Sie sind auf Seite 1von 62

THE UNIVERSITY OF ZAMBIA

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING

PROJECT TITLE:

GROUNDWATER RESOURCES ASSESSMENT OF LOWER


KAFUE BASIN USING GIS, REMOTE SENSING AND
MODELLING- CASE STUDY OF ALBIDON NICKEL MINING
AREA IN MUNALI HILLS AREA

FINAL YEAR REPORT


by:

Lungu Kelvin Agabu

6/19/2015

UNIVERSITY OF ZAMBIA
THE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

Groundwater resources assessment of Lower Kafue Basin using GIS, remote sensing and
modelling- Case study of Albidon Nickel Mining area in Munali hills area

FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT


By
Lungu Kelvin Agabu
Computer number: 10035494

Report submitted as partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of
Engineering in Civil and Environmental University of Zambia.
June 2015

ii

DECLARATION
This dissertation of Lungu Kelvin Agabu (10035494) meets the standard for reports
submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of
Engineering, University of Zambia. Having supervised the project and satisfied myself with
the content of this report, I approve that it can be submitted for examination.
Supervisors Name:
..
..
Supervisors Signature

...
Date

iii

Abstract
Water is a precious natural resource needed for the sustenance of life. It may exist in various
forms in the hydrological cycle including existing as vapour within the atmosphere, as liquid
in surface storage, such as in lakes; and in subsurface storage, such as in rock formations.
Groundwater is a vital and critical source of water supply as it supplies fresh water and can
provide water in areas where extended droughts cause stream flow to stop. Elsewhere, base
flow (water from surface streams) is the main source of recharge for the groundwater.
The study focused on the Albidon mine area (Munali) ,in Mazabuka district of Southern
Province, which lies at the south-western foot of the Munali Hills, which form a
northwest-southeast trend line of ridges (Sichingabula and Nyambe 2008).
As extracted from Sichingabula and Nyambe 2008, evaporation exceeds precipitation for
most of the year in the selected area. These adverse climatic conditions together with the
existing mining activities in this area give rise to need of efficient water resources
management as both quality and quantity are threatened.
Within the study the hydrogeology was investigated and a conceptual groundwater model
produced. The findings in this study indicated that the general flow of the ground water was
in the North-East from South-West direction.
In 2014, a research was conducted by IWRM centre at UNZA through a postgraduate final
year project research. The study aimed at determining effects of mining activities on the
Quality, availability and sustainability of groundwater through analysing Acid mine drainage,
Heavy metal Contamination and dewatering process from Munali nickel mine. A
recommendation was provided by Kalibe Phiri, the postgraduate researcher, suggesting that a
detailed study be carried out on the flow of groundwater in Munali hills area. With the
completion of this project the flow contaminants or particles could be traced, thus,
consolidating earlier research on quality of water by IWRM centre.
The real life applications of the model produced are only limited with the lack of ones
imagination. But the main applications focussed on are discussed later in detail.

iv

Acknowledgements
Many thanks to my supervisor Engineer Kabika Joel, I am highly indebted to you for the
support and guidance offered and continues to offer. Your support and assistance is fully
appreciated.
Take a bow, Dr. Paul Oberholster and Professor Keith Kennedy at CSIR in South Africa for
the Sub-Grantee funding to the University of Zambia through the African Union
ACT4SSAWS project which has made study field work immeasurably possible.

Contents
CHAPTER 1: ............................................................................................................................. 1
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 2
1.2 Rationale........................................................................................................................... 3
1.3 Research Question ............................................................................................................ 4
1.4 Objectives of study ........................................................................................................... 4
1.5 Scope of the project .......................................................................................................... 4
CHAPTER 2: ............................................................................................................................. 5
LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................................... 5
2.1

Groundwater ................................................................................................................ 6

2.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 6


2.1.2

Aquifers and water table ...................................................................................... 7

2.1.3

Steady flow in aquifers ........................................................................................ 9

2.1.4

Movement of Groundwater ................................................................................ 10

2.1.5

Groundwater quality .......................................................................................... 12

2.1.6

Groundwater depletion....................................................................................... 13

2.1.7

Groundwater resources and distribution ............................................................ 14

2.1.8

Groundwater Monitoring ................................................................................... 14

2.2

Groundwater modelling............................................................................................. 17

2.2.1

Introduction ........................................................................................................ 17

2.2.3

Computer Software used for Groundwater modelling ....................................... 18

2.2.4

Applications of PMWIN groundwater models .................................................. 20

2.2.5

Developing of Model ......................................................................................... 21

2.2.6

Calibration of Model .......................................................................................... 21

2.2.7

Model errors ....................................................................................................... 21

CHAPTER 3: ........................................................................................................................... 22
STUDY AREA ........................................................................................................................ 22
3.1

Location and physical setting .................................................................................... 23

3.2

Climate ...................................................................................................................... 25

3.3

Landforms and Topography ...................................................................................... 25

3.4

Local Geology and Hydrogeology of the Munali Hill Area ..................................... 26

3.5

Groundwater quality and monitoring boreholes........................................................ 28

3.6

Agriculture ................................................................................................................ 28

3.7

Environmental Study Problem in area ...................................................................... 28

3.8

Delineation of project area for model ....................................................................... 29

CHAPTER 4: ........................................................................................................................... 30
vi

METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................. 30
4.1

Tools .......................................................................................................................... 31

4.2

Hydrogeological analysis .......................................................................................... 32

4.3

Meteorological analysis............................................................................................. 34

4.4

Borehole analysis ...................................................................................................... 35

4.5

Design of the groundwater model ............................................................................. 36

4.5.1

Selection of suitable modelling software ........................................................... 36

4.5.2

Dimensional units adopted in modelling ........................................................... 36

4.5.3

Selection of Control point for modelling ........................................................... 36

CHAPTER 5: ........................................................................................................................... 39
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS .................................................................................................. 39
5.1

Model visualisation from PMWIN8 based on hydraulic heads ................................ 40

5.1.1

2-D visualisation for result type: Hydraulic heads .......................................... 40

5.1.2 Checking final calibration results using results of all observation boreholes ......... 41
5.2 Particle tracking in case of spillage in Mine area into groundwater .............................. 42
5.3 Capture zone as result of Dewatering at Albidon mine area .......................................... 42
CHAPTER 6: ........................................................................................................................... 45
DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................... 45
6.1 DISCUSSION ................................................................................................................ 46
6.1.1

Interpretation of the Groundwater model .......................................................... 46

6.1.2

Divergence from Observed data ........................................................................ 46

6.1.3

Discussion of Results ......................................................................................... 46

6.2 CONCLUSSION ............................................................................................................ 47


6.3 RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................... 47
APPENDIX .............................................................................................................................. 48
APPENDIX A: Hydraulic characteristics of aquifers .......................................................... 48
APPENDIX B: Symbols used in MODFLOW .................................................................... 48
APPENDIX C: Borehole site location from GeoDin database ............................................ 48
APPENDIX D: Borehole BH log data from GeoDin database ............................................ 48
APPENDIX E: GeoDin database terminologies .................................................................. 49
APPENDIX F: Kafue River levels using gauging station for Nakambala in Mazabuka ..... 49
APPENDIX G: Water Budget produced from run model for zero recharge ....................... 50

