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Hoysalaarchitecture
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Hoysalaarchitectureisthebuildingstyledevelopedunder
theruleoftheHoysalaEmpirebetweenthe11thand14th
centuries,intheregionknowntodayasKarnataka,astateof
India.Hoysalainfluencewasatitspeakinthe13thcentury,
whenitdominatedtheSouthernDeccanPlateauregion.
Largeandsmalltemplesbuiltduringthiseraremainas
examplesoftheHoysalaarchitecturalstyle,includingthe
ChennakesavaTempleatBelur,theHoysaleswaraTempleat
Halebidu,andtheKesavaTempleatSomanathapura.[1][2]
OtherexamplesofHoysalacraftsmanshiparethetemplesat
Belavadi,Amruthapura,Hosaholalu,Mosale,Arasikere,
Basaralu,KikkeriandNuggehalli.[3][4]StudyoftheHoysala
architecturalstylehasrevealedanegligibleIndoAryan
influencewhiletheimpactofSouthernIndianstyleismore
distinct.[5]
TemplesbuiltpriortoHoysalaindependenceinthemid12th
centuryreflectsignificantWesternChalukyainfluences,
ProfileofaHoysalatempleat
whilelatertemplesretainsomefeaturessalienttoChalukyan
Somanathapura
artbuthaveadditionalinventivedecorationand
ornamentation,featuresuniquetoHoysalaartisans.Some
threehundredtemplesareknowntosurviveinpresentdayKarnatakastateandmanymoreare
mentionedininscriptions,thoughonlyaboutseventyhavebeendocumented.Thegreatestconcentration
oftheseareintheMalnad(hill)districts,thenativehomeoftheHoysalakings.[6]
TheKarnataDravidatraditionwhichcoversaperiodofaboutsevencenturiesbeganinthe7thcentury
underthepatronageoftheChalukyadynastyofBadami,developedfurtherundertheRashtrakutasof
Manyakhetaduringthe9thand10thcenturiesandtheWesternChalukyas(orLaterChalukyas)of
Basavakalyaninthe11thand12thcenturies.Itsfinaldevelopmentstageandtransformationintoan
independentstylewasduringtheruleoftheHoysalasinthe12thand13thcenturies.[7]Medieval
inscriptionsdisplayedprominentlyattemplelocationsgiveinformationaboutdonationsmadetoward
themaintenanceofthetemple,detailsofconsecrationandonoccasion,evenarchitecturaldetails.[8]

Contents
1 Templedeities
2 Templecomplex
3 Architecturalelements
3.1 Mantapa
3.2 Vimana
3.3 Sculpture
4 Research
5 Notablecraftsmen

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5
6
7
8
9

Notablecraftsmen
ListofnotabletemplesfromtheHoysalaera
Seealso
Notes
References

Templedeities
Hinduismisacombinationofsecularandsacredbeliefs,rituals,daily
practicesandtraditionsthathasevolvedoverthecourseofovertwo
thousandyearsandembodiescomplexsymbolismcombiningthenatural
worldwithphilosophy.Hindutemplesbeganassimpleshrineshousinga
deityandbythetimeoftheHoysalashadevolvedintowellarticulated
edificesinwhichworshipperssoughttranscendenceofthedailyworld.
Hoysalatempleswerenotlimitedtoanyspecificorganisedtraditionof
HinduismandencouragedpilgrimsofdifferentHindudevotional
movements.TheHoysalasusuallydedicatedtheirtemplestoShivaorto
Vishnu(twoofthepopularHindugods),buttheyoccasionallybuilt
sometemplesdedicatedtotheJainfaithaswell.WorshippersofShiva
arecalledShaivasandworshippersofVishnuarecalledVaishnavas.[9][10]
WhileKingVishnuvardhanaandhisdescendantswereVaishnavaby
faith,[11]recordsshowthattheHoysalasmaintainedreligiousharmony
bybuildingasmanytemplesdedicatedtoShivaastheydidtoVishnu.[12]
Mostofthesetempleshavesecularfeatureswithbroadthemesdepicted
intheirsculptures.ThiscanbeseeninthefamousChennakesavaTemple
atBelurdedicatedtoVishnuandintheHoysaleswaratempleatHalebidu
dedicatedtoShiva.TheKesavatempleatSomanathapuraisdifferentin
thatitsornamentationisstrictlyVaishnavan.[13]GenerallyVaishnava
templesarededicatedtoKeshava(ortoChennakeshava,meaning
"BeautifulVishnu")whileasmallnumberarededicatedto
LakshminarayanaandLakshminarasimha(NarayanaandNarasimhaboth
beingAvatars,orphysicalmanifestations,ofVishnu)withLakshmi,
consortofVishnu,seatedathisfeet.TemplesdedicatedtoVishnuare
alwaysnamedafterthedeity.TheShaivatempleshaveaShivalinga,
symboloffertilityandtheuniversalsymbolofShiva,intheshrine.The
namesofShivatemplescanendwiththesuffixeshwarameaning"Lord
of".Thename"Hoysaleswara",forinstance,means"LordofHoysala".
Thetemplecanalsobenamedafterthedevoteewhocommissionedthe
constructionofthetemple,anexamplebeingtheBucesvaratempleat
Koravangala,namedafterthedevoteeBuci.[14]Themoststriking
sculpturaldecorationsarethehorizontalrowsofmoldingswithdetailed
relief,andintricatelycarvedimagesofgods,goddessesandtheir
attendantsontheoutertemplewallpanels.[15]

