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Solution Approach

A.

B.

C.

forcemass-acceleration method)

use of work and energy principles

solution by impulse and momentum methods

ACCELERATION

Newtons Second Law

If the resultant force acting on a particle is not zero, the particle

will have an acceleration proportional to the magnitude of the

resultant and in the direction of this resultant force.

ACCELERATION

Experiment: subjecting a mass particle to the action of

a single force, F1, F2, Fn.

1.

the ratios of applied force to corresponding

acceleration all equal the same number, provided

the units used for measurement are not changed

in the experiments.

property of the particle.

This property is the inertia of the particle, which is

its resistance to rate of change of velocity.

The mass m is used as a quantitative measure of

inertia.

ACCELERATION

2.

the applied force. Vector relation:

are derived from the units of force (pounds

force, lb) divided by acceleration (feet per

second squared, ft/sec2). Thus, the mass units are

slugs = lb-sec2/ft.

5

Equation of Motion

and Solution of Problems

Equation of motion:

1. a of the particle is either specified or can be

determined, we then determine the corresponding

forces.

2. The forces F acting on the particle are specified and we

must determine the resulting motion.

Equation of Motion

and Solution of Problems

Constrained and Unconstrained Motion

unconstrained motion: the particle is free of mechanical

guides and follows a path determined by its initial motion

and by the forces which are applied to it from external

sources. An airplane or rocket in flight and an electron

moving in a charged field are examples of unconstrained

motion.

constrained motion: the path of the particle is partially or

totally determined by restraining guides. A train moving

along its track and a collar sliding along a fixed shaft.

Equation of Motion

and Solution of Problems

Degrees of freedom

independent coordinates are required to specify the position

of the particle at any instant.

three degrees of freedom: 3 independent coordinates are

required to specify the position free moving particle,

airplane, rocket in free flight.

two degrees of freedom: a marble sliding on the curved surface

of a bowl

one degree of freedom: If a particle is constrained to move along

a fixed linear path, as is the collar sliding along a fixed shaft.

Free-Body Diagram: every force, known and unknown, which

acts on the particle is represented and thus accounted for.

9

Equation of Motion

and Solution of Problems

The general procedure

1. Identify the motion

2. choose the coordinate system

3. draw the free-body diagram of the body.

4. Obtain the appropriate force summations from this

diagram in the usual way.

10

Rectilinear Motion

11

General case

Example

in an elevator. During the first 3

seconds of motion from rest, the

tension T in the hoisting cable is

8300 N. Find the reading R of the

scale in newtons during this interval

and the upward velocity v of the

elevator at the end of the 3 seconds.

The total mass of the elevator, man,

and scale is 750 kg.

12

Example

13

Example

the fixed overhead cable and is controlled by the attached

cable at A. Determine the acceleration of the car when the

control cable is horizontal and under a tension T 2.4 kN.

Also find the total force P exerted by the supporting cable

on the wheels.

14

Example

15

Curvilinear Motion

system depends on the conditions of the

problems.

Rectangular coordinates

16

Curvilinear Motion

Polar coordinates

17

Curvilinear Motion

The general procedure

1. Identify the motion

2. Choose the coordinate system

3. draw the free-body diagram of the body.

4. Obtain the appropriate force summations from this

diagram in the usual way.

force summations.

18

Example

horizontal plane and slows down at a uniform rate from a

speed of 100 km/h at A to a speed of 50 km/h as it passes

C. The radius of curvature of the road at A is 400 m and

at C is 80 m. Determine the total horizontal force

exerted by the road on the tires at positions A, B, and C.

Point B is the inflection point where the curvature

changes direction.

19

Contoh

20

Example

21

Example

22

These cases involve:

1. integration of the forces with respect to the

displacement of the particle the equations of work and

energy

2. integration of the forces with respect to the time they

are applied the equations of impulse and momentum.

23

the displacement dr is defined as

dr = ds cos

dU = F.ds cos = F cos ds

F cos = Ft

the displacement does no work.

Work is positive if the working

component Ft is in the direction of the

displacement and negative if it is in the

opposite direction.

24

Units of Work

The SI units of work are those of force (N) times

displacement (m) or This unit is given the special name

joule (J).

In the U.S. customary system, work has the units of ft-lb.

Calculation of Work

Or,

25

(1) Work Associated with a Constant External Force.

26

(2) Work Associated with a Spring Force

moves to the right, the spring force is to the left; if the body begins

at x1= 0 and moves to the left, the spring force is to the right.

if the body moves from an arbitrary initial position x1= 0 to the

undeformed final position x2=0, so the work is positive.

27

(3) Work Associated with Weight

A. Case g = constant constant If the altitude variation is small

The horizontal movement does not contribute to this work.

If the body rises, then ( y2>y1) > 0 and this work is negative. If

the body falls, ( y2 <y1) < 0 and the work is positive.

28

(3) Work Associated with Weight

(B). Case (b) g constant If large changes in altitude occur

if a body rises to a higher altitude (r2 > r1), this work is

negative, if the body falls to a lower altitude (r2 < r1), the work

is positive.

G 6.672 10

29

11

N m2

kg 2

work-energy equation

the total work done by all forces acting on a particle as it moves from

point 1 to point 2 equals the corresponding change in kinetic energy

of the particle

T selalu positif

T bisa positif, negatif, atau nol

30

Efficiency

31

Example

reaches the bottom of the chute at B if it is given an initial

velocity of 4 m/s down the chute at A. The coefficient of

kinetic friction is 0.30.

