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TriangleWaveGenerator

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2July2009
Author:GiorgosLazaridis

Another feature that this circuit can provide is that it


generates square pulses as well. Although this is not the reason
that this circuit is designed and there are much better ways to
generaterectangularpulses,youcanusethemfromthiscircuitas
theyareinphasewiththetrianglewave.

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TriangleWaveGenerator
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Thisisaverysimpleandyetusefulcircuitforgenerating
triangle wave. It can be used for many applications where a
medium+ preciseness triangle waveform is required. It can also
generate nonsymmetrical waveforms making it also useful in
audioapplications

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Electrolytic

Triangle wave oscillator

Capacitors
CapacitorSize

TypesOf
Capacitors
Ceramic
Capacitors
Power
Capacitors
PrintedCircuit
1:07 / 1:30

www.pcbheaven.com

Board

DCCapacitors

Thecircuit
LEDHome

Followingisthecircuitdiagram:

Lighting
Electronic
ProjectIdeas

HOTinheaven!

Itisdesignedtooperateunder5Volts,butdifferentvoltagescanbeappliedaswell,taking
inaccountthemaximumoperationvoltageoftheOPAMPS.
Thetwoopampscurrentlyusedaretheknown741chips.DifferentOPAmpscanbeused
aswell,andalsodualchipsforsimplicity.TherightOPAmpwilloperateasanintegratorandthe
left as a comparator. When power is given to the circuit, the comparator drives it's output HIGH.
ThissignalisdriventotheintegratorthroughtheresistorR.ThecapacitorCthenstartstocharge
graduallywithRCtimeconstant.Whilethecapacitorischarging,theoutputoftheintegratorisalso
http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

Warning:ErrorwhilesendingQUERYpacket.PID=7907in
/home/pcbhea6/public_html/m_pages/new_in_heaven.php
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TriangleWaveGenerator

taken to it's low state with the same rate. When the positive input of the comparator, through the
voltagedividerthatthe47Kand100Kresistorsperform,isdrivenlowenough,thenitchangesstate,
andtheintegratorstartsoperatingviceversa.
It is easily understood that the frequency of oscillation will only have to do with the RC
standard.Thatistrue.AhalfcycleperiodisexactlytheresultoftheRxC.Afullcycleistwicethis
amount.Therefore,thefrequencyis:

FOSC=

1
2xRxC

In our test circuit, the R resistor is 22K and the C capacitor is 100nF. The oscillation
frequencywouldbe:

FOSC=

1
2x22x103x100x109

And that would make 227,27Hz approximately. In real life, the frequency measured was
about218Hz.Thisisarathersmall(tiny)differencebetweenthetheoreticalandthepracticalvalue,
consideringthattheresistorshave5%accuracyandsodoesthecapacitoraswell.

EliminationtheDCvoltagefromtheoutput
If you watch the output signal in a oscilloscope, then you will notice that the triangle
waveformisaboveofthezerovoltage.TheoffsetiscausedbyDCvoltage.Inordertoeliminatethis
voltageshift,youshouldaddacapacitorinseriestothecircuit.Thevalueofthecapacitorshouldbe
chosenaccordinttotheoscillationfrequencyofthecircuit.Forlowfrequencies,1100Hz,a4.7uF
to 10uF would work just fine. Above you should consider using smaller capacitors. A wrong
capacitorselectionwouldcausesignaldistortionandsometimeswilladdsignificantresistancetothe
output.Thefollowingcircuitdemonstratesthepreviouscircuitwithaseriescapacitor.

Andtheresultsofthiscircuitareasfollows:

As you can see, the waveform right after the capacitor is slightly above the zero voltage,
wherethewaveformbeforethecapacitorisseveralvoltagesabove,duetotheDCvoltageshift.Now
theoutputiseasiertobeused.

Furtheramplification
http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

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Duetothenatureoftrianglewaveformsandtheirapplications,mostofthetimesthesignal
should be as high as possible, reaching up to the supply's voltage. For that and to be our circuit
presentation complete, we have add a signal amplifier using a 2N2222 transistor. The transistor is
connected right after the DC cutoff capacitor (naturally) and is fixedbiased with commonemitter
connection:

Let's take a look now to the oscilloscope for the results. I chose to show 3 channels
simultaneously, all at the same ground level and all with the same amplitude division, so that the
differencesareclear:

Thedifferenceisclearnow.Theyellowwaveformistheoutputoftheintegrator.Asyoucan
see,thelowestpointofthetriangleisatabout2.4Vabovezero,andthehighestisat4volts(1.6Vp
p).ThegreenwaveformcomesrightaftertheDCcutoffcapacitor.Almostwiththesameamplitude
(1.4Vpp),thiswaveform'slowestpointistouchingthezeroline.Finally,thebluewaveform.This
istheoutputofthetransistor.Itstartsfromzeroto5volts(5Vpp).Noticealsothatthiswaveformis
inverted in comparison to the others and that is because the transistor amplifier is an inverting
amplifier.
Nowthatyouknowtheoutputs,youcanchoosethecircuitofyourwill!

Adjustingthecircuit

Generatingnonsymmetrical

You may have already


noticethistrickytrimmeronthe
bottomleftcornerofthecircuit.
This
is
the
symmetry
adjustment. It is most possible
thethecircuitwillnotoscillate
bythetimeyoupoweriton!!!
That would be normal. You
need to adjust the symmetry at

http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

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TriangleWaveGenerator

waveforms

first.

If you have an oscilloscope, the symmetry can be fine


adjusted with a straightforward method. Just put your probe on
the integrator or the transistor output and turn the trimmer, until
yougetanicetriangularwaveform.Youmayalsoliketohavea
sawtooth like waveform, right edge or left edge. This can be
adjusted by the trimmer. For large changes, you should consider
changingthe47Kresistor,otherwisethecircuitshallnotoscillate.

Adjustingthecircuitwithout
anoscilloscope

For those who does not


own an oscilloscope, i have
Howtogetonechannelof
some good news. A pair of PC
speakers would be your probe youroldPCspeakersjackand
useitasaprobe
for the moment. Connect one
Youshouldconnectthe
channel of the speaker right
speakerchannelrightafterthe after the capacitor and the ground of the speakers connect it to
DCcutoffcapacitor
zero. DO NOT CONNECT THEM AFTER THE
TRANSISTORORBEFORETHECAPACITOR!Icouldnot
predicttheresults.Then,turnthemonwiththevolumeat1/6.Startrotatingthetrimmer.According
to the oscillation frequency that you have chosen, you will hear an audio signal like a "beep" or
"booooooo" or something similar. Continue rotating the potentiometer. The signal will become
louder and louder. After a while, the signal will start loosing intensity and become weaker. The
positionwherethesignalhadtheloudestsound,istheonethatthetriangularwaveformhasthemost
equalsidedform.