vii

List of Tables
Table 1: Confined aquifer Vs. Unconfined aquifer ................................................................... 8
Table 2: Approximate values of K m/d and n % for various soils and rock types* ................ 10
Table 3: Commonly typical values in Southern province (Bumle 2007)............................... 11
Table 4: Ground water monitoring activities at different scales .............................................. 15
Table 5: MODFLOW vs. FEFLOW ........................................................................................ 20
Table 6: UTM coordinates for delineated area in Figure 14 .................................................... 29
Table 7: Hydrogeological analysis........................................................................................... 33
Table 8: Temperature parameter .............................................................................................. 34
Table 9: Long-term rainfall and evaporation for stations in Southern Province ..................... 34
Table 10: Mine site Seasonal Rainfall ..................................................................................... 34
Table 11: BH log data .............................................................................................................. 35
Table 12: PUMPING WELL BH7 useful data for modelling ................................................. 36
Table 13: Dimensional analysis ............................................................................................... 36
Table 14: Kafue river levels for 2013/2014 (see APPENDIX F) ............................................ 36
Table 15: Model extent ............................................................................................................ 37
Table 16: Grid position coordinates ......................................................................................... 37
Table 17: Lithology of model .................................................................................................. 37
Table 18: Vertical and Horizontal Hydraulic conductivity parameters ................................... 37
Table 19: Model summary ....................................................................................................... 38
Table 21: Calibration Verification for run 5 ............................................................................ 41
Table 22: Correlation verification ............................................................................................ 41
Table 23: Abstraction point data .............................................................................................. 42
List of Figures
Figure 1: Rationale ..................................................................................................................... 3
Figure 2: Types of aquifers and location of wells (Source: Raghunath, 2006) ......................... 6
Figure 3: Diagrammatic representation of the types of Aquifers (Source: Rausch, 2009) ........ 9
Figure 4: Types of aquifers based on media (Source: Rausch, 2009) ....................................... 9
Figure 5: Flow of groundwater (Source: Raghunath, 2006) .................................................... 10
Figure 6: Features of an Aquifer System that can be simulated by MODFLOW (Source:
Rausch, 2009 ............................................................................................................................ 19
Figure 7: Discretization scheme for MODFLOW* (Source: Rausch, 2009)........................... 19
Figure 8: Schemes of vertical discretization (Source: Rausch, 2009) ..................................... 20
Figure 9: Location of Lower Kafue Basin area located south-eastern part of Kafue catchment
area (Source: BID, 2014) ......................................................................................................... 23
Figure 10: Locations of Munali Nickel Mine area, groundwater monitoring stations around
mine area (MAD/GW), in Resettlement and Local Community areas (RAP) and surface water
monitoring stations (SW) an area impacted by the mine. (Source: BID, 2014) ...................... 24
Figure 11: Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with elevation zones at 200 m- intervals (Source:
Bumle R 2007) ....................................................................................................................... 25
Figure 12: Aerial photograph showing surface projection of Geology (Source: AMC, 2006)26
Figure 13: Geology map of Munali hills area (Source: BID, 2014) ........................................ 27
Figure 14: Project area delineation .......................................................................................... 29
Figure 15: Input Parameters required for modelling................................................................ 31
Figure 16: Hydrogeological map of project area (Source: Bumle, 2007) .............................. 32
Figure 17: Psuedosection of Munali mine area (Source: Albidon mine)................................. 33
Figure 18: Shaded relief and block diagram generated from the DEM ................................... 35
viii

Figure 19: Schematic diagram showing flow direction ........................................................... 40


Figure 20: Schematic with contours filled ............................................................................... 40
Figure 21: Scatter diagram using all observation BH .............................................................. 41
Figure 22: Particle tracking for one particle ........................................................................... 42
Figure 23: Abstraction effect if pumping out 700
.................................................... 43
Figure 24: Dewatering effect when Mine is in full operation .................................................. 43

ix

List of Abbreviations and Acronyms


AMC

African Mining Consultants

Asl

Above sea level

Bgl

Below ground level

BH

Borehole

BID

Background Information Document

COORD

Coordinate

DEM

Digital Elevation Model

DWA

Department of Water Affairs

EIA

Environmental Impact Assessment

GIS

Geographical Information Systems

GPS

Geographical positioning satellite

GS

Ground surface

GW

Groundwater

GWT

Groundwater table

IWRM

Integrated Water Resources Management

MODFLOW

Modular 3-dimensional finite difference Groundwater model

PCG

Preconditioned Conjugate-Gradient

UNZA

University Of Zambia

USDA

United States Department of Agriculture

UTM

Universal Transverse Mercator

WHO

World Health Organisation

CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction
Groundwater hydrology is a subdivision of the science of hydrology which deals with
the occurrence, movement and quality of water beneath the earths surface. It is a science
whose successful application is of critical importance to the welfare of mankind.
Groundwater refers to the water that occupies the void space within the geologic
stratum beneath the earth. A further distinction from soil moisture is that groundwater
is the water within the saturated zone and the top is called the water table. A unit of
unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it yields a usable quantity of water. An
aquifer may either be called confined or unconfined. A confined aquifer is bounded above
and below by aquicludes and an unconfined aquifer only has an aquiclude below and not
above.
Groundwater is often withdrawn for agricultural, municipal and industrial use by constructing
and operating extraction wells. This study focussed on assessment of groundwater resources
subject to the mining activities in Munali hills area of Southern province, Zambia.
Among the adverse effects of these mining activities include depletion of surface and
groundwater resources. In mining the need for dewatering of the mining area requires
pumping of groundwater which can result in significant depletion of groundwater storage.
Groundwater is normally hidden from view; as a consequence, many people have difficulty
visualizing its occurrence and movement. This difficulty adversely affects their ability to
understand and to deal effectively with groundwater-related problems.
To simulate the groundwater resources available, groundwater models can be used. Ground
water models are useful tools to investigate the hydrogeological conditions of aquifers. This
means they may be used to investigate the movement of water and even solutes or
contaminations. A model developed gives conceptual approximation of the physical system
being modelled. However, it is important to note that there are some assumptions made in
orders to assist in correcting the errors in the mathematical model which include direction of
flow, geometry of the aquifer, contamination transport, chemical reaction, etc. MODFLOW
software is but one means of groundwater modelling. The grid data used for modelling is
provided by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) grid data for study area.
The groundwater models applications include:
Used to describe and simulate the groundwater system to analyze various
assumptions.
Used in water management for urban areas

Used to generate a hypothetical simulation in order to study principles of groundwater


flow
Observing the water balance, thus, providing a water budget
Observing chemical migration, thus, tracing particle movement in ground water and
therefore, in turn help setting up groundwater protection zones
In this study the groundwater resources of the Lower Kafue basin in the Munali hills area
were investigated using groundwater flow modelling.
1.2 Rationale
The environmental problems in this area include adequate supply of quantities of water for
domestic and mine operations and maintenance of acceptable levels of quality in terms of
physical, chemical and biological characteristics for especially human consumption.
The environmental problem of concern, apart from groundwater quality degradation, in this
area includes the potential depletion of groundwater storage. In mining, pumping of
groundwater may result in significantly reducing groundwater storage which in turn can
result in lowered water levels in wells, hydraulic interference between pumping wells,
reduced surface water discharge, land subsidence, and adverse changes in water quality. The
Munali hills area receives low rainfall as the area is in a drought prone area which results in
lower groundwater recharge as extracted from BID, 2014.
Monitoring and observation of water resources is a vital part of conserving water resources.
With the keeping track of water resources, planners are given a chance to access the quantity
of water available, predict movement of pollutants and make plans for future populations in
turn creating a sustainable water budget. Before any assessments of the water is made there is
need to create an effective model of the water resources of the surrounding area.
Water resources
management and
water planning
requires...
Monitoring and
observation of water
resources which in turn
requires...

Ground water
modelling can be
applied to...

Assessing of water
resources requires...

Figure 1: Rationale

1.3 Research Question


How is the Ground water movement in Albidon mine area?
1.4 Objectives of study
In this project, groundwater will be modelled using MODFLOW software. Thus, the overall
objective of this project will be to model the groundwater in the Albidon mine area thus,
assessing groundwater flow in this area.
The specific objectives to attain the aforesaid mentioned objective include:
Determine the hydrogeological properties of the area and the meteorological
conditions of the area
Analysis of groundwater levels
Use the parameters to create a model; simulate the groundwater resources by
developing a groundwater model using MODFLOW
1.5 Scope of the project
The scope of the project included assessing the groundwater availability in the Lower Kafue
Basin in selected area-Albidon mine area.
The assessment was achieved by developing a model for a suggested delineated area in the
Albidon mine area.
The research covered:
1) Analysis of Geological layers
2) Analysis of meteorology
3) Groundwater flow
4) Groundwater flow predictions

CHAPTER 2:
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Groundwater
2.1.1 Introduction

Figure 2: Types of aquifers and location of wells (Source: Raghunath, 2006)


Groundwater is water in the zone of saturation. Groundwater is one of the renewable water
resources that can be exploited in a sustainable way to help rural communities in terms of
clean domestic water and irrigation. Groundwater is widely distributed under the ground and
is replenish able unlike other resources of the earth.
The main source of groundwater is precipitation, which may reach the groundwater directly
by penetrating the soil or enter surface waters and reach groundwater by base flow from the
channels. It should be stressed that groundwater has the lowest precedence on the water from
precipitation. Before any large amount of water can recharge groundwater interception,
depression storage and evaporation must be satisfied. Groundwater recharge is an irregular
process.
Other sources of groundwater include fossil water carried upwards in intrusive rocks and
water trapped in sedimentary rocks during their formation.
Management of groundwater resources is important as the quality and quantity are
significant to the sustenance of life. Irrigation benefits from groundwater and other domestic
uses as well. Mining and industrialisation cause adverse effects to this water. The mining
activities for instance, by the Munali Nickel mine pose a threat to the groundwater by
degrading and depleting the groundwater resources.
The problems in Groundwater Investigation are the zones of occurrence and recharge. The
modern trends are to create more opportunity for recharge of groundwater from natural
sources like rain, percolation dams, etc.
6

Key terminologies in relation to the occurrence of groundwater are discussed below:


i.

