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CRUMB RUBBER FEASIBILITY REPORT

Prepared for:

Cumberland County Clean Community Committee Fayetteville, North Carolina

Prepared by:

Self-Reliance, Inc. 2425 18th Street, NW

Washington, D.C. (202) 232-4108

20009

November 1985

This report was funded in part by a grant from the North Carolina "Pollution Prevention Payan Program.

Self-Reliance, Inc. Is the consulting arm of the Institute

Since 1974, ILSR, a research and

educational organization, has provided technical information and assistance to city, county, and state governments, and citizen and neighborhood organizations. ILSR focuses on energy and waste utilization from a common sense economic development perspective. ILSR works exclusively in urban areas. Current ILSR projects are located in Chester and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Saint Paul, Minnesota; Newark, Trenton, and Edison, New Jersey; Cleveland, Ohio; Fayettevllle, Charlotte, Durham, and Asheville, North Carolina; Providence, Rhode Island; Boston, Cape Cod, and New Bedford, Massachusetts; New Haven, Connecticut; Washington, D.C.; East St. Louis, Illinois; and Gainesville, Florida.

for Local Self-Reliance (ILSR).

Staff of the Institute for Local Self-Reliance:

Co-directors: David Morris, Ph.D. Neil Seldman, Ph.D.

Energy and Economic Development

David Morris, Ph.D. John Plunkett Jack Gleason, M.S.

Administration

David Bardagl'io Jan Simpson

Waste Utilization/Economic Development

Neil Seldman, Ph.D. Ken Woodruff, M.E. Rick Anthony, M.A. Don Huisingh, Ph.D. Larry Martin

Institute for Local Self-Reliance 2425 18th Street NW Washington, D.C. 20009

(202) 232-4108

North

Carolina

Pollution

Department

of

COPYRIGHT

Prevention

Natural

Pays

Program

and

Resources

Community Development

.January

1988

THE POLLUTION PREVENTlON PROGRAM

The Pollution Prevention Program provides free technical assistance to North Carolina industries and municipalities on ways to reduce, recycle and prevent wastes before they become pollutants. This non-regulatory program, located in the Division of Environmental Management, addresses water and air quality, toxic materials, and solid and hazardous waste. Designated as the lead agency in waste reduction, the Program works in cooperation with the Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Branch and the Governor‘s Waste Management Board. The services and assistance available fall into the following categories:

Information Clearinghouse. An information data base provides access to literature sources, contacts, and case studies on waste reduction techniques for specific industries or waste streams. Information is also available through customized computer literature searches. Waste reduction reports published by the Program are also available.

Specific Information Packages. The staff can prepare facility or waste-stream-specific waste reduction reports for industries and communities. Information provided by the facility is used to identify cost-effective waste reduction options. A short report detailing these options is provided along with references, case studies, and contacts.

On-site Technical Assistance. The staff can provide comprehensive technical assistance through facility visits. During an on-site visit, detailed process and waste stream information is collected. The information is analyzed, and a series of waste reduction options are identified. A report is prepared detailing these options and includes literature, contacts, case studies, and vendor information.

Outreach. The staff can give presentations on pollution prevention to industries, trade associations, professional organizations, and citizen groups. Depending on the audience, these programs range from an overview of the State’s Pollution Prevention Program to in-depth discussions of technologies for specific industries.

Challenge Grants. A matching grant program provides funds for the cost of personnel, materials, or consultants needed to undertake pollution prevention projects. Projects eligible for grant funds range from characterizing waste streams in order to identify pollution reduction techniques to conducting in-plant and pilot-scale studies of reduction technologies.