Alasttrick
Ithasbeenalreadymentionedthatthiscircuitcangenerate
rectangular pulses as well. This is not the reason of creation
though.Therearebetteroscillatorsforthisreason.Nevertheless,if
youneedsquarepulsesinphasewiththetriangularwaveform,the
circuitcanprovidethesetoyou.
The rectangular pulses are taken directly from the output
of the comparator OPAmp. That would be the left one in our
circuit.The pulses have almost thesameamplitude asthe power
supply. They have just a little bit voltage shift that most of the
times does not cause any troubles. If there is a problem, a DC
cutoffcapacitorwillsolveit.

Therectangularpulsesare
NOTinvertedincomparison
tothetriangularwaveform
takenfromthetransistor
invertingamplifier

You should keep in mind that the rectangular pulses are


invertedincomparisontothetriangularwaveform.Thismeanthat
when the triangular waveform is at it's most high level, the rectangular pulse is reaching zero and
viceversa.Butifyoucomparethemtothetriangularwaveformtakenfromthetransistoramplifier,
then you will notice that they are NOT inverted, and that is because the transistor performs an
invertingamplifier.

Relativepages
Basictransistorcircuits
Thetransistortheoryofoperation
Thevoltagedividertheory
OpAmpICPinouts
Dr.Calculus:OpAmpinvertingamplifiercalculator
Dr.Calculus:OpAmpnoninvertingamplifiercalculator
Dr.Calculus:Standardresistorvaluescalculator
Dr.Calculus:Voltagedividercalculator

Comments
Name
Email(shallnotbepublished)

http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

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TriangleWaveGenerator

Website

Notifymeofnewpostsviaemail

Writeyourcommentsbelow:

BEFOREyoupostacomment:Youarewelcometocommentforcorrectionsandsuggestions
onthispage.Butifyouhavequestionspleaseusetheforuminsteadtopostit.Thankyou.

Submityourcomment

At16June2015,14:53:41userKennethwrote:[reply@Kenneth]
Nice,Thankyou:)

At10July2014,17:32:02usercerenewrote:[reply@cerene]
itisverygoodlesson,ilearnedalotfromit.thanksmuch.

At17May2014,5:16:04userRichardAndersonwrote:[reply@RichardAnderson]
Ihavebeenlookingforawaytoreplacethetransistoroutputstagewithanopamp.Iknow
Icouldmesswiththegaintogetfullvoltage,aboutthreelooksclosebutIwouldprefer
thattheoutputstagebeproportionalwithoutneedingadjustment.

At11April2014,8:50:26userErfanwrote:[reply@Erfan]
iamsofrustratedBecauseeverytimeitryingtofixmycircuit,igetmorefrustratedandiam
notgettingsucceed.
canyoupleasegivemeaschematicthatworksproperlywithLM393?

At30March2014,12:27:37userramwrote:[reply@ram]
guyzhelpmetobuildacircuittoconvert230vacto230vtriangularwave

At12October2013,8:19:45userGiorgosLazaridiswrote:[reply@GiorgosLazaridis]
@mikecheckthespecificationsofthescope,for20KHz

At10October2013,14:21:10usermikewrote:[reply@mike]
Willapcscopeusingsoundcardwork

At9October2013,9:53:08userGiorgosLazaridiswrote:[reply@GiorgosLazaridis]
@michealItsaprototypecircuitforlearning,notaproduct,soyouneedtoconfigureit
yourselfwithanoscilloscope

At9October2013,7:11:23usermichealwrote:[reply@micheal]
PlsIneedtobuilda50006000Hztrianglewaveoscillatingbetween0and12v(peakto
peakis12vsincethatisthesupplyvoltage).
WithsomanypeoplecomplainingamconfusedastowhichtransistorIshouldusesoasto
ensurethatthetriangleisperfect.
IamusingR=10kandC=10nf.plsanyadviceonthetransistoramplificationsothatthe
triangledoesnotgetskewedorsomething.
http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

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Ineedittobeperfect12vpeaktopeak.idon'thaveanoscilloscopesoitmakesmywork
harderasIwouldhaveexperimentedmyselfbutmaybesomeonehastestedandconfirmed
it.thanks

At2October2013,11:51:42userShadrackwrote:[reply@Shadrack]
Thankyouverymuchforthetriangularwavegeneratorcircuit.Itworksperfectlywell.I've
beentryingoutothercircuitsIgotfromtheinternetasIneededtouseitforaswitchmode
powersupply(myfirstever)&theydidn'twork,exceptforyourswhichproducedsuch
incrediblycleanwavesIwasmorethanamazed.Thispostissimplytosaythankyoufor
yourefforts,theyareextremelyappreciatedbymyselfMrGiorgosLazaridis.

At9July2013,8:35:11userKboywrote:[reply@Kboy]
@GiorgosLazaridis
Bytheway,Iusedaclampingdiode,connectedtothecapacitor,andadiodeandhigh
valueresistorbetweencapacitorandoutput.Nowihaveaperfecttriangle,goingfrom0,3
to4,95V.
Greets!
K

At9July2013,8:24:49userKboywrote:[reply@Kboy]
@Ems
Hi,youprobablyhaveVCChookeduptothevoltagedivider.
VCCneedstobeconnectedtothefull5V,VCCtoground.
Inputoftheleftopampandinputoftherightopampneedtobeconnectedtothevoltage
divider,meaning2,5V.
Doyouhaveapictureorsketchofyourcircuit?
Greets!
K

At3July2013,12:21:17userEmswrote:[reply@Ems]
I'vetriedbuildingthecircuitonabreadboardbutitdoesntoscillateatall.Ihaveasteady
2.5Voutput.I'dappreciateanysuggestionsastowhereI'mgoingwrong.Manythanks

At16June2013,14:50:42userGiorgosLazaridiswrote:[reply@GiorgosLazaridis]
@KboyGoingnegativeisnormalbecauseyouprobablyusebigcapacitor.Tryasmaller
onesay470nF...

At16June2013,14:43:34userKboywrote:[reply@Kboy]
@GiorgosLazaridis
Notexactly...withoutcapacitoritfloatsaround6,57Vwiththesame5Vamplitude.I'lltry
witha2N3904orF245Ctomorrow.Orarethereotheroptions?
Ididn'twanttouseatransistoractually,butifitseemstobetheonlysolution,ohwell,so
beit.:o)
Ijustdon'tunderstandwhythevoltagecangonegativeafterthecapacitor...
Thanksinadvance!

At16June2013,13:21:17userGiorgosLazaridiswrote:[reply@GiorgosLazaridis]
@KboySinceyouusearailtorail,trywithoutthecapacitor.Itgos0toV?