GROUNDWATER: water in the zone of saturation

ii.

SOIL MOISTURE: water in the upper layers of the zone of aeration

iii.

WATER TABLE: the static level of water in wells penetrating the zone of saturation
and is thus, the level at which the groundwater pressure is equal to atmospheric
pressure. It is also known as the phreatic surface, dividing the zone of aeration from
zone of saturation

iv.

AQUIFER: underground formation which contains or transmits groundwater. The


most ones economically are deposits of sand and gravel.

v.

RECHARGE WATER: water that restores the storage of groundwater

vi.

CONFINED AQUIFER: formation sandwiched between rock formations of low


permeability

vii.

UNCONFINED AQUIFER: permeable rock formation


2.1.2 Aquifers and water table

Referring to Figure 2, water bearing geologic formations or stratums capable of transmitting


water through its pores at a rate sufficient for economic extraction by wells is called an
aquifer. An aquifer is thus an underground formation which holds or transmits groundwater.
The capacity of a formation to hold water is measured by the porosity, see section 2.1.4. On
the other hand, an impervious geologic formation, which transmits water at a slow rate
compared to an aquifer, is called an aquitard. This type of formation is insufficient for
pumping from wells. These include clay lenses interbedded with sand.
Formations that serve as good aquifers are:
unconsolidated gravels, sands, alluvium
lake sediments, glacial deposits
sand stones
limestones with caverns. These can be formed by the action of acid waters
granites and marble with fissures and cracks, weathered gneisses and schists
quartzites
vesicular basalts
slates
If there is homogeneous porous formation extending from the ground surface up to an
impervious bed underneath, rainwater percolating down in the soil saturates the formation
and builds up the groundwater table, see section 2.1.4. A water table can be defined as the
7

static level of water in wells. A high water table is characteristic under the hills than under the
valleys.
This aquifer under water table conditions is called an unconfined aquifer and a well drilled
into this aquifer is called a water table well. An unconfined aquifer is a permeable rock
formation which recharges by water from the soil zone and is also called a water table
aquifer. A confined aquifer, also called an artesian aquifer, however, is a formation
confined between two impermeable layers or rock layers of low permeability. Its source of
recharge is separate from the unconfined aquifer above it.
On the other hand, a geologic formation which can absorb water but cannot transmit
significant amounts is called an aquiclude. These include clays and shales for instance.
Also, a geologic formation with no interconnected pores and hence can neither absorb nor
transmit water is called an aquifuge. These include basalts and granites for instance.
Table 1: Confined aquifer Vs. Unconfined aquifer
CHARACTERISTIC

AQUIFER
CONFINED

UNCONFINED

Water table

None

Free

Aquitard location

Aquitard is found on both the Aquitard on bottom layer of the


top and bottom layer of the aquifer
aquifer

Ground water recharge

From source separate to the

By water from the soil zone

Unconfined aquifer above it

Recharge area

Away from the borehole

Around borehole

Figure 3: Diagrammatic representation of the types of Aquifers (Source: Rausch, 2009)


As extracted extensively from Rausch, 2009, Hydraulic properties of an aquifer are
characterized by permeability and storativty. These depend on the porosity of the rock
formations.

Figure 4: Types of aquifers based on media (Source: Rausch, 2009)


2.1.3 Steady flow in aquifers
Groundwater flow can either be transient or steady with respect to time. Steady flow in
aquifers, as described by a scholar T. Ettrick, refers to the situation where water does not
change with time.

Steady state conditions are the basis of assumptions in solving groundwater problems.
However, it is important to note that this is not practical but considered as the ideal starting
point for groundwater analysis.
2.1.4 Movement of Groundwater

Figure 5: Flow of groundwater (Source: Raghunath, 2006)


Where:
V = velocity of flow through the aquifer
K = coefficient of permeability of aquifer soil
i = hydraulic gradient= ratio of h: L, h = head lost in a length of flow path L
A = cross-sectional area of the aquifer (=

); w = width of aquifer and b = thickness of

aquifer
T = coefficient of transmissibility of the aquifer
Q = volume rate of flow of ground water or yield
Table 2: Approximate values of K m/d and n % for various soils and rock types*
Soil and rock types

Porosity n %

Permeability K m/d

Clay

45

0.0002-0.0004

Quartzite, Granite

0.0004

Limestone, Shale

0.041-0.94

Sand

35

2.5-45

Gravel and sand

20

150-450

10

Table 3: Commonly typical values in Southern province (Bumle 2007)


Soil and rock types

Transmisivty

Expected yield

Schist

21.6

1.19

Quartzite, Granite

10.2

1.08

Calc-Silicate/

22.8

1.19

13.5

1.49

Carbonates
Unconsolidated
clastic sediments
*The above table developed shows the various values of permeability and porosity of materials as extracted
from different read texts and not directly extracted from any particular text.

The parameters of importance to groundwater hydraulics include:


1) porosity (n):
This is the ratio of the total volume of voids in the aquifer to the total volume. It is a measure
of the water bearing capacity of the formation, all this water cannot be drained by gravity or
by pumping from wells as a portion of water is held in the void spaces by molecular and
surface tension forces. See table 2 for the porosity characteristic to the different materials.
2) effective porosity (

):

This is the ratio of the volume of void space available

) to water flow divided by the

total volume of the aquifer (V).


3) specific yield ( ):
The volume of water expressed as a percentage of the total volume of the saturated aquifer
that will drain by gravity when the groundwater table drops due to pumping or drainage.
Specific yield depends upon grain size, shape and distribution of pores and compaction of the
formation. The values of specific yields for alluvial aquifers are in the range of 1020% and
for uniform sands about 30%.
4) specific retention (

This is the percentage volume of water, which will not drain by gravity. It corresponds to
field capacity which is the water holding capacity of soil.
Thus,
Porosity = specific yield + specific retention
Equation 1

11

5) hydraulic conductivity (K):


This is the measure of soil permeability.
6) transmissibility (T):
The transmissibility is the flow capacity of an aquifer per unit width under unit hydraulic
gradient and is equal to the product of permeability times the saturated thickness of the
aquifer.
In a confined aquifer, it is independent of the piezometric surface and found by equation 2
Equation 2
Where:
b is the thickness of the aquifer.
In a water table aquifer,
T = KH

Equation 3

Where:
H is the saturated thickness. As the water table drops, H decreases and the transmissibility is
reduced. Thus, the transmissibility of an unconfined aquifer depends upon the depth of
Ground water table.
Excluding large caverns and fissures, groundwater flow is almost entirely laminar. Thus, the
groundwater flow can be defined using Darcys equation.
Darcy (1856) developed a law, Darcys law, which showed the relationship between the
velocity of flow through a porous medium and the hydraulic gradient. However, it only holds
for laminar flow conditions and since groundwater flow has a characteristic Reynolds number
of less than 1 it holds here.
V = Ki

Equation 4

Where:
K is the saturated hydraulic conductivity
i is the hydraulic gradient (see Figure 5)
2.1.5 Groundwater quality
In 2014, as part of the lower Kafue Basin Environmental Project, post graduate diploma
student in Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) at University of Zambia, Kalibe
Phiri, carried out a research with the objective of ensuring that the groundwater resources
being the only reliable source of water in the project area was managed in a manner that
maximizes the economic and social welfare in an equitable manner between Albidon Mine
and the surrounding villages without compromising the sustainability of the vital ecosystems.
12

