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Propulsive Performance Analysis of a Stepped Hull by Model Test


Results and Sea Trial Data
S. Miranda, L. Vitiello
University Federico II, Napoli Italy

ABSTRACT: In recent years, advanced materials and manufacturing technologies have allowed the
construction of boats of lighter weight and more powerful, smaller and lighter engines. Consequently, the
reduction of the weight/power ratio leads to an increase of the maximum speed. Designers when making the
performance prediction for marine vehicles, they know that the power delivered by the engine is a function of
hull and propeller efficiencies.
The non-linearities of the hydrodynamics of planning hull, the high speeds and the dimensions of the ship and
model hulls, especially for the stepped hulls, lead to complicated analytical and experimental solutions.
However, model tests and full-scale trials are still the primary source of scientific investigation into the
behavior of planning hulls.
In this regard, while the results of resistance tests are wide and varied, more limited are those of the selfpropulsion tests.
In particular, in the literature there is no wide evidence of propulsion tests carried out on hull model of small
and fast boats with outboard engine. Recently in (Clement E.P., 2006) the authors have develop a method to
estimate propulsive performance for planning craft with outboard engines simulating the propulsion tests.
The authors, in (Clement & Pope, 1964) proposed a set-up for a new experimental methodology to obtain good
results for the measure of total model resistance on stepped hull by comparing the results of model tests and
sea trials of a stepped planning craft.
In this paper the authors continue the investigations and analyse the propulsive performance of a stepped hull
and make an estimation of the values of the propulsion factors by using the results of the model resistance tests,
screw propeller open water test and seat trial data.

INTRODUCTION

Today it is easy to find low cost high-powered


engines, especially as boats are lighter and lighter
and thanks to new building technologies with
composite materials laminating in infusion or prepreg, it is easy to reach quite high speeds (high
Froude numbers).
The usual high speed planning crafts have V-shaped
and hard chinned hulls; sometimes, one or more
steps are adopted in the hulls.
The steps are sharp discontinuities located in the
bottom surface of the hulls; usually they run
transversally and they are V-shaped, with the vertex
facing aft ward; on the outboard sides the steps
terminate with large apertures.
The designers, when carrying out a power
prediction for marine vehicles, know that the power

delivered by the engine is a function of the hull


efficiency and the propeller open water efficiency.
Moreover, in the literature, there are no selfpropulsion tests for high speed crafts with outboard
engines, and there are no towing tank tests of small
and fast hulls.
The first stepped hulls were originally proposed by
Rev. Ramus of Sussex England in 1872. Probably
the first systematic and scientific data, also useful
for planning hulls, was obtained by the
experimental tests on the model stepped hulls of
seaplanes between the two world wars.
That is why many studies were carried out in USA
and published by Society of Naval Architect and
Marine Engine in 1911 on Transaction (Clement &
Blount, 1963), where different flat plates, V-shaped
plates as well as stepped plates were tested to
analyse their performance.
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Figure 1: dimension and carachteristics of RIB Mito 31 by MV Marine

Experimental data by systematic series of high


speed planning craft and stepped hull (Clement
E.P., 2006), (Clement E.P., 1964) are limited and
include Series 62 (Clement & Blount, 1963), Series
65 (Holling & Hubbele, 1974) and US Coast Guard
47 ft Motor Lifeboat (MLB) (Metcalf, et al., 2005).
These data include only calm water performance of
bare hull, without propulsive performance analysis
with outboard engine.
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EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGIES

The number of revolutions and delivered power of


a ship are obtained from model results according to
ITTC standard prediction methods. To this purpose,
model tests requested comprise the resistance test,
the self-propulsion test and the propeller openwater test. In this way, it is possible to know the
useful power PE, the power actually delivered to the
propeller PD, the quasi propulsive coefficient and its
factors, defined as:
P
1 t
D E 0
R 0t w r
PD
1 w

(1)

The knowledge of the values of D and its factors


is of fundamental importance both in understanding
the propulsion problem and in estimating the
propulsive efficiency for design purposes.
The testing of model of small fast crafts presents
difficulties due to the small dimensions of the
model and high velocities (Toru, et al., 2012).
Craft for this investigation is RIB Mito 31 by MV
Marine S.r.l. with two outboard engines, in Figure
1 shows some details and the principal particulars
of the hull body.
A model of the RIB hull was built in scale 1:10 for
resistance test. In Table 1, RIB geometrical details
are reported.
A screw propeller model was built in scale 1:5 and
open water tests were carried out. In Table 2 are
reported RIB propeller geometrical detail.

