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New

Level of Service
Concept

IATA & ACI | 2014

NEW Airport Level of Service Concept

New Airport Development Reference Manual


In March 2014, IATA in collaboration with ACI and other key aviation industry
stakeholders released the 10th Edition of the Airport Development Reference
Manual (ADRM).
The ADRM brings together aviation industry best practices with respect to the
development of world-class airports.

It is recognized as one of the aviation industry's


most important guides for airport development
(be it the planning of new airports or extending
existing airport infrastructure).
Its content represents the consolidated
recommendations of world-renowned industry
specialists and organizations seeking to promote the
development of sustainable and efficient
world-class airport facilities.
IATA & ACI | 2014

NEW Airport Level of Service Concept

Level of Service Concept


The concept of Level of Service (LoS) is an aggregated guidance framework for the
planning of new terminal facilities as well as for monitoring the operational service
performance of existing facilities.
The previous LoS framework primarily specified the minimum space to be
provided for each passenger (area/PAX) at various terminal sub-systems.
The LoS parameters can vary from one sub-system to the other, e.g. the space
requirement for a specific LoS at passport control is different from the
requirement at check-in.

ADRM 9th Edition Previous Level of Service Concept

The LoS concept is also often used for performance comparisons or as a


benchmark that determines whether contractual obligations of airport owners,
operators and/or third party service providers are being met.
IATA & ACI | 2014

NEW Airport Level of Service Concept

NEW Level of Service Concept


In the new ADRM, the LoS framework has been completely revised to better
reflect both:
The dynamic nature of terminal operations and throughput; and
The intention of increasing infrastructure efficiency.
When planning terminal processing facilities and corresponding passenger queuing
areas, TWO important variables jointly dictate the new LoS:
SPACE

MAXIMUM WAITING TIME

The new LoS concept consists of FOUR categories:


UNDER-PROVIDED
SUB-OPTIMUM
OPTIMUM
OVER-DESIGN
IATA & ACI | 2014

NEW Airport Level of Service Concept

NEW Level of Service Concept


The new LoS framework is reflected in a space-time concept to be used for
defining the LoS at processing facilities and corresponding waiting areas.
The space axis defines the amount of space available per occupant.
The time axis denotes the
maximum waiting time for
passengers in queue.

IATA & ACI | 2014

NEW Airport Level of Service Concept

Level of Service Concept


COMPARISON
Previous LoS Concept
Level
Category

New LoS Concept


Overdesign

A (excellent comfort)
B (high comfort)
C (good comfort)
D (adequate comfort)
E (inadequate comfort)
F (unacceptable comfort)

Optimum
Sub-Optimum
Under-Provided

Main

Service levels defined based on

Service levels defined based on the combination of both

Criteria

provided Space per Passenger

provided Space per Passenger AND

Maximum waiting times are provided as rather


general guidance without a clear link to LoS
categories.

Maximum Waiting Time

The intention of providing passengers with an


excellent LoS (A) often resulted in terminal
facilities that are:

The new LoS concept now clearly targets the provision of


OPTIMUM facilities, meaning:

Rationale

Tremendously oversized during regular


operational periods

Sufficient space to accommodate necessary functions in


a comfortable environment
Acceptable processing and waiting times

Inefficient and costly infrastructure


IATA & ACI | 2014

NEW Airport Level of Service Concept

NEW Level of Service Concept


The general objective of the new LoS philosophy is the provision of OPTIMUM
passenger facilities, avoiding over- or underproviding.
Terminal facilities that are operating at an OPTIMUM LoS
provide sufficient space to accommodate necessary functions in a comfortable
environment;
provide stable passenger flows with acceptable processing and waiting times;
denote overall good service (comfort level) to passengers while keeping CAPEX
and OPEX at a reasonable level; and
balance economic terminal dimensions with passenger expectations.
IATA & ACI | 2014

NEW Airport Level of Service Concept

NEW Level of Service Concept


The approach to LoS has also been modified to better reflect the current aviation
market from a global perspective. Different regions, countries and markets require
modification of the airport environment to match their service needs.
Therefore, the new updated parameters for LoS will now reflect a range of values
for space and maximum waiting time to allow an airport to tailor its service level to
the market and region it serves. The appropriate LoS value should always be
established in consultation with all stakeholders, including the airport's airline
community, airport management and other service providers.
The following table provides an excerpt from the specific LoS guidelines for airport
terminal facilities to be used:
In order to identify the new LoS categories or
When undertaking a capacity/demand or LoS analysis.