At16June2013,9:53:55userKboywrote:[reply@Kboy]
http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

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TriangleWaveGenerator

Hi,
Lotsofthanksforthistutorial.veryhelpful.
I'mjusthavingoneproblem:
IbuiltthiscircuitwithaTL082railtorailopamp.
Thepurposewastomakea25kHztrianglewavewithanoutputgoingfrom0to5volts.I
triedthatwitha12VcomputerPSUasasource.
Everythinglooksgreatandisworking,butwithacapacitorinserieswiththeoutputofthe
2ndopamp(tryingtocreateawavelikethegreenoneinyourscope),thetrianglewave
goesfrom2,5Vto2,5Vinsteadof0to5V...I'verebuilditoverandoveragainwith
differentresistorsandall,buttonoavail.
I'mlosthere,Idon'tunderstand.AmIdoingsomethingwrong?
Thanksinadvance,
K

At1May2013,22:40:05userMartinswrote:[reply@Martins]
Ilovethissiteandyouhuysaredoingagreatjob.
IamusingNIMultisimtosimulatethiscircuit.buticangetittooscillate.Allihaveisa
singlelineasmyoutputforbothOPAMP.Pleaseineedhelp.ifyouhaveacopyofthis
circuitthathasbeensimulatedviamultisimoranyothersimulator,canyousenditviamy
mail....soicanseewhereiammissingsomething.
Believeme,ihavetriedeverysuggestionmadeonthiscommentpage....
Thanksforyourkindresponse.

At23March2013,22:00:17userGiorgosLazaridiswrote:[reply@GiorgosLazaridis]
@Markusthoughihaven'ttriedit,isupposeyes.

At17March2013,16:50:38userMarkuswrote:[reply@Markus]
Hello!
Iwouldliketothanktheauthorofthistutorial!Thankyou!GreattutorialthatIwillhave
gooduseof.
Onequestionthough.SaythatIusetworailtorailOPampsinstead,andremovethe
transistorwithitsbiasresistorsandcapacitor.AfterthatIchangethe47kresistorbetween
thetwoOPampstoonejustunder100kohm,say82k.
Wouldn'tthatincreasetheamplitudeofthetrianglewavecomingoutfromthesecondOP
ampclosetothe5Vinput?Thusgivingcloselythesameresultasusingthetransistor?
Thanks!
//Markus
//Sweden

At18October2012,7:29:39userGiorgosLazaridiswrote:[reply@GiorgosLazaridis]
@Kalisimple555cangoto300KHz.UseaCMOS555togohigher.

At16October2012,5:11:32userKaliwrote:[reply@Kali]
@GiorgosLazaridis
thanksforyourpromptreply.CouldyoupleasesuggestanycircuitorICwhichcan
generate500khzsquarewave?Canic555timergeneratethatparticularsignal?

At16October2012,4:36:58userGiorgosLazaridiswrote:[reply@GiorgosLazaridis]
@Kalino,the741cangoupto10khz

At16October2012,4:12:11userKaliwrote:[reply@Kali]
Isthefirstcircuitefficientenoughtogenerate500KHztriangularandsquarewaveforms?
Pleaseletmeknow.Thanks!!

http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

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TriangleWaveGenerator

At13April2012,7:09:08userGiorgosLazaridiswrote:[reply@GiorgosLazaridis]
@BrettCheckthisout:
http://www.pcbheaven.com/userpages/Flexible_555_LED_Pulsing_Circuit

At13April2012,2:53:42userBrettwrote:[reply@Brett]
Thanksforaverywelldescribedcircuit!IamwantingtoslowlylightaLED,rampingup
from"off"tofullbrightness,andbackdownagain,overandover...
Iwantafullcycletobequiteslow,say15secondstolight,andanother15todimagain.
Myquestionsare:
willtheRCvaluesbeoutsidewhatthechip/circuitcanhandle?Ibelievethereare
max/minvaluesfortheseandsuchhighRCvaluesmaybeoutsidetheacceptablevalues.
willtheoutputallowmetodriveseveralLEDs?Theywillbehighintensityones,
drawing30mAeach,andIplanonhaving9ofthem(thereisaspecificreasonforbeing9).
Now,270mAmayrequireaslightlyhigherratedtransistorifIwantittoruncool,butthe
biggerquestioniswhetherthedesignwillactuallyallowmetodrive9diocese?
Ofcourse,eachLEDwouldhaveitsowncurrentlimitingresistor.
BTW,absolutelyperfectlinearisnotessential.
Thanksforanyadviceyoucangive.

At19March2012,6:16:28userGiorgosLazaridiswrote:[reply@GiorgosLazaridis]
@CharlieYepindeed,thepotistoadjustasawtoothifyouwant.

At19March2012,4:07:10userCharliewrote:[reply@Charlie]
hi,
iputthisinfalstadssimulator,leavingCas1ufandRas10K.howeverilefttherightnon
invertconnectedtogndnotthepotandigotabettertrianglethanwithitconnectedtothe
pot!(notsawtooth)

At28January2012,19:47:02userGiorgosLazaridiswrote:[reply@GiorgosLazaridis]
@RichardGeduldyouwillneedtoaddatransistoramplifierlikethe2n2222thatihave
add,toamplifythecurrent.

At28January2012,19:18:38userRichardGeduldwrote:[reply@RichardGeduld]
Hi,thanksforthis.
IwouldliketoconnectanLEDtothecircuitthatpulsesatthefrequencyofthetriangle
wave.However,whenIconnectanLEDbetweenthewaveoutputandgrounditprevents
thecircuitfromoscillating.Isthereanywaytoachievethis?
MuchAppreciated.

At20November2011,19:20:48userjoshwrote:[reply@josh]
yespuretrianglewavesArenotanoptiononanyofmysynths.I'vebeenlookingtoget
intoexsperimentingwithpuretrianglewaves.

At8August2011,12:57:52userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
@dieterthebeseemittervoltagedonotexceedthe0.60.7voltsdependingonthe
transistorvoltage.TheparameterVbeyourefertoisthemaximumreversebiasedvoltage
thatthetransistordiodecanhandle.Youmaynotreversebiasa2N2222withhigherthan5
volts

At8August2011,11:53:15userdieterwrote:[reply@dieter]
ok,thanksforallthehelp
Thiswillgiveaagoodbasetofurtherdevelopthecircuit.
Onelastquestion,the5Vemitterbasevoltage,isthisthevoltageappliedtothebase,thus
comingfromthecomparatorsignal,oristhisthevoltageontheemitterwhichmeansa
http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

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negative5volts?

IaskbecauseinthetermBVebandalsoinyourdescriptiontheemitterismentionedfirst.