For information or technical assistance contact:

Pollution Prevention Program Division of Environmental Management N.C. Department of Natural Resources & Community Development Post Office Box 27687 Raleigh, North Carolina 27611-7687

Telephone: 919/733-7015

The Cumberland County Clean Community Committee was assisted on the local level by the Cumberland County Clean Community Committee Recycling Committee. Membership shown below:

RECYCLING COMMITTEE

Michael Green, Cohen & Green Salvage Company, Chairman

Dan Stryk, Kelly Springfield Tire Company

Bill Crowell, Crowell Construction Company

Jimmie Jones, Fayetteville City Council

Clark Dill, Fayetteville City Sanitation Department

Larry Carter, Cumberland County Landfill

Gene Haas, Haas Landscaping Company

Bob Stanger, Cumberland County Joint Planning Board

Ethel Teague, Cumberland County Sheltered Workshop

Bob Bennett, Fayetteville Engineering Division

William Cain, Defense Property Disposal Office, Fort Bragg, North Carolina

Page Renfrow, Fayetteville City Sanitation Department

John Bittle, Cumberland County Landfill

Naoma Ellison, Chairman, Cumberland County Clean Community Committee (ex officio)

Sharon Valentine, Coordinator, Cumberland County Clean Community Committee (ex officio)

Wanda Jones, Assistant Coordinator, Cumberland County Clean community Committee (ex officio)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I.

Executive Summary

I. Executive Summary . . . . 1 .

.

.

.

.

1. .

.. 1

. 1 .

11.

Background on Project

11. Background on Project . 4 .

.

4. .

.. 4

. 4 .

111.

Overview of Discarded Tire Problem . 7

IV.

Recommended Development Plan Outline . 12

APPENDICES

A. County and City Populations in

 

the 100- to 150-Mile Supply

Area

 

.

.

.

14

B.

Characteristics of Tires:

 

Composition and Chemistry

 

18

C. An Overview of the Tire Recycling Process

D. End-Use Options and Market Assessment

.

.

.

.

.

.

C. An Overview of the Tire Recycling Process D. End-Use Options and Market Assessment . .

.

.

.

.

20

542 0 . .

.

.

E.

Potential Uses for Discarded Tires

.

.

 

70

 

i

F.

The Intenco Model

 
F. The Intenco Model   . 104 I

.

104I

104 I
104 I

I

G.

Citations and Bibliography

 

.

.

.

..

.

I06

H.

Contact List

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

109.

109 .

.

'I.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Cumberland County supply region generates approximately 58,000 tons of scrap tires each year, equivalent to 45,000 tons of rubber after processing. Approximately 8,000 tons per year are in concentrated locations and can be easily collected. The costs of collection for the remainder vary significantly. An estimated 20 percent will be skimmed by the used- and retread-tire industry. Approximately 80 percent of the remainder, or 37,000 tons per

year, is available for processing. Given current markets, economically feasible processes (ambient technology) can reprocess

tons into a

this supply

approximately 65 to 75 percent of

the

37,000

marketable

product.

A

processing

plant

sized

for

would process 120 tons per standards.

day,

a

viable

plant

by

industry

The

end

uses

for

whole

tires constitute

a

negligible

market,

aside from the retreader market. Crumbed rubber is the major

market

there are potentially large opportunities in

intermediate product

development

from

scrap tires.

Given

crumb

rubber

efforts,

North Carolina.

The three

major

potential

markets

fuel,

facturing rubber products.

as an additive for asphalt,

and

for

as

a

crumb

rubber

raw material

are

for

as

a

manu-

Assuming

a one-percent,

by

weight,

addition of

rubber

to

all

resurfaced and new roads, the maximum annual demand . for crumb

rubber

tons.

fuel is about 70,000 tons per year, assuming a 10 percent rubber chip mix with hog fuel in 100 percent of the hog-fueled boilers in

in North Carolina for crumb rubber as a

as an

additive

for

asphalt

in North Carolina 'is 52,000

The total

demand

the

state.

clippings that

(Hog

is

fuel

chipped

is

a

with

a

mixture

of

waste

wood

and

yard

flHogll grinder.)

(See Appendix E.)

The

demand

for

crumb

rubber

firm

products

is

in the

region.

as

rubber

as

a

raw

material

yet

undetermined,

pending

for

the

manufacturing

location

of

a

Crumb rubber is marginally economical for the first two

applications under current conditions. Production costs for crumb

as fuel are about 2 cents per pound, while the competitive

rubber

price is 2 to 3 cents per pound. A significant penetration into

this market is possible if scrap rubber processors can take advantage of favorable tax credits.