VishnuwithLakshmi
(Lakshminarayana)at
Halebidu

Shiva,Parvati,Nandiat
Halebidu

TheDoddagaddavalliLakshmiDevi("GoddessofWealth")Templeisanexceptionasitisdedicatedto
neitherVishnunorShiva.ThedefeatoftheJainWesternGangaDynasty(ofpresentdaysouth
Karnataka)bytheCholasintheearly11thcenturyandtherisingnumbersoffollowersofVaishnava
HinduismandVirashaivisminthe12thcenturywasmirroredbyadecreasedinterestinJainism.[16]
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However,twonotablelocationsofJainworshipintheHoysalaterritorywereShravanabelagolaand
Kambadahalli.TheHoysalasbuiltJaintemplestosatisfytheneedsofitsJainpopulation,afewofwhich
havesurvivedinHalebiducontainingiconsofJaintirthankaras.Theyconstructedsteppedwellscalled
PushkarniorKalyani,theornatetankatHulikerebeinganexample.Thetankhastwelveminorshrines
containingHindudeities.[17]
ThetwomaindeitiesfoundinHoysalatemplesculptureareShivaandVishnuintheirvariousformsand
avatars(incarnations).Shivaisusuallyshownwithfourarmsholdingatridentandasmalldrumamong
otheremblemsthatsymbolizeobjectsworshipedindependentlyofthedivineimagewithwhichtheyare
associated.[18]AnymaleiconportrayedinthiswayisShivaalthoughafemaleiconmaysometimesbe
portrayedwiththeseattributesasShiva'sconsort,Parvati.VariousdepictionsofLordShivaexist:
showinghimnaked(fullyorpartially),inactionsuchasslayingademon(Andhaka)ordancingonthe
headofaslainelephant(Gajasura)andholdingitsskinupbehindhisback.Heisoftenaccompaniedby
hisconsortParvatiorshownwithNandithebull.HemayberepresentedasBhairava,anotherofShiva's
manymanifestations.[18]
Amalefiguredepictedholdingcertainobjectssuchasaconch(symbolofeternal,heavenlyspace)anda
wheel(eternaltimeanddestructivepower)isVishnu.Ifafemalefigureisdepictedholdingthese
objects,sheisseenashisconsort,Lakshmi.InallthedepictionsVishnuisholdingfourobjects:aconch,
awheel,alotusandamace.Thesecanbeheldinanyoftheicon'shands,makingpossibletwentyfour
differentformsofVishnu,eachwithauniquename.[19]Apartfromthese,Vishnuisdepictedinanyof
histenavataras,whichincludeVishnusittingonAnantha(thecelestialsnakeandkeeperoflifeenergy
alsoknownasShesha),VishnuwithLakshmiseatedonhislap(Lakshminarayana),withtheheadofa
liondisembowelingademononhislap(Lakshminarasimha),withheadofaboarwalkingoverademon
(Varaha),intheKrishnaavatar(asVenugopalaorthecowherderplayingtheVenu(flute),dancingon
theheadofthesnakeKaliya,liftingahillsuchasGovardhana),withhisfeetoverheadofasmallfigure
(Vamana),alongwithIndraridinganelephant,withLakshmiseatedonGaruda,andtheeagle(stealing
theparijatatree).[19]

Templecomplex
Thefocusofatempleisthecentreorsanctumsanctorum
(garbhagriha)wheretheimageofthedeityresides,sotemple
architectureisdesignedtomovethedevoteefromoutsidetothe
garbhagrihathroughambulatorypassagewaysfor
circumambulationandhallsorchambers(mantapas)thatbecome
increasinglysacredasthedeityisapproached.Hoysalatemples
havedistinctpartsthataremergedtoformaunifiedorganic
whole,incontrasttothetemplesofTamilcountrywhere
differentpartsofatemplestandindependently.[20]Although
superficiallyunique,Hoysalatemplesresembleeachother
Hoysalasteppedtempletank
structurally.Theyarecharacterisedbyacomplexprofusionof
(Kalyani)atHulikere,Karnataka
sculpturedecoratingallthetemplepartschiseledofsoft
soapstone(chloriticschist),agoodmaterialforintricatecarving,
executedmostlybylocalcraftsmen,andexhibitarchitecturalfeaturesthatdistinguishthemfromother
templearchitecturesofSouthIndia.[21]
MostHoysalatempleshaveaplaincoveredentranceporchsupportedbylatheturned(circularorbell
shaped)pillarswhichweresometimesfurthercarvedwithdeepflutingandmouldedwithdecorative
motifs.Thetemplesmaybebuiltuponaplatformraisedbyaboutametrecalleda"jagati".Thejagati,
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apartfromgivingaraisedlooktothetemple,servesasa
pradakshinapathaor"circumambulationpath"for
circumambulationaroundthetemple,asthegarbagriha(inner
sanctum)providesnosuchfeature.[22]Suchtempleswillhavean
additionalsetofstepsleadingtoanopenmantapa(openhall)
withparapetwalls.AgoodexampleofthisstyleistheKesava
TempleatSomanathapura.Thejagatiwhichisinunitywiththe
restofthetemple[23]followsastarshapeddesignandthewalls
ofthetemplefollowazigzagpattern,aHoysalainnovation.[24]
Devoteescanfirstcompletearitualcircumambulationonthe
jagatistartingfromthemainentrancebywalkinginaclockwise
direction(towardstheleft)beforeenteringthemantapa,
followingthesculpturalclockwisesequencedreliefsontheouter
templewallsdepictingasequenceofepicscenesfromtheHindu
epics.Templesthatarenotbuiltonajagaticanhavesteps
flankedbyelephantbalustrades(parapets)thatleadtothe
mantapafromgroundlevel.Anexampleofatemplethatdoes
notexhibittheraisedplatformistheBucesvaratemplein
Korvangla,HassanDistrict.Intempleswithtwoshrines
(dvikuta),thevimanas(theshrinesorcellae)maybeplaced
eithernexttoeachotheroronoppositesides.[25]The
LakshmidevitempleatDoddagaddavalliisuniquetoHoysala
architectureasithasfourshrinesaroundacommoncenteranda
fifthshrinewithinthesamecomplexforthedeityBhairava(a
formofShiva).[26]Inaddition,fourminorshrinesexistateach
cornerofthecourtyard(prakaram).[27]