At8August2011,7:25:22userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
@dieterunfortunatelyiamnotthebestonetotellyouabouttransistors,iwilltrythough.I
googledandfoundthat2n2222canbesubstitutedwiththeBC337,2N4401and2N3904
(attentionbecauseithasdifferentpinout),Herearesomespecsthatyouneedtotakeinto
account:
First,theBase,openemitterandcollectorvoltagesmustbesufficientforyourapplication.
Asyouneed5volts,mosttransistorsareok.Thecollectorcurrent(Ic)mustbeenoughto
driveyourload.2N2222canhandleupto800mA.Thepowerdissipationmustbeableto
handleyourload.2N2222handlesupto500mW.
Theaboveparametershavetodowiththepowerofthetransistor.Oneimportantparameter
whichmustbenearthesameisthecurrentamplification,usuallyshownashfe.2N2222
hasaround75soyourtransistorshouldnotexceed100hfe.
Ihopethat'senough.

At5August2011,6:35:30userdieterwrote:[reply@dieter]
Myquestionaboutthevoltagewasaboutthesquarewavecomingoutofthethirdopamp
whencreatingthepwmwaveinthiscircuit:
http://pcbheaven.com/scripts/imagepresent.php?
filename=%2Fcircuitpages%2Fimages%2Fvoltagecontrolledpwm_1246686333.jpg
Lookingatthesquaregraphandpresumingthatthescaleoftheoscilloscopepresentingthe
squarealsoissetto5volts,it'squitesafetosaythatthelowvoltageisabout1,25V.
Ittouchesthefirstlinewhichis1/4of5V.
Sothisisquiteok.
The2n2222transistorisnotforsalehereandiwonderifyouknowwhichothermodels
wouldbeagoodreplacement.
IlookedattransistorspecsandIamnotsurewhichvaluesshouldmatchorbeclosetothe
2n2222's?Couldyouprovidemewithsomepropertiesthetransistorshouldmeetinorder
formetomakeaproperchoice?
Wecanruleoutbreakdownvoltagelimitssincetheyarealwayshigherthenwhatthis
circuitispoweredbysoitwillcomedowntoothervoltageandseveralcurrent
requirements.Iamcorrect?

At4August2011,11:49:49userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
@dieteridonotreallyrememberwhatthe"low"voltagewas,buticantellyoufrommy
pictureoftheoscilloscope,thatitmustbearound2.5volts.Lookthepicturewiththe3
lines.Theblueisthe05voltsandtheyellowistheoutputofthecircuit,beforethe
capacitor.Thegreenisafterthecapacitor.Ithinkthatihadthesamevolt/divselectionfor
allchannels,andalsoihadthe0lineforallchannelsaligned,otherwisethispicturewould
nothavesense.So,icansafelyassumethatthelowvoltagefortheyellowlineiscloseto
2.5volts.
Itiscertainthatifyoudirectlydriveamosfetitwillnotworkasexpected.Youneedtoadd
atransistortoscalethevoltagetothelevelsyouwant.

At4August2011,7:52:28userdieterwrote:[reply@dieter]
Hellokammenos,
unforunatelynot,mypowersupplyisacarbatterywithasteady12,4Vwhenunderload.
Aftersomestudyintoopampcharacteristicsandespeciallythe741,Icametothe
conclusionthat,duetothedesign,itsimplyisnotpossibleforthe741toproducea
negativesignaloutofonlyapositivecurrent.
Withme,myoscilloscopesaisitdoessoithastobemyoscilloscope,soundcard,
measuringwiresoranythingotherthenthecircuititselfotherwiseIshouldhaveamagicor
faulty741installed.
Thisisexactlywhatyousaynowsoit'squitearelievenottohavetobreakmyhead
anymoreoverwhatiswrongwiththecircuit.
Thesquarewave,accordingtomyscopealsoformsaroundthe0vlinewhichisan
impossibilitysoitsimplyhastobethemeasuringequipment.
http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

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It'stimeforarealscope.

Anotherthing,Whenyouputthetrianglethroughthesecondcomparatortoproducethe
squarepwmsignal,whatisyourvoltageofthelow'off'part?commonlyasIreaditshould
bearoundthe1.8V.cisthatcorrect?

mypurposeistouseitasafunctiongeneratortodriveapowermosfetandasIreadinthe
specsthethresholdvoltageliesaroundthe2.1Vminimum,soiftheofftimevoltageofthe
waveisaround1.8V,themosfetstillshouldbefullyclosed.

Canyouconfirmthisfromyourexperience?

Thankyouverymuchforyourhelpsofar.

At4August2011,4:49:01userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
@dieteraaaaanowiunderstandwhatyoumean.Youmeanthattheoutputoftheopampis
asignalaroundthegroundcorrect?Areyouusingdualpowersupply,likeforexample+12
and12,orsingle(likeforexample+12and0)?Asignalaroundthegroundisnotpossible
withsinglepowersupply.Itcouldbealsoasettingontheoscilloscope,likeforexamplea
settingforACorDCsignalintheinput.

At3August2011,22:31:11userdieterwrote:[reply@dieter]
Hellokammenos,
Yes,Ialreadythoughtsoaboutthetransistor.It'sthefirsttimeIworkwiththem,mosfets
seemtobelesssensitive.
Butthetransistordoesn'texplainthesignalformingequallyaroundthe0vaxisinsteadof
above.
ThissignalwastheoutcomeofthebasiccircuitWITHOUTtransistorandextracapacitor.
AsfarasIknow,withthebasiccircuititshouldn'tevenbepossibletocreateasignalinthe
negative?
Icheckedtheconnectionsoverandoveragain,andrebuiltthecircuitseveraltimes,
everythingisokbutstill,nothingchanges.
TheonlyoptionIcanthinkofistheinfluenceofmyoscilloscopeperhaps.
Itisasoundcardversion,Imadethewiresmyselfusingacoaxandtworesistorstoreduce
thevoltage.WhatevervoltageIuseinthewireshowever,thisdoesn'tchangeanything.
Thisreallypuzzlesme.
Apartfromthetransistorwhichisn'tbuiltin,whatcouldcausethe+VVsignalinthe
basiccircuityouthink?

At3August2011,4:49:16userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
@dieterprobablythetransistorisdead.Youmustbecarefulwhenprototypingwith
transistors.Thebaseresistorsmustneverbecometooclosetozero,Iburntransistors
myselfthisway.Toavoidthis,wheneveriamnotlazy,iputasmallresistor(like220or
330ohms)inserieswiththepot,sothatifiaccidentallygotozeroohms,thecurrentwill
notexceedmaximum.
Moreover,therearesituationswheretransistorbiasingrequireveryfineturnsonthe
potentiometer.Ifthisisthecase,youmaytrytochangethe470resistorconnectedattheC
ofthetransistor.Becarefulnottoputasmallerresistorthan150ohmsthere.