All of the experimental tests were conduct at the


Towing Tank of Department of Industrial
Engineering section of Naval Architecture and
Marine Engineering of the University Federico II
in Naples. Dimensions of the basin are: length
137.5 m, width 9 m, deep 4.25 m. The tow carriage
is able to develop a maximum speed of 10 m/s with
a maximum acceleration of 1 m/s2.
The test used Froude methodology for effective
power calculation; the scale model was defined
considering the maximum ship and the maximum
carriage velocity.
Length over all : LOA [m]

9.35

Breadth max : BMAX [m]

3.35

Deadrise angle at transom []

23

Model scale

1:10

Table 1: geometrical details of RIB


Diameter: D [inch]

14

Pitch: P [inch]

23

Ae/A0

0.55

Table 2: geometrical detail of RIB propeller

RESISTANCE TEST

The resistance tests have been conducted at ship


speed range 8 50 knots (0.47 FN 3.00,
1.08 FN 6.87) with two different methods. In the
first time, the model is connected to the towing
carriage by the three-component balance R47 by
Kempf&Remmers, see Figure 2. The balance
measures the resistance, the sinkage and the trim
angle of the model.
The equilibrium trim angle is probably one of the
most important parameter that influence the
performance of a planning hull. It is a direct
consequence of the forces system acting on the
running body and it influences the relationship
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between lift, drag, dynamic stability, purposing and


sea keeping.

Figure 2: resistance test with R47 instruments

Therefore, in order to verify the results obtained,


sea trial tests have been carried out.
In sea trial tests Euler angles and accelerations were
measured by an inertial platform; fuel
consumptions and rpm were acquired by on board
instrumentations (Vitiello, et al., 2012).
The comparison between the measured values of
trim angle in model test with R47 and in sea trial
are very different (Vitiello, et al., 2012). It is
evident that the experimental facilities used did not
reproduce acceptable conditions of dynamic
similarity during towing tank tests.
During the navigation, the dynamic characteristics
of the full craft at sea were analysed in order to
define a new experimental methodology.
All the outboard engines are equipped with power
trim and tilt systems, to define the thrust direction
in the centerplane with consequent variation in the
moment that the engine transfers on the transom.
This system modifies forces and causes additional
difficulties that must be considered.
The effects of this regulation at maximum engine
rotation allow for the gaining of 4 knots at
maximum speed and 0.5 of dynamic trim angle
influencing the hump speed.
Accordingly, to reduce the number of variables, all
sea trial tests were performed with RIB Mito 31 and
the thrust direction was horizontal in static

condition, with zero thrust angle and T vector


parallel to WL, Figure 5.
Figure 5 shows the true force system and a similar
dynamic condition should be reproduced in the
towing tank test to obtain a angle closer to the sea
trial values.
The two outboard engines have been constrained to
the transom trough four bolts for every engine, two
in highest bracket zone and the other two in the
lowest bracket zone, Figure 3. The force F1 is
applied by hole 1, the force F2 is applied by hole 2.
The engine, when going forward, transfers the T
thrust to the transom through a force applied in the
lowest brackets area.
The propeller thrust is transmitted to stern through
a moment generated by the thrust vector respect to
the lowest brackets area, while the highest holes are
in contrast. If it is assumed the craft in steady state,
the force system F1, F2 and T must to verify all the
horizontal equilibrium conditions.