Albidon Zambia Limited has groundwater pollution monitoring points and publications such
as the EIA document prepared by African Mining Consultants, for the mine; show that
quality of groundwater was monitored. The water supply to Munali Nickel Mine is from
boreholes located within the mine area. There are a total of 23 boreholes in this area. Of the
23 boreholes only 13 are for monitoring purposes while 10 were for water supply to the plant
area and the mine Camp (BID, 2014).
As extracted exclusively from BID (2014), the research shown was that collected water
samples from three boreholes revealed that in terms of physical, chemical, and metals
characteristics of the water were generally good. The parameters where the observations
exceeded WHO and Zambian standards were Lead and Iron, Calcium, Arsenic, Selenium and
Mercury. However, one borehole exceeded the requirements for Total Coliforms (TC) and
Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the bacteriological analysis. These results indicated that the quality
of groundwater in the local community area (boreholes located at Chinkomba Village, SDA
Church, Kazungula Village) was not suitable for human consumption.
Dissolved contaminants (primarily metals, sulphate, and nitrate) can migrate from mining
operations to underlying ground water and surface water. Process water, mine water, and
runoff and seepage from mine waste piles or impoundments can transport dissolved
contaminants to ground water (Bozeman and Montana 2008). The quality of the groundwater
can be affected by the contaminants dissolving and traveling from mine waste materials to
ground water. However, this depends on:
the nature and management of the waste materials
the local hydrogeological setting
the geochemical conditions in the underlying aquifer
2.1.6 Groundwater depletion
Dewatering may be required to lower the water table so that mining can proceed in the case
of underground mines such as Munali Nickel mine, regardless of whether the mine is in
operation or not. When the mine is not in operation it is put under care and maintenance,
dewatering should be continuously implemented to avoid flooding of the mine.
Depending on the stratigraphic occurrence of the mineral beds and the aerial extent of the
economic mineral seams, dewatering can result in a cone of depression that can extend for
miles in the up gradient direction. Water levels can be lowered in groundwater wells that are
in the same hydro stratigraphic unit as the mineral. Mineral ore beds are often characterized
by high hydraulic conductivity, and the associated high transmisivty often makes them
13

attractive for accessing groundwater for domestic use, livestock, and irrigation (United States
Department of Agriculture and Forest Service, USDA, 2007).
The adverse effects of these groundwater depletions include lowered water levels in wells,
hydraulic interference between pumping wells, reduced surface water discharge, land
subsidence, and adverse changes in water quality.
Underground mining directly leads the overlying strata to break and fracture as subsidence
occurs. This fracturing of the overlying strata changes the intrinsic permeability of the strata,
and can alter groundwater flow paths, create areas of increased permeability, and cause
fluctuations in the water table. Where the overlying rock strata are thin between the mined
seam and the land surface, rock fracturing associated with underground mine subsidence can
also directly affect surface water. With respect to groundwater, shallow aquifers could drain
into subsidence fractures, or surface waters and recharge could be diverted into fractures.
2.1.7 Groundwater resources and distribution
A study of the hydrology, hydrogeology and water resources conservation in 2008 was done
by Sichingabula, H. M. and Nyambe, I. A. Most of the research does not stress on the
assessment of groundwater resources but on the surface water resources and hydrogeology of
this area. One of the major negative impacts of mining activities includes the
reduction/deterioration in groundwater supply. To

facilitate underground mining;

groundwater entering the mine area will be pumped out. During dewatering the surrounding
water table may be lowered. Since the main water supply in the area is derived from
groundwater boreholes, any reduction in the groundwater level in the area could result in a
reduction of available potable water in the area. Albidon monitors groundwater levels around
the mine using groundwater monitoring bores.
This project provided a complete environmental assessment when integrated with the quality
of water research done already in this area.
2.1.8 Groundwater Monitoring
Groundwater has a significant role in the environment: it replenishes watercourses such as
rivers, tributaries, and also replenishes wetlands. Groundwater helps in the sustenance of
wildlife and human habitat; this is as it is used as a primary source of drinking water and also
contributes significantly to agricultural and industrial activities.
With the escalation of human activities there has been return in increasing stress on
groundwater resources. Climatic changes also impose a threat on the groundwater resources.
This aggregated pressure on groundwater resources yields inevitable reductions in
14

groundwater storage. The following are identified implications as a result of groundwater


reductions:
implicating the water cycle as groundwater supplies the base flow in many rivers and
it supports evapotranspiration in high water table regions
implicating water quality as the salinity of the extracted water frequently increases
as the volume of the reservoir decreases
Referring to the second implication of groundwater reduction, once groundwater resources
are contaminated, groundwater can be very costly to restore. It is for this reason that
groundwater resources need to be carefully protected. This can be achieved by groundwater
monitoring and tracing movement of contaminants using conceptual models.
A groundwater monitoring programme includes:
groundwater quantity monitoring.
How? By monitoring groundwater level and recharge rates
quality monitoring
How? By analysis of selected physical and chemical parameters
The resolves of groundwater monitoring as investigated are:
i.

collecting, processing and analysing the data as a baseline for assessment of the
current groundwater quantity and quality

ii.

providing information for enhancements in the management of groundwater resources

iii.

providing information for improved policies to be put in place

iv.

providing accumulated data that gives a practical depiction of the state of groundwater
resources, thus, providing foundation for all groundwater resource planning

Table 4: Ground water monitoring activities at different scales


Local scale

Regional scale

Global scale

monitoring activities include

numerical models are

Satellite observations are

a great bulk of:

used to fill in spatial and

now playing an

monitoring wells

temporal gaps in on site

important role in global

multilevel groundwater

monitoring

groundwater resources

sampling

assessment and groundwater

high sampling frequency

storage change

analysis of chosen
parameters

15

As already discussed, measuring of the groundwater level is an activity required in


groundwater monitoring. Different methods can be used to measure the groundwater level
within the piezometer or well.
The most conventional ones being:
i.

electrical sounder: here the insulated wires for a pair of electrodes are fused into a
calibrated flat tape. A circuit is completed when the electrodes come into contact with
the groundwater surface, indicated by the activating of a buzzer or a light, and this is
the depth of static water level

ii.

automatic water level recorders: these are similar to that used in surface water bodies
such as pressure transducers

The groundwater hydraulic head at a point can be described using the elevation of water
above mean sea level at that point. This can be found using a simple relationship between
topography and water static level (see Equation 5)
Equation 5
Where:
EW = Elevation of water above mean sea level (m)
E = Elevation above sea level at point of measurement (m)
D = Static water level; Depth to water (m)
Tools in groundwater management include models and thematic maps produced from ground
water monitoring:
a. Groundwater models
Modelling, whether numerical or mathematical, plays a significant role in groundwater
management. The tenacity that comes with numerical models includes:
allows the analysis of the present conditions as well as provides basis for future
predictions
can simulate and predict the migrating ,or in other words the spreading, of solutes in
groundwater
provides a basis for an estimation of the impact of factors such as temperature and
change in recharge
are a vital tool for the protection of groundwater and the development of measures to
be taken in case of pollution
b. Groundwater resources maps
As earlier discussed, groundwater is monitored mainly by measuring groundwater levels,
groundwater recharge and water quality. The results of these measurements can be combined
16

with other information pieces to produce various groundwater thematic maps covering
regions of interest.
2.2 Groundwater modelling
2.2.1 Introduction
What is a Groundwater model? This is the first question that comes to mind when first
encounter the concept of ground water modelling. A groundwater model is like any other
model which is a simulation of actual field conditions and states. The use of groundwater
models is extended to the simulation of:
groundwater flow
travel of pollutants as transported by the groundwater
Therefore, a groundwater model can either be a flow model or a transport model.
Applications of a flow model would consist of the following:
preparation of transport simulation for instance using the extension of MODPATH in
PMWIN modelling software
delineation of well head protection zones
estimation of water budget
interpretation of observed heads
assessing the impact of changes of a groundwater regime on the environment
Applications of a transport model would consist of the following:
observing chemical transport
interpretation of concentration data
planning of monitoring strategy
Groundwater modelling is considered nowadays as a very useful tool in support of
groundwater management. However, lack of long-term meteorological, hydrological, and
hydraulic data in the basin makes accurate assessment of groundwater resources a difficult
challenge. The behaviour of the groundwater system can be simulated using the modelling
software Modular 3-dimensional finite difference Groundwater model (MODFLOW), of the
United States Geological Survey. The reliability of groundwater modelling is largely
constrained by the quality of input data. However, the techniques of input data acquisition are
still much less developed compared to the numerical modelling tools.
Therefore, effective management of groundwater calls for the prediction of subsurface flow
and the response of fluid to changes in natural or human-induced stresses (Konikow and
Reilly, 1999). The prediction can be helped by groundwater modelling.
17

2.2.3 Computer Software used for Groundwater modelling


The initial and boundary conditions for the model developed can be classified in the
following categories:
i.

Time: steady flow or transient flow conditions

ii.

Dimensionality:
0-D: regional balances
2-D horizontal: regional flow and transport problems
3-D: small scale problems, density effects and vertical flow

iii.

Physical options:
Confined/ unconfined
Flow/transport

iv.

