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MecE 360: Engineering Design II

Section 1: Introduction / Review

Class Notifications

New TA for projects- David Serrano dserrano@ualberta.ca


Class notes through MECE club
Ill be posting blanked notes online, fill in as we go- my hand
writing is terrible
There will be opportunities throughout the term to earn bonus
marks, which will be assignment to Test scores.
Ex: 1 ppt slide on a material used in gears in industry. List
properties, failure types, etc
Next: Day 1 Examples posted online. Ill do this after each class
as required.
Qureshi Jan 26 and 28: Design Process Presentations

Todays Objectives

Refresher on statics, stress


Some comments about design process

Course Objectives

Section 1: review

Review Outline

Free body diagrams


Force diagrams
Stresses

Why do I care about statics?

Name the bridge:

Free Body Diagram

(p.1-4)

Rules:
1. All detachable bodies MUST be free.
2. Applied forces shown in the direction of application.
3. Reactions at supports should initially be placed in the
positive direction of the coordinate system and solved
for.

Free Body Diagram

Rules contd:
4. Contact forces are always compressive; contacting
surfaces can not create tensile loads - ever
(bonding/adhesion is not a contact load).
5. Contact forces on two mating surfaces are equal in
magnitude but opposite in direction.
6. Permanent or non-permanent connections are required
to apply tensile or shear loading.
7. Every assignment/quiz/final exam question MUST start
with an FBD.

Support Reactions

(p.1-5)

Support

Sketch

Reactions

Pin: supported in both directions, capable of rotation. 3D


equivalent is a ball joint.

Ry
Rx

Roller: supported in one direction, free to move in the other

Ry

Fully supported: motion restriction in all directions

Ry
Mz

Rx

Equations of Equilibrium

SFx,y,z = 0
SMx,y,z = 0

(p.1-5)

Pk

P1

Pn

Mm

M1

M2

P2

Mk

Example 1-2

(p.1-8)

If the pull force is 4905 N and weight of the tongue is


0.981 kN, what are the reactions at C and D,
assuming C supports vertical loads?

Example adopted from Norton 3rd edition

Soln Exampe 1-2

Soln page 2

Force Diagrams

(p.1-6)

Shear force diagram (SFD)


Bending moment diagrams (BMD)
Axial force diagram (AFD)
Torque diagrams (TD)
Assignment 1 and Seminar 1 Examples
V
P
M

Stresses

(p.1-10 to 1-22)

What you should know:


Stress transformations: Cartesian to principal
3D Principal Stresses and Mohrs Circle (ex online)
Solving for 3D stresses using Eigenvalues and vectors
For this class: review Mohrs circle and transformations

Example 1-5

Stresses

(p.1-23 to 1-31)

St-Venants principle:
Local stresses near the point of application of a load are
greater
Average stress assumption re-established at
approximately a width away from local disturbance

Increase distance from load point

Stresses
Axial loading:

A
A: Cross sectional area
of bar

Stresses
Direct shear loading:

F/2
F
F/2

2A

Cross sectional area of bolt

Stresses
Torsional loading:

Tr

Polar moment of inertia

Stresses
Bending of beams:
y
NA
NA

My
B
I

Second moment of inertia

Next Topics

Unit #1: Design Process (Section 2)


Design approach
Tools for the design process
Brainstorming
Decision matrix
Gantt chart

MecE 360: Engineering Design II


Section 2: Design Process

Objectives

(unit 1 intro)

Design process
Tools for design and time management

Steps of Design Process


1. Is there a need?
2. Issues associated with need?
Definition of specifications.
3. Obtaining information,
finding possible solutions.
4. Decision analysis, FBD,
design analysis accept,
reject or modify solution.
5. Does solution meet need.
6. Report writing, transferring
idea to others in order for
them to fund your project or
accept your bid.

(p.2-2)

Focus in Mec E 360:


Design Analysis

(p.2-3)

Initial considerations
Material (Strength, stiffness)
Loading (Fatigue, static, shock)
Reliability
Life expectancy
Size
Weight
Corrosion
Wear

Cost
Shape
Safety
Surface finish
Maintenance
Aesthetics
processing
Environmental impact

Too many aspects to have a unique solution


We will focus on

Focus in Mec E 360:


Design Analysis

(p.2-4)

Decision Matrix: Important for 460


Tool to select best options
Setup of decision matrix:
Options (best if 5+)
Criteria/specifications (more = better)
(I may be necessary to introduce a rating system, i.e.
if criteria involve data with units)
Consider relative importance of criteria
(safety twice as important as cost savings)
Set a weight (Wi) for each criterion
e.g. between 0 and 100 (safety = 100, cost =50)
Objective: Rank (Ri) each option (e.g. 1 to 10)
n
Find weighted score of each option score Wi R i
i 1

Example 2-1

(p.2-8)

Select a cheap, healthy method to keep a student awake


during a boring lecture from choices available (legally) to
students. Choices are ranked 1, 5, 7 and 10 only.
Criteria
Cost
Stimulant
Healthy

Weighting
W1 = 70
W2 = 100
W3 = 100

Choices
Water, orange juice, pop, coffee,
beer/alcohol, energy drink

Example 2-1

(p.2-8)

Specs

Cost

Stimulant

Healthy

total

Weight

70

100

100

Max 2700

Rank either 1, 5, 7, 10
Water

1800

OJ

1850

Pop

1290

Coffee

2190

Alcohol

270

Energy drink

1170

Example 2-1

(p.2-8)

Specs

Cost

Stimulant

Healthy

total

Weight

70

100

100

Max 2700

Rank either 1, 5, 7, 10
Water

10

10

1800
(10*70+1*100+100*10)

OJ

10

1850

Pop

1290

Coffee

10

2190

Alcohol

270

Energy drink

10

1170

Gantt Charts
Objective:
Maintain schedule and
meet deadlines
Charge for work done
Setup of Gantt chart:
Tasks
(sequential/series, parallel)
e.g. analysis, report writing,
obtain materials
Major deadlines/milestones
Time to accomplish a task
Who will complete which tasks

(p.2-9)

Gantt Chart
Example of engineering project Gantt Chart using MS-Project

1. Define tasks

Gantt Chart
Example of engineering project Gantt Chart using MS-Project

2. List order/predecessors
(Report writing does not require that any other task be done except #1.
Start writing right away since keeping good notes of the process is part
of the report.)

Gantt Chart
Example of engineering project Gantt Chart using MS-Project

3. Expected duration of the task

Gantt Chart
Example of engineering project Gantt Chart using MS-Project

4. Start/finish time of each task


This must account for time of predecessor task

Gantt Chart
The graphical representation may look like this:

Mind Mapping- Brittle Failure

Crack growth Kinetics

Flaw Orientation distribution


Flaw Size distribution

Initial Damage

Crack Nucleation

Brittle Failure Model

Self-Consistant
Scheme

Flaw Density
Damage Evolution

Irreversible
Damage Strain

Anisotropic Damage

Crack Growth

Crack Coalescence

Stiffness
Definition

Flow Behavior
Granular Flow
EOS

Micromechanics

Evolution as a
function of Damage

Influence of Bulking
Visco-Plastic Flow

Porosity

In-Class Work: Group management


Get into groups. Work out the following:
Decide on project (if havent already)
Brainstorm tasks and milestones
Assign tasks
Confirm meeting times
Letter of Intent due Jan 8