At31July2011,20:32:43userdieterwrote:[reply@dieter]
@kammenos,
Ihaven'tplacedthe130Kandtransistoryet.The+12v12vtriangleasdescribedformsas
resultofthebasiccircuitwithonlythe47k,100kandRbetweentheopampsandthe
capacitorasshownintheveryfirstschematiconthispage.strange.
Iaddedthetransistorcircuittodayusingafixed120kresistor.Itgaveasignal,alsoaround
the0voltline.
AfterbuildinginapotIwasn'tabletogetasignalatallandwhenputbacktothefixed
resistorconfigurationitremaineddead.Aretransistorseasilydamaged?theonly
explanationihaveforthetransistorcircuittostopproducingasignal.

At31July2011,7:07:51userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

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TriangleWaveGenerator

@dieterobviouslyyouhavetochangethepolarizationofthetransistoramplifier.Dothis
bychangingthe130Kresistor.Putapotentiometerinstead.Whenyousetthepotandyou
havetheoutputyouwant,thenyoucanreplacethepotentiometerwitharesistor(measure
theresistanceofthepotentiometer).

At30July2011,23:09:44userdieterwrote:[reply@dieter]
HelloKamennos,
Ihavebuiltthiscircuitbecauseincombinationwiththedccontrolledcomparatoranda
variableresisterintheopampcircuit,IhopedIwasabletogetafrequencyandpwm
controlledttllookalikecircuit.ThisisexactlywhatIwaslookingfor.
Itworkswellexceptfor1majordifferencebetweentheresultofyourtrianglecircuitand
mine:thetriangleformsaroundthe0vaxis,sofrom12vto+12V,Iused12Vinsteadof
5,however,with5VIgotthesameresults.
Iusedtheexactsamecomponentsandthebasiccircuitsowithouttheextracapacitorand
thetransistorwithresistors.
Ididchangethevalueofthecapacitorovertheintegratorandusedavariableresistorfor
frequency'sistherangeof39kHz.
ThesedonotchangethecharacterofthewaveIpresume,onlythefrequency.
Thislinkshowsascreenprintofthewave.
http://farm7.static.flickr.com/6002/5992129946_f39c6e3772.jpg
Ireallyneedthiswavewithitslowestpointonthe0voltlineasyouhave,butIhaveno
ideahowtodothisorwhattochange,Iamquiteabeginnerinthisarea.
Theoreticallythereshouldn'tbeaneedtochangeanythingatall,butpracticallythere
obviouslyis.
Icheckedeverythingadozentimesbutitisexactlyasyou'prescribed'hereonthispage.
Doyouhaveanyidea'stowhatmighthavegonewrong?

At25January2011,7:53:08userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
MST,youwillneedtoworkwithahighvoltagetransistorlikeNTE175orsimilar.Icannot
tellyoumoredetailsunlessitestitmyself,asworkingwithsuchvoltagesisdangerous.

At24January2011,21:15:39userMSTwrote:[reply@MST]
Howtogetthetriangularwavewithamplitude245Vor250V?BecauseIwanttocompare
thetriangularwavewithsinewaveofamplitude240VtoproducePulseWidthModulation.
Pleaseadvice.Thankyouinadvance.

At19January2011,12:25:06userMilenwrote:[reply@Milen]
YesKammenos,
IplantodriveaDCmotorbutIthinkthatPWMhastoreach0Vinordertosithchthe
opencollectortransistor.IhvetrnasistorBD241andIplantodrivethemotortroughit.As
afterIwillneedtodrivethemotorinbothdirectionsofrotationIwillneedtodoittrough
HBridgeLM298.
DoyouthinkthatafterthetransistorortheHBriggeIwillhavePWMgoingdowinto0V?
BecauseIthinkthatifthePWMdoesnotgoto0VIwillbenotabletofullusethe
capacityofthePWMspeedregulationmethod.
Thanks!

At19January2011,10:49:56userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
Milen,741isnormaltohavethisoffset,andcannotbecome0.Onlyifyouhadanegative
supplyaswell(eg.+55).WhatdoyouwanttodrivewiththisPWManyway?Atransistor
switchwillsolveyoutheproblem100%(whichisnoproblematall).Doyouplanto
directlyconnectsomethingonthe741,likeamotor?

At18January2011,21:18:55userMilenwrote:[reply@Milen]
http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

11/19

2/28/2016

TriangleWaveGenerator

HelloKammenos,
Trianglewaveatthecolectorof2N2222isquitealotimprovedaftertunningthetransistor
biasing.ByusingtwopotentiometersIfoundthatR130kohmhastobechangedto100
kohmsandR22kohmshastobechangedtoR10+R4.7inseries.
ButtheproblemwiththePWMatpin6ofthethird741stillcannotbesolved.Nochange
isobserved.
Thebottomedgeofthewavestillstaysat1.8Vanddoesnotwanttochangeatall.Thisis
notacceptableforPWMwave.
Ithinkthatthisissomeproblemwiththethird741opamp.Whateveryoudoitalways
staysat1.8Vbottomedge.
Youcanseethepictureshere:
http://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=dvouuh&s=7
http://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=1z4eb80&s=7
DoyouhaveanyideahowtomakethePWMtoreach0Vatthebottom?
Thanks!

At18January2011,11:48:06userMilenwrote:[reply@Milen]
ThanksKammenos,
IwilltryitonceIambackfromworkandsurethatiwillletyouknowtheresults.

At18January2011,10:57:26userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
TheRbiscorrect.Justtobesure,addasmallresistor(like220Ohms)betweentheRband
thepowersupply(soitneverbecomes5V).
Asfarasthe4K7pot,youdonothaveitcorrect.Removethewirefromthepottoground.
Asamatteroffact,forthispotentiometer(whichwillbeconnectedactuallyasarheostat),
onlythe2connectionswillbeused,themiddleandoneother(doesnotreallymatter
which).Themiddlewillgotothebaseofthetransistor(liketheonefromRbasyouhave
itnow),andtheotherwillgotothecapacitor.Tellmetheresultsofthis.

At18January2011,10:37:14userMilenwrote:[reply@Milen]
ThanksKammenosforyoursupport!
ActuallyIambeginnerinthisfield.Ihevepreparedtwopictureswhichyoucanseeinthe
followinglinks:
http://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=2vs1aud&s=7
http://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=6sxvns&s=7
Isthistherighrwaytoconnectthepotentiometer(100kohms)likevoltagedivideronthe
placeofthecurrent130kohmsresistor?
CanIusealsosimilarpotentiometerof4.7kohmsontheplaceofcurrent22kohmsresistor
inordertobemoreflexibleintuningthetransistor?
Ifthisonthepirtureisawrongconnectionofthepotentiometer,pleasetellmewhichpin
ofthepotentiometerwheretobeconnected?
Thanks!

