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ON Semiconductor The TL431 in the Control of
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Agenda

Feedback generalities

The TL431 in a compensator

Small-signal analysis of the return chain

A type 1 implementation with the TL431

A type 2 implementation with the TL431

A type 3 implementation with the TL431

Design examples

Conclusion

Agenda

Feedback generalities

The TL431 in a compensator

Small-signal analysis of the return chain

A type 1 implementation with the TL431

A type 2 implementation with the TL431

A type 3 implementation with the TL431

Design examples

Conclusion

Vout is permanently compared to a reference voltage Vref.

The reference voltage Vref is precise and stable over temperature.

The error, = Vref Vout, is amplified and sent to the control input.

The power stage reacts to reduce as much as it can.

Power stage - H

Vout

Control

variable

Error amplifier - G

Rupper

Vin

Modulator - GPWM

Vp

Vref

Rlower

Text books only describe op amps in compensators

Vout

Verr

Vout

Im the

law!

Verr

TL431

optocoupler

We need a high gain at dc for a low static error

We want a sufficiently high crossover frequency for response speed

Shape the compensator G(s) to build phase and gain margins!

T (s)

fc = 6.5 kHz

0 - 0 dB

T ( s )

GM = 67 dB

-88

m = 92

-180

10

T ( s ) = 67 dB

100

1k

10k

100k

1Meg

a Q factor of 0.5 (critical response) implies a m of 76

a 45 m corresponds to a Q of 1.2: oscillatory response!

1.80

Q = 0.5 critical damping

Q > 0.5 under damping

Q=5

Q=1

1.40

10

7.5

Q = 0.707

Asymptotically stable

1.00

600m

and no overshoot!

200m

2.5

15.0u

0

25.0u

35.0u

76

Q = 0.5

Q = 0.1

5.00u

45.0u

25

50

75

100

good practice is to shoot for 60 and make sure m always > 45

crossover frequency selection depends on several factors:

switching frequency: theoretical limit is Fsw 2

in practice, stay below 1/5 of Fsw for noise concerns

output ripple: if ripple pollutes feedback, tail chasing can occur.

crossover frequency rolloff is mandatory, e.g. in PFC circuits

presence of a Right-Half Plane Zero (RHPZ):

you cannot cross over beyond 30% of the lowest RHPZ position

output undershoot specification:

select crossover frequency based on undershoot specs

Vp

Vout(t)

I out

2 f c Cout

There are basically 3 compensator types:

type 1, 1 pole at the origin, no phase boost

type 2, 1 pole at the origin, 1 zero, 1 pole. Phase boost up to 90

type 3, 1 pole at the origin, 1 zero pair, 1 pole pair. Boost up to 180

10

20

270

270

G ( s )

50

100 200

Type 1

500

1k

10

100

1k

Type 2

10k

100k 10

boost

boost

G ( s ) = 270

1

G (s)

G (s)

G (s)

G ( s )

100

1k

Type 3

10k

100k

Agenda

Feedback generalities

The TL431 in a compensator

Small-signal analysis of the return chain

A type 1 implementation with the TL431

A type 2 implementation with the TL431

A type 3 implementation with the TL431

Design examples

Conclusion

The TL431 is the most popular choice in nowadays designs

It associates an open-collector op amp and a reference voltage

The internal circuitry is self-supplied from the cathode current

When the R node exceeds 2.5 V, it sinks current from its cathode

K

R

K

R

TL431A

A

2.5V

R

A

K

The TL431 lends itself very well to optocoupler control

Vdd

Slow lane

Fast lane

Vout

Vout

R pullup

RLED

RLED

R1

I1

VFB

I bias =

I LED

Rbias

C2

Rbias

V f 1V

I1

C1

TL431

1V

Rbias

Rlower

Vmin = 2.5 V

dc representation

RLED must leave enough headroom over the TL431: upper limit!

