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Kinetics of Particle

Solution Approach
A.
B.
C.

direct application of Newtons second law (called the


forcemass-acceleration method)
use of work and energy principles
solution by impulse and momentum methods

SECTION A: FORCE, MASS, AND


ACCELERATION
Newtons Second Law
If the resultant force acting on a particle is not zero, the particle
will have an acceleration proportional to the magnitude of the
resultant and in the direction of this resultant force.

SECTION A: FORCE, MASS, AND


ACCELERATION
Experiment: subjecting a mass particle to the action of
a single force, F1, F2, Fn.
1.
the ratios of applied force to corresponding
acceleration all equal the same number, provided
the units used for measurement are not changed
in the experiments.

the constant C is a measure of some invariable


property of the particle.
This property is the inertia of the particle, which is
its resistance to rate of change of velocity.
The mass m is used as a quantitative measure of
inertia.

SECTION A: FORCE, MASS, AND


ACCELERATION
2.

The acceleration is always in the direction of


the applied force. Vector relation:

U.S. customary units: the units of mass (slugs)


are derived from the units of force (pounds
force, lb) divided by acceleration (feet per
second squared, ft/sec2). Thus, the mass units are
slugs = lb-sec2/ft.
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absolute system (SI)

gravitational system (US)

Equation of Motion
and Solution of Problems
Equation of motion:

Two Types of Dynamics Problems:


1. a of the particle is either specified or can be
determined, we then determine the corresponding
forces.
2. The forces F acting on the particle are specified and we
must determine the resulting motion.

Equation of Motion
and Solution of Problems
Constrained and Unconstrained Motion
unconstrained motion: the particle is free of mechanical
guides and follows a path determined by its initial motion
and by the forces which are applied to it from external
sources. An airplane or rocket in flight and an electron
moving in a charged field are examples of unconstrained
motion.
constrained motion: the path of the particle is partially or
totally determined by restraining guides. A train moving
along its track and a collar sliding along a fixed shaft.

Equation of Motion
and Solution of Problems
Degrees of freedom
independent coordinates are required to specify the position
of the particle at any instant.
three degrees of freedom: 3 independent coordinates are
required to specify the position free moving particle,
airplane, rocket in free flight.
two degrees of freedom: a marble sliding on the curved surface
of a bowl
one degree of freedom: If a particle is constrained to move along
a fixed linear path, as is the collar sliding along a fixed shaft.
Free-Body Diagram: every force, known and unknown, which
acts on the particle is represented and thus accounted for.
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Equation of Motion
and Solution of Problems
The general procedure
1. Identify the motion
2. choose the coordinate system
3. draw the free-body diagram of the body.
4. Obtain the appropriate force summations from this
diagram in the usual way.

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Rectilinear Motion

moving at x direction only

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General case

Example

A 75-kg man stands on a spring scale


in an elevator. During the first 3
seconds of motion from rest, the
tension T in the hoisting cable is
8300 N. Find the reading R of the
scale in newtons during this interval
and the upward velocity v of the
elevator at the end of the 3 seconds.
The total mass of the elevator, man,
and scale is 750 kg.
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Example

Free body diagram

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Example

A small inspection car with a mass of 200 kg runs along


the fixed overhead cable and is controlled by the attached
cable at A. Determine the acceleration of the car when the
control cable is horizontal and under a tension T 2.4 kN.
Also find the total force P exerted by the supporting cable
on the wheels.

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Example

Free body diagram

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Curvilinear Motion

The choice of appropriate coordinate


system depends on the conditions of the
problems.
Rectangular coordinates

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Curvilinear Motion

Normal and tangential coordinates

Polar coordinates

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Curvilinear Motion
The general procedure
1. Identify the motion
2. Choose the coordinate system
3. draw the free-body diagram of the body.
4. Obtain the appropriate force summations from this
diagram in the usual way.

The free-body diagram should be complete to avoid incorrect


force summations.

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Example

A 1500-kg car enters a section of curved road in the


horizontal plane and slows down at a uniform rate from a
speed of 100 km/h at A to a speed of 50 km/h as it passes
C. The radius of curvature of the road at A is 400 m and
at C is 80 m. Determine the total horizontal force
exerted by the road on the tires at positions A, B, and C.
Point B is the inflection point where the curvature
changes direction.

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Contoh

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Example

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Example

Angel of direction of a and F?


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Work and Kinetic Energy


These cases involve:
1. integration of the forces with respect to the
displacement of the particle the equations of work and
energy
2. integration of the forces with respect to the time they
are applied the equations of impulse and momentum.

