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Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Volume 432, December 15, 2015, Pages 283-292

Impact melt- and projectile-bearing ejecta at Barringer Crater,
Arizona (Article)

a

Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration/Department of Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, 1151

Richmond

Street,

London,

ON,

Canada

b

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, Canada

c

School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, United States

View additional affiliations
View references (46)

Abstract

Our understanding of the impact cratering process continues to evolve and,
even at well-known and well-studied structures, there is still much to be learned.
Here, we present the results of a study on impact-generated melt phases
within ejecta at Barringer Crater, Arizona, one of the first impact craters on
Earth to be recognized and arguably the most famous. We report on previously
unknown impact melt-bearing breccias that contain dispersed fragments of
the projectile as well as impact glasses that contain a high proportion
of projectile material - higher than any other glasses previously reported from
this site. Theseglasses are distinctly different from so-called "melt beads" that
are found as a lag deposit on the present-day erosion surface and that we also
study. It is proposed that the melts in these impact breccias were derived from
a more constrained sub-region of the melt zone that was very shallow and that
also had a larger projectile contribution. In addition to low- and high-Fe melt
beads documented previously, we document Ca-Mg-rich glasses and calcite
globules within silicate glass that provide definitive evidence that carbonates
underwent melting during the formation of Barringer Crater. We propose that

the melting of dolomite produces Ca-Mg-rich melts from which calcite is the
dominant liquidus phase. This explains the perhaps surprising finding that
despite dolomite being the dominant rock type at many impact sites, including
Barringer Crater, calcite is the dominant melt product. When taken together with
our estimate for the amount of impact melt products dispersed on, and just
below, the present-day erosional surface, it is clear that the amount of melt
produced at Barringer Crater is higher than previously estimated and is more
consistent with recent numerical modeling studies. This work adds to the
growing
recognition
that
sedimentary
rocks
melt
during
hypervelocity impact and do not just decompose and/or devolatilize as was
previously thought. This has implications for understanding the processes and
products of impactsinto sedimentary rocks and for estimating the amount of
climatically active gases released by impactevents. © 2015 Elsevier B.V

Nuestra comprensión del proceso de formación de cráteres de impacto sigue
evolucionando y, aún a muy conocido y estructuras bien estudiado, todavía hay
mucho que aprender. A continuación, presentamos los resultados de un estudio
sobre las fases de fusión de impacto generadas dentro de eyecciones de
Cráter Barringer, Arizona, uno de los primeros cráteres de impacto en la Tierra
para ser reconocidos y sin duda el más famoso. Informamos sobre brechas de
impacto derretir soportan hasta ahora desconocidas que contienen fragmentos
dispersos del proyectil, así como gafas de impacto que contienen una alta
proporción de material proyectil - más alto que cualquier otro vasos
previamente reportados en este sitio. Theseglasses son claramente diferentes
de las llamadas "cuentas de fusión" que se encuentran como depósito de
retraso sobre la superficie de erosión actual y que también estudiamos. Se
propone que se funde en estas brechas de impacto se derivaron de una
subregión más restringido de la zona de fusión que era muy superficial y que
también tuvo una contribución proyectil más grande. Además de baja y alta Fe
derretir cuentas documentadas previamente, documentamos vasos Ca-Mgricos y glóbulos calcita dentro de vidrio de silicato que proporcionan pruebas
definitivas de que los carbonatos fueron sometidos a fusión durante la

formación del cráter Barringer. Proponemos que el derretimiento de dolomita
produce derrite Ca-Mg-ricos de la que la calcita es la fase de licuefacción
dominante. Esto explica el hallazgo quizás sorprendente que a pesar de la
dolomita es el tipo de roca dominante en muchos sitios de impacto, incluyendo
el cráter Barringer, calcita es el producto de fusión en dominante. Cuando se
toma en conjunto con nuestra estimación de la cantidad de fundido de impacto
productos dispersado sobre, y justo debajo de la superficie de erosión actual,
está claro que la cantidad de fusión producida en Barringer Cráter es mayor
que lo estimado previamente y es más consistente con la reciente estudios de
modelos numéricos. Este trabajo se suma a la creciente reconocimiento de que
las rocas sedimentarias se derriten durante el impacto a hipervelocidad y no
simplemente se descomponen y / o desvolatilizar como se creía anteriormente.