Parameters: these include for instance permeability and transmisivty for each layer

2.2.3.1 FEFLOW
This is a finite-element subsurface flow system. Hence, the name FEFLOW as it stands for
Finite-Element subsurface FLOW system. It uses finite element analysis to solve the
groundwater flow equation of both saturated and unsaturated conditions.
2.2.3.2 MODFLOW
MODFLOW is the United States Geological Survey (USGS) modular finite-difference flow
model. It is a computer code that solves the groundwater flow equation. It is an extension of
software such as Process modflow software for Windows operating systems (PMWIN8 for
instance). The latest version is MODFLOW-2005 and is used as the modelling extension in
PMWIN5 and PMWIN8.
PMWIN8 was the modelling software used to model the selected project area in this study. It
requires the use of consistent units throughout the modelling process.
Important software extensions of PMWIN8 include:
MODFLOW-2005: used to construct the numerical model while
MODPATH: used to compute the capture zone of a pumping well
MT3D and MOC3: simulate constant transport
PEST and UCOD: calibrate the flow model

18

Figure 6: Features of an Aquifer System that can be simulated by MODFLOW (Source:


Rausch, 2009)

Figure 7: Discretization scheme for MODFLOW* (Source: Rausch, 2009)


*Columns (J): correspond to x-coordinate
Rows (I): correspond to y-coordinate
Layers (K): correspond to z-coordinate

19

a)

Aquifer cross section with rectilinear grid superimposed

b) Aquifer cross section with deformed grid superimposed

Figure 8: Schemes of vertical discretization (Source: Rausch, 2009)


With reference to Figure 8, the convention in MODFLOW is to number layers from the top
down. The stratigraphic units as determined in the field from borehole log data can be used as
a premise for the layers.
Table 5: MODFLOW vs. FEFLOW
MODFLOW

FEFLOW

Finite-difference flow model

Finite-element flow model

Heads are only defined at cell nodes

Heads are defined at any point within an


element by an approximate interpolation
function

Continuity is fulfilled at every node

Continuity is fulfilled for every patch of


elements

Used by engineers and scientists

Commercial computer program

2.2.4 Applications of PMWIN groundwater models


Some of the applications are as extracted from the already mentioned general applications of
any groundwater model:
observing the water balance using MODFLOW extension
observing chemical migration using MODPATH extension

20

assessing the impact of changes of groundwater regime on the environment using


MODFLOW extension
setting up groundwater protection zones using MODPATH extension
estimation of a water balance using MODFLOW extension
Mass balance of contaminants using MODPATH extension
2.2.5 Developing of Model
i.

Define the problem and establish purpose of the model. This is the basis of the
formulation of a conceptual model, which again is required prior to development
of mathematical model (Konikow and Reilly, 1999).

ii.

In formulating a conceptual model, evaluation of which processes are important


in the system being studied for the specific problem at hand.

iii.

Decide on the appropriate dimensionality for the numerical model.

iv.

Select code appropriate for the problem at hand. The code must be adapted to the
specific site or region being simulated.

2.2.6 Calibration of Model


The objective of calibration is to minimize differences between the observed data and
calculated values. Thus, when the produced values by the model are within some acceptable
level of accuracy, the model is considered calibrated. According to Konikow and Reilly
(1999), although a poor match provides evidence of errors in the model, a good match in
itself does not prove the validity or adequacy of the model.
2.2.7 Model errors
Some of these errors include:
numerical errors arising in the equation solving algorithm. These errors include
round-off errors, truncation and numerical dispersion.
conceptual errors, which are misunderstandings about the basic processes that are
incorporated in the model.
errors arising from uncertainties and shortfalls in the input data that mirror the
inabilities to describe comprehensively and exceptionally the aquifer properties,
stresses and boundaries.

21

CHAPTER 3:
STUDY AREA

22

3.1 Location and physical setting

Figure 9: Location of Lower Kafue Basin area located south-eastern part of Kafue catchment
area (Source: BID, 2014)

23

Figure 10: Locations of Munali Nickel Mine area, groundwater monitoring stations around
mine area (MAD/GW), in Resettlement and Local Community areas (RAP) and surface water
monitoring stations (SW) an area impacted by the mine. (Source: BID, 2014)
The Munali Nickel Mining project area lies within the Kafue River catchment and lies at the
south-western foot of the Munali Hills, which form a northwest-southeast trend line of ridges.
The project area is defined in the Lower Kafue Sub-Basin which is part of the Kafue Basin. It
is located in the central part of Zambia between Latitude 14 25 -16 39 South and Longitude
27 3-29 31East and covers an area of about 23,783

(Figure 2). The topographic

elevation ranges from 980m around Nega Nega area to 1215m above sea level in the
mountain areas of Kafue town.
The selected study area for this project is the Albidon Mine area. With reference to figure 3,
the area under study, is located in the Southern Province of Zambia, approximately 60km
south west of Lusaka, the capital of Zambia and 16km south of the town of Kafue. The
project is located 2.5km from the main sealed bitumen road between Lusaka and Livingstone.
It is approximately 20km from the Nega Nega railway siding on the LusakaBulawayo
railway line with the Kafue River running approximately 20km to the north of the project
(Africa Mining Consultants, AMC, 2006).

24

3.2 Climate
The southern province is susceptible to drought and therefore an area of particular concern
(Bumle R 2007). The Munali Nickel Mining project area lies within the Kafue River
catchment. The climate is sub-tropical and the climate averages for the region indicate
temperature variations of 10C and 30C and rainfalls of between 500 and 1,200 mm/annum.
The average rainfall data for Lusaka Airport, which represents the most continuous dataset
in the region shows that the area is affected by distinct wet and dry seasons with the
wet season extending from November to April. Based on Mount Makulu station south of
Lusaka data, the average annual evaporation exceeds the average annual precipitation with an
average evaporation of approximately 1960 mm. Evaporation exceeds precipitation for most
of the year (BID, 2014).
In Southern Province are four meteorological stations depended upon to give meteorological
data and the mean temperatures reported at the stations are subtropical and ranges from 19 C
to 22.1C (Bumle R 2007).
A more precise presentation of meteorological data was presented by the records provided by
the Mine and is later presented in the researched results. The average annual rainfall from
these records was found to be 772mm with average annual evaporation as 667mm and
temperature of 21.6 C.
3.3 Landforms and Topography

Figure 11: Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with elevation zones at 200 m- intervals (Source:
Bumle R 2007)

25

The topography is visualised in Figure 11 using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The
elevation of the ground above sea level is displayed at 200 m intervals. Within the Province
the altitude rises from approximately 400 m in the Zambezi valley to almost 1,400 m on the
central plateau. The highest area with an altitude exceeding 1,500 m above sea level is
formed by the Mabwetuba Hills in the south-eastern corner of the Mazabuka District,
approximately 60 km in east-north-east direction of Gwembe.
The project area lies in an undulating area with landscape varying between heights of 1000
and 1296 meters above mean sea level (BID, 2014). As extracted from Figure 4, the elevation
at the project area is about 800 m mean sea level rising to 1200 m in the hills. The ground
falls gently to the southwest down from the hills.
The project area is absent of large water courses. The minor ephemeral streams flow in the
southwest direction from Munali Hills. The Kafue River located 20 km to the north is the
only large permanent watercourse in the area (Nyambe and Sichingabula 2008).
3.4 Local Geology and Hydrogeology of the Munali Hill Area

Figure 12: Aerial photograph showing surface projection of Geology (Source: AMC, 2006)

26

Figure 13: Geology map of Munali hills area (Source: BID, 2014)
The geology of Munali Nickel mining project consists of crystalline massive marbles, calcsilicates, graphite and alusite schists, micaceous quartzites with lesser mica, schists,
massively bedded boitite- staurolite-garnet schists, and gabbroic intrusion (Nyambe and
Sichingabula 2008). These are rocks of low porosity and permeability. The hydrogeology of
Munali project area is therefore dominated by low permeability rocks, within which lie a
series of modest permeability features. These features mostly occur:
where the hanging wall sequence of meta-sediments is predominantly quartzite.
in an area alongside the northern extent of the enterprise reserve which seems to
course across the strike affecting the hanging wall and ore zones.
As extracted from the EIA report prepared by African Mining Consultants, for Albidon
(Zambia) Limited, the main geological feature in the Munali district is an intrusion of gabbro
which has an oval shaped surface projection. This gabbroic body which forms an elongate
rectangular body of about 2.7km length and 0.5km width at surface, concordantly intrusive
into Neoproterozoic sediments.
The topography of the area is defined by surface drainage to the Kafue River to the west. The
main topographic feature in this area is the Munali pass which rises to 1288m above sea
level. The Kafue river system flows to the north of the project area and annually floods the
Kafue Flats forming a large wetlands area. There are no perennial rivers within the project
area apart from seasonal streams of runoff water that flow during the rainy season (Nyambe
and Sichingabula 2008). The two streams located within the mine area include
Nsambabatumbu and Chinkomba. These seasonal rivers and lakes form part of the
catchments areas of the Kafue river system.