This LED resistor is a design limiting factor in low output voltages:

RLED ,max

Vdd VCE , sat + I bias CTR min R pullup

When the capacitor C1 is a short-circuit, RLED fixes the fast lane gain

Vout ( s )

Vdd

RLED

R1

I1

I1 =

R pullup

VFB ( s )

Ic

0V

in ac

Rlower

Vout ( s )

RLED

R pullup

VFB ( s )

= CTR

Vout ( s )

RLED

Let us assume the following design:

Vout = 5 V

Vf = 1V

RLED ,max

5 1 2.5

20k 0.3

4.8 0.3 + 1m 0.3 20k

Vdd = 4.8 V

I bias = 1 mA

CTR min = 0.3

R pullup = 20 k

G0 > CTR

R pullup

RLED

> 0.3

20

> 7 or 17 dB

0.857

You cannot amplify by less than 17 dB

You must identify the areas where compensation is possible

dB

40.0

180

20.0

90.0

-17 dB

-20.0 -90.0

-40.0

Not ok

H (s)

f c > 500 Hz

Requires

less

than 17 dB

of gain

arg H ( s )

ok

-180

10

Requires

17 dB

or more

100

500

1k

10k

100k

A TL431 must be biased above 1 mA to guaranty its parameters

If not, its open-loop suffers a 10-dB difference can be observed!

> 10-dB difference

Ibias = 1.3 mA

Easy

solution

Ibias

Rbias

Ibias = 300 A

Rbias =

1

= 1 k

1m

Feedback generalities

The TL431 in a compensator

Small-signal analysis of the return chain

A type 1 implementation with the TL431

A type 2 implementation with the TL431

A type 3 implementation with the TL431

Design examples

Conclusion

The TL431 is an open-collector op amp with a reference voltage

Neglecting the LED dynamic resistance, we have:

Vout ( s )

RLED

I1

R1

C1

I1 ( s ) =

Vout ( s ) Vop ( s )

1

sC1

1

= Vout ( s )

Vop ( s ) = Vout ( s )

Rupper

sRupper C1

1

1

I1 ( s ) = Vout ( s )

1 +

RLED sRupper C1

We know that:

Vop ( s )

RLED

Rlower

VFB ( s )

=

Vout ( s )

RLED

sR

C

upper 1

In the previous equation we have:

9 a static gain G0 = CTR

R pullup

RLED

1

9 a zero z =

1

C1 Rupper

Rupper C1

Vdd

Type 2 transfer function

R pullup

VFB ( s )

C2

collector to ground

R pullup CTR

1 + sRupper C1

=

Vout ( s )

RLED

sRupper C1 (1 + sR pullup C2 )

VFB ( s )

The optocoupler also features a parasitic capacitor

it comes in parallel with C2 and must be accounted for

Vout(s)

Vdd

Rpullup

VFB(s)

FB

C2 = C || Copto

Copto

e

optocoupler

The optocoupler must be characterized to know where its pole is

Cdc

10uF

Ic

2

Rled

20k

5

O ( s )

Rpullup

20k

Rbias

VFB

Vdd

5

X1

SFH615A-4

Vbias

Vac

IF

O (s)

-3 dB

4k

The pole in this example is found at 4 kHz

Copto =

1

2 R pullup f pole

1

2 nF

6.28 20k 4k

Another design

constraint!

Feedback generalities

The TL431 in a compensator

Small-signal analysis of the return chain

A type 1 implementation with the TL431

A type 2 implementation with the TL431

A type 3 implementation with the TL431

Design examples

Conclusion

To make a type 1 (origin pole only) neutralize the zero and the pole

R pullup CTR

1 + sRupper C1

=

Vout ( s )

RLED

sRupper C1 (1 + sR pullup C2 )

VFB ( s )

