOOL DESIGN LAB MANUAL

(c)

(d)

c.) with stiffening wall and provision


of chip disposal through opening in
rear wall, used in large sized lathes
& turret with stiffing wall, also used
in large-sized laths.
(d) With stiffening wall also used in large
size lathe and turret

2.) Covered top closed profile bed,


used in plan milling, clothing &
boring machines.

3.) Open top closed profile bed,


used when the bed is also require,
commonly employed in grinding
machine.

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOTA