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DETERIORATION OF

REINFORCED

CEMENT CONCRETE

Lecture-3-4

CORROSION
CORROSION

Iron- unstable at room temperature

Tendency to convert to its more stable state- iron oxide(rust)

Conversion slow in dry air, fast in presence of water and oxygen

Concrete has voids with air and moisture

THEN WHY DOESN’T STEEL ALWAYS CORRODE?

2
2
Corrosion
Corrosion

Electrochemical process involving loss and gain of electrons

Electrolytic cell

Anode location where steel dissolves, creating supply of electrons

Cathode location where electrons are consumed

Electrolyte pore water

External circuit for flow of electrons (steel bar)

Internal circuit for charge transfer to maintain electrical neutrality (

concrete)

3
3

Deposition (Rust) formed at anode

Corrosion
Corrosion
Anodic reaction: 2Fe 2 Fe 2+ + 4e -
Anodic reaction:
2Fe
2 Fe 2+ + 4e -
Cathodic reaction:
Cathodic reaction:

O 2 + 2H 2 O + 4e - 2Fe + 2H 2 O + O 2

4OH - 2Fe(OH) 2

Sum of reactions:
Sum of reactions:

N

N

Corrosion products occupy greater volume than iron consumed

Leads to internal expansion stresses

When expansion stresses > concrete strength, cracking & spalling takes place

Leads to internal expansion stresses When expansion stresses > concrete strength, cracking & spalling takes place
Corrosion products-Volume ratio
Corrosion products-Volume ratio

Fe2O3xH2O -Hydrated Ferric Hydroxide Fe(OH)3 - Ferric Hydroxide Fe(OH)2-Ferrous Hydroxide Feo.(OH) -Hard Rust

Fe3O4-Magnetite

Fe2O3-Ferric Oxide Fe-Iron

Fe(OH)2-Ferrous Hydroxide Feo.(OH) -Hard Rust Fe3O4-Magnetite Fe2O3-Ferric Oxide Fe-Iron 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5
5
CORROSION
CORROSION

Concrete micro pores high conc. of soluble Ca, Na and K oxides

Oxides + Water hydroxides(highly alkaline)

pH- 12-13

Under alkaline condition Passive layer formed on steel

Dense, impenetrable prevents further corrosion

Breaking of passive film Carbonation and Chloride attack

6
6

Reinforcement Corrosion Process

Corrosion Rate mm/yr
Corrosion
Rate
mm/yr

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Acidic Alkaline 0 2 4 6 8 10
Acidic Alkaline
Acidic Alkaline
Acidic Alkaline
Acidic Alkaline
Acidic Alkaline
Acidic Alkaline
Acidic Alkaline
Acidic Alkaline
Acidic Alkaline

Acidic

Alkaline

Acidic Alkaline
Acidic Alkaline
Acidic Alkaline
Acidic Alkaline
Acidic Alkaline
Acidic Alkaline
Acidic Alkaline
Acidic Alkaline

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

pH of Concrete Relationship between pH and corrosion rate

Corrosion Inhibitors

High quality concrete

High pH (Alkalinity)

concrete protects steel surface from corrosion

Corrosion Promoters

Oxygen

Water

Stray electrical currents

Uneven chemical environment around reinforcement

Environments that lowert the pH (alkalinity)

Chlorides

 Uneven chemical environment around reinforcement  Environments that lowert the pH (alkalinity)  Chlorides

Corrosion-Induced Cracking and Spalling

Corrosion
Corrosion

C = concrete cover

d = Bar diameter

C/d

Ratio

Cover

mm

89

7

3

C/d Ratio Cover mm 89 7 3
C/d Ratio Cover mm 89 7 3 Bar size #4 Corrosion % to cause cracking  

Bar size

#4

Corrosion % to

cause cracking

 

4%

38

#4

1%

  4% 38 #4 1%

Cracking and spalling of concrete induced by steel corrosion is a function of the following variables :

1. Concrete tensile strength

2. Quality of concrete cover over the reinforcing bar

3. Bond or condition of the interface between the rebar

and surrounding concrete

4. Diameter of the reinforcing bar

5. Percentage of corrosion by

weight of the reinforcing bar

9 Corrosion induced cracking and spalling in columns
9
9

Corrosion induced cracking and spalling in columns

Corroded rebar in a beam Corroded rebar in a beam 10

Corroded rebar in a beam

Corroded rebar in a beam

10
10

Reduction in Structural Capacity

Loss of section
Loss of section

The structural capacity of a concrete member is affected by bar corrosion and cracking of surrounding concrete. A research conducted on flexural beams found that in steel with more than 1.5 percent corrosion, the ultimate load capacity began to fall,

and at 4.5 % corrosion, the ultimate load was reduced by 12%.

In compressive members, cracking and spalling of concrete reduces the effective cross section of the concrete, thereby reducing the ultimate compressive load capacity considerably.

Moisture and Oxygen salt Chloride Penetration Chlorides can be introduced into concrete by coming into

Moisture and

Oxygen

salt
salt
Moisture and Oxygen salt Chloride Penetration Chlorides can be introduced into concrete by coming into contact
Moisture and Oxygen salt Chloride Penetration Chlorides can be introduced into concrete by coming into contact

Chloride Penetration

Chlorides can be introduced into concrete by coming into contact with environments

containing chlorides, such as

sea water or de-icing salts.

Penetration of the chlorides

starts at the surface, then

moves inward. Penetration

takes time, depending upon :

1. The amount of chlorides coming into contact

with the concrete

2. The permeability of the concrete

3. The amount of moisture

present

Chlorides penetrate into concrete with the help of surface moisture

penetrate into concrete with the help of surface moisture Y e a r s When chlorides
penetrate into concrete with the help of surface moisture Y e a r s When chlorides
penetrate into concrete with the help of surface moisture Y e a r s When chlorides

Y

e

a

r

s

When chlorides penetrate to reinforcing steel corrosion begins Delamination spall Chlorides penetrate into concrete
When chlorides penetrate to
reinforcing steel corrosion begins
Delamination spall
Chlorides penetrate
into concrete with
the help of surface
moisture
Y
e
a
r
s
Further penetration of chlorides results in further corrosion, delamination and spalling Y e a r
Further penetration of
chlorides results in
further corrosion,
delamination and
spalling
Y
e
a
r
s
salt
Crack or Construction Joint Surface Introduced Chlorides salt salt salt Deep spalling Y e a

Crack or

Construction

Joint

Surface Introduced Chlorides salt
Surface
Introduced
Chlorides
salt
salt
salt
salt Deep spalling
salt
Deep spalling
Y e a r s
Y
e
a
r
s
Y e a r s
Y
e
a
r
s
Y e a r s
Y
e
a
r
s

Cracks and Chlorides

Cracks and construction joints in concrete permit corrosive chemicals such as de-icing salts to enter the concrete and access

embedded reinforcing steel.

ACI 224R presents following tolerable

crack widths:

Exposure condition

Tolerance

Crack Width

(mm)

membrane

Humidity, moist air, soil

Crack Width (mm) membrane Humidity, moist air, soil Dry air, protective 0.41 0.30 De-icing chemicals

Dry air, protective

0.41

0.30

De-icing chemicals

0.18

Seawater and seawater spray; wetting and drying

0.15

Water-retaining

0.10

structures

structures

Concrete with Cast-in water soluble chlorides

Concrete with Cast-in water soluble chlorides Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y
Concrete with Cast-in water soluble chlorides Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y
Concrete with Cast-in water soluble chlorides Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y
Concrete with Cast-in water soluble chlorides Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y
Concrete with Cast-in water soluble chlorides Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y
Concrete with Cast-in water soluble chlorides Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y
Concrete with Cast-in water soluble chlorides Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y
Concrete with Cast-in water soluble chlorides Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y

Note : shaded area denotes level of

moisture penetration.

Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y e a r s Delamination Corrosion
Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y e a r s Delamination Corrosion
Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y e a r s Delamination Corrosion
Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y e a r s Delamination Corrosion
Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y e a r s Delamination Corrosion
Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y e a r s Delamination Corrosion
Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y e a r s Delamination Corrosion
Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y e a r s Delamination Corrosion
Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y e a r s Delamination Corrosion
Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y e a r s Delamination Corrosion
Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y e a r s Delamination Corrosion
Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y e a r s Delamination Corrosion
Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y e a r s Delamination Corrosion
Note : shaded area denotes level of moisture penetration. Y e a r s Delamination Corrosion

Y

e

a

r

s

Delamination Corrosion Y e a r s Chloride content is generally the same throughout the
Delamination Corrosion
Y
e
a
r
s
Chloride content is generally
the same throughout the
cross section

Cast-in Chlorides

Chlorides can be found in reinforced concrete even before the structure is in service. Chlorides may be introduced deliberately as an accelerator, or in the form of natural ingredients found in some aggregates.

ACI 201.2R suggests following limits for

chlorides in concrete prior to placing

concrete:

Service condition

% of Cl to weight of cement

Prestressed concrete

0.06

Conventionally reinforced

0.10

concrete in a moist environment

and exposed to chloride

Conventionally reinforced concrete in a moist environment not exposed to chloride

0.15

Above-ground building construction where concrete will stay dry

No limit

pH is lowered by the reaction CO 2 + H 2 O + Ca(OH) 2
pH is lowered by the reaction CO 2 + H 2 O + Ca(OH) 2
pH is lowered by the reaction CO 2 + H 2 O + Ca(OH) 2
pH is lowered by the reaction CO 2 + H 2 O + Ca(OH) 2
pH is lowered by the reaction CO 2 + H 2 O + Ca(OH) 2
pH is lowered by the reaction CO 2 + H 2 O + Ca(OH) 2
pH is lowered by the reaction CO 2 + H 2 O + Ca(OH) 2

pH is lowered by the reaction CO 2 + H 2 O + Ca(OH) 2 --> CaCO 3 + H 2 O

Acidic gases

CO 2

2 --> CaCO 3 + H 2 O Acidic gases CO 2 H 2 O Carbonation
2 --> CaCO 3 + H 2 O Acidic gases CO 2 H 2 O Carbonation

H 2 O

--> CaCO 3 + H 2 O Acidic gases CO 2 H 2 O Carbonation front
--> CaCO 3 + H 2 O Acidic gases CO 2 H 2 O Carbonation front
--> CaCO 3 + H 2 O Acidic gases CO 2 H 2 O Carbonation front
--> CaCO 3 + H 2 O Acidic gases CO 2 H 2 O Carbonation front
--> CaCO 3 + H 2 O Acidic gases CO 2 H 2 O Carbonation front
--> CaCO 3 + H 2 O Acidic gases CO 2 H 2 O Carbonation front
--> CaCO 3 + H 2 O Acidic gases CO 2 H 2 O Carbonation front
--> CaCO 3 + H 2 O Acidic gases CO 2 H 2 O Carbonation front
--> CaCO 3 + H 2 O Acidic gases CO 2 H 2 O Carbonation front
--> CaCO 3 + H 2 O Acidic gases CO 2 H 2 O Carbonation front

Carbonation

front

Y e a r s
Y
e
a
r
s
H 2 O Delamination CO 2 Y e a r s Corrosion takes place faster
H 2 O
Delamination
CO 2
Y
e
a
r
s
Corrosion takes place faster
when the pH is lowered
CO 2 CO 2 Carbonation takes place within crack Y e a r s Crack
CO 2
CO 2
Carbonation takes
place within crack
Y
e
a
r
s
Crack
Corrosion

Carbonation

Carbonation of concrete is a reaction between acidic gases in the atmosphere and the products of cement hydration. The level of carbon dioxide in industrial atmospheres

is, as a rule, higher. Carbon dioxide

penetrates into the pores of concrete by diffusion and reacts with the calcium hydroxide dissolved in the pore water. As a result of this reaction, the alkalinity of concrete is reduced to a pH value of about

10, and, consequently, concrete protection

of the reinforcing steel is lost. The passivity

of the protective layer on steel is destroyed.