Figure 3: engine force system

Bracket

Holes
1

Figure 4: engine bracket

Figure 5: Towing tank thrust and true force system

X HSMV - Naples, October 2014

Consequently, the system forces engine/RIB Mito


31 is similar to a beam supported by a pin and a
roller.
If the value of the force F2 was known from the
moment equilibrium equation it is possible
calculate the thrust value.
The proposed resistance methodology considers
that in a horizontal position and in a trim angle at
rest equal at zero, the direction of the thrust force
is applied in the point P, intersection between
engine thrust direction and keel line at the bow
Figure 5.
This methodology, called Down Thrust (DT)
does not consider the moment effects, which could
generate an increasing of the angle on the craft.
With the R47 instrument the models were towed by
a single free-to-heave post, with yaw restrained and
free to pitch, so model have 2 degrees of freedom.
In the case of Down Thrust it has 4 degrees of
freedom, with yaw and drift restraints. In fact, to
avoid the instability phenomena, the model has
been realized with two guide model masts; one
located in the bow and the other at stern, which
engage in two forks Figure 6.

In fact, in the speed range between 30 and 50 knots,


the differences between the measure values of
model and sea trial trim angles, have an average of
0.3 and standard deviation equal to 1%.
With R47 instruments, the standard deviation
values are higher than the DT Methodology and
consequently the DT experimental measures of the
resistance and trim angle value can be considered
reliable.
The curve of the ship resistance is shown in Figure
7, according 2D ITTC Extrapolation Method.

Figure 7: Ship Resistance of RIB Mito 31 Hull


6

[]

5
4

Guide model masts

3
stepped R47

Stepped TBDT

Stepped sea trial

VS (Kn)

0
5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

Figure 8: Trim angle of hull model and RIB Mito 31

4
Forks
Figure 6: towing tank DT test, stepped hull, Model Basin
photo, Naples March 2012

This solution releases the model from each


instrument, because with such a small model
displacement (3.13 Kg), the hull model becomes
sensitive to every small external force.
The resistance dynamometer have been placed on
the towing carriage and connected to the model so
that the resistance can be measured. The other
quantities measured are the speed, sinkage and trim
angle.
Figure 8 shows the new comparisons of the trim
angle values between towing tank test with DT and
sea trial test. Certainly, the measured values are not
equal, but they are close and they have a very
similar trend.

THRUST MEASUREMENTS

In our case, the propeller thrust TS was calculate by


test at sea on RIB Mito 31 of MV Marine.
According to the logic scheme of the outboard
engine Figure 3, Figure 4 and Figure 5 to measure
the propeller thrust behind the transom, it was
necessary to connect the load cells with the upper
holes (Figure 4, Figure 9 and Figure 10), to measure
the F2 forces (Figure 4).
The F2 force lets the upper pins work on traction;
that is why two circular load cells were built, similar
to cylinders which, working with compression,
measure the F2 force.
The load cells, built in aluminium and equipped
with two biaxial strain gauges (Figure 9), are able
to measure both the axial deformation and the
centerplane component. The signals have been
acquired from a watertight DaQ (Figure 9), and the
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data was processed by a dedicated software


program sponsored by HP-System S.r.l.

16
TS [KN]

14
12
10
8
6
VS[Knots]

4
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Figure 12: sea trial test, engine thrust Vs ship speed curve
Figure 9: load cells and installation

5 SCREW PROPELLER OPEN WATER TEST

Figure 10: load cells installation particular

A propeller model and a model of lower unit (bullet


and propeller) were built for open water test scale,
1:5 ratio. Their geometries were modelled by 3DCAD and techniques of reverse engineering. They
were constructed by 3D rapid prototyping of
polymeric materials, i.e. nylon and fiber glass
Figure 13.
The materials and their mechanical properties were
verified by testing in an induced cavitation regime
at J values close to 0. The results were more than
satisfying and not blades vibrations were observed.
The new technology used made possible a reduction
of costs of 90% compared with conventional metal
models.
The propeller open water dynamometer H29 by
Kemp&Remmers has been used. The following
quantities are measured: speed, thrust, torque and
rate of revolutions.
Two tests were carried out: the first was the
standard open water test; in the second, the lower
unit (bullet and propeller) models were couple as
arranged on outboard engine Figure 14.