27

The groundwater levels in this project area are generally between 20 and 40m Bgl. The
hydraulic gradient and hence groundwater flow is generally from Northeast to the southwest
away for the Munali hills which probably represent a groundwater divide (Nyambe and
Sichingabula 2008 ).
3.5 Groundwater quality and monitoring boreholes
Referring to figure 10, the locations of groundwater monitoring stations are shown. The water
supply to Munali Nickel Mine is from boreholes located within the mine area. There are a
total 23 boreholes. Of the 23 boreholes only 13 are for monitoring purposes while 10 are for
supplying water to the plant area and the mine camp (BID, 2014). Groundwater is used
widely in the project area for domestic and potable water. For the Chikomba settlement and
surrounding villages, groundwater is the main source of water. As of 2006, before the
settlement of the mine, the groundwater quality was found to meet WHO and Zambian
standards both chemically and bacteriologically (AMC, 2006).
3.6 Agriculture
Agriculture is done both commercially and subsistent. The Local land use in the area include
subsistence agriculture, livestock grazing and sand mining especially in the settlement
Kasengo Village area north of Munali Hills area (Nyambe

and

Sichingabula, 1995).

Commercial crops grown are maize and coffee, were also livestock rearing of cattle, goats
and pigs is also existent.
3.7 Environmental Study Problem in area
With reference to the extensive background study conducted by the IWRM centre at UNZA,
the identified study problems include:
inadequate supply of quantities of water for domestic and mine operations
inadequate maintenance of acceptable levels of water quality
socio-economic problems related to resettlement of local people from mine project
area

28

3.8 Delineation of project area for model

a) (Source: Google Earth)


LEGEND:
Borehole
Main road T1 or T2
River

1
1

2
1
3
1

4
1
b) Extracted from Google Earth map above
Figure 14: Project area delineation
Table 6: UTM coordinates for delineated area in Figure 14
Point
1
2
3
4

Em
601 999.716
606 563.840
632 488.066
618917.403

29

Nm
825 8453.673
8263 504.637
8249021.149
8233868.256

CHAPTER 4:
METHODOLOGY

30

4.1 Tools

The hydrogeological properties of the area where obtained from pumping tests and
borehole completion reports from technical reports compiled for Southern Province
by DWA. Other sources included updated GeoDin Database data base for Southern
Province. The borehole completion form provided details on the soil stratification
units of the aquifer while the pumping tests were used to compute the hydrological
properties of the soil such as the hydraulic conductivity. The computed hydraulic
conductivity was provided for each borehole.

Meteorological conditions characteristic to the project area were investigated by


collecting records from Albidon mine and reports compiled by DWA.

Identification of borehole location and selection of boreholes to be used as observed


hydraulic heads in simulation of model and calibration. The groundwater levels were
obtained from the water affairs GeoDin database.

The parameters of the earth obtained above were placed into a groundwater simulator.
In this project MODFLOW was used to create the groundwater model. Thus, last step
is the developing of model.

Meteorological parameters

PARAMETERS TO ENTER
INTO MODEL
Observed
hydraulic heads
for Boreholes
selected

Hydrogeological
parameters

Figure 15: Input Parameters required for modelling

31

4.2 Hydrogeological analysis

Figure 16: Hydrogeological map of project area (Source: Bumle, 2007)


LEGEND:
Aquifer category
Stratum with intermediate characteristics
Aquifer classification system

Based on the aquifer classification system and the Hydrogeological map the aquifer in the
project area is intermediate to class B and E. Refer to Appendix A for the Hydraulic aquifer
characteristics.

32

Figure 17: Psuedosection of Munali mine area (Source: Albidon mine)


The Lithology of the selected boreholes and their respective yields is presented in Borehole
log data (see section 4.4). For simplification of the groundwater model developed, the
predominantly general lithology that was adopted is shown below based on borehole log data
and other data analysed: (Refer to Appendix A for aquifer category)
Table 7: Hydrogeological analysis
Layer

Thickness m

Aquifer

n%

K m/s

Aquifer
category

sand

Unconfined 35

0.000474537 0.00016 E-B

15

Unconfined 2

0.000002314 0.00025 E

Unconfined 0.5

0.000000004 0.00012 E

(top)
schist

Quartzite 83
(bottom)

33

4.3 Meteorological analysis


Table 8: Temperature parameter
Station

Latitude S

Longitude E Altitude m
above sea level
Kafue polder
15.767
27.917
978
Magoye
16.133
27.633
1018
With reference to Table 8, the temperature adopted was 21.6

Temperature
21.6
21.3

Table 9: Long-term rainfall and evaporation for stations in Southern Province


Station

Rainfall Rainfall Actual


PET Net
Runoff coefficient
days
Evaporation
Evaporation %
Mm
Day
Mm
mm
Mm
Kafue polder
767
68
667
1522 -726
17
Magoye
720
67
674
1634 -914
6
With reference to Table 9, the Evaporation parameters adopted were for Kafue polder station.
Table 10: Mine site Seasonal Rainfall

Rainfall data
1200
1000
800
600

Rainfall data

400
200
0
2009/10

2010/11

2011/12

2012/13

2013/14

With reference to Table 10, the mean annual average rainfall is 772 mm which is
0.002115068 m/s recharge water from precipitation without considering losses to say,
evaporation.

34

4.4 Borehole analysis


i)
DEM FOR DETERMINING TOPOGRAPHY OF PROJECT AREA:

Figure 18: Shaded relief and block diagram generated from the DEM
With reference to Figure 18 the DEM gave a predominant topography of 800-1200m above
mean sea level in delineated project area. Adopting an altitude of 1090m above mean seal
level as average altitude, from borehole 8070439 (see borehole log data) centred in this area,
was agreeable as it fell within DEM range of values.
ii)

BOREHOLE LOG DATA :

The boreholes in the project area were identified as shown in table below
Table 11: BH log data
Water
point

mE

mN

Altitude
(m asl)

Observed
Hydraulic
Head
(m asl)
8070401 609633.71 8249535.34 1010
27.0
5.0
1005
8070439 623218.98 8241844.10 1036.6
89.5
11.6
1025
8070166 627189.94 8240872.96 1052
63.0
20.5
1032
Note: The Observed Hydraulic Head was calculated using equation 5 ( see section 2.1.8)

35

Total depth
Of BH (m)

Static water
Level
(m bgl)

iii)

PUMPING WELL:

The selected pumping well is BH7 (35L0621163 m E, 8238512 m N) has the following
properties:
Em

Table 12: PUMPING WELL BH7 useful data for modelling


Nm
Injection rate
Transmisivty

621 163

8 238 512

-0.00174

0.00025

4.5 Design of the groundwater model


4.5.1

Selection of suitable modelling software

The selected software was based on the available data or input parameters readily obtainable
and this dictated use of MODFLOW. Therefore, PMWIN8 was the ultimate choice and
starting from section 4.5.2, the steps that follow are based on the already described software
(see section 2.2.3.2)
4.5.2

Dimensional units adopted in modelling

Table 13: Dimensional analysis


Dimension

Units
[L]
[T]
[
[
[

4.5.3

M
D

Description
Metres
Days

]
Per day
Metres/day

]
]
Selection of Control point for modelling

The selected control point for modelling was based on water point 8070439 with highest
water depth of 89.5 m and most reliable borehole logged data as suggested by the GeoDin
database.
4.5.4

Initial prescribed Head

The initial guess for the initial prescribed head was assessed based on altitude and hydraulic
heads for selected boreholes. The adopted value was 1090 m asl. For the constant head see
section 4.5.5.
4.5.5

Constant head for Kafue river boundary

Table 14: Kafue river levels for 2013/2014 (see APPENDIX F)

TOTAL m
AVERAGE m

OCT NOV
29318.40 26309.60
977.29 977.00

DEC
30282.05
976.80

JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
30289.60 27365.10 30298.85 29317.85 30293.35
977.10 977.40 977.40 977.30 977.20

36

JUN
29319.50
977.30

JUL
30303.60
978.00

With reference to Table showing Kafue River levels, the average constant head was analysed
as:
Constant head=
=
= 977.3m
4.5.6

Model extent

With reference to Table 6, the model extent was determined and using a cell size of
100 x 100 the number of rows and columns resolved:
Table 15: Model extent