IATA & ACI | 2014

NEW Airport Level of Service Concept

NEW Level of Service Parameters


SPACE STANDARDS
2
FOR WAITING AREAS (m /pax)

WAITING TIME STANDARDS


FOR PROCESSING FACILITIES (Minutes)

WAITING TIME STANDARDS


FOR PROCESSING FACILITIES (Minutes)

Economy Class

Business Class / First Class

Passenger Terminal Sub-System


ADRM 10th Edition

Public Departure Hall


Check-in

Self-Service Boarding Pass / Tagging


Bag Drop Desk
(queue width 1.4 - 1.6 m)

Over design

Optimum

Sub Optimum

Over design

Optimum

Sub Optimum

Over design

Optimum

Sub Optimum

>2.3

1.2 - 1.7

<2.0

>1.8

1.3 - 1.8

<1.3

<1

1-2

>2

<1

1-2

>3

>1.8

1.3 - 1.8

<1.3

<1

1-5

>5

<1

1-3

>3

Business Class Check-in Desk


Check-in Desk
(queue width: 1.4 - 1.6 m)

>1.8

1.3 - 1.8

<1.3

<10

10 - 20

>20

<3

3-5

>5

First Class Check-in Desk


<1

1-3

>3

Fast Track

Security Checkpoint
(queue width: 1.2 m)

>1.2

Emigration (Passport Control)


(queue width: 1.2 m)

1.0 - 1.2

<1.0

<5

5 - 10

>10

<1

1-3

>3

Fast Track
>1.2

1.0 - 1.2

<1.0

<5

5 - 10

>10

<1

1-3

>3

For reference purposes, the table also includes former equivalents from
the previous LoS concept (as per ADRM, 9th Edition).
Seating

Boarding
Gate
Lounge

>1.7

1.5 - 1.7

<1.5

>1.2

1.0 - 1.2

<1.0

>1.2

1.0 - 1.2

<1.0

Standing

Immigration (Passport Control)


(queue width: 1.2 m)

Fast Track
<5

Baggage Claim Area

5 - 10

>10

<1

First passenger to first bag

1-5

>5

First passenger to first bag

Narrow Body

>1.7

1.5 - 1.7

<1.5

<1

1 - 15

>15

Wide Body

>1.7

1.5 - 1.7

<1.5

<1

1 - 25

>25

>1.7

1.2 - 1.7

<1.2

<1

1 - 15

> 15

n.b. Priority bags to be delivered before Economy


Public Arrival Hall

IATA & ACI | 2014

NEW Airport Level of Service Concept

IATA & ACI Consulting Services


Experts from IATA and ACI can professionally assist with a wide range of services
around the previous and new LoS framework:

LoS training: Coaching on the new LoS concept and its correct application.
LoS assessment study: Analysis of the current LoS within the passenger
terminal, complemented by recommendations for improvements.

Capacity/Demand study: Comprehensive technical assessment and analysis of


the future facility requirements for various passenger facilities (processing /
holding / circulation)
Modification of existing Service Level Agreements (SLA): Technical
assistance for adjusting previous LoS specifications (within concession contracts
or SLAs) to the new system.

IATA & ACI | 2014

NEW Airport Level of Service Concept

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Why IATA & ACI ?

Airport industry standards: With the ADRM, IATA & ACI define airport industry standards and guidance materials that
are commonly recognized and applied globally. The ADRM is the most comprehensive manual for all aspects of airport
planning, capacity definition and facilities design. The latest Edition includes new provisions for the Level of Service
concept which is a main criterion for developing passenger terminal facilities or for assessing the provided performance.
IATA & ACI are the originators of the airport-related LoS concept and therefore understands best how to correctly apply
the LoS system.

Comprehensive subject matter expertise: IATA & ACI have played a key role in the aviation industry for decades.
During this time, our experts have gained extensive experience in elaborating the multiple LoS studies for small regional
airports to big international hubs. Our expert team has hands-on knowledge about international airport planning standards
& best practices and can effectively adapt the LoS concept to specific local requirements.

Easy stakeholder access and consultation: As the global representative and trade association of the airline and airport
industries, IATA & ACI have direct access to their members. Having straightforward access is essential for collecting
critical inputs (such as actual processing times, waiting time expectations etc.) when it comes to carrying out studies
about the LoS.

Neutral: The evaluation process and recommendations pertaining to LoS will be fair and unbiased to ensure achieving
the best possible solutions for the whole airport community.

Essential planning tools: Our experts use advanced planning tools such as simulation in order to support all kinds of
LoS-related studies. Especially in case the analysis requires the detailed assessment of future facility requirements or
when the operations have major implications, a dynamic simulation tool is essential to derive precise results.

IATA & ACI | 2014

NEW Airport Level of Service Concept

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Contact Information

International Air Transport Association


800 Place Victoria,
P.O. Box 113
Montral, Qubec H4Z 1M1
Canada

Airports Council International World


800 Place Victoria, Suite 1810,
P.O. Box 302
Montral, Qubec H4Z 1G8
Canada

www.iata.org/consulting
consulting@iata.org

www.aci.aero
aci@aci.aero

IATA & ACI | 2014

NEW Airport Level of Service Concept

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