A rubber-asphalt mixture is competitive with conventional

asphalt

Production costs for crumb rubber for this use are 6 to 9 cents

at

a

delivered

cost

of

about

8.5

cents

per

pound.

per pound. Penetration into this potentially large market depends the mixture's durability. Initial research indicates

on

rubberized

has twice the life expectancy of nonrubberized

asphalt. If it is indeed proven and accepted that rubberized

asphalt

price of rubberized asphalt may rise significantly above that of

conventional asphalt and the production costs for crumb rubber. This would make rubberized asphalt an attractive product.

asphalt

twice

has

the

life

of

normal

asphalt,

then

the

market

Annually,

market

approximately

been

limited

175,000 tons of

because

only

a

crumb rubber are used

small

portion

of

the

nationwide in making rubber products. However, this potentially

vast

tire has been used. A new, patented process by a Minnesota firm,

Tirecycle, (see Appendix E) may make possible the use of the

entire tire for the rubber

raw

material is the relative ease with which they still can be discarded. Raising the costs of disposal, by either increasing landfill tipping fees for tires or banning them from landfills, will allow tire processors to charge a fee for tire disposal at the processing facility. This, in turn, will allow them to be competitive in the major end-use markets.

has

products market.

key

barrier

to

In

North

Carolina,

a

using

tires

as

a

Fayetteville

and

other

cities

are

already

using

a

crumb-

rubber mix for pothole and crack repair with good results. The

North Carolina Department of Transportation (DOT) reports favorable results from a controlled research experiment on Route

spe ifications

in

opening up a large internal market.

40 in Howard for the use

County.

of

The adoption of

in asphalt

standards and

is

of

crucial

imxortance

crumb rubber

,

Study

area

population

figures,

technical

information,

historical

review,

and

financial

data

on

the

recycling

and

recovering

of

tires

are

contained

in

the

appendices

of

this

report.

the Cumberland

County

investors,

fuel and as an asphalt additive, and that it more fully

hog

local

Self-Reliance,

Clean

Inc.

(SRI)

recommends

(CCCCC),

for

that

Community

in

Committee

the

working

crumb

with

assess

detail

markets

rubber

as

investigate

the

potential

of

the

Tirecycle

process.

SRI

also

recommends

that

CCCCC

work

with

the

county

to

raise

the

disposal

cost of tires at existing landfills and that it encourage the state to adopt standards and specifications for the use of crumb rubber in asphalt. Additionally, a site-specific assessment of

the pyrolysis technology should be undertaken. The pyrolysis

scrap

technology may use

tire that

the

estimated

25

to

35

percent

of

the

will

not

be marketable.

2

t

In combination, these steps would identify site-specific

investment needs and help create the supply and demand requisites

crumb rubber

for an economically viable

enterprise.

3

11. BACKGROUND ON PROJECT

scrap

tire processing facility in Fayetteville, North Carolina. The

objectives of this study were:

This

study

investigated

the

feasibility

of

siting

a

o

to assess the economic viability of the tire recycling reprocessing industry for the Cumberland County region

o

to

determine

the

sources,

quantities,

and

availability

of

supply within

a

specific

radius

of

the

proposed

facility,

o

and to assess the

collection

network

to detail the technological options for crumb rubber production and respective costs

o

assess tire products

to

the

potential

markets

for

processed,

discarded

Previous

feasibility

assessments

of

 

tire

recycling

performed

by

SRI

and

others

indicate

that

processing

tires

into

crumb

rubber

is

the

most

promising

option

for

the

successful

marketing of products derived from discarded tires.

offers

Crumb rubber

a wide variety of options in market choices. Depending on

it may be sold as an asphalt

of

and

the

size

of

the

fuel

crumb,

or chip,

supplement,

elastomer products

commercial uses.

substitute,

and

filler

plastic),

for

and

the

other

pro uction

stria1

'3.

(rubber

ind

\'

The processing plant capacity must be determined based on

Determination of demand (maximum

58,000 tons per year) will indicate whether to depend on easily obtained sources for a supply (approximately 8,000 tons) or to aggressively solicit additional stock from the supply area. Assuming that the plant will operate 300 days per year, Table 1 shows the range of figures that can be used for sizing the plant.

supply

and

demand

figures.