sRupper C1 = sR pullup C2

CTR

po =

C2 RLED

C1 =

R pullup

Rupper

substitute

C2

po =

1

Rupper RLED

R pullup CTR

CTR

C2 =

2 f po RLED

1

G (s) =

s

po

| G ( f c ) |=

f po

fc

f po = G fc f c

C2 =

CTR

2 G fc f c RLED

C1

We want a 5-dB gain at 5 kHz to stabilize the 5-V converter

Vout = 5 V

Vf = 1V

VTL 431,min = 2.5 V

Vdd = 4.8 V

VCE , sat = 300 mV

Apply 15%

margin

RLED = 728

I bias = 1 mA

CTR min = 0.3

R pullup = 20 k

G fc = 10

5

20

= 1.77

f c = 10 kHz

C2 =

CTR

0.3

=

7.4 nF

2 G fc f c RLED 6.28 1.77 5k 728

Copto = 2 nF

C = 7.4n 2n = 5.4 nF

C1 =

R pullup

Rupper

C2 14.7 nF

SPICE can simulate the design automate elements calculations

parameters

Vout=5

Vf=1

Vref=2.5

VCEsat=300m

Vdd=4.8

Ibias=1m

A=Vout-Vf-Vref

B=Vdd-VCEsat+Ibias*CTR*Rpullup

Rmax=(A/B)*Rpullup*CTR

Vdd

{Vdd}

4.80V

6

Rpullup

{Rpullup}

Rupper=(Vout-2.5)/250u

fc=5k

Gfc=-5

VFB

RLED

{RLED}

3.97V

4

Rpullup=20k

Cpole

{Cpole}

RLED=Rmax*0.85

R2

{Rupper}

2

2.50V

R5

100m

10

C3

1k

R6

1k

C1

{C1}

2.96V

4.99V

err

4.99V

Fpo=G*fc

4.99V

7

2.50V

2.50V

G=10^(-Gfc/20)

pi=3.14159

L1

1k

4.99V

E1

-1k

0V

B1

Voltage

V(err)<0 ?

0 : V(err)

V2

2.5

V3

AC = 1

C1=Cpole1*Rpullup/Rupper

X2

Cpole1=CTR/(2*pi*Fpo*RLED)

Optocoupler

Cpole=Cpole1-Copto

Cpole = Copto

CTR = CTR

Fopto=4k

Copto=1/(2*pi*Fopto*Rpullup)

CTR = 0.3

X1

TL431_G

R3

10k

Automatic bias

point selection

Hu?

dB

G (s)

20.0

10.0

3.7 dB

0

-10.0

-20.0

270

arg G ( s )

180

90.0

0

-90.0

100

200

500

1k

2k

5k

10k

20k

50k

100k

The 1-k resistor in parallel with the LED is an easy bias

However, as it appears in the loop, does it affect the gain?

Vout(s)

ac representation

VFB(s)

I1

Ib

IL

Rd

Ic

Rpullup

Rbias

Vf

Rbias

Rbias + Rd

Vout

Rbias

IL =

RLED + Rbias || Rd Rbias + Rd

I L = I1

RLED

VFB

Vout

R pullup CTR

s =0

Rbias

=

RLED + Rbias || Rd Rbias + Rd

CTR

Both bias and dynamic resistances have a role in the gain expression

A low operating current increases the dynamic resistor

SFH615A-2 -FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS

Rd = 158

0.002000

0.001800

IF Forward Current(A)

0.001600

Rpullup = 1 k, IF = 1 mA (CTR = 1)

Rd = 38

0.001400

0.001200

IF = 1 mA

0.001000

IF @ 110C

IF @ 70C

0.000800

IF @ 25C

0.000600

IF @ -20C

IF @ -40C

0.000400

IF = 300 A

0.000200

0.000000

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

Make sure you have enough LED current to reduce its resistance

The pullup resistor is 1 k and the target now reaches 5 dB

dB

20.0

Yes!

G (s)

10.0

5 dB

0

-10.0

-20.0

270

180

arg G ( s )

90.0

0

-90.0

100

200

500

1k

2k

5k

10k

20k

50k

100k

Feedback generalities

The TL431 in a compensator

Small-signal analysis of the return chain

A type 1 implementation with the TL431

A type 2 implementation with the TL431

A type 3 implementation with the TL431

Design examples

Conclusion

Our first equation was already a type 2 definition, we are all set!

Vdd

Vout

R pullup

RLED

R1

VFB

G0 = CTR

z =

1

Rbias

C2

C1

p =

1

TL431

Rlower

R pullup

RLED

1

Rupper C1

1

R pullup C2

You need to provide a 15-dB gain at 5 kHz with a 50 boost

f z = fc

G0 = CTR

R pullup

RLED

= 1015 20 = 5.62

Rlower = 2.5 250u = 10 k

C2 = 1 2 f p R pullup = 581 pF

C1 = 1 2 f z R1 = 2.3 nF

RLED =

R pullup CTR

G0

= 1.06 k

ok

The optocoupler is still at a 4-kHz frequency:

C pole 2 nF

Already above!

The bandwidth cannot be reached, reduce fc!