Figure 11: data acquired hardware

The measurements were acquired several times and


in still sea conditions so that the results were not
very far from the towing tank test conditions. The
results are shown in the Figure 12

Figure 13: Open Water Propeller Test

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1.00
0.80

10KQ-

10KQ+

0 -

0 +

0.60
0.40
0.20

0.00
1.00

Figure 14: Open Water Propeller Test with engine lower unit
(bullet and propeller)

The experimental tests were carried out according


to ITTC recommended procedures; the Reynolds
number had a mean value equal to 5.76 105 .
The open water characteristics have calculated
through experimental measurements in the towing
tank test on the propeller model and on the models
of lower unit (bullet and propeller).
The corresponding coefficients have been indicated
with KT ,KQ , 0 and KT ,KQ , 0 in Figure 13.
2.00
1.80
1.60
1.40
1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
0.00

10KQ+

KTJ
1.05

1.10

0 -

KT-

0.60

0.80

1.00

J
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
Mean
Value

1.25

1.30

6 PROPULSIVE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS


The analysis of the propulsive performance of the
real planning craft with outboard engines requires
some preliminary considerations about the
hydrodynamic interactions between the hull and the
outboard engine.
The first concerns the thrust deduction factor;
R TS
TS

(2)

The relative rotative efficiency:

R
0.40

1.20

The results of two test show substantially the lower


efficiency values of operating characteristics of the
lower unit (bullet and propeller), Figure 14 and
Table 3. However, they have been adopted later in
the investigation conducted.

KT+

0.20

1.15

Figure 16

10KQ-

1.20

1.40

1.60

Figure 15

Table 3

KT+

%DKT
7.03
5.88
4.61
3.23
1.75
0.19
-1.41

%DKQ
17.13
16.89
16.63
16.39
16.22
16.22
16.50

%0
-8.62
-9.42
-10.30
-11.30
-12.45
-13.79
-15.37

3.04

16.57

-11.61

1.80
J

Q0S Q0M

QS
QM

(3)

due to the difference in torque found in behind an


in open conditions, can be obtained if resistance and
propulsion tests are performed. The difficulty or
near impossibility to perform the self-propulsion
test do not allow the R calculation according the
conventional procedures.
In the present case, if the data of the engine
operations were known, i.e. the torque as function
of the number of revolutions, from the results of the
open water test it could be possible to estimate R .
Since the value of relative rotative efficiency does
not in general depart practically from unit, it is
considered acceptable to take R 1 .
Based on the hypothesis posed, the equation (2) is
written:
D

PE
1 t
0
0 h
PD
1 w

(4)

The values of 0 and h have been obtained in the


following way.
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The thrust deduction is obtained from (3), where the


+
thrust TS calculated by the sea trial and R TS
is the
ship resistance extrapolated by the model resistance
values increased of the allowance of due two engine
lower unit, calculated by an analytical relation.
The non-dimensional form of the thrust coefficient
is expressed by:

KTS

TS
S ns2 DS4

(5)

With KTS
as input data J TS , 0 and KQTS
are read
off from the open water characteristics of lower unit
models (bullet and propeller).
It follows the value of the effective wake fraction
as:

1 w TS

JTS Ds
ns

(6)

and the quasi-propulsive coefficient is given by:


D 0

1 t
0 w
1 w

(7)

Figure 17 and in Table 4 show the results obtained.


