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Example of Summary Writing.

Base on this article, write a summary of 130 words.

1. The tiger, the largest cat in the world, is one of the most majestic animals on
land and is found only in Asia. It is also one of the most powerful mammals, yet it
is on the brink of extinction. In the 1900s, the tiger population was more than
100,000. Today, the number has dwindled to less than 10,000 worldwide. Nepal
has only 200 tigers, India has about 4,000, while Malaysia has less than 500. The
reason for the decline in numbers is poaching.
2. Tigers are hunted not only by human beings but also by other predators such
as elephants, bears and large buffaloes. The only defence tigers have against
their enemies are their razor-sharp claws, their strong teeth and their sheer
weight. The weight of a tiger, which can range between 200 and 300
kilogrammes, can kill an 10 average sized human being.
3. Tigers have fascinated human beings for several reasons. For instance, marks
on their forehead resemble the Chinese character wang, which means king.
Furthermore, the markings on a tigers forehead and the stripes all over its body
are like finger prints. Experts can tell individual tigers apart by observing the
markings and stripes closely. This is because no two tigers have identical
markings. The patterns of their stripes vary immensely, especially from one subspecies to another. The Sumatran tiger has the most stripes and markings while
the Siberian tiger has the fewest. The stripes of a tiger always run at right angles
to its body and not along its bodyline. Otherwise, it would be very conspicuous
and find it impossible to camouflage itself.
4. These carnivorous beasts thrive well in areas of dense vegetation with ample
sources of water and large populations of hoofed animals. They instinctively
avoid human beings and only attack people if they are provoked, injured or
unable to hunt for their usual food.
5. Despite their prowess, tigers are unable to protect themselves from their
greatest threat human beings. These magnificent creatures have been hunted
for hundreds of years for sport as proof of ones strength and manliness, and for
their skin. They have also been trapped and poisoned by farmers to protect their
livestock. As a result, the Caspian, Javan and Bali tigers have become extinct. In
many Asian countries, tigers are killed for their precious claws. It is believed that
wearing a talisman made of a 30 tigers claw can protect its wearer. It is almost
impossible to ascertain whether a tigers claw has any supernatural powers, but
what is certain is that many a tiger will lose its life so that someone can profit
from it.
6. Other than that, tigers have been hunted for their body organs, which are
believed to be a cure for many ailments. This superstition may have resulted
from the connection 35 made with their masculinity and strength. This has

resulted in massive poaching of tigers for their whiskers, eyes, teeth, penises,
liver and fat.
7. Hunting of tiger prey has also caused the number of tigers to dwindle. Tigers
usually feed on hoofed animals such as deer, wild boar and buffaloes. The
hunting of these animals by human beings has caused tigers to starve to death.
8. Serious action has to be taken to ensure the survival of this majestic creature.
Although the tiger has been labelled an endangered species and the sale of
tigerrelated products has been banned in many countries, these measures have
backfired, with illegal poaching of tigers for their fur, bones and other organs
becoming rampant. Some countries, such as India, have allocated millions of
dollars to set up tiger reserves to protect these animals but even these are not
safe. Poachers completely wiped out wild tigers in the Sariska Tiger Reserve in
India. To ensure the survival of the tiger, conservation efforts need to be
improved to reduce threats to tigers.Efforts must also be made to improve tiger
habitats and to increase tiger prey populations so that they will not starve to
death in the wild. There must be more stringent controls on the demand for tiger
parts. When there is no demand, there will be no supply. To drive the message
home, poachers should be punished severely. Otherwise, they will not stop their
illegal activities.

Here is a sample summary using phrases and sentences from the passage.

The tiger population has suffered a serious decline because tigers have been
hunted for sport as proof of ones strength and manliness and for their skin.
Besides, tigers have been killed by farmers to protect their livestock. These
beasts have also been killed for their claws which are believed to protect the
wearer. Worse still, tigers are killed for their body organs, which are believed to
cure many ailments. Moreover, hunting of tiger prey has caused tigers to starve
to death. Stern measures must be taken to protect them. For instance,
conservation efforts and tiger habitats must be improved. To prevent tigers from
starving, tiger prey populations must be increased. Most importantly, there must
be more stringent controls on the demand.