Templeprofilestaggeredsquare
planmantapaatKedareshvara
Temple,Balligavi

Symmetricalarchitectureonjagatiat
Somanathapura

Architecturalelements
Mantapa
Themantapaisthehallwhere
groupsofpeoplegatherduring
prayers.Theentrancetothe
mantapanormallyhasahighly
ornateoverheadlintelcalleda
makaratorana(makaraisan
imaginarybeastandtoranaisan
Ornatebayceilingin
overheaddecoration).[22]The
mantapaintheVeera
openmantapawhichservesthe
NarayanaTemple,Belavadi,
purposeofanouterhall(outer
Ornatelintelovermantapaentrance
acommonfeatureinHoysala
mantapa)isaregularfeaturein
inChennakeshavatemple,Belur
temples
largerHoysalatemplesleadingto
aninnersmallclosedmantapa
andtheshrine(s).Theopenmantapaswhichareoftenspacioushaveseatingareas(asana)madeofstone
withthemantapa'sparapetwallactingasabackrest.Theseatsmayfollowthesamestaggeredsquare
shapeoftheparapetwall.[28][29]Theceilinghereissupportedbynumerouspillarsthatcreatemany
bays.[30]Theshapeoftheopenmantapaisbestdescribedasstaggeredsquareandisthestyleusedin
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mostHoysalatemples.[31]Eventhesmallestopenmantapahas13bays.Thewallshaveparapetsthat
havehalfpillarssupportingtheouterendsoftheroofwhichallowplentyoflightmakingallthe
sculpturaldetailsvisible.Themantapaceilingisgenerallyornatewithsculptures,bothmythologicaland
floral.Theceilingconsistsofdeepanddomicalsurfacesandcontainssculpturaldepictionsofbanana
budmotifsandothersuchdecorations.[32]

OpenMantapawithshining,
latheturnedpillarsat
AmrutesvaraTemple,
Amruthapura

Ifthetempleissmallitwillconsistofonlyaclosedmantapa(enclosed
withwallsextendingallthewaytotheceiling)andtheshrine.The
closedmantapa,welldecoratedinsideandout,islargerthanthe
vestibuleconnectingtheshrineandthemantapaandhasfourlathe
turnedpillarstosupporttheceiling,whichmaybedeeplydomed.The
fourpillarsdividethehallintoninebays.Theninebaysresultinnine
decoratedceilings.[33]Piercedstonescreens(JaliorLatticework)that
serveaswindowsinthenavaranga(hall)andSabhamantapa
(congregationhall)isacharacteristicHoysalastylisticelement.[34]

Aporchadornstheentrancetoaclosedmantapa,consistingofan
awningsupportedbytwohalfpillars(engagedcolumns)andtwo
parapets,allrichlydecorated.Theclosedmantapaisconnectedtothe
shrine(s)byavestibule,asquareareathatalsoconnectstheshrines.Itsouterwallsaredecorated,butas
thesizethevestibuleisnotlarge,thismaynotbeaconspicuouspartofthetemple.Thevestibulealso
hasashorttowercalledthesukanasior"nose"uponwhichismountedtheHoysalaemblem.InBelur
andHalebidu,thesesculpturesarequitelargeandareplacedatalldoorways.[35]
Theouterandinnermantapa(openandclosed)havecircularlatheturnedpillars[36]havingfourbrackets
atthetop.Overeachbracketstandssculpturedfigure(s)calledsalabhanjikaormadanika.Thepillars
mayalsoexhibitornamentalcarvingsonthesurfaceandnotwopillarsarealike.[37]ThisishowHoysala
artdiffersfromtheworkoftheirearlyoverlords,theWesternChalukyas,whoaddedsculpturaldetailsto
thecircularpillarbaseandleftthetopplain.Thelatheturnedpillarsare16,32,or64pointedsomeare
bellshapedandhavepropertiesthatreflectlight.TheParsvanathaBasadiatHalebiduisagood
example.[38]AccordingtoBrown,thepillarswithfourmonolithicbracketsabovethemcarryimagesof
salabhanjikasandmadanikas(sculptureofawoman,displayingstylizedfemininefeatures).Thisisa
commonfeatureofChalukyaHoysalatemples.AccordingtoSastri,theshapeofthepillarandits
capital,thebaseofwhichissquareandwhoseshaftisamonoliththatislatheturnedtorenderdifferent
shapes,isa"remarkablefeature"ofHoysalaart.[39][40]