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Work and Kinetic Energy

The work done by the force F during


the displacement dr is defined as

dr = ds cos
dU = F.ds cos = F cos ds
F cos = Ft

The component Fn = F sin normal to


the displacement does no work.
Work is positive if the working
component Ft is in the direction of the
displacement and negative if it is in the
opposite direction.
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Work and Kinetic Energy


Units of Work
The SI units of work are those of force (N) times
displacement (m) or This unit is given the special name
joule (J).
In the U.S. customary system, work has the units of ft-lb.
Calculation of Work

Or,
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Work and Kinetic Energy


(1) Work Associated with a Constant External Force.

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Work and Kinetic Energy


(2) Work Associated with a Spring Force

If the body begins at the undeformed spring position and then


moves to the right, the spring force is to the left; if the body begins
at x1= 0 and moves to the left, the spring force is to the right.
if the body moves from an arbitrary initial position x1= 0 to the
undeformed final position x2=0, so the work is positive.

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Work and Kinetic Energy


(3) Work Associated with Weight
A. Case g = constant constant If the altitude variation is small
The horizontal movement does not contribute to this work.
If the body rises, then ( y2>y1) > 0 and this work is negative. If
the body falls, ( y2 <y1) < 0 and the work is positive.

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Work and Kinetic Energy


(3) Work Associated with Weight
(B). Case (b) g constant If large changes in altitude occur
if a body rises to a higher altitude (r2 > r1), this work is
negative, if the body falls to a lower altitude (r2 < r1), the work
is positive.

Massa bumi 5.98 1024 kg


G 6.672 10
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N m2
kg 2

Work and Kinetic Energy

Work and Curvilinear Motion

Principle of Work and Kinetic Energy

work-energy equation
the total work done by all forces acting on a particle as it moves from
point 1 to point 2 equals the corresponding change in kinetic energy
of the particle

T selalu positif
T bisa positif, negatif, atau nol
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Work and Kinetic Energy

Daya: Kerja yang dilakukan dalam waktu tertentu

Efficiency

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Example

Calculate the velocity v of the 50-kg crate when it


reaches the bottom of the chute at B if it is given an initial
velocity of 4 m/s down the chute at A. The coefficient of
kinetic friction is 0.30.

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Solution

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Potential Energy
Gravitational Potential Energy
The gravitational potential energy Vg of the
particle is defined as the work m.g.h done
against the gravitational field to elevate the
particle a distance h above some arbitrary
reference plane (called a datum)
In going from one level at h=h1 to a higher
level at h=h2, the change in potential energy

If Vg2 > Vg1 potential energy is increasing,


so the work U1-2 is negatif. So : -m.g.h
The work is positive if potential energy
decreases
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Potential Energy
Gravitational Potential Energy
When large changes in altitude, the
gravitational force Gmme/r2 = mgR2/r2 is
no longer constant (inconstant).
The work done by GPE: U = Vg

It is customary to take (Vg)2=0 when


r2=~, so that with this datum we have
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Potential Energy

Elastic Potential Energy


positive

The force exerted on the spring by the moving body is


equal and opposite to the force F exerted by the spring
on the body
SO: The work done on the spring is the negative of the work
done on the body.
Therefore, we may replace the work U done by the spring on
the body by -Ve,
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Potential Energy

Work-Energy Equation
T

U1-2: the work of all external forces other than


gravitational forces and spring forces

law of conservation of dynamical energy

U1-2 = 0

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Problem

The 6-lb slider is released from rest at position 1 and slides


with negligible friction in a vertical plane along the circular rod.
The attached spring has a stiffness of 2 lb/in. and has an
unstretched length of 24 in. Determine the velocity of the
slider as it passes position 2.