Impact melt- and projectile-bearing ejecta at Barringer
Crater, Arizona (Article)

Our understanding of the impact cratering process continues to evolve and,
even at well-known and well-studied structures, there is still much to be learned.
Here, we present the results of a study on impact-generated melt phases
within ejecta at Barringer Crater, Arizona, one of the first impact craters on
Earth to be recognized and arguably the most famous. We report on previously
unknown impact melt-bearing breccias that contain dispersed fragments of
the projectile as well as impact glasses that contain a high proportion
of projectile material - higher than any other glasses previously reported from
this site. Theseglasses are distinctly different from so-called "melt beads" that
are found as a lag deposit on the present-day erosion surface and that we also
study. It is proposed that the melts in these impact breccias were derived from
a more constrained sub-region of the melt zone that was very shallow and that
also had a larger projectile contribution. In addition to low- and high-Fe melt
beads documented previously, we document Ca-Mg-rich glasses and calcite
globules within silicate glass that provide definitive evidence that carbonates
underwent melting during the formation of Barringer Crater. We propose that
the melting of dolomite produces Ca-Mg-rich melts from which calcite is the
dominant liquidus phase. This explains the perhaps surprising finding that
despite dolomite being the dominant rock type at many impact sites, including
Barringer Crater, calcite is the dominant melt product. When taken together with
our estimate for the amount of impact melt products dispersed on, and just
below, the present-day erosional surface, it is clear that the amount of melt
produced at Barringer Crater is higher than previously estimated and is more
consistent with recent numerical modeling studies. This work adds to the
growing
recognition
that
sedimentary
rocks
melt
during
hypervelocity impact and do not just decompose and/or devolatilize as was
previously thought. This has implications for understanding the processes and

products of impactsinto sedimentary rocks and for estimating the amount of
climatically active gases released by impactevents. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Carbonate melts; Glass; Impact cratering; Impact melting; Iron meteorite

Indexed keywords
Engineering
controlled
terms: Calcite;
Calcium;
Erosion;
Geomorphology; Glass; Melting; Projectiles; Rocks; Sedimentary rocks;
Sedimentology; Silicates; Solar system
Carbonate
melts;
Erosion
Hypervelocity impacts; Impact cratering; Impact cratering
process;Impact craters; Iron meteorites; Silicate glass

surfaces;

Engineering main heading: Meteor impacts
GEOBASE Subject Index: breccia; carbonate; crater; dolomite; ejecta; glass;
iron meteorite; melting
Regional Index: Arizona; Barringer Crater; United States
ISSN: 0012821XSource Type: Journal Original language: English
DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2015.10.021Document Type: Article
Publisher: Elsevier

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Iranian Polymer Journal (English Edition)
Volume 23, Issue 6, 2014, Pages 477-486

Experimental investigation into glass fiber/epoxy composite
laminates subjected to single and repeated highvelocity impacts of ice (Article)
Dolati, S.a,
Fereidoon, A.a,
Sabet, A.R.b

a

Department

b

Department of Composite, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, Iran

of

Mechanical

Engineering,

Semnan

University,

Semnan,

Iran

View references (24)

Abstract
Many engineering components in aerospace structures which are made from
polymer composite materials are often damaged during service life due to hail
ice and bird impact. This study examines the damage which may be incurred
by a single and repeated high-velocity impact of 11.7 g cylindrical-shaped ice
on glass fiber/epoxy laminated composite panels carried out on a 20-mm
diameter smooth barrel gas gun. The laminates were made from Eglass fiber/epoxy resin with 0/90, ±45, chopped strand mat (CSM) and
unidirectional fiber orientation and in different stacking sequence.
The impact velocity was in the range of 130-140 m/s and the resulting damage
extension zones from ice projectile impacts were measured. Damage
extension was successfully identified in all specimens subjected to high-velocity

iceprojectile impact. Results showed specimens with ±45 orientation and CSM
fiber exhibited the lowest damage extension. The results also revealed that
specimens with plain weave 0/90 lay-up of glasswoven roving show the highest
damage extension. Extended damages were observed in composite panels
under repeated ice projectile impacts. Study of the stacking sequence effect
indicated significant role played by presence of±45 reinforcement in reducing
the damage extension in the laminated plates. Delamination constituted the
major damage mechanism for most specimens tested followed by matrix and
fiber fracture. © Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute 2014.
Author keywords
Composites; Damage
Repeated impact

extension;

High-velocity impact;

Ice projectile;

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Composite materials; Fibers; Glass;
Laminated composites; Precipitation (meteorology); Projectiles; Velocity

Aerospace structure; Damage extension; Engineering components;
Experimental investigations; High-velocity impact; Polymer composite
materials; Repeated impact; Unidirectional fibers
Engineering main heading: Ice
ISSN: 10261265 CODEN: IPJOFSource Type: Journal Original language: English
DOI: 10.1007/s13726-014-0242-yDocument Type: Article
Publisher: Springer-Verlag London Ltd

(Dolati, S., Fereidoon, A., & Sabet, A. R. (2014). Experimental investigation into
glass fiber/epoxy composite laminates subjected to single and repeated highvelocity impacts of ice. Iranian Polymer Journal (English Edition), 23(6), 477486. doi:10.1007/s)
Dolati, S., Fereidoon, A., & Sabet, A. R. (2014). Experimental investigation into
glass fiber/epoxy composite laminates subjected to single and repeated
high-velocity impacts of ice. Iranian Polymer Journal (English Edition),
23(6), 477-486. doi:10.1007/s. (s.f.).