In good quality concrete, the carbonation

process is very slow. The process requires

constant change in moisture levels from dry

to damp to dry.

Carbonation will not occur when concrete

is constantly under water.

Structural Steel Member Corrosion Corrosion of embedded metals includes structural members such as steel beams

Structural Steel Member Corrosion

Corrosion of embedded metals includes structural members such as steel beams cast into concrete to form a composite member, or to provide fire protection. The top flange of a beam is susceptible to corrosion when a crack or construction

joint intersects the flange.

Moisture and corrosive salts are

trapped on the flange, providing

an ideal environment for corrosive activity. Corrosion on the top flange exerts a jacking force on the concrete above the flange. When the force is sufficient, delamination occurs.

Evidence of slab separation from

the beam then becomes apparent from the underside of the slab.

Embedded Stuctural Member

Aggressive Crack or Construction Joint over Embedded Structural Steel Environment Y Embedded Stuctural Member e
Aggressive
Crack or Construction
Joint over Embedded
Structural Steel
Environment
Y
Embedded Stuctural
Member
e
a
r
s
salt
+ Lifting of slab from top of flange by expanding corrosion products. Y e a
+
Lifting of slab
from top of
flange by
expanding
corrosion
products.
Y
e
a
r
s
Steel Aluminium Dissimilar Metal Corrosion Aluminium in contact with fresh concrete liberates hydrogen gas, thereby
Steel
Aluminium
Dissimilar Metal Corrosion
Aluminium in
contact with fresh
concrete liberates
hydrogen gas,
thereby creating
localized porosity.
Corrosion can take place in
concrete when two diffeent
metals are cast into a concrete
structure, along with an
Note : shaded area denotes level of
moisture penetration and active
electrolyte. If chlorides are present,
the process is accelerated.
adequate electrolyte. A moist
concrete matrix provides for a
good electrolyte. This type of
Electrode flow
corrosion is known as galvanic.
Cathode
Anode
Y
Below is a list of metals in order
Ion OH Flow
e
a
of increasing activity :
r
s
Zinc < Aluminium < Steel
Corrosion occurs here. Aluminium
oxide causes expansion and
cracking of surrounding concrete
< Iron < Nickel < Tin
< Lead < Brass < Copper
< Bronze < Stainless Steel
Y
e
< Gold
a
r
s

Unbounded Post-Tension Strand

Unbounded Post-Tension Strand Post-Tension Strand Corrosion Aggressive Environment Y e a r s salt salt Y
Unbounded Post-Tension Strand Post-Tension Strand Corrosion Aggressive Environment Y e a r s salt salt Y

Post-Tension Strand Corrosion

Aggressive Environment Y e a r s salt salt
Aggressive
Environment
Y
e
a
r
s
salt
salt
Corrosion Aggressive Environment Y e a r s salt salt Y e a r s Broken
Y e a r s
Y
e
a
r
s
Environment Y e a r s salt salt Y e a r s Broken protective sheathing
Environment Y e a r s salt salt Y e a r s Broken protective sheathing

Broken protective sheathing allows exposure to corrosive environment.

Strand corrodes and breaks

to corrosive environment. Strand corrodes and breaks Collapsing broken strand may exit the structure at points

Collapsing broken strand may exit the structure at points of low cover or at ends

may exit the structure at points of low cover or at ends Unprotected strand without protective
Unprotected strand without protective sheathing Protective Sheathing Types Individual Grease wires (typical)
Unprotected strand without
protective sheathing
Protective Sheathing Types
Individual
Grease
wires
(typical)
Push-thru
Sealed Heat Extruded

Leakage paths

into strand

system

7-wire strand

Anchorage

plug grout

Wedges

End anchor casting

Breakout bars

Corrosion of unbonded post- tension strands has become a common problem for structures exposed to aggressive environments. Buildings exposed to ocean salt spray and parking structures exposed to de- icing salts are typical locations

for unbonded strand corrosion.

