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SAFETY

ETHICS

DEFINITION OF ETHIC
The study of morality that concern with moral
judgments, standards and rules of conduct
Unethical behavior creates costs to organization:
Deterioration of relationships
Mistrust among employees
Decline in employees productivity
Employee will find ways to gain profit from
the company
Ineffective of information flows
Decline in employees loyalty
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Guidelines to Determine Ethical


Behavior
Apply the morning-after-test
If you make this choice, how will you feel about it tomorrow
morning?
Apply the front-page test
Make decision that would not create embarrassment if any
news appeared in the newspaper
Apply the mirror test
If you make this decision, how will you feel about yourself
when you look in the mirror?
Apply the role-reversal test
Trade places with the people affected by such decision and
view the decision through their eyes
Apply the common-sense test
Listen to your instincts & common sense
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Five P of Ethical Power


Purpose
Let the mind (conscience) be their guide and want
to be good about oneself
Pride
Apply internal guidelines and have sufficient selfesteem to make decisions
Patience
Right will be accepted in the long run & individual
willing to wait
Persistence
Long lasting of ethical course of action in the
positive way
Perspective
Individual make their view point through their own
idea of changes
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Influencer of Ethical Behavior


Influencer:
Individual factor
Social factor

Personality measures:
Ego strength ability to undertake selfdirected tasks & to cope with stressful
situation
Machiavellianism the extent to which an
individual will attempt to deceive and
confuse others
Locus of control perception of workers
concerning who or what controls their own
behavior
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Influencer of Ethical Behavior


Social factors:
Gender
Role differences
Religion
Age
Work experience
Nationality
Influence of other people
Observation of role model (e.g. parents,
teachers, etc.)
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Safety & Health Professionals Role in


Ethics
Responsible to make decisions regarding
ethical choices
Role:
Set an example of ethical behavior
Help employees to make right decision
when facing ethical problems
Help employees follow and undertake
ethical l choice
Approaches to handling ethical problems:
Best-ratio approach
Black-and-white approach
Full-potential approach
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Approaches to handling ethical


problems
Best-ratio approach
Philosophy individuals show ethical
behavior when they are in the right
circumstances and behave unethical
when they are under certain situation
SHO create conditions to promote
ethical behavior & try to maintain the
best possible ratio of good choices
Also referred as situational ethics
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Approaches to handling ethical


problems
Black-and-white approach
Philosophy- right is right & wrong is wrong &
circumstances are irrelevant
Role of SHO:
Make ethical decisions and implement them
Help employees choose the ethical route
Make fair and unbiased choices regardless of
the outcome
Full-potential approach
Philosophy people are responsible for realizing
their full potential within the confines of morality
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Handling Ethical Dilemmas


Apply the guidelines
Determine ethical decision through the
application of test for ethical choice
Block all mitigating circumstances that hide
the issue
Select the approach
Best-ratio, black-and-white & full potential
approach
Factors that affect decision personal factor ,
expectation of company, support of company
Proceed with decision
Accordingly with selected approach
Consistently

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Questions To Ask When Making Decision


Problem definition - accurate?
Identification of all dimensions of problem productivity,
quality, cost, safety, health, etc.)
Agreement of stakeholders (employees & customers) on
problem definition
Reasons behind the decision meeting deadline, selfpromoting, protect safety & health of employees,
combination, etc.
Short-term and long-term results due to decision
Person to be affected by decision & how?
Discussion of decision with stakeholders before
implementation
Decision withstand the scrutiny of employees, customers,
colleagues, general public
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Companys Role in
Ethics
Creating
an
internal
environment that promotes,
expects & rewards ethical
behavior

Set an example of ethical


behavior in all external
dealings
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Create an ethical environment


Establish policies & practices and enforcement of
these policies
Employees access to grievance procedure
Appropriate safety & health measures
Hiring practices fair & equitable
Fair promotion practices
Employees protected from harassment

Develop a written ethics philosophy with specific


guidelines that are shared with all employees
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Set an ethical example


Do as I say, not as I do approach
success???
Build trust among employees
Lead by showing ethical example
Pollution issue
Ignore safety & health of employees
Support SHO ethical decision whether
such decisions are profitable or not
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Ethics & Whistle-Blowing


When employer violate legal or ethical
standards:
Bring violations to the attention of
appropriate management
If SHO is ignored whistle-blowing
Whistle-blowing an act of informing an
outside authority or media of alleged illegal
or unethical acts on the part of an
organization or individual
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