Vimana
Thevimana,alsocalledthecella,containsthemostsacredshrinewhereinresidestheimageofthe
presidingdeity.Thevimanaisoftentoppedbyatowerwhichisquitedifferentontheoutsidethanonthe
inside.Inside,thevimanaisplainandsquare,whereasoutsideitisprofuselydecoratedandcanbeeither
stellate("starshaped")orshapedasastaggeredsquare,orfeatureacombinationofthesedesigns,giving
itmanyprojectionsandrecessesthatseemtomultiplyasthelightfallsonit.[20]Eachprojectionand
recesshasacompletedecorativearticulationthatisrhythmicandrepetitiveandcomposedofblocksand
mouldings,obscuringthetowerprofile.Dependingonthenumberofshrines(andhenceonthenumber
oftowers),thetemplesareclassifiedasekakuta(one),dvikuta(two),trikuta(three),chatushkuta(four)
andpanchakuta(five).MostHoysalatemplesareekakuta,dvikutaortrikuta,theVaishnavaonesmostly
beingtrikuta.[41][42]Therearecaseswhereatempleistrikutabuthasonlyonetoweroverthemain
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shrine(inthemiddle).Sotheterminologytrikutamaynotbeliterally
accurate.[43]Intempleswithmultipledisconnectedshrines,suchasthe
twintemplesatMosale,allessentialpartsareduplicatedforsymmetry
andbalance.[44][29]
Thehighestpointofthetemple(kalasa)hastheshapeofawaterpotand
standsontopofthetower.Thisportionofthevimanaisoftenlostdueto
ageandhasbeenreplacedwithametallicpinnacle.Belowthekalasaisa
large,highlysculpturedstructureresemblingadomewhichismade
fromlargestonesandlookslikeahelmet.[45]Itmaybe2mby2min
sizeandfollowstheshapeoftheshrine.Belowthisstructurearedomed
roofsinasquareplan,allofthemmuchsmallerandcrownedwithsmall
kalasas.Theyaremixedwithothersmallroofsofdifferentshapesand
StarshapedVimana(shrine)
areornatelydecorated.Thetoweroftheshrineusuallyhasthreeorfour
atHosaholalu
tiersofrowsofdecorativeroofswhilethetowerontopofthesukanasi
hasonelesstier,makingthetowerlooklikeanextensionofthemain
tower(Foekemacallsitthe"nose").Onedecoratedrooftierrunsontopofthewallofaclosedmantapa
abovetheheavyeavesofanopenmantapaandabovetheporches.[46]
Belowthesuperstructureofthevimanaaretemple"eaves"[47]
projectinghalfameterfromthewall.Belowtheeavestwo
differentdecorativeschemesmaybefound,dependingon
whetheratemplewasbuiltintheearlyorthelaterperiodofthe
empire.Intheearlytemplesbuiltpriortothe13thcentury,there
isoneeaveandbelowthisaredecorativeminiaturetowers.A
panelofHindudeitiesandtheirattendantsarebelowthese
towers,followedbyasetoffivedifferentmouldingsformingthe
baseofthewall.Inthelatertemplesthereisasecondeave
Outerwallpanelwithsixhorizontal
runningaboutametrebelowtheuppereaveswithdecorative
mouldingsatSomanathapura
miniaturetowersplacedbetweenthem.Thewallimagesofgods
arebelowthelowereaves,followedbysixdifferentmouldings
ofequalsize.Thisisbroadlytermed"horizontaltreatment".[48]Thesixmouldingsatthebaseare
dividedintwosections.Goingfromtheverybaseofthewall,thefirsthorizontallayercontainsa
processionofelephants,abovewhicharehorsemenandthenabandoffoliage.Thesecondhorizontal
sectionhasdepictionsoftheHinduepicsandPuranicscenesexecutedwithdetail.Abovethisaretwo
friezesofyallisormakaras(imaginarybeasts)andhamsas(swans).Thevimana(tower)isdividedinto
threehorizontalsectionsandisevenmoreornatethanthewalls.[49]

Sculpture
InHoysalaartHardyidentifiestwoconspicuousdeparturesfromthemoreaustereWestern(Later)
Chalukyaart:ornamentalelaborationandaprofusionoficonographywithfiguresculptures,bothof
whicharefoundinabundanceevenonthesuperstructureovertheshrine.Theirmedium,thesoftchlorite
schist(Soapstone)enabledavirtuosocarvingstyle.[50]Hoysalaartistsarenotedfortheirattentionto
sculpturaldetailbeitinthedepictionofthemesfromtheHinduepicsanddeitiesorintheiruseofmotifs
suchasyalli,kirtimukha(gargoyles),aedicula(miniaturedecorativetowers)onpilaster,makara(aquatic
monster),birds(hamsa),spiralfoliage,animalssuchaslions,elephantsandhorses,andevengeneral
aspectsofdailylifesuchashairstylesinvogue.[51]