Ferreyro, M. F. (2007). Manual de Balistica (Vol. 1a ). (J. C. Faira, Ed.) Buenos
Aires, Argentina : ditorial IB de f,.
Rong, J. -., Zhuge, X., Li, J., Xiang, D. -., & Lin, X. -. (2015). Numerical analysis
on fragile projectile with different warheads impacting against aviation
organic glass. Zhendong Yu Chongji/Journal of Vibration and Shock,
34(1), 200-205. doi:10.13465/. (s.f.).
Sikarwar, R. S., & Velmurugan, R. (2014). Ballistic impact on glass/epoxy
composite laminates. Defence Science Journal, 64(4), 393-399.
doi:10.14429/dsj.64.3882. (s.f.).
Strassburger, E., Hunzinger, M., Patel, P., & McCauley, J. W. (2013). Analysis of
the fragmentation of AlON and spinel under ballistic impact. Journal of
Applied Mechanics, Transactions ASME, 80(3) doi:10.1115/1.4023573.
(s.f.).

Ballistic impact on glass/epoxy composite
laminates (Article)
Sikarwar, R.S.,
Velmurugan, R.
Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai-600 036, India

View references (17)

Abstract
Glass/epoxy composite laminates are subjected to impact loading and the
energy absorbing capacity of the laminates is studied. In the present study,
laminates with four different orientations and thickness values are considered.
Analytical study is carried out based on energy method and results are
compared with FE results obtained from Abaqus/Explicit software. Results
obtained from the analytical methods are showing good agreement with the FE
results. It is found that cross-ply laminates are most efficient in ballistic
resistance when compared with the laminates of other orientations. It is also
noticed that the energy absorbing capacity is decreasing with increase in

velocity of the projectile for a given lay-up and thickness value. © 2014,
DESIDOC.

(Strassburger, E., Hunzinger, M., Patel, P., & McCauley, J. W.
(2013). Analysis of the fragmentation of AlON and spinel under
ballistic impact. Journal of Applied Mechanics, Transactions ASME,
80(3) doi:10.1115/1.4023573)Author keywords
Angle-ply laminate; Ballistic Limit; Energy absorbed; Residual velocity; Strain
rate

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Ballistics; Energy absorption; Glass; Strain
rate
Angle ply laminate; Ballistic Limit; Ballistic resistance; Cross-ply laminate;
Energy absorbed; Energy-absorbing capacity; Glass/epoxy composite;
Residual velocity
Engineering main heading: Laminated composites
ISSN: 0011748X CODEN: DSJOASource Type: Journal Original language: English
DOI: 10.14429/dsj.64.3882Document Type: Article
Publisher: Defense Scientific Information and Documentation Centre

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Journal of Applied Mechanics, Transactions ASME
Volume 80, Issue 3, 2013, Article number 031807

Analysis of the fragmentation of AlON and spinel under
ballisticimpact (Article)
Strassburger, E.a

,

Hunzinger, M.a,
Patel, P.b,
McCauley, J.W.b

a

Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institute (EMI), Am Christianswuhr 2, 79400 Kandern,

Germany
b

U.S. Army Research Laboratory, AMSRD-ARL-WM-MD, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005, United States

View references (19)

Abstract
It has been demonstrated that significant weight reductions can be achieved,
compared to conventionalglass-based armor, when a transparent ceramic is
used as the strike face on a glass-polymer laminate. Magnesium aluminate
spinel (MgAl2O4) and AlON are promising candidate materials for application as
a hard front layer in transparent armor. Comprehensive, systematic
investigations of the fragmentation of ceramics have shown that the mode of
fragmentation is one of the key parameters influencing the ballistic resistance of
ceramics. In the study described here, the fragmentation of AlON and three
types of spinel was analyzed: two types of fine grained spinel with nominal
average grain sizes 0.6lm and 1.6lm and a bimodal grain-sized spinel with large
grains of 250lm size in a fine grain (5-20 μm) matrix were examined. The
ceramic specimens of 6-mm thickness were glued to an aluminum backing and
impacted with armor piercing (AP) projectiles of caliber 7.62mm at two
different velocities - 850 m/s and 1100 m/s. The targets were integrated into a