A

TABLE 1

REQUIRED SUPPLY OF TIRES FOR VARIABLE-

SIZED TIRE PROCESSING

FACILITIES

plant

capacity

30-day

1-year

(tons/day)

tires/day

tire supply

tire supply

1

100

3,000

30,000

5

500

15,000

150,000

10

1,000

30,000

300,000

50

5,000

150,000

1 ,500,000

100

10,000

300,000

3,000,000

150

15,000

450,000

4,500,000

8,

264

26,400

792,000

'\

7,b20,000

-----------.-----------------

A daily processing quantity of 150 tons for a 300-day work year (179 tons for a 251-day work year) is recommended as a reasonable supply. Hourly operating capacities based on the 150-ton-per-day (45,000-ton-per-year) recommendation are provided in Table 2.

c

POUNDS-PER-HOUR

TABLE 2

CAPACITY OF 150-TONS-PER-DAY

TIRE PROCESSING FACILITY AT VARIABLE USE

Shifts

one 8-hour

shift

two 8-hour

shifts

24 hours a day

150 tons per

day

179 tons per

day/

300 days per

year

251 days per

year

(in pounds

per

hour)

(in pounds per

hour)

37,500

18,750

12,500

6

44,700

22 9 375

14,900

111. OVERVIEW OF DISCARDED TIRE PROBLEM

The

similar

problem

to

that

with

discarded

tires

in

other

jurisdictions

in

Cumberland

County

is

in

the

United

States.

Something

on the

order

of

9 million automobile tires

truck

tires

are

discarded

yearly

in

North

Carolina.

and 2 million Nationally,

about

30

percent

of

tires

is

recycled

into

new

products,

20

per-

cent

is

used

as

retreads

(mostly

truck

and

fleet),

and

about

10

percent

is

used

as

industrial

additives

for

fuels

and

in

other

specialized applications.

 

Tires do

not

significantly

decompose

when

buried.

They

have

a

tendency

to

rise

to

the

surface

and

compromise

the

suitability

of

landfill

sites

for

future

development.

Tires improperly

disposed

of,

either

in

landfills

or

left

on

the

surface

of

the

ground, provide excellent breeding grounds for disease carriers

to

and

public safety

Fires occasionally arising in stockpiled tires are costly and

tire fire burned

difficult to control.

for more than nine months and cost Frederick County more than

pests.

Huge

and

stockpiles

environmental quality.

tire

have

proven

to

be

a

threat

The Winchester,

Virginia,

$2,300

to

contain.

The

fire

siphoned

some

$1.8

million

from

the

Superfund

(Comprehensive

Environmental

Response

Compensation

and

Liability

Act)

for

containment

and

cleanup

of

the

melted-tire

runoff

from the

site.

1.

For

estimating the number

of

tires generated

in a biven area,

the Intenco Model was used (see Appendix F). The estimate assumes that a standard worn tire has lost 4 pounds of tread’ and will weigh 22 pounds. Based on the following parameters -- 1979 data for total U.S. scrap tire generation, statewide vehicle populations, statewide mileage figures, and local statewide tread lifetime averages -- residents of North Carolina will generate 33 pounds of discarded tires per person per year.

For the purpose of this report, the study area is determined

to be

counties,

Fayetteville (see Appendix A). Including Cumberland County, there is a total population of 3,436,000 within the 100- to 150-mile radius of Fayetteville, excluding the populations in Mecklenburg

County

of

population

Fayetteville,

This includes the metropolitan areas

Wilmington,

within

or

and

a 100-

to 150-mile

thereof,

radius of

fall

This

Fayetteville.

a

100-mile

includes

100-mile

Forty-two

radius

of

an 8 urban

radius

10,000.

Point,

sections

South

of

there

Durham,

within

figure

the

Carolina.

27

1,8OT,OOO.

are

(Within

cities

with

populations

of

over

Greensboro-High

and Raleigh.)

7

Based

on

the

Intenco

formula

for estimating discarded $ire

generation, an estimated yield of 5.2 million discarded tires would be generated annually in the study area. Of that amount,

2,715,000 would be generated in urban areas.

The

Gresham

Lake

landfill,

which

receives

tires

from

the

surrounding

tires

are

sources

Triangle

area,

annually.

estimates

There

of

that

approximately

readily

100,000

received

are

tires

other

are

available

(see

where

large

quantities

concentrated

Table

3).