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Salabhanjika,acommonformofHoysalasculpture,isanoldIndian
traditiongoingbacktoBuddhistsculpture.Salaisthesalatreeand
bhanjikaisthechastemaiden.IntheHoysalaidiom,madanikafigures
aredecorativeobjectsputatanangleontheouterwallsofthetemple
neartheroofsothatworshiperscircumambulatingthetemplecanview
them.[52]
ThesthambabuttalikasarepillarimagesthatshowtracesofCholaartin
theChalukyantouches.SomeoftheartistsworkingfortheHoysalas
mayhavebeenfromCholacountry,aresultoftheexpansionofthe
empireintoTamilspeakingregionsofSouthernIndia.Theimageof
mohiniononeofthepillarsinthemantapa(closedhall)ofthe
ChennakeshavatempleisanexampleofCholaart.[52]
Generallifethemesareportrayedonwallpanelssuchasthewayhorses
werereined,thetypeofstirrupused,thedepictionofdancers,musicians,
instrumentalists,androwsofanimalssuchaslionsandelephants(where
notwoanimalsareidentical).Perhapsnoothertempleinthecountry
depictstheRamayanaandMahabharataepicsmoreeffectivelythanthe
HoysaleshwaratempleatHalebidu.[52][53]

Sthambabuttalika,Hoysala
artatBelur

EroticawasasubjecttheHoysalaartisthandledwithdiscretion.Thereis
noexhibitionisminthis,anderoticthemeswerecarvedintorecessesand
niches,generallyminiatureinform,makingtheminconspicuous.These
eroticrepresentationsareassociatedwiththeShaktapractice.[54]
Apartfromthesesculptures,entiresequencesfromtheHinduepics
(commonlytheRamayanaandtheMahabharata)havebeensculptedina
clockwisedirectionstartingatthemainentrance.[55]Therighttoleft
sequenceisthesamedirectiontakenbythedevoteesintheirritual
circumambulationastheywindinwardtowardtheinnersanctum.
DepictionsfrommythologysuchastheepicheroArjunashootingfish,
MadanikabracketatBelur
theelephantheadedgodGanesha,theSungodSurya,theweatherand
wargodIndra,andBrahmawithSarasvatiarecommon.Alsofrequently
seeninthesetemplesisDurga,withseveralarmsholdingweaponsgiventoherbyothergods,intheact
ofkillingabuffalo(ademoninabuffalo'sform)andHarihara(afusionofShivaandVishnu)holdinga
conch,wheelandtrident.Manyofthesefriezesweresignedbytheartisans,thefirstknowninstanceof
signedartworkinIndia.[56]

Research
AccordingtoSettar,surveysinmoderntimeshaveindicatedthat10001500structureswerebuiltbythe
Hoysalas,ofwhichaboutahundredtempleshavesurvivedtodate.[11][57]TheHoysalastyleisan
offshootoftheWesternChalukyastyle,whichwaspopularinthe10thand11thcenturies.[48]Itis
distinctivelyDravidian,andaccordingtoBrown,owingtoitsfeatures,Hoysalaarchitecturequalifiesas
anindependentstyle.[58]WhiletheHoysalasintroducedinnovativefeaturesintotheirarchitecture,they
alsoborrowedfeaturesfromearlierbuildersofKarnataliketheKadambas,WesternChalukyas.These
featuresincludedtheuseofchloriticschistorsoapstoneasabasicbuildingmaterial.[59][60]Other
featureswerethesteppedstyleofvimanatowercalledtheKadambashikhara,whichwasinheritedfrom
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theKadambas.[61]Hoysalasculptors
madeuseoftheeffectoflightandshade
oncarvedwalls,whichposesachallenge
forphotographyofthetemples.[52]The
artistryoftheHoysalasinstonehasbeen
comparedtothefinesseofanivory
workeroragoldsmith.Theabundanceof
jewellerywornbythesculptedfigures
andthevarietyofhairstylesand
headdressesdepictedgiveafairideaof
thelifestylesoftheHoysalatimes.[62]
Kirtimukhadecoration
(demonfaces)ontowerat
AmrutesvaraTemple,
Amruthapura

Notablecraftsmen
Ornatelintelanddoorjamb

WhilemedievalIndianartisanspreferred
reliefatentrancetoinner
toremainanonymous,Hoysalaartisans
mantapainthe
signedtheirworks,whichhasgiven
HarihareshwaraTempleat
researchersdetailsabouttheirlives,
Harihar
families,guilds,etc.Apartfromthe
architectsandsculptors,peopleof
otherguildssuchasgoldsmiths,
ivorycarvers,carpenters,and
silversmithsalsocontributedtothe
completionoftemples.Theartisans
werefromdiversegeographical
backgroundsandincludedfamous
locals.Prolificarchitectsincluded
Vasanthamantapa,anornate13th
AmarashilpiJakanachari,[63]anative
centurycontributionfromthe
ofKaidalainTumkurdistrict,who
Hoysalaeratothepreexisting
alsobuilttemplesfortheWestern
UmaMaheshvarashrineatthe
Chalukyas.RuvariMalithammabuilt
Elephantbalustradesinthe
BhogaNandeeshwaraTemple
theKesavaTempleat
Bucesvaratemple.Atemple
complex,Chikkaballapuradistrict
Somanathapuraandworkedonforty
planwithoutjagatiat
othermonuments,includingthe
Korvangla
AmruteshwaratempleatAmruthapura.Malithammaspecialisedin
ornamentation,andhisworksspansixdecades.Hissculptureswere
typicallysignedinshorthandasMalliorsimplyMa.[64][65]DasojaandhissonChavanafromBalligavi
werethearchitectsofChennakesavaTempleatBelurKedarojawasthechiefarchitectofthe
HoysaleswaraTempleatHalebidu.[22]TheirinfluenceisseeninothertemplesbuiltbytheHoysalasas
well.NamesofotherlocalsfoundininscriptionsareMaridamma,Baicoja,Caudaya,Nanjayaand
Bama,[22][66]Malloja,Nadoja,Siddoja,[67]Masanithamma,ChameyaandRameya.ArtistsfromTamil
countryincludedPallavachariandCholavachari.[68]