target box, which allowed for an almost complete recovery and analysis of the
ceramic fragments. Different types of high-speed cameras were applied in order
to visualize the different phases of fragment formation and ejection. A laser
light-sheet illumination technique was applied in combination with high-speed
cameras in order to determine size and speed of ejected ceramic fragments
during projectile penetration. The application of the visualization techniques
allowed for the analysis of the dynamics of the fragment formation and
interaction with the projectile. A significant difference in the fragment size
distributions of bimodal grain-sized spinel and AlON was observed. Copyright ©
2013 by ASME.
Author keywords
AlON; Ceramic; Fragmentation; High-speed photography; Laser light-sheet
technique; Magnesium aluminate spinel
Indexed keywords
AlON; Ceramic; Fragment size distribution; Fragmentation; Illumination
techniques; Magnesium aluminate spinel; Significant differences; Systematic
investigations

Engineering controlled terms: Armor; Glass; High speed cameras; High
speed photography; Magnesium; Magnesium printing plates; Projectiles
Engineering main heading: Ceramic materials
ISSN: 00218936 CODEN: JAMCASource Type: Journal Original language: English
DOI: 10.1115/1.4023573Document Type: Article

Strassburger, E., Hunzinger, M., Patel, P., & McCauley, J. W. (2013).
Analysis of the fragmentation of AlON and spinel under ballistic impact.
Journal of Applied Mechanics, Transactions ASME, 80(3)
doi:10.1115/1.4023573

Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering
Volume 37, Issue 2, March 2012, Pages 413-419

Effect of the Impact Velocity on the Dynamic
Response of E-Glass/Epoxy Laminated
Composites (Article)
Mili, F.
Mechanical Engineering Department, Mentouri University, Constantine, Algeria

View references (15)

Abstract
The present paper describes the dynamic response of E-glass/epoxy laminated
composite structures under the variation of the aluminum projectile velocity
from 0. 54 to 3. 1 m/s. The results are obtained using a Hertzian contact law
and a drop weight impact machine and they are presented for three different
cross-ply laminates ([0 2/90 6/0 2], [0 3/90 4/0 3] and [0 4/90 2/0 4]). The objective of
this research is to determine the influence of projectile velocities on
the impact response of the clamped laminated plates. The contact law used in
the theoretical analysis is based on the combination of the dynamic and static
solutions of the impact problem of two elastic bodies. In order to determine the
stiffness of the composite plates, the system was represented by a spring-mass
model. Particular attention was given during the comparison of the theoretical
and experimental results. The difference between the two results was observed
higher every time that the impact velocity increased. However, the application
of the theoretical model is found to be an efficient guide for the experimental
results validation. © 2012 King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals.

Author keywords

Damage; Drop weight machine; E-glass/epoxy; Hertzian contact law; Impact;
Low velocity
ISSN: 13198025Source Type: Journal Original language: English
DOI: 10.1007/s13369-012-0174-9Document Type: Article

ili, F. (2012). Effect of the impact velocity on the dynamic response of
E-Glass/Epoxy laminated composites. Arabian Journal for Science and
Engineering, 37(2), 413-419. doi:10.1007/s13369-012-0174-9

Dolati, S., Fereidoon, A., & Sabet, A. R. (2014). Experimental investigation into
glass fiber/epoxy composite laminates subjected to single and repeated
high-velocity impacts of ice. Iranian Polymer Journal (English Edition),
23(6), 477-486. doi:10.1007/s. (s.f.).
Ferreyro, M. F. (2007). Manual de Balistica (Vol. 1a ). (J. C. Faira, Ed.) Buenos
Aires, Argentina : ditorial IB de f,.
ili, F. (2012). Effect of the impact velocity on the dynamic response of EGlass/Epoxy laminated composites. Arabian Journal for Science and
Engineering, 37(2), 413-419. doi:10.1007/s13369-012-0174-9. (s.f.).
Rong, J. -., Zhuge, X., Li, J., Xiang, D. -., & Lin, X. -. (2015). Numerical analysis
on fragile projectile with different warheads impacting against aviation
organic glass. Zhendong Yu Chongji/Journal of Vibration and Shock,
34(1), 200-205. doi:10.13465/. (s.f.).
Ruiz M, M. D. (2008). Balística teorica y practica. (N. impresores, Ed.) Bogota
DC., Colombia : Temis.
Sikarwar, R. S., & Velmurugan, R. (2014). Ballistic impact on glass/epoxy
composite laminates. Defence Science Journal, 64(4), 393-399.
doi:10.14429/dsj.64.3882. (s.f.).
Strassburger, E., Hunzinger, M., Patel, P., & McCauley, J. W. (2013). Analysis of
the fragmentation of AlON and spinel under ballistic impact. Journal of
Applied Mechanics, Transactions ASME, 80(3) doi:10.1115/1.4023573.
(s.f.).

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