32

Solution

33

Potential Energy

Gravitational Potential Energy

The gravitational potential energy Vg of the

particle is defined as the work m.g.h done

against the gravitational field to elevate the

particle a distance h above some arbitrary

reference plane (called a datum)

In going from one level at h=h1 to a higher

level at h=h2, the change in potential energy

so the work U1-2 is negatif. So : -m.g.h

The work is positive if potential energy

decreases

34

Potential Energy

Gravitational Potential Energy

When large changes in altitude, the

gravitational force Gmme/r2 = mgR2/r2 is

no longer constant (inconstant).

The work done by GPE: U = Vg

r2=~, so that with this datum we have

35

Potential Energy

positive

equal and opposite to the force F exerted by the spring

on the body

SO: The work done on the spring is the negative of the work

done on the body.

Therefore, we may replace the work U done by the spring on

the body by -Ve,

36

Potential Energy

Work-Energy Equation

T

gravitational forces and spring forces

U1-2 = 0

37

Problem

with negligible friction in a vertical plane along the circular rod.

The attached spring has a stiffness of 2 lb/in. and has an

unstretched length of 24 in. Determine the velocity of the

slider as it passes position 2.

38

Solution

39

Linear Impulse and Linear Momentum

G = mv (kg.m/s or N.s or lb-sec)

the resultant of all forces acting on a particle

equals its time rate of change of linear

momentum.

40

The Linear Impulse-Momentum Principle

corresponding change in linear

momentum of m

the initial linear momentum of the body

plus the linear impulse applied to it

equals its final linear momentum

41

impulse-momentum diagram

If F = 0, So G1 = G2 Constant Conserved

Non-impulsive force: can be neglected in comparison

with impulsive forces. Example: the weight of a baseball

during its collision with a batthe weight of the ball

(about 5 oz) is small compared with the force exerted on

the ball by the bat.

42

Example

A tennis player strikes the tennis ball with her racket when

the ball is at the uppermost point of its trajectory as

shown. The horizontal velocity of the ball just before

impact with the racket is v1= 50 ft/sec, and just after

impact its velocity is v2 = 70 ft/sec directed at the 15 angle

as shown. If the 2-oz (0.125 lb) ball is in contact with the

racket for 0.02 sec, determine the magnitude of the

average force R exerted by the racket on the ball. Also

determine the angle made by R with the horizontal.

43

Solution

44

larger than the 0.125-lb weight of the ball. Thus, the weight

mg, a nonimpulsive force, could have been neglected as

small in comparison with Ry. Had we neglected the weight,

the computed value of Ry would have been 3.52 lb.

45

Angular Impulse and Angular Momentum

Angular momentum HO of P about O: The moment of the

linear momentum vector mv about the origin O

The angular momentum is a vector

perpendicular to the plane A defined by r and v.

The sense of HO is clearly defined by the righthand rule for cross products.

46

Angular Impulse and Angular Momentum

the cross product HO r mv

S1 Units: kg (m/s) m = kg m2/s = N m s

US : [lb/(ft/sec2)][ft/sec][ft] = lb-ft-sec

47

Rate of Change of Angular Momentum

V-V Cross

product of Parallel

vector = 0

forces acting on m equals the time rate

of change of angular momentum of m

about O.

48

The Angular Impulse-Momentum Principle

SI Nm s = kg m2/s

US lb-ft-sec

impulse,

total angular impulse on m about the fixed point O equals the

corresponding change in angular momentum of m about O.

X-component

49

Conservation of Angular Momentum

50

Example

the figure and is acted upon by the force F. Determine the

angular momentum HO about point O and the time

derivative Ho

51

Solution

from the reference point (O in this case) to the line of

action of the linear momentum mv. Here r runs directly

to the particle.

52

Direct Central Impact

characterized by the generation of relatively large contact

forces which act over a very short interval of time.

If the velocities of the two particles are directed along the line

of impact, the impact is said to be a direct impact .

If either or both particles move along a line other than the line

of impact, the impact is said to be an oblique impact (Fig.

13.20b).

53

Direct Central Impact

directed along the line of centers. This condition is called direct

central impact.

54

Direct Central Impact

55

Coefficient of Restitution

V2 = v1 . There is no period of restitution, and both

particles stay together after impact and the loss of

energy is a maximum. If v2 = v1 = v; then:

56

1.

2.

3.

Coefficient of restitution

57

Example

ft/sec at the 30 angle shown. If the effective coefficient of

restitution is 0.5, compute the rebound velocity v and its angle

.

58

Solution

59

Contoh

Sebuah gerbong kereta 10.000 kg yang berjalan dengan laju

24 m/s menabrak gerbong lain yang sejenis yang sedang

dalam keadaan diam, setelah menabrak kecepatan keduanya

12 m/s, hitung berapa besar energi kinetik awal yang diubah

menjadi energi panas atau bentuk energi lainnya.

Sebelum tumbukan

1

1

2

m1v1 10.000kg 24m / s 2 2,88 x106 J

2

2

Setelah tumbukan

1

20.000kg 12m / s 2 1,44 x106 J

2

2,88 x 106 J 1,44 x 106 J = 1,44 x 106 J

60

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