4.5.7

ROWS

COLUMNS

MODEL EXTENT

31 100

43 500

NUMBER

311

435

Defining of Grid Position

The viewing window size must be larger than the worksheet for the model. It is for this
reason that the following data sets were adopted as input coordinates for the Grid position.
Table 16: Grid position coordinates
Em
COORD
598 000
598 000
642 000
NOTE: Value of A=0 was used for rotation of Grid

Nm
8 265 000
8 233 000
8 265 000

COORD

4.5.8

Model thickness and Layers

Table 17: Lithology of model


Layer
Description
Number
1
Sand
2
Schist
3
Quartzite
4.5.9 Hydraulic parameters

Thickness m
2
15
83

Top
elevation m
100
98
83

Bottom
elevation m
98
83
0

The following were used as initial guesses:


Table 18: Vertical and Horizontal Hydraulic conductivity parameters
Layer
Number
1
2
3

Description

HK

VK (

Sand
Schist
Quartzite

41
0.20
0.0004

0.41
0.02
0.00004

37

4.5.10 Recharge
The effective recharge that was used was 105mm/yr. When introducing the recharge to
MODFLOW the units were converted from millimetres per year to metres per day yielding
0.000288m/d.
4.5.11 Calibration
Calibration was done by varying hydraulic conductivity. This was attained by manually
varying the horizontal hydraulic conductivity HK.
4.5.12 Model Summary
Table 19: Model summary
VARIABLE

DETAILS

Rows

311

Columns

435

Grid Cell Size

100

Number of stress periods

Layers

Maximum Model Elevation

100

Simulation flow type

Steady State

Solver Package

PCG

Boundary Packages

Well and Recharge

Observations

Head Observation

38

CHAPTER 5:
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

39

5.1

Model visualisation from PMWIN8 based on hydraulic heads


5.1.1

2-D visualisation for result type: Hydraulic heads

Figure 19: Schematic diagram showing flow direction

Figure 20: Schematic with contours filled


Remarks:
General direction of ground water flow is in North East direction.

40

5.1.2 Checking final calibration results using results of all observation boreholes
i.

This was done firstly manually using an excel sheet to do calibration verification (see
Table 20).
Table 20: Calibration Verification for run 5

ii.

Using correlation of Observed to Calculated borehole hydraulic heads, a scatter


diagram was produced.

Table 21: Correlation verification


Obsnam
8070401
8070439
8070514

Observed hydraulic
head
1005.00
1025.00
1032.00

Calculated
hydraulic head
1003.81
1022.76
1033.5

Correlation
1.001
1.002
0.999

Figure 21: Scatter diagram using all observation BH


Remarks: The plot in Figure 21 and correlation table verify how well calibrated the
values are to simulate realistic values of hydraulic heads for the observation boreholes.

41

5.2 Particle tracking in case of spillage in Mine area into groundwater

Figure 22: Particle tracking for one particle


Remarks:
People settled downstream will be affected by spill for forward particle movement.

The shortest possible time for a particle to reach and contaminate the Kafue river
in case of spill is 6 days with the trajectory shown.

5.3 Capture zone as result of Dewatering at Albidon mine area


Table 22: Abstraction point data
622 000 m E, 8 241 000 m N
-2750
Dewatering of Mine

Location of abstraction point


Injection rate
Purpose

The injection rate is negative since the underground pumping of water implies a pumping
well. The effect to the ground water is shown below in the schematic diagram saved from
the developed model in PMWIN8.

42

Figure 23: Abstraction effect if pumping out 700

Figure 24: Dewatering effect when Mine is in full operation


Remarks: The reduction of hydraulic head is significantly high in capture zone of the
abstraction point such that prolonged pumping will cause drying in capture zone of
pumping well (see Figure 24).

43

44

CHAPTER 6:
DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS

45

6.1 DISCUSSION
6.1.1

Interpretation of the Groundwater model

This model developed aims at conceptualizing the real field conditions and state of the
groundwater. Thus, it must not be confused with an accurate simulation as it is used for the
purpose of a conceptual model. The model shows that the water flows towards the Kafue
River away from the hills generally following the topography.
From the model it was easy to see that the hydraulic conductivity of the top layer affected the
rate of recharge. This is because as soon as the water reaches the second layer, the rate is
increased.
6.1.2

Divergence from Observed data

Apart from model simplification, divergence from observed data could be due to error in
hydraulic readings.
Like any other model, its simulation of data is limited to limiting factors such as:
Boundary conditions
Parameter estimates
Assumptions to flow such as assuming steady state flow
For some regions the assumptions made where realistic. However, the reliability and validity
of each estimate would still need scrutiny as they remained unknown.
6.1.3

Discussion of Results

The general direction of ground water flow is in North East direction. The reliability of the
results was dependent on the quality of the calibrated hydraulic heads in the modelled area.
This was shown by the scatter diagram having a correlation or gradient of about 1.00.
In case of a spill in the mine People settled downstream will be affected by spill for forward
particle movement. The shortest possible time for a particle to reach and contaminate the
Kafue river in case of spill is 6 days with the trajectory shown.
The reduction of hydraulic head was found to be significantly high in the capture zone of the
abstraction point. This caused drying in capture zone of pumping well hence satisfying
purpose of pumping which is dewatering of mine. The effect on the neighbouring hydraulic
heads was also shown using the model.

46

6.2 CONCLUSSION
A groundwater model was developed for Munali project area in the Lower Kafue basin. From
this model, it was deduced that the general groundwater flow is away from the hills and down
to the Kafue River. The general direction of flow within the project area was thus, concluded
to be in the North East direction.
For the groundwater model a manual calibration was done and with more time could be
perfected or yield more reliable results.
Due to time constraint, only a Steady State model was developed. A Transient State model
would yield more reliable results but is more involving. However, a Steady State assumption
even in numerical analysis is acceptable.
This model can be used for flow predictions due to predicted changes in recharge. It was also
successfully used to trace particle trajectory and time for contamination based on selected
predictions and assumptions in MODPATH.
6.3 RECOMMENDATIONS
The downward flow of water towards the Kafue River away from the hills in tells that
consumers of ground water North East from the contamination point are at a risk of exposure
to the contaminants coming upstream. Thus, recommendations for protection zones must be
intensified starting in Mine area grid and progressing less and less downstream towards the
Kafue River.
More environmental care must be taken in the mine as in case of a spill into the ground water
as the shortest possible time for contamination of the Kafue river is about 6 to 10 days.
Monitoring of boreholes must be taken more serious by the mines environmental assessment
team. A more regular monitoring must be done, reports compiled and implementations put in
place in case of leakage in mine.
The Department of Water affairs Lusaka must intervene in the development of groundwater
management in Southern Province by partnering with stakeholders like the mines. This can
help towards better environment conservation and groundwater planning.

47

APPENDIX
APPENDIX A: Hydraulic characteristics of aquifers
Aquifer Specific
Category capacity
(L/s/m)

Transmisivty
(

Permeability
(m/d)

A,C
B,D
E
F

>75
5-75
0.05-5
<0.05

>3
0.2-3
0.002-0.2
<0.002

>1
0.1-1
0.001-0.1
<0.001

Very
approximated
Expected yield
(L/s)
>10
1-10
0.01-1
<0.01

Groundwater
Potential

HIGH
MODERATE
LIMITED
ESSENTIALLY
NONE

APPENDIX B: Symbols used in MODFLOW


Symbol

Description

M
HK

Thickness of model layer


Hydraulic horizontal
conductivity
Vertical hydraulic conductivity
Transmisivty
Storage coefficient of storativty
Specific storage
Specific yield
Effective porosity
Vertical leakance
Horizontal anisotropy
Vertical anisotropy

VK
T
S

V CONT
HAN I
VAN I

DIMENSIONAL
ANALYSIS
[L]
[
]
[
[

]
]
-

]
-

]
-

APPENDIX C: Borehole site location from GeoDin database

SHORTNAME
8070401
8070439
8070514

LONGNAME XCOORD YCOORD GISXCOORDGISYCOORD PROVINCE CODE


Nega-Nega
28.03864 15.83544 28.03864 -15.83544 800
Chivwende Cheelo28.15103
V
15.99483 28.15103 -15.99483 800
Mugoto
28.09163 15.94592 28.09163 -15.94592 800

DISTRICT CODE
807
807
807

LOCALITY
Nega Nega
Chivwende Cheelo
Mugoto

APPENDIX D: Borehole BH log data from GeoDin database


SHORTNAME
8070401
8070439
8070514

READING
hgps
Hgps
Hgps

WASTATIC ZCOORDE ZCOORDB WPTYPE


5
27
1010 Bhp
11.6
89.5
1036.6 Bhp
20.5
63
1052 Bhp

With reference to APPENDIX C and D, description of the terminologies used in the database
is provided in APPENDIX E.