At18January2011,6:25:21userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
OkMilen,igotthepoint.Whatyoureallyneedtodoischangethebiasingofthe
transistor.Iuseone130Kresistoranda22Ktobiasthebase,whileyoushouldusea
voltagedividerwithapotentiometer(fortestofcourseandthenreplacewithresistors),so
thatyoucantransfertheQ.Doyouknowhowtodothis?
BYV26Eisfastbuthasforwardvoltagetypicalto2.5volts.The1N4148hastypical0.75
to1.Thebestsolutionofallwouldbeashottkydiode,withlessforwardvoltage.1N5817
forexamplehas0.35drop.
Ifyouhaveapotentiometerlike100K,trytochangethetransistorbias.Inthatcase,keep
inmindthatyoumayneedtodecreasethe22Kresistor.Themustalsobemuchdecreased,
somethinglike1Kor1.5Kisagoodstart.

At17January2011,21:09:19userMilenwrote:[reply@Milen]
HelloKammenos,
Itriedittoputdiodeimmediatelyafterthe1uF(betweenthecapacitorandthe33kohm
resisistor).IhavediodeBYV26E(couldIusethisone?)whichissupperfastone.But
withthisdiodeIgotastrightlinevoltageof5.6V(circuitsupplyvoltageis6V)atpin6of
http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

12/19

2/28/2016

TriangleWaveGenerator

thethird741wherethePMWhastoappear.IhaveUA741CPchip.

MyprblemisthatIcannotgetPWMsignalgoingdownto0Vasithastobe,butIhave
1.8VatthebottomedgeofthePWMsignalasonthepicturehere:

http://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=2zex8op&s=7

WouldyoupleasesuggestsomeothersolutionorIrealyhavetotrywith1N4148diode?

Thanks!

At17January2011,9:26:56userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
Milen,trytoaddadiodeinseries,rightafterthecapacitor(anodeconnectedtothe
capacitor).Itwillcauseaslightvoltagedrop.Forexample,1N4148willdropsome0.7
volts.Youcanchooseanotherresistorforsmallerdrop,butidonotthinkthiswillbe
necessary.Ifyouhaveproblemwiththeswitchingspeed,useafasterdiode(againithink
1N4148willbefine).

At15January2011,22:20:12userMilenwrote:[reply@Milen]
HelloKamennos,
IboughtabreadboardandassembledthecircuitonitthisisthefullcircuitforthePWM
generationwithvoltagecontrol.Thecircuitnowoscillatesproperly.Theproblemisthat
afterthe1uFelectrolyticcapacitorsIstillhave0.30.35VofDCvoltageandIcannot
removeit.Ichangedthecapacitorwithto2uFandto10nFbutstillthesame.Itisthesame
situationatthecollectorofthe2N2222transistorwhereIhave0.60.7VDC.
Irunthecircuitwithsupplyvoltageof4.5V.Theresistorris4.7kohmsandthecapacitor
is100nFasItarget1kHzoffrequency.
Ihaveputsomepicturesatthefollowinglinks:
http://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=jsir2r&s=7
http://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=v45e8x&s=7
http://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=ofzlgk&s=7
http://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=6gkgfo&s=7
http://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=fdyb20&s=7
http://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=iolp9v&s=7
http://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=2zex8op&s=7
Wouldyoupleasehavealookonthem?
IdonothaveoscilloscopeandIuseNationalInstrumentsboardNI6008whichcamsample
maxat10kHzattheanaloginputchannel.Thatiswhythetrianglesandrectanglesarenot
withwelldescribedshape.
Wouldyoupleaseadvisemehowtosolvethisissue?
Thankyouverymuch!

At14January2011,16:42:02userMilenwrote:[reply@Milen]
Yesyouarerigth,
Iwillbybreadboardandtryitonit.
Thanks!

At14January2011,12:14:58userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
ithoughtthatyouhadaprototypeonabreadboard.youhavesolderthecomponents,i
cannotseethemhowtheyconnecteachother.istronglysuggesttogetyourselfacoupleof
breadboards.itissupereasyandsimpleforprototyping.plus,thereisnowaytomake
errorduringsoldering.

At13January2011,21:55:05userMilenwrote:[reply@Milen]
HelloKammenos,
Ididnotfindthewaytouploadthepicturesintheforum.
Iputthemonthefollowinlinks:
http://i52.tinypic.com/16lkyms.jpg
http://i51.tinypic.com/acr2f8.jpg
Ihavemoreopamps741.
ActuallyIamusingUA741CP.AndforcapacitorIuseWIMAMKS40.1/400X1.
Doyouthinkthatanyopampcouldbefaild?
Thanks!
http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

13/19

2/28/2016

TriangleWaveGenerator

At13January2011,16:21:15userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
3/4ofaturnisok.doyouhavereplacement741?itmaybeneeded.
Youcansendimagestotheforum:
http://pcbheaven.com/forum/

At13January2011,11:06:14userMilenwrote:[reply@Milen]
ThankyouverymuchforyourresponseKmmmenos!
Iamsurethatitworks,butprobablyIhavemadesomemistakeasIambeginnerinthis
field.
IwillcheckitonceagainandIwillsendyousomepictures.
ThetrimerthatIhaveputisnotthatmuchsensitive.ShallIthasonly3/4turn.
Couldyouadvisemehowcouldisendyoupicturessothatyoucancheckthem?
Thanks!

At13January2011,8:21:37userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
ThatisstrangeMilen.Itestedthecircuitagain,fromascratch,followingtheschematic
linebyline,likeisawitforthefirsttime.thecircuitworkedformeimmediatelyafter
puttingsomepower.withtheRCyouchoseitoscillatesat1.05KHz.whaticandoforyou
issendmesomeclosephotostoinspectit.
Checkoutthislink:
http://pcbheaven.com/temp/video.avi
and
http://pcbheaven.com/temp/image.jpg
Makesurethatyouhavethepotentiometeradjusted.Otherwiseyougetthedead'sheart
beatline.

At11January2011,20:33:23userMilenwrote:[reply@Milen]
Hello,
Thanksforthegoodtheory,videoandexplanations!
Icreatedthiscircuitfortrianglewavegeneration,butIalsohaveaproblemthecircuit
doessnotoscilateandIgetastrightlineofconstantvoltage.Iuse4.5kohmsforRand100
nFforCtargeting1kHzoffrequency.Ihavealsoconectedpin7oftheopampstotheDC
5Vandpins4tothegroundasIhadforgottenthisinthebegining,butstillIcannotmake
itoscilate.
Wouldyoupleaseadvicemewhatcouldbethereason?
Thanks!