(121 words)

Tips in writing a summary:

1) Read the text given carefully.
2) Identify and underline the important points.
3) Start writing the summary based on the main points you have gathered.


Rephrase the important points and use our own words.

Organize your ideas/points in the manner which they are found in the text.
Adhere to the word limit.
Write the summary in one paragraph only!
Check and edit your summary if necessary.

Exercise - Summary Writing

Base on the article below, write a summary of not more than 130 words.
1. Air pollution is another burning ecological problem. Air pollution comes from
variety of different sources like factories, power plants, cars, buses, trucks,
wildfires, etc. Air pollution doesn't only affect air, but also threatens the health of
humans, trees and animals and is destroying the ozone layer which protects us
from dangerous ultra-violet radiation. Statistically speaking, every day average
individual breathes more than 3,000 gallons of air and since many people live in
urban areas full of smog this affect their health causing them lot of health
2. Worldwide air pollution is responsible for large numbers of deaths and cases of
respiratory disease. According to World Health Organization 2.4 million people
die each year from causes directly attributable to air pollution. There are many
diseases caused by polluted air like asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, lung and
heart diseases, and respiratory allergies which are causing death to the large
number of people. Usual symptoms are difficulties in breathing, wheezing,
coughing and aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions and
respiratory system and the cardiovascular system are the two most affected
3. Many people think that factories and power stations are the biggest air
pollutants, but that is not true, because the biggest air pollutants are mainly
automobiles and other vehicles. Of course, factories and power stations also
have significant effect on air pollution. The worst disaster caused by polluted air
was Bhopal disaster that happened in Bhopal, India in1984 when a Union Carbide
subsidiary pesticide plant released 40 tonnes of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas,
that killed between 2500 and 5000 people and around 500,000 people were
exposed to the leaking tables of whom approximately 20,000 people to this date,
died as a result from this exposure.
4. There is some progress in air pollution control technologies and urban
planning strategies to reduce air pollution, but it's biggest problem are large
costs required for these technologies although these costs are really negligible

compared to the expenditures that are coming as a result of air pollution like
medical costs for treating the people that were unlucky enough to caught some
disease caused by air pollution.
5. So what to do in order to stop air pollution? Get rid of our cars? We all know
that's impossible, but reducing their number and using more public
transportation that could be done, although very unlikely in current situation.
Make some new type of car, that doesn't cause air pollution? Even harder
because car manufacturers are very strong force in the industry. Reduce the use
of the fossil fuels and their dangerous emission of greenhouse gases which is not
only causing the air pollution but also the global warming as well? Unfortunately
there is still almost negligible transformation rate from the fossil fuel to the
renewable energy sources and fossil fuels are still dominating factor in the world
industry. Cost of all this is very big, namely our health which will to momentary
predictions suffer in years to come because of air pollution.

Tips For Summary Writing (SPM) ::

Read the text once through and try to get a gist of what the text is all about.
Read the question and determine the task; look out for words like feelings,
response, what you saw and did, benefits, problems, advantages and
Do not try to rephrase if you are not very good in English. It is better to select
intelligently and join the sentences with connectors.
Content = 10 marks Language = 5 marks. So, it is better to go for content. If the
sentences are lifted intelligently, you will get about 2 marks for language.
Memorise some synonyms as they are useful to replace single words. This will
help you get more marks for language.
Do keep within the word limit as points after 130 words are not taken into
Tips in writing a summary:

Read the text given carefully.

Identify and underline the important points.
Start writing the summary based on the main points you have gathered.
Rephrase the important points and use our own words.
Organize your ideas/points in the manner which they are found in the text.
Adhere to the word limit.
Write the summary in one paragraph only!
Check and edit your summary if necessary.