To routinely obtain tires from these sources, a reliable

collection and transportation system will be necessary. The

following

using a conservative -- given that many of these tires will be

heavier

table illustrates tire poundage and numbers of tires

truck tires

-- 22-pounds-per-tire

figure.

Of

the

total

tires

(5.2

million)

in

the

study

area,

approximately 14 percent, or 728,275, discarded tires per year are

collected at convenient points for transport. Several of these sites also have varying amounts of tires stockpiled.

available

for collection in urbanized areas. The remaining 48 percent, or

2,450,000, of discarded tires are located in suburban-rural and rural locations. Hence, the majority of discarded tires are

located

establishing

generated entrepreneurship or government incentive,, sufficient

numbers of

Fifty-two

percent,

or

2,715,000,

scrap

of

tires

are

at

or

a

near

formal

concentrations

collection

populations.

through

BY

self-

system,

either

discarded

tires

are available and can be

colUected.

Initially,

under

industry,

collection

or

of

tireg

can

be

limited''\ to

with

the

100-

to

those

obtained

local

contract

and

informal

in

the

agreement

military,

150-mile

and

tire

landfills

surrounding

perimeter.

the

small

Small businesses now paying to have tires

jobbers

who

collect

tires

in

advantage of

a free

removed,

to

recycle

dump point.

Initial indications are that the present collection network is casual and limited in scope to mostly small, independent operators working in small regions.

usable

used-tire

bulk

or

carcasses,

should take

low-cost

 

As word

of

the

tire

processing

plapt

becomes

known,

individ-

uals

should

seek

out

the

service

of

the

facility

to

dispose

of

their

tire

per

day,

a

stocks.

portable

-Depending

on

what

tire

shredder

may

8

tire

be

tonnage

is

appropriate

available

to

shred

TABLE 3

SOURCES OF CONCENTRATED DISCARD ANNUAL GENERATION

TIRES --

Source

Number of Tires ( per year1

Pounds

(per year)

Cohen & Green

Kelly Springfield

Camp Lejeune

Cherry Point/Semour Johnson

Fort Bragg

Fayetteville retail outlets

Gresham Lake landfill (Raleigh)

Marion Mullen (South Carolina tire salvage)

TOTALS

7,273

160,000

318,182

7,000,000

10,000

220,000

1,455

32,000

31,819

700,000

236,364

5,200,000

100,000

2,200,000

i

23,182

!jlO,Q\OO

3

9

tires at various locations and minimize transportation costs. The countless numbers of small- and medium-sized tire piles scattered throughout the source region should be identified and provided the opportunity to use the facility.

No tire

processing

facilities

contacted

during

the

course

of

this survey indicated that they paid for the delivery of tires.

Several, in fact, charged a tip fee. Stockpilers of tires will be

encouraged to dispose of their tires if tire processing facility.

Some plants charge four cents per pound of tire delivered to their processing facilities. A facility in Howard County,

Maryland, originally incorporated under

1980, built its initial stock by collecting tires from unwanted piles at a price of 50 cents per tire.

large

generators of discarded tires or scavengers seeking to dispose of their unwanted tires. However, by charging a disposal fee, the facility will have a predictable source of revenue that may help pay for capital and operating costs and debt repayment.

In a growing number of areas, local landfills charge even higher tip rates, or as in Minnesota, have had the disposal of

tires banned completely. In conjunction with other preliminary

the facility, I it would be advisable to

objectives for establishing

consider such policies

Carolina, most public landfills do not distinguish be ween tires

for all

County

for North Carolina. Currently, in North

a

allowed

to

invest

in

the

name

of

Roplex

some

in

Free

acceptance

of

tire

stock will

likely

attract

low tipping PRe

yard

at the Wake

and other

solid wastes,

 

accepted

wastes,

such

as

The only

charging the

$1.40

per

same

cubic

landfill.

inches in diameter be quartered. The privately owned Gresham Lake landfill, also in Wake County, accepts tires and charges 25 cents

stipulation

is that all

tires "tn excess of

18

for car

tires

and

$1.00

for

truck

tires.