At12November2010,8:29:04userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
Remark1.Thepotentiometeryouhaveseemsthatthenegativeisinthewrongtrack.Itis
notclearbutithinkitshouldbeconnectedoneholeabove.
Remark2.The2nd741(right)hasnoground(pin4)
Remark3.Confirmthatyellowcablefrompotgoestopin2ofleft741
Makethesecorrectionsandifnotwork,postsomenewphotos.Pleasegetsomealsofrom
above(donotputpartvalues).

At11November2010,13:29:35userpradeepwrote:[reply@pradeep]
Iamunabletocreatenewpost...servererrorisoccuring...
SoIuploadedthematthislink....
http://picasaweb.google.com/live.gap/TriangularWave?authkey=Gv1sRgCOCrt7Wy
YTZFQ&feat=directlink
Pleasecheckit...

At11November2010,12:13:29userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

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2/28/2016

TriangleWaveGenerator

Getsomedetailedphotosfromthecircuityou\'vedone.Ipreferclearclosephotoswhere
thepartsareshownclear.Thenmakeanewthreadintheforum
(http://pcbheaven.com/forum/)andpostthem.Iwillbenotifiedautomatically,noneedto
notifyme.Doitandwewillcontinueourconversationthere.

At11November2010,12:09:21userpradeepwrote:[reply@pradeep]
Itriedittoo...
Iwasunabletogetrectangularpulsestoo...
Pleasehelpme
Ihavetogetthisdoneassoonaspossible
Iappreciateyoureffort

At11November2010,11:12:54userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
Didyoutrytoadjustthe10Kpotentiometer?Youneedtomakeslowsteps.Putthe
oscilloscopedirectlytotheoutputofthe741.Doyougetatleastrectangularpulsestothe
first741?

At11November2010,11:11:28userpradeepwrote:[reply@pradeep]
Iprovided10VVcc....istheproblemwithVccvalue..?
orshouldIchangetheopampfor50KHzvalue...ifimustchangetheopamp..whatthe
opampshouldbe

At11November2010,11:08:33userpradeepwrote:[reply@pradeep]
IdidconnectthegroundandVcc....Itsstillastraightline

At9November2010,14:32:24userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
TheRCisok.HeveyouputDCpowertothe741?Manypeopleforgettodothisstep.You
needtoprovide5voltstopin7andgroundtopin4

At9November2010,10:04:30userpradeepwrote:[reply@pradeep]
Imgettingastraightlinewheniimplementtheabovecircuit.
R=1kohm
C=10microfarad
iwant50khzfrequencyand2Vpeakvoltage....canusuggestmethecircuitwithproper
specifications
thanxinadvance

At2November2010,21:11:52userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
Lookslikethatthetransistorbasegetstoomuchcurrent.Doyouuse1uFcapacitororyou
have10?Itmustbe1uF.Ifitis1uF,thentryincreasingthe22Kresistoratthebaseofthe
transistor.Irecommendyouuseapotentiometer(50Kforexample)inserieswitha10K
resistor.Thatshoulddofine.

At2November2010,21:01:34userRickywrote:[reply@Ricky]
Kammenos,thxforyourhelp=)Ialmostgotthetrianglewave(0V5V),buttheoutputis
saturedandalmostsquare.Somewaytosolveiteasily?

At2November2010,7:50:17userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
Ricky,inthe3rdcircuitthereisanamplifiertransistorstageattheend(2N2222).Atthis
point,youshouldgetanamplifiedsignalatthecollector.Measureatthepointwherethe
http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

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2/28/2016

TriangleWaveGenerator

470ohmsresistormeetsthe2N2222Cconnector.Youmusthave5voltssignal.Use1uF
capacitorfortheinterfaceofthebaseofthetransistor.tryothertransistorifitdoesnot
work.Itwouldhelpalotifiseepicturesfromyouroscilloscope.Uploadtheminour
forum(http://pcbheaven.com/forum/)andgivethelinkhere.

At2November2010,6:46:41userRickywrote:[reply@Ricky]
I\'mhavngproblemswiththeoffsetandamplifiercircuits...Iwanttodoa1khzoscilator
(0Vto5V),soIuseR=5kandC=0.1uF.
Theproblemstartswehnthesignalpassbythefirstcap.Itrieda10uFforthiscircuit,but
theoutputstaybetween1Vand1V....Whenitriedtousethe3rdcircuittheoutputwave
isalmostaDCwave...Idon\'tknowhowtofizit.Canyouhelpme?

At28October2010,17:54:31usernawraswrote:[reply@nawras]
ineedsomehelpinmyprojectisaboutdigitalfunctiongenerator
conanyonehelpme

At28October2010,10:37:52userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
usethe3rdcircuitwiththetransistoramplifier.Powerthetransistorwith10voltsinstead.
Keeptheoscillatorat5voltstooperate.Youmayneedtochangethe3resistorsthat
polarizethetransistor,butyoubetterputanoscilloscopetoseetheresults.

At28October2010,9:19:46userWimbowrote:[reply@Wimbo]
Hi,
whenitrytoeleminatetheoffsetthetrianglewavegoesbelow0
Iwanttocompareittoa010Vsignal,Soialsoneedatriangle010V
anyhelppossible?Thanks
Wim

At13October2010,15:35:45userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
Ijustuse5vDCtooperate.

At13October2010,15:31:55userCapnwrote:[reply@Capn]
Icannotgetthiscircuittooperateproperly.IhavemodeleditusingNIMultisim,andI
onlygetonecycleoutofthisconfigurationbeforeitgoesflat.
AreyouusingaDCinput?OrareyouputtingsomeACsignaltothesupply?

At11September2010,17:59:51userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
Sure!

At11September2010,17:53:38usermystic07wrote:[reply@mystic07]
thanksthatreallyhelped.
willtheoutputbeintheformofimpulsesifinsteadofatrianglewave,asawtoothsignal
wasappliedattheinputofthe3rdopamp???

At11September2010,6:10:35userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
IsupposethatyoumadeaPWMgeneratorwithDCvoltagedutycycleselector.Ihavea
similarcircuithere:
http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Voltage_Controlled_PWM_Generator/
Youcanremovethe2N2222amplifieralongwiththe3biasingresistors,andthenyou
haveexactlythecircuityoudescribed.Readthetheoryfromthere,andalsoyoucanread
thetheoryforPWMhere:
http://pcbheaven.com/wikipages/PWM_Modulation
http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

16/19

2/28/2016

TriangleWaveGenerator

At11September2010,6:01:48usermystic07wrote:[reply@mystic07]
Ihavedoneapracticallikethisoneatschool.buttheoutputfromthe2ndopampwas
comparedtoaDCvoltageusinga3rdopamp,followedbyacapacitor.impulseswere
obtainedatoutput.idon'tunderstandthetheory.couldyoupleasehelpmewith
that....:)Thanks

At7September2010,17:18:59userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
grounditis.