ListofnotabletemplesfromtheHoysalaera

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Kadambashikara(tower)withKalasa
(pinnacle)ontopatLakshmiDevi
Temple,Doddagaddavalli

Piercedstonewindowscreensat
Somanathapura

Stellateplanofshrinein
ChennakeshavaTemple,
Aralaguppe,Karnataka

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoysala_architecture

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Name

Location

Period

King

Deity

Lakshmidevi[69][70]

Doddagaddavalli 1113

Vishnuvardhana

Lakshmi

Chennakesava[71][72]

Belur

1117

Vishnuvardhana

Vishnu

Hoysaleswara[73][74]

Halebidu

1120

Vishnuvardhana

Shiva

Basadicomplex[74][75]

Halebidu

1133

Vishnuvardhana

Parshvanatha

Rameshvara[76][77]

Koodli

12thc. Vishnuvardhana

Shiva

Brahmeshwara[76][78]

Kikkeri

1171

NarasimhaI

Shiva

Bucheshvara[79][76]

Koravangala

1173

VeeraBallalaII

Shiva

AkkanaBasadi[80][81]

Shravanabelagola 1181

VeeraBallalaII

Parshvanatha

Amruteshwara[82][83]

Amruthapura

1196

VeeraBallalaII

Shiva

Shantinatha[76]

Jinanathapura

1200

VeeraBallalaII

Shantinatha

Nageshvara[84][85]

Mosale

1200

VeeraBallalaII

Shiva,Vishnu

Veeranarayana[86][87]

Belavadi

1200

VeeraBallalaII

Vishnu

Kedareshwara[88][74]

Halebidu

1200

VeeraBallalaII

Shiva

Ishvara(Shiva)[89][90]

Arsikere

1220

VeeraBallalaII

Shiva

Harihareshwara[91][92]

Harihar

1224

ViraNarasimhaII Shiva,Vishnu

Mallikarjuna[93][87]

Basaralu

1234

ViraNarasimhaII Shiva

Someshvara[94][91]

Haranhalli

1235

ViraSomeshwara Shiva

Lakshminarasimha[94][91]

Haranhalli

1235

ViraSomeshwara Vishnu

Panchalingeshwara[95][96]

Govindanhalli

1238

ViraSomeshwara Shiva

Lakshminarasimha[97][98]

Nuggehalli

1246

ViraSomeshwara Vishnu

Sadashiva[97][98]

Nuggehalli

1249

ViraSomeshwara Shiva

Lakshminarayana[99][100]

Hosaholalu

1250

ViraSomeshwara Vishnu

Lakshminarasimha[101][102] Javagallu

1250

ViraSomeshwara Vishnu

Chennakesava[103][90]

Aralaguppe

1250

ViraSomeshwara Vishnu

Kesava[104][105]

Somanathapura

1268

NarasimhaIII

Vishnu

Seealso
IndianArchitecture
Vijayanagaraarchitecture
BadamiChalukyaArchitecture
WesternChalukyaArchitecture

Notes
1.Hardy(1995),pp243245
2.Foekema(1996),p47,p59,p87
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoysala_architecture