48

APPENDIX E: GeoDin database terminologies


TERMINOLOGY DESCRIPTION
Short name

Water point number assigned for catalogue purposes

Hgps

Hand held gps

WASTATIC

Static level of water, depth to water in BH (m bgl)

ZCOORDE

Depth of borehole (m)

XCOORD

Latitude

YCOORD

Longitude

ZCOORDB

Altitude (m)

Bhp

Borehole with hand pump

800

Southern Province database code

807

Mazabuka district database code

APPENDIX F: Kafue River levels using gauging station for Nakambala in Mazabuka
KAFUE RIVER LEVELS 2013/2014 SEASON AT NAKAMBALA
DATE

OCT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

977.50
977.50
977.45
977.45
977.45
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.35
977.35
977.35
977.30
977.30
977.30
977.30
977.30
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.20
977.20
977.15
977.15
977.15
977.15
977.15
977.15
977.15
977.10
977.10

NOV

977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.05
977.05
977.05
977.05
977.05
977.05
977.05
977.00
977.00
976.95
976.95
976.95
976.90
976.90
976.90
976.90
976.90
976.90
976.90
976.90
976.90
976.90
976.90
976.90

DEC

976.90
976.80
976.80
976.80
976.80
976.80
976.80
976.80
976.75
976.75
976.75
976.75
976.75
976.80
976.85
976.85
976.85
976.85
976.85
976.85
976.85
976.85
976.90
976.90
976.90
976.90
976.90
976.90
976.95
976.95
976.90

JAN

977.00
977.00
977.00
977.00
977.05
977.05
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10
977.10

FEB

977.10
977.20
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.30
977.35
977.35
977.35
977.35
977.35
977.35
977.35
977.35
977.35
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40

MAR

APR

977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.35
977.35
977.35
977.35
977.35
977.35
977.35
977.35
977.35
977.30

977.30
977.30
977.30
977.30
977.30
977.30
977.30
977.30
977.30
977.30
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.25

49

MAY

977.25
977.25
977.25
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20
977.20

JUN

977.20
977.20
977.20
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.25
977.30
977.30
977.30
977.30
977.30
977.30
977.30
977.30
977.30
977.30
977.35
977.35
977.35
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.40
977.45
977.45
977.45

JUL

977.45
977.45
977.45
977.45
977.45
977.50
977.50
977.50
977.50
977.50
977.50
977.50
977.50
977.55
977.55
977.55
977.55
977.55
977.55
977.55
977.55
977.55
977.60
977.60
977.60
977.60
977.60
977.60
977.60
977.60
977.60

AUG

SEP

APPENDIX G: Water Budget produced from run model for zero recharge
PMWBLF (SUBREGIONAL WATER BUDGET) RUN RECORD
FLOWS ARE CONSIDERED "IN" IF THEY ARE ENTERING A SUBREGION
THE UNIT OF THE FLOWS IS [L^3/T]

TIME STEP

1 OF STRESS PERIOD 1

=============================================================
WATER BUDGET OF THE WHOLE MODEL DOMAIN:
=============================================================

FLOW TERM
STORAGE

IN

OUT

IN-OUT

0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00

CONSTANT HEAD 0.0000000E+00 2.4500793E+02 -2.4500793E+02


WELLS 2.4500000E+02 0.0000000E+00 2.4500000E+02
DRAINS 0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00
RECHARGE 0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00
ET 0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00
RIVER LEAKAGE 0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00
HEAD DEP BOUNDS 0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00
STREAM LEAKAGE 0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00
INTERBED STORAGE 0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00
RESERV. LEAKAGE 0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00
-------------------------------------------------------------SUM 2.4500000E+02 2.4500793E+02 -7.9345703E-03
DISCREPANCY [%] 0.00

REFERENCES

50

Shaw, E.M. (2005). Hydrology in Practice (3rd Edition Ed.). London: Taylor and Francis eLibrary.
Raghunath, H.M (2006). Hydrology-Principles. Analysis. Design (2nd Edition ed.). New
Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd.
S.Siwila, 2014, Modelling Course Notes, University of Zambia.
Chow, V.T., Maidment, D.R and Mays, L.W., 1988, Applied Hydrology, New York:
McGraw-Hill
Clifford.M, 2013. Geophysical Investigation Report,St Bonaventure Case Study.
Konikow, L.F and Reilly, E.T 1999, Groundwater Modelling, Boca Raton, F, USA: CRC
Press LLC
X.Yang,J Thomas,D.R Steward.2009. Using Conceptual Data to Model Groundwater Flow
with PMWIN. Kansas University
Anderson,M.P and Woessner,W.W.1992.Applied Groundwater Modelling simulation of Flow
and Adjective Transport. Academic Press
Appello,C.A.J and Postma D.1996.Geochemistry,Groundwater and pollution A.ABalkema
Netherlands.
W.H Chiang and Kinzelbach,W.2001.PMWIN: Processing Modelling Flow for Windows
Davies,S.N and De Wiest R.J.M 1966. Hydrogeology. John Wiley and Sons,New York.
Fetter,C.W. 1994. Applied Hydrogeology. Prentice Hall,New Jersey
Aquastatat,1995,
National Water Policy,1994,Zambia
Anderson M.P and W.W Woessner. 1994.

Applied Groundwater Modeling. Academic

Press.Inc. San Diego.CA


Strassberg,G,2005, A Geographic data model for Groundwater system, PhD thesis,
University of Texas at Austin
Bear,J.,Beljin, M.S., Rose,R. 1992.1992 Fundamentals of Groundwater Modelling. EPA
Groundwater Issue (onlind: http://www.epa.gov/tsp/download/issue13.pdf)
Albert Tuinhof, Stephen Foster, Karin Kemper, Hctor Garduo, Marcella Nanni,
Groundwater Monitoring Requirements for managing aquifer response and quality threats
Amitha Kommadath, Estimation of natural ground water recharge
Bumle 2007, the Groundwater Resources of Southern Province, Zambia Volume 1 Technical Report
Chapman & Walmsley 2008 Zambia (country report) p6

51

C. P. Kumar, Groundwater assessment methodology estimation of ground water recharge


using soil moisture balance approach
Glasser S, Gauthier J, Gurrieri J, and Keely J 2007 Technical Guide to Managing Ground
Water Resources, United States Department of Agriculture and Forest Service p47
Simon. C and Dynamond. A 2007, CoppermininginZambia
SDWF 2004 Mining and Water Pollution viewed 12 may 2014 htt//www.safewater.org
Glasser S, Gauthier J, Gurrieri J, and Keely J 2007 Technical Guide to Managing Ground
Water Resources, United States Department of Agriculture and Forest Service p48
Bozeman.

2008

Acid Mine Drainage and Effects on Fish Health and Ecology

by

reclamation Research Group, LLC, p3


Nyambe and Sichingabula A study of the hydrology, hydrogeology and water resources
conservation 2008
L. Pepper, P. Gerba and L. Brusseau 2006 Environmental & Pollution Science Second
Edition British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data p23
Environmental Mining Council of BC. March, 2000. Acid Mine Drainage: Mining & Water
Pollution Issues in BC. http://www.miningwatch.ca/updir/amd.pdf p1.
Albidon EIA by African Mining Consultants June 2006 p1
The Groundwater Resources of Southern Province, Zambia Volume 1 - Technical Report Technical Co-operation, Project No. BMZ PN 2003.2024.2 p4
The Groundwater Resources of Southern Province, Zambia Volume 1 - Technical Report Technical Co-operation, Project No. BMZ PN 2003.2024.2 p20
Acid Mine Drainage and Effects on Fish Health and Ecology by reclamation Research Group,
LLC, Bozeman, Montana 2008
Groundwater Resources Management Pty Ltd., (GRM), 2007. Hydrogeological Investigations
2007, Munali Nickel Project, Zambia. 41p.
Zambia environmental management agency a report on the Kafue river surface water &
sediments sampling campaign- November-December 2011 p15
Sichingabula, H. M. and Nyambe, I. A., 2008.

Environmental Management Plan:

Hydrology, Hydrogeology and Water Resources Conservation, Albidon Nickel Mine, Zambia.
Report prepared for the Albidon (Zambia) limited for the Development of Environmental and
Social Management Plan, Munali Nickel Mine, Lusaka, Zambia. 67, 8, 9 pp.

52