At7September2010,15:03:26useri8wrldwrote:[reply@i8wrld]
WhatdidyouconnectVcctoontheopamps?GroundorNegativeSupply?

At1September2010,16:53:33userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
Usingtheformulathatigivewith0.1uFcapacitor:
For1KHz:R=5KOhm
For10KHz:R=500Ohms
So,useo.1uFcapacitorforC,and470Ohmsresistorinserieswitha5Kpotentiometerfor
R.Thenyouneedtotestbecausetheoreticalvaluesmaydifferfromreal.

At1September2010,14:25:10userkenleewrote:[reply@kenlee]
hello.....canugivemesomeideaorcircuitdiagramtodeterminetherangesof1khz
10khzonly?

At4August2010,7:16:53userlibzwrote:[reply@libz]
ok2thankyou...canweaskanotherschematicdiagramforsquareandtriangular
waveformgeneratorrangestheoutputfrom1khz10khz?

At11July2010,10:36:23userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
YouneedtoreplacetheRwithavariableresistor.Youneedtoexperimenttofindthe
valuesforRandC.

At11July2010,10:17:28userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
Watchthevideocarefully.Thispotentiometerwilladjustthesymmetryofthesignal

At11July2010,10:17:08userlib'zwrote:[reply@lib'z]
howtovarrytheoutputfrequencyofthegenerator??from1khzto10khz,whati'mgoingto
do??

At11July2010,10:11:49userlib'zwrote:[reply@lib'z]
whatistheuseofthe10kpotentiometer??

At11July2010,9:58:20userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
Notpossiblewithonlyoneresistor.Youneedtohaveamultipleselectorswitchtochange
thecapacitors.

At11July2010,9:55:28userlib'zwrote:[reply@lib'z]
how2varrythefrequencyoutputfrom1Khz10khz???

http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

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TriangleWaveGenerator

At30April2010,12:29:39userBrianFarmerwrote:[reply@BrianFarmer]
Bytheway,IamusinganLM324opamandLM393comparator.

At30April2010,12:27:36userBrianFarmerwrote:[reply@BrianFarmer]
Myfrequencyisonly3KHz.
Also,Istartedwithanopampforthecomparator,andaftertestingchangedtoanactual
comparatortogetcleaner(moreverticalwithoutslew)switching.

At30April2010,4:05:42userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
Themaximumfrequencyfor741wouldbearound10KHz.Areyoutryingahigher
frequency?Youmayconsiderchangingtheopamp.Tryalsotochangethecapacitor

At30April2010,2:44:12userBrianFarmerwrote:[reply@BrianFarmer]
Iamgettingaspikeateachpeakofthetrianglewave.
Why?
Howtoeliminatethat?
AmIdoingsomethingincorrect?

At16February2010,21:08:27userNikoswrote:[reply@Nikos]
Thanksfortheinfoguyzzz!
Iaminmiddleofanassignmentcurrently,andireallyneedtwosuchgeneratorsinmy
board,thoughImustmakethemsawtooth.(Imayhavesomeideas)
Iwastryingsimilarconfigurationusingopamps,forthetrianglewave,butIfoundyours
moresuitable.Especiallythepartwiththevariableresistor.
Thanksagain.
Greatsitetoo!

At5February2010,16:39:48userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
youcanuseatransformertodropdownto12forexample,andthenavoltagedividerto
dropitto3volts,andmeasurethiswiththeA/DconverterofthePIC

At5February2010,14:45:17usernoeldsouzawrote:[reply@noeldsouza]
iwantdo440vacvoltmeterusingpicprojectcananyonehelp

At17December2009,15:14:22userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
HelloDennis,
Thisisperfectlynormalbecausethe2n2222isbiasedfor5V.Above5Vthetransistor
operatesinsaturation,andthiscausestheonesideofthetriangletobecomestraight.
Asforthebending,isupposethatitcomesfromthecapacitor.Whatcapacitoryouuse?
Try100Kresistor(R)and0.1uFcapacitor(C)insteadofanelectrolyticcapacitor.Ifit
works,pleaseposttheresultsforustoknow!

At17December2009,15:02:24userKammenoswrote:[reply@Kammenos]
HelloSLLau,
Themaxfrequencyforthiscircuitisaround10KHz.Youcouldincreasethisnumberby
usinganotheropamp,butiamnotsureaboutthis

At17December2009,12:04:56userDenniswrote:[reply@Dennis]
Whyisitthatatatvoltagesbeyond5Vitproducesatrapezoidinsteadofatriangle?Also
whyisitthatat50hzfrequencyonesideofthetrianglewavelooksbent?Pleaseadviseme
http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

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2/28/2016

TriangleWaveGenerator

onhowtochangethiscircuittoproduceacleantrianglewaveof50HZat13V.Thanks

At17December2009,7:37:23userSLLauwrote:[reply@SLLau]
Hi,
Ihaveonequestionhere.Isthereanyrestrictiontothemaxfrequencythatcanbe
achieved?Ionlymanagedtogetamaxof8khzanditstarttodistort.Pleasekindlyadvise.

At1October2009,12:50:27userkammenoswrote:[reply@kammenos]
HiMick,
Iwillmakeacompletetheory+circuitforthetransistoramplifiers.

At30September2009,21:13:24userMickwrote:[reply@Mick]
Pleasemoredetailsforthetransistoramplifier.

At12August2009,10:21:19userStefanwrote:[reply@Stefan]
Ireallylikethewayyoupresentthecircuitsandthe'Modular'wayyouputthem.
Ibeganfromthe'AmbientLightController',thatneededthe'VoltageControlledPWM'.
TheVoltageControlledPWMneededthe'TriangleWaveGenerator'andthatleadmehere.
Ilikethewayyouarepresentingthem.
KeepUp
Stefan

At8July2009,19:22:34userbeatnickwrote:[reply@beatnick]
Yes,you'reright,RTFM:).
Ijustlookedthepics.

At7July2009,20:57:37userkammenoswrote:[reply@kammenos]
...andacapacitorw/oavalueaswell.
Theyareforsettingtheoscillation.Ifyoureadthetheoryyouwillfindouthowtoselecta
valueforthosetwo.

At7July2009,16:30:11userbeatnickwrote:[reply@beatnick]
Inthe3rdschematicyouhaveanRresistorwithoutvalue

At4July2009,4:47:05userkammenoswrote:[reply@kammenos]
Inourpageswewillonlyuploadcircuitsthatworkedonourworkbench.

At3July2009,22:09:57usera.manthswrote:[reply@a.manths]
Atlastonethatworks.Thanks!

http://pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/Triangle_Wave_Generator/

19/19