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3.Hardy(1995),p320,p321,p324,p325,p329,p332,p334,p339,p340,p346
4.Foekema(1996),p53,p37,p71,p81,p41,p43,p83
5.PercyBrowninKamath(2001),p134
6.Hardy(1995),p244
7.Hardy(1995),pp67,sectionIntroductionDynastiesandPeriods
8.Foekema(2003),p18
9.Foekema(1996),pp1920,chapterThededicationsandnamesoftemples
10.Hardy(1995),p245
11.Kamath(2001),p132
12.Foekema(1996),p19
13.SettarS."HoysalaHeritage".Frontline,Volume20Issue08,April1225,2003.Frontline,Fromthe
publishersoftheHindu.Retrieved20061113.
14.Foekema(1996),p1920
15.Kamath(2001),p134
16.Kamath(2001),pp112,132
17.Foekema(1996),plate27
18.Foekema(1996),p31,chapter:Recognizingthemostimportantdeities
19.Foekema(1996),p32,chapter:Recognizingthemostimportantdeities
20.Foekema(1996),p21
21.Kamath(2001),p136
22.Kamath(2001),p135
23.Foekema(1996),p25
24.Arthikaje."HistoryofKarnatakaReligion,Literature,ArtandArchitectureinHoysalaEmpire".19982000
OurKarnataka.Com,Inc.Archivedfromtheoriginalon20061104.Retrieved20061113.
25.TheHoysaleswarashrineandtheShantaleswarashrineintheHoysaleswaraTempleinHalebiduareexamples.
(Foekema1996,p59)
26.Foekema(1996),p25,p57,section:DoddaGadduvalli
27.Hardy(1995),p246
28.Foekema(1996),pp2223
29.Sastri(1955),p428
30.Abayisasquareorrectangularcompartmentinthehall(Foekema1996,p93)
31.Thisisalsocalled"crossinsquare"styleandisnotasquare(Foekema,1996,p22)
32.GithaU.B.(May11,2004)."Here,thepastunfoldsitselfinallitsglory&mightHoyasalaarchitecturein
Somanathapura".DeccanHerald.Chitralakshana.Retrieved20061113.
33.ThefourpillarsandninebaysofaclosedmantapaisanorminHoysalatemples(Foekema1996,p22)
34.Kamath(2001),p135
35.Itiscalleda"nose"becauseitlookslikeanextensionofthemaintower(Foekema1996,p22)
36.ThisisacommonfeatureofWesternChalukyaHoysalatemples:(Kamath2001,p117)
37.ItispossiblethattheHoysalasencourageddifferentgroupsofartiststoexecutepillarsandthesegroupsmay
havebeenincompetitiontoproduceuniquepillars,(Sastri1955,p429)
38.Arthikaje."ArchitectureinHoysalaEmpire".19982000OurKarnataka.Com,Inc.Archivedfromtheoriginal
on20061104.Retrieved20061228.
39.BrowninKamath(2001),p135
40.Sastri(1955),p429
41.Sometimesatrikutamaynotliterallymean"threetowers",asonlythecentralshrinehasatower(Foekema
1996,p25)
42.Hardy(1995),p245
43.Foekema(1996),p25
44.Foekema(1996),p81,section:Mosale
45.Foekema(1996),p27
46.Foekema(1996),p22,p28,section:Theplanofthetemples
47.undertheprojectingroofoverhangingthewall(Foekema1996,p93)
48.Kamath(2001),p134
49.ArtcriticPercyBrowncallsthisoneofthedistinguishingfeaturesofHoysalaart.(Kamath2001,p134)
50.Hardy(1995),p245
51.Sastri(1955),pp428429Foekema(1996),pp2829Kamath(2001),p135
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoysala_architecture

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HoysalaarchitectureWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

52.SettarS."HoysalaHeritage".Frontline,Volume20Issue08,April1225,2003.Frontline,Fromthe
publishersoftheHindu.Retrieved20061113.
53.Theepicfriezeisthemostexcitingfeatureoftheirsculptures(Foekema1996,p29)
54.SettarS."HoysalaHeritage".Frontline,Volume20Issue08,April1225,2003.Frontline,Fromthe
publishersoftheHindu.Retrieved20061113.
55.Foekema(1996),p29
56.Thapar,Binda(2004).IntroductiontoIndianArchitecture.Singapore:PeriplusEditions.p.69.ISBN07946
00115.
57.1,500templesin958centreswerebuilt,accordingtohistoricalrecords,between10001346CE.SettarS.
"HoysalaHeritage".Frontline,Volume20Issue08,April1225,2003.Frontline,Fromthepublishersof
theHindu.Retrieved20061113.
58.AccordingtoPercyBrown,Hoysalaarchitectureandsculpturehavebeencalleda"phenomenaleffortof
humanconcentration,skillandreligiousconsciousness"(PercyBrowninKamath2001,p134)
59.Kamath(2001)p136
60.KamiyaTakeo."ArchitectureoftheIndianSubcontinent,1996".ArchitectureAutonomous,Bardez,Goa,
India.GerarddaCunha.Retrieved20061113.TheWesternChalukyacarvingsweredoneingreenschist
(soapstone),atechniqueadoptedbytheHoysalas
61.ThemostprominentfeatureofKadambaarchitectureistheirshikhara,called"Kadambashikhara".The
shikharaispyramidshapedandrisesinstepswithoutanydecorationandhasastupikaorkalashaonthetop
(Kamath2001,p38)
62.Sastri(1955),p429
63.Raghavendra,Srinidhi."Inneedofsupport".DeccanHerald,Spectrum,Tuesday,August9,2005.Deccan
Herald.Retrieved20061113.
64.GithaU.B.(May11,2004)."Here,thepastunfoldsitselfinallitsglory&mightHoyasalaarchitecturein
Somanathapura".DeccanHerald.Chitralakshana.Retrieved20061113.
65.PremkumarP.B.(January20,2004)."Architecturalmarvel".Spectrum,DeccanHerald.DeccanHerald.
ArchivedfromtheoriginalonJanuary22,2008.Retrieved20061113.
66.Sastri(1955),p299
67.Chandragutti,Raghavendra(January25,2005)."Aglimpseofthelostgrandeur".Spectrum,DeccanHerald.
DeccanHerald.Retrieved20061113.
68.GithaU.B.(May11,2004)."Here,thepastunfoldsitselfinallitsglory&mightHoyasalaarchitecturein
Somanathapura".DeccanHerald.Retrieved20061113.
69.Foekema(1996),p57
70.Hardy(1995),p326
71.Foekema(1996),p47
72.Hardy(1995),p325
73.Foekema(1996),p59
74.Hardy(1995),p329
75."ParsvanathaBasti".ArchaeologicalSurveyofIndia,BengaluruCircle.ASIBengaluruCircle.Retrieved
15August2015.
76.Hardy(1995),p334
77."RameshvaraTemple".ArchaeologicalSurveyofIndia,BengaluruCircle.ASIBengaluruCircle.Retrieved
15August2015.
78.Foekema(2003),p59,p72
79.Foekema(1996),p77
80.Hardy(1995),p343
81.Foekema(2003),p37
82.Foekema(1996),p37
83.Hardy(1995),p320
84.Foekema(1996),p81
85.Hardy(1995),p339
86.Foekema(1996),p53
87.Hardy(1995),p324
88.Foekema(1996),pp6263
89.Foekema(1996),p41
90.Hardy(1995),p321
91.Hardy(1995),p331
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoysala_architecture