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Solution

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM


Linear Impulse and Linear Momentum

the linear momentum of partikel:


G = mv (kg.m/s or N.s or lb-sec)
the resultant of all forces acting on a particle
equals its time rate of change of linear
momentum.
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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM


The Linear Impulse-Momentum Principle

linear impulse of the force

the total linear impulse on m equals the


corresponding change in linear
momentum of m
the initial linear momentum of the body
plus the linear impulse applied to it
equals its final linear momentum

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impulse-momentum diagram

IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM

Conservation of Linear Momentum

If F = 0, So G1 = G2 Constant Conserved

Impulsive forces: very large force and has short duration


Non-impulsive force: can be neglected in comparison
with impulsive forces. Example: the weight of a baseball
during its collision with a batthe weight of the ball
(about 5 oz) is small compared with the force exerted on
the ball by the bat.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM

Example
A tennis player strikes the tennis ball with her racket when
the ball is at the uppermost point of its trajectory as
shown. The horizontal velocity of the ball just before
impact with the racket is v1= 50 ft/sec, and just after
impact its velocity is v2 = 70 ft/sec directed at the 15 angle
as shown. If the 2-oz (0.125 lb) ball is in contact with the
racket for 0.02 sec, determine the magnitude of the
average force R exerted by the racket on the ball. Also
determine the angle made by R with the horizontal.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM

Solution

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM

We note that the impact force Ry = 3.64 lb is considerably


larger than the 0.125-lb weight of the ball. Thus, the weight
mg, a nonimpulsive force, could have been neglected as
small in comparison with Ry. Had we neglected the weight,
the computed value of Ry would have been 3.52 lb.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM


Angular Impulse and Angular Momentum
Angular momentum HO of P about O: The moment of the
linear momentum vector mv about the origin O
The angular momentum is a vector
perpendicular to the plane A defined by r and v.
The sense of HO is clearly defined by the righthand rule for cross products.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM


Angular Impulse and Angular Momentum

mvr sin , is the magnitude of


the cross product HO r mv
S1 Units: kg (m/s) m = kg m2/s = N m s

US : [lb/(ft/sec2)][ft/sec][ft] = lb-ft-sec
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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM


Rate of Change of Angular Momentum
V-V Cross
product of Parallel
vector = 0

the moment about the fixed point O of all


forces acting on m equals the time rate
of change of angular momentum of m
about O.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM


The Angular Impulse-Momentum Principle
SI Nm s = kg m2/s
US lb-ft-sec

The product of moment and time is defined as angular


impulse,
total angular impulse on m about the fixed point O equals the
corresponding change in angular momentum of m about O.

X-component
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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM


Conservation of Angular Momentum

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Example

A small sphere has the position and velocity indicated in


the figure and is acted upon by the force F. Determine the
angular momentum HO about point O and the time
derivative Ho

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Solution

As with moments of forces, the position vector must run


from the reference point (O in this case) to the line of
action of the linear momentum mv. Here r runs directly
to the particle.

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Special Application of Particle Kinetics:


Direct Central Impact

Impact refers to the collision between two bodies and is


characterized by the generation of relatively large contact
forces which act over a very short interval of time.
If the velocities of the two particles are directed along the line
of impact, the impact is said to be a direct impact .
If either or both particles move along a line other than the line
of impact, the impact is said to be an oblique impact (Fig.
13.20b).

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Special Application of Particle Kinetics:


Direct Central Impact

If v1 is greater than v2, collision occurs with the contact forces


directed along the line of centers. This condition is called direct
central impact.

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Special Application of Particle Kinetics:


Direct Central Impact

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM

Coefficient of Restitution

e = 0, Perfectly Plastic Impact/inelastic. When e = 0, so


V2 = v1 . There is no period of restitution, and both
particles stay together after impact and the loss of
energy is a maximum. If v2 = v1 = v; then:

m1v1 + m2v2 = (m1 + m2)v

e = 1, Perfectly Elastic Impact.


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Oblique Central Impact = tumbukan miring

1.

Kekekalan momentum pada arah n

2.

Kekekalan momentum pada arah t

3.

Coefficient of restitution

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Example

A ball is projected onto the heavy plate with a velocity of 50


ft/sec at the 30 angle shown. If the effective coefficient of
restitution is 0.5, compute the rebound velocity v and its angle
.

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Solution

Let the ball be denoted body 1 and the plate body 2.

The rebound velocity v and its angle are then

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Contoh
Sebuah gerbong kereta 10.000 kg yang berjalan dengan laju
24 m/s menabrak gerbong lain yang sejenis yang sedang
dalam keadaan diam, setelah menabrak kecepatan keduanya
12 m/s, hitung berapa besar energi kinetik awal yang diubah
menjadi energi panas atau bentuk energi lainnya.
Sebelum tumbukan

1
1
2
m1v1 10.000kg 24m / s 2 2,88 x106 J
2
2

Setelah tumbukan
1
20.000kg 12m / s 2 1,44 x106 J
2

Energi yang diubah menjadi bentuk lain :


2,88 x 106 J 1,44 x 106 J = 1,44 x 106 J

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