Unbonded post-tension strands are protected from corrosion by protective grease and sheathing.

MECHANISMS OF

DETERIORATION/DISINTEGRATION OF CONCRETE

Disintegration Disintegration Mechanisms Dismemberment Dissolution Erosion
Disintegration
Disintegration
Mechanisms
Dismemberment
Dissolution
Erosion
Aggregate Dissolution Dissolution of Abrasion Swelling of Portland Aggregates Cavitation Cement 3 2 Cement
Aggregate
Dissolution
Dissolution of
Abrasion
Swelling
of Portland
Aggregates
Cavitation
Cement
3
2
Cement Matrix
Swelling
Capillary Cavity
Swelling
Abrasion Swelling of Portland Aggregates Cavitation Cement 3 2 Cement Matrix Swelling Capillary Cavity Swelling
Abrasion Swelling of Portland Aggregates Cavitation Cement 3 2 Cement Matrix Swelling Capillary Cavity Swelling

Introduction to Disintegration Mechanisms

Aggressive chemical exposures (either man-made or natural) can cause

the concrete to alter its chemical makeup, resulting in changes in its

mechanical properties. Depending upon the type of attack, the concrete can soften or disintegrate, in part or in whole.

Water can be one of the most aggressive environments causing disintegration. If concrete is saturated with water and is subject to freezing, the expansive force of the increase in volume (ice compared to water) may cause the concrete to come apart in small pieces.

Not all disintegration mechanisms are caused by external factors.

Alkali-aggregate reactions are internally contained within the originally constructed concrete. They result in swelling of the affected

aggregate.

Exposure to Aggressive Chemicals

Exposure to Aggressive Chemicals 3 2 Aggressive chemicals can be categorized as follows : 1. Inorganic
3 2
3
2

Aggressive chemicals can be categorized as follows :

1.

Inorganic acids

2.

Organic acids

3.

Alkaline solutions

4.

Salt solutions

5.

Miscellaneous

3 2
3
2

Acids dissolve silica and dolomitic aggregates

3 2 Y e a r s Cement matrix is attacked; aggregates fall out. 3
3
2
Y
e
a
r
s
Cement matrix is attacked;
aggregates fall out.
3
2
3
2
Y
e
a
r
s

Freeze-Thaw Disintegration

Capillaries (Exaggerated)
Capillaries (Exaggerated)

Freeze-Thaw disintegration or deterioration takes place under following conditions :

1. Freezing and thawing temperature cycles

within the concrete

2. Porous concrete that absorbs water (water-filled pores and capillaries)

Small flakes break away from concrete Tension micro-cracking Water penetrates capillaries and upon freezing, swells
Small flakes break
away from concrete
Tension micro-cracking
Water penetrates capillaries
and upon freezing, swells
causing tension and small
surface disintegration
o C
The rate of freeze-thaw disintegration is a
function of the following :
Zone of saturation
1. Increased porosity (increases rate)
Capillary
cavity
swelling
2. Increased
moisture
saturation
(increases rate)
3. Increased number of freeze-thaw
cycles (increases rate)
Pore and capillary swelling
causes tension cracking
4. Air entrainment (reduces rate)
Freezing water in pore structure expands fracturing
aggregates and spalling surrounding concrete
Water penetrates aggregates
with high absorption
5. Horizontal surfaces that trap
standing water (increases rate)
o
C
6. Aggregate with small capillary
structure and high absorption
(increases rate)
Reactive silica or silicate in the aggregate react with alkali in the cement Y e
Reactive silica or silicate in
the aggregate react with
alkali in the cement
Y
e
a
r
s
A gel forms on the
aggregate surface when
sufficient moisture is
present
Y
e
a
r
s
When gel is exposed to
moisture, swelling takes
place. Swelling of gel
causes surrounding
concrete to grow,
causing tension and
compressive stresses.
Y
e
a
r
s

Alkali-Aggregate Reactions

Alkali-aggregate reactions may create expansion and severe cracking of concrete structures and

pavements.