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92.Cousens(1926),p93
93.Foekema(1996),p43
94.Foekema(1996),p67
95.Hardy(1995),p328
96."PanchalingeshvaraTemple".ArchaeologicalSurveyofIndia,BengaluruCircle.ASIBengaluruCircle.
Retrieved15August2015.
97.Foekema(1996),p83
98.Hardy(1995),p340
99.Foekema(1996),p71
100.Hardy(1995),p332
101.Foekema(1996),p73
102.Hardy(1995),p333
103.Foekema(1996),p39
104.Foekema(1996),p87
105.Hardy(1995),p346

References
Book

WikimediaCommonshas
mediarelatedto
ArchitectureoftheHoysala
Empire.

Cousens,Henry(1996)[1926].TheChalukyanArchitectureof
KanareseDistricts.NewDelhi:ArchaeologicalSurveyofIndia.
OCLC37526233.
Foekema,Gerard(1996).CompleteGuidetoHoysalaTemples.
NewDelhi:Abhinav.ISBN8170173450.
Foekema,Gerard(2003)[2003].Architecturedecoratedwitharchitecture:Latermedievaltemplesof
Karnataka,10001300AD.NewDelhi:MunshiramManoharlalPublishersPvt.Ltd.ISBN8121510899.
Hardy,Adam(1995)[1995].IndianTempleArchitecture:FormandTransformation:theKaraDrvia
Tradition,7thto13thCenturies.NewDelhi:Abhinav.ISBN8170173124.
Kamath,SuryanathU.(2001)[1980].AconcisehistoryofKarnataka:fromprehistorictimestothepresent.
Bangalore:Jupiterbooks.LCCN80905179.OCLC7796041.
Sastry,K.A.Nilakanta(2002)[1955].AhistoryofSouthIndiafromprehistorictimestothefallof
Vijayanagar.NewDelhi:IndianBranch,OxfordUniversityPress.ISBN0195606868.

Web
SettarS."Hoysalaheritage".historyandcraftsmanshipofBelurandHalebidtemples.Frontline.Retrieved
20061113.
"MonumentsofBangaloreCircle".ArchaeologicalSurveyofIndia,BengaluruCircle.ASIBengaluruCircle.
Retrieved15August2015.
Arthikaje."ArchitectureinHoysalaEmpire".Historyofkarnataka.OurKarnataka.Com.Archivedfromthe
originalonNovember4,2006.Retrieved20061113.
KamiyaTakeo."ArchitectureofIndianSubcontinent".IndianArchitecture.ArchitectureAutonomous.
Retrieved20061113.
Ragavendra,Srinidhi."Inneedofsupport".Spectrum.Retrieved20061113.
GithaU.B."HoyasalaarchitectureinSomanathapura".HistoryofIndianart.chitralakshana.Archivedfrom
theoriginalon20070403.Retrieved20061113.
Hardy,Adam."IndianTempleArchitecture:FormandTransformationTheKarnataDravidaTradition7thto
13thCenturies".ArtHistory58:358362.JSTOR3250027.
Premakumar,B.P."Architecturalmarvel".DeccanHerald.Spectrum.Retrieved20061112.

Retrievedfrom

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ArchitectureofKarnataka
(345topresent)
Kadambaarchitecturesynthesisofseveralschools
(345to525)
Dravidianarchitecture(WesternGangaDynasty)
(350to550)
BadamiChalukyaarchitectureortheVesarastyle
(543to753)
Dravidian&RekhanagaraarchitectureofRashtrakutas
(753to973)
WesternChalukyaarchitecture(Gadagstyleofarchitecture)
(1000and1200)
HoysalaarchitectureoftheHoysalaEmpire
(1100and1400)
VijayanagaraarchitectureoftheVijayanagarEmpire
(1336to1648)
IslamicarchitectureofBijapurSultanate
(1490to1686)
KeladiNayakaarchitectureoftheNayakakingdoms
(14991763)
ArchitectureofKingdomofMysore
BlendsofHindu,Muslim,Rajput,andGothicstylesofarchitecture
(1399to1947)
IndoSarcenicandMuslimarchitectureofTippuSultan
(1780)
BuddhistViharas,TibetanCulture&TibetanarchitectureatBylakuppe
(1953topresent)
SikharchitectureofBidar&Bangalore
(1512topresent)
NeoGothicchurcharchitecture
(1933to1956)
NeoDravidianarchitecture
(1947topresent)

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