An important consideration in recommending the production of

crumb rubber over other

are only three uses which have been determined to be of sufficient

market size to absorb the estimated five million plus tires generated in the Cumberland County supply area. Two of these, boiler-fuel substitute and asphalt supplement, require size variations of chipped or ground rubber. The third, pyrolysis oil, requires further analyses to determrne feasibility for the Cumberland County area.

tire recycling alternatives is that there

Self-Reliance,

Inc.

recommends that

CCCCC:

o

assess

in

detail

the

market

for

crumb

rubber

in

cooperation with

Cumberland County and private

industry

o

assess

in detail

the market

for crumb rubber

for

a co-fire

or substitute

for hog

fuel

 

o

further

explore

the

feasibility

of

an

enterprise

to

o

produce oil

raise the disposal cost of tires at existing landfills

through pyrolysis technology

o

encourage the

state

to

adopt

standards

and

specifications

for

the

use

of

crumb

rubber

in asphalt

 

o

continue to be a liaison between the private sector and the State Department of Transportation, Department of State Commerce, Commerical Division of Energy, and the Department of Natural Resources and Community Development on the issue of crumb rubber development

i

,

?

IV. RECOMMENDED DEVELOPMENT PLAN OUTLINE

The following development plan outline illustrates typical tasks that should be accomplished in CCCCC's investigation of the use of crumb rubber. Initiation of any one item does not in itself preclude starting any other task.

A. Distribute the report

B. Meet with potential

C. Meet with the State Department of Transportation on road specifications for the introduction of rubber as a standardized component in asphalt

end-use

plants to discuss markets

D. Identify and

crumb rubber

plant

investors

meet

with

E.

and

Meet

County

supply

with

identified

parties

to

site

plant

in

Cumberland

F. Meet with County on land

use and permits

G. Meet with technology vendors and interested crumb rubber companies to discuss equipment purchase, patent leasing, or franchise arrangement

H. Identify sources

i i

of

financial

assistance

1.

private

Assistance (For

additional information on this opportunity, contact

Stuart Natof,

investors

of

2. Department

Energy

Industrial

Program

Manager,

Office

of

Industrial

 

Programs,

U.S.

Department

of

Energy,

Mail Code CE

121, 1000

Independence

Avenue,

SW,

Washington,

D .C.

20585.

3.

North

Carolina

Energy

Development

Authority

 

(The

Authority

is

staffed

by

the

Energy

Division

09

the

North Carolina Commerce Department. The primary staff person is Ellen Polanski. Head of the Energy

Division

in the fuel applications of the crumb rubber. (PO

is Doug Culbreth, who has expressed interest

25249,

Raleigh,

North

Carolina

97611

919/733-2230)

The

Authority

can

issue

bonds

for

energy-generating

projects,

but

the

funds

must

be

funneled

through

a

public agency. Providing high-BTU "make-up" fuel for

waste-to-energy

plants

such

as

that

operating

in

17

4.

Wilmington,

assistance.)

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Public Law 94-580, Section 2004, provides for a 5-percent grant towards the purchase price of tire shredders to those eligible applicants best meeting criteria promulgated under this section. However, money was never appropriated for this section.

this

would

likely

qualify

for

5.

The

Solid

Waste

Disposal

Act,

Public

Law

89-272,

Section

1003;

objectives

make

multiple

reference

to

promoting

research

and

development

of solid-waste

management

and

resource

conservation

techniques,

demonstration, construction, and application of the

same, and providing training grants in occupations

involving

of

and maintenance of

design,

operation,

further

solid-waste disposal systems.

assistance should

design on a definite technology is made.

This

avenue

be

investigated once a

APPENDIX A COUNTY AND CITY POPULATIONS IN THE 100- to 150-WILE SUPPLY AREA

(County data based on July, 1984 census estimates, city populations based on July, 1983 estimates)