1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
00+
1-w
0 D
1-t

0.4
0.2
0.0
1.500

The results of open water tests carried out on


screw propeller model and on lower unit (bullet
and propeller) are very interesting and it can
provide valuable design data absent in the
literature.
3. The method proposed to predict selfpropulsion factors of planing crafts gives
acceptable results and quite similar to few
known in literature.
4. The availability of power and torque curves, by
outboard engine bench test, would make
possible the determination of the relative
rotative efficiency. As consequence, it would
be possible to perform a better analysis of the
self-propulsion factors without to measure
thrust at sea. In fact, knowing the engine torque
and the number of revolutions, it is possible to
enter on the characteristic of the propeller with
the value of KQ+ and derive the propulsion
factors.
5. Proceeding as suggested in this paper, it is
possible to obtain a database for studying the
propulsion performance of planing hulls and as
well as providing valuable design data absent
in literature.
The results are presented in Table 4:
0
d
FN
1-w
1-t
1.679
0.715
1.020
0.852
0.598
1.979
0.720
0.984
0.909
0.665
2.339
0.728
0.932
0.851
0.665
2.759
0.721
1.031
0.919
0.643
2.999
0.723
0.983
0.898
0.661
2.

Table 4: Propulsion Factors


2.000

2.500

3.000

FN 3.500

Figure 17: 0 , 1 w, T ,D propulsive coefficient

7 CONCLUSIONS
In this paper, a method to analyse the propulsive
performance characteristics of a stepped planing
craft with outboard engines is presented. To this
end, a new resistance test methodology has been
proposed and model tests are carried out, together
with open water tests and sea trials.
On the base of the results obtained, a method to
obtained the self propulsion factors is proposed and
the results are presented.
The following conclusions have been drawn:
1. The experimental procedure of resistance tests
seems better check the dynamic similarity,
since the values of trim angles measured on
model and on the craft are very close.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work has been supported by the project


INnovazione tecnologica nei SIStemi di Trasporto
(INSIST) within the Industrial Technology
Network, Theme Transportation Aeronautics
Space as foreseen by the POR Campania FSE
2007/2013 Axis IV and V.
The authors are grateful:
Eng.Vincenzo Nappo (CEO) of MVmarine for
providing their resources to build the many craft
model for towing tank test and a your rigid
inflatable boats for many sea trial;
Mr. Maurizio Mirabile (CEO) of HPSystem.it for
providing their resources to build the data
acquisition hardware and software for outboard
marine engine thrust;
Prof. Fabrizio Ricci for providing their resources to
design and calibration of load cells for thrust of
outboard marine engine;
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Prof. Domenico Coiro for providing their resources


to build the propeller model;
Mr Mario and Mr Davide Comitangelo for ship
propeller reverse engineering and for load cells
build;
Eng. Marco di Palma for hull model and propeller
model design;
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REFERENCES

Clement E.P., 1964. A lifting approach to planing boat


design, report n 1902: DTMB.
Clement E.P., 2006. A configuration for a stepped
planing boat having minimum drag (Dynaplane Boat).
[Online].
Clement, E. P. & Blount, D. L., 1963. Resistance tests
of a systematic series of planing hull forms. Transaction
of The Society of Naval Architects and Marine
Engineers, Volume 71.
Clement, E. & Pope, 1964. Stepless and stepped
planing hulls graph for performance prediction and
design, report n1490: DTMB.
Holling, H. D. & Hubbele, E. H., 1974. Model
resitance data of Series 65 hull forms applicable to
hydrofoils and planning craft, Bethesda: Naval Ship
Research and Development Cnter, Rep N DTNSRDC
4141.
Metcalf, B. J., Faul, L., Bumiller, E. & Slutsky, J.,
2005. Resistance test of a systematic series of U.S. Coast
Guard planing hulls, Carderock Division: Naval Surface
Warefare Center, Rep NSWCCD-50-TR-2005/063.
SNAME, 1911. Transaction. s.l.:s.n.
Toru, K., Yoshitaka, N. & Sato, T., 2012. Study on the
Characteristics of Self-propulsion Factors of Planing
Craft with Outboard Engine. Sname Symposium.
Vitiello, L. et al., 2012. Stepped hulls: model
experimental tests and sea trial data. Napoli, NAV
2012.