The alkali-aggregate reaction may go unrecognized for some period

of time, possibly years, before

associated severe distress will

develop.

Usually, testing for the presence of

alkali-aggregate reaction is

conducted by petrographic

examination of concrete. Recently,

a method has been developed which utilizes the uranyl (uranium) acetate fluorescence

technique and is rapid and

economical.

Chemical runoff

Streams

Oceans

 Chemical runoff  Streams  Oceans Soils Water-borne sulfate Sulfate ions + Cement matrix =

Soils

 Chemical runoff  Streams  Oceans Soils Water-borne sulfate Sulfate ions + Cement matrix =

Water-borne sulfate

runoff  Streams  Oceans Soils Water-borne sulfate Sulfate ions + Cement matrix = Gypsum +
runoff  Streams  Oceans Soils Water-borne sulfate Sulfate ions + Cement matrix = Gypsum +
runoff  Streams  Oceans Soils Water-borne sulfate Sulfate ions + Cement matrix = Gypsum +
runoff  Streams  Oceans Soils Water-borne sulfate Sulfate ions + Cement matrix = Gypsum +
runoff  Streams  Oceans Soils Water-borne sulfate Sulfate ions + Cement matrix = Gypsum +
runoff  Streams  Oceans Soils Water-borne sulfate Sulfate ions + Cement matrix = Gypsum +

Sulfate ions + Cement matrix = Gypsum + Ettringite

sulfate Sulfate ions + Cement matrix = Gypsum + Ettringite Ettringite and gypsum expand, disintegrating the

Ettringite and gypsum expand, disintegrating the cement matrix

and gypsum expand, disintegrating the cement matrix Sulfate Attack The presence of soluble sulfates (principally
and gypsum expand, disintegrating the cement matrix Sulfate Attack The presence of soluble sulfates (principally

Sulfate Attack

The presence of soluble sulfates (principally those of sodium, calcium and magnesium) is common in areas

of mining operations, chemical and

paper milling industries.

All sulfates are potentially harmful to concrete. They react chemically with cement paste’s hydrated lime and hydrated calcium aluminate. As a result of this reaction, solid products with volume greater than the products entering the reaction are formed.

Sulfate resistance of the concrete is improved by a reduction in water- cement ratio and an adequate cement factor, with a low tracalcium

aluminate and with proper air

entrainment.

Dam
Dam
Water flow
Water flow
Dam Water flow Erosion Cavitation Cavitation causes erosion of concrete surfaces resulting from the collapse of

Erosion

Cavitation

Cavitation causes erosion of

concrete surfaces resulting from the

collapse of vapour bubbles formed by pressure changes within a high velocity water flow. The energy released upon their collapse causes “cavitation damage”. Cavities are formed near curves and offsets, or

at the centre of vortices.

Cavitation damage is avoided by producing smooth surfaces and avoiding protruding obstructions to flow.

Cavitation area

Circulating debris causes additional abrasion damage

Abrasion

Abrasion is the wearing away of the

surface by rubbing

and friction. Factors affecting abrasion resistance include :

compressive strength; Aggregate properties; Finishing methods;

Use of toppings and Curing.

1. Curved surface causes localized high velocity 2. Vapor forms in low pressure areas 3.

1. Curved surface causes localized high velocity

2. Vapor forms in low

pressure areas

3. Collapsing air bubbles

cause water to jet with extreme force at surface

below vapour bubbles

Abrasion damage-worn aggregate and matrix

cause water to jet with extreme force at surface below vapour bubbles Abrasion damage-worn aggregate and