COUNTY -- MAJOR CITIES

COUNTY POPULATION

Alamance -- Burlington

102,200

Anson

26,100

Bladen

30 700

Brunswick

43,700

Cabarrus -- Concord

92,000

Caswell

22,100

Chatham

35 ,200

Columbus

51,800

Craven -- Havelock

769 500

Cumberland -- Fayetteville

251,300

CITY POPULATION

37,954

17,959

1

20,620

61,762

Davidson -- Lexington

117,600

16,306

Dublin

41,500

Durham -- Durham

159,200

102,670

Edgecombe -- Tarboro

58,200

10,822

Franklin

31,900

Granvi1le

-

36,300

Guilford -- Greensboro

325,300

158,712

-- High Point

66,685

14

COUNTY -- MAJOR CITIES Harnett Hoke

Johnston

Jones

Lee -- Sanford

Lenoir -- Kinston

Montgomery

Moore

Nash -- Rocky Mount

New Hanover

Onslow -- Jacksonville

-- Wilmington

Orange -- Chapel

Person Pitt -- Greenville

Randolf -- Ashboro

Hill

Richmond

Robeson -- Lumberton

Rockinghare -- Eden -- Reidsville

Sampson

Scotland -- Laurinburg

Stanley -- Albemarle

Union -- Monroe

-- Henderson

Vance

Wake -- Raleigh

-

COUNTY POPULATION

61,800

22,100

75 ,300

9,800

CITY POPULATSON

39

,400

15,540

61,000

26,268

23

,400

54,300

 

70,200

45,403

110,400

45,085

118,600

25,134

80,900

32,941

30,100

94,900

96,400

46,600

105,500

16,961

85,400

16,961

12,506

50 ,500

33,800

12,135

49

,900

15,155

76,300

15,058

38

,000

15,966

337,300

167,464

COUNTY 0- MAJOR CITIES

Wayne -- Goldsboro

Wilson -- Wilson

TOTALS

COUNTY POPULATION

CITY POPULATION

98,100

35,539

64,600

35,379

16

i

 

FIGURE

1

POPULATION AREAS

WITHIN

100-

TO

150-MILES

OF FAYETTEVILLE

D,,,,,.,,,32,000 lbs

E,,

510,000

lbs

,

Each concentric-circle represents 50

miles from the center of Fayetteville,

17

APPENDIX B

CHARACTERISTICS OF TIRES: COMPOSITION AND CHEMISTRY

Today's tires are a complex composition. Different parts of the tire (tread, sidewall, carcass, inner layer) have different

characteristics, which are imparted by various blends of rubber and other material. Most passenger tires use synthetic rubber compounds including styrene-butadiene, cispolybutadiene, butyl, ethylene-propylene-diene-terpolymer (EPDM) and neoprene rubbers. In addition to these synthetics, natural rubber is common in truck tires.

The

development

of

today's

long-wearing,

all-weather

passenger tire has meant the introduction of a large number of antioxidants, adhesion enhancers, antiozonants, and biocides into the tread. Commonly found in these additives are trace elements of antimony, arsenic, barium, lead, copper, cadmium, sodium,

potassium,

known to be toxic.

literature reviewed that they present a health risk in the recycling of tires.

and

other

elements.

Several

is

no

of

these

elements

in

any of

are

the

However,

there

indication

In

addition

to

the

above

elements,

sulfur

is

present

as

a

vulcanizing agent

in

the

rubber,

usually

comprising

1.5

to

2

percent

of

the

rubber

by

volume.

When

used

for

a, fuel,

the

percentage of sulfur in tire rubber is equivalenlj to that

contained in high-grade bituminous coal. Zinc oxide is added in relatively large concentrations (5 parts per 100 parts &f rubber) as a curing activator and pigment. Zinc oxide is a potential

problem

particulate; this phenomenon has been reported to cause problems

in boiler systems.

a very heterogeneous

average

composition,

different

mixture

in

using

rubber

rubber

as

a

fuel

because

is

it

is

released

as

a

Crumb

of

derived

from

tires

different

the

rubbers.

While

there

is

vary

an

different

rubber

constituents

because

of

tire manufacturers'

formulations.

Composition of

tires also includes:

o

rubber

at 80 percent

o

steel at 10 percent

o

fiber at 10 percent

18

Additional

review indicates

that:

<

o

two pounds of

oil

is required to manufacture one pound of

synthetic

gallon.)

rubber

(There

are

seven

pounds

of

oil

per

o

1.9 to 2.5

gallons

of oil

can be

recovered

from an average

20-

to 25-pound

tire

o

One ton of tires

is

required

to

extract

the

equivalent

of

one barrel

of crude oil

o

There are approximately 90 tires

in one ton

 

o

One

ton

of

tires

yields

approximately

1,350

pounds

of