For noise purposes, we want a minimum of 100 pF for C

With a total capacitance of 2.1 nF, the highest pole can be:

f pole =

1

1

=

= 3.8 kHz

2 R pullup C 6.28 20k 2.1n

For a 50 phase boost and a 3.8-kHz pole, the crossover must be:

fc =

fp

tan ( boost ) + tan ( boost ) + 1

2

1.4 kHz

The zero is then simply obtained:

fc 2

fz =

= 516 Hz

fp

C2 = 1 2 f p R pullup = 2.1 nF

C1 = 1 2 f z R1 = 8.1 nF

In this example, RLED,max is 4.85 k

G0 > CTR

R pullup

RLED

> 0.3

20

> 1.2 or 1.8 dB

4.85

The 1-dB gain difference is linked to Rd and the bias current

dB

30.0

G (s)

20.0

10.0

0

14 dB @ 1.4 kHz

-10.0

140

arg G ( s )

130

120

50

110

100

10

100

1k

10k

100k

The gain limit problem comes from the fast lane presence

Its connection to Vout creates a parallel input

The solution is to hook the LED resistor to a fixed bias

Vdd

R pullup

Vout

Vbias

RLED

R1

Comp. network

changes!

VFB

Vdd

R pullup

Rbias

C2

C1

TL431

Rz

RLED

VFB

Rbias

C2

Vout

Vz

Rlower

R2

C1

TL431

Rlower

R1

The equivalent schematic becomes an open-collector op amp

Vdd

R pullup

Vout

Vz

RLED

Vout ( s )

R1

G1 ( s )

VFB

C1

G (s)

R2

C2

Transmission

chain O(s)

Vref

Compensaton

chain G1(s)

Rlower

O (s)

VFB ( s )

The small-signal ac representation puts all sources to 0

Vout

O(s) =

R pullup

RLED

CTR

1

1+ sR pullup C pole

R1

G (s)

O (s)

C1

VFB

IC

C2

CTR

R pullup

R2

G1 ( s ) =

IL

RLED

Rlower

1+ R 2 C1

sR1C1

The op amp can now be wired in any configuration!

Just keep in mind the optocoupler transmission chain

O(s) =

R pullup

RLED

CTR

1

1+ sR pullup C pole

G1 ( s ) =

1+ R 2 C1

sR1C1

G(s) =

R pullup

RLED

G2

1+ R2C1

CTR

sR1C1 (1+ sR pullup C pole )

We still have a constraint on RLED but only for dc bias purposes

RLED ,max

Vz V f VTL 431,min

Vdd VCE , sat + I bias CTR min R pullup

The poles and zero position are that of the previous design

Vz = 6.2 V

Vf = 1V

VTL 431,min = 2.5 V

Vdd = 4.8 V

VCE , sat = 300 mV

Apply 15%

margin

RLED = 1.27 k

I bias = 1 mA

CTR min = 0.3

R pullup = 20 k

We need to account for the extra gain term:

G2 =

R pullup

RLED

20k

CTR =

0.3 = 4.72

1.27k

G fc = 1010 20 = 0.316

The mid-band gain from the type 2A is therefore:

G0 0.316

G1 =

=

= 0.067 or 23.5 dB

G2

4.72

Calculate R2 for this attenuation:

R2 = G1 R1

fc

+ 1

fp

2

fz

+1

fc

= 2.6 k

An automated simulation helps to test the calculation results

parameters

Vout=12

Rupper=(Vout-2.5)/250u

fc=1.4k

Gfc=10

Vf=1

Zener

Ibias=1m

Vref=2.5

value

VCEsat=300m

Vdd=5

Vz=6.2

Rpullup=20k

Fopto=4k

Copto=1/(2*pi*Rpullup*Fopto)

CTR=0.3

Vout

G1=Rpullup*CTR/RLED

G2=10^(-Gfc/20)

G=G2/G1

pi=3.14159

C2

fz=516

{C2}

fp=3.8k

C1=1/(2*pi*fz*R2)

Cpole2=1/(2*pi*fp*Rpullup)

C2=Cpole2-Copto

a=(fz^2+fc^2)*(fp^2+fc^2)

c=(fz^2+fc^2)

R2=(sqrt(a)/c)*G*fc*Rupper/fp

Rmax1=(Vz-Vf-Vref)

Rmax2=(Vdd-VCEsat+Ibias*(Rpullup*CTR))

RLED=(Rmax1/Rmax2)*Rpullup*CTR*0.85

D1

1N827A

C4

0.1u

Vdd

{Vdd}

5.00V

R5

1k

6.17V

6

12.0V

Err

R4

{Rpullup}

2.51V

E1

-1k

12

X2

Optocoupler

Cpole = Copto

CTR = CTR

11

2.50V

1

10

C1

{C1}

X1

TL431_G

LoL

1kH

R2

{R2}

Rlower

10k

2.50V

9

12.0V

13

2.50V

Rbias

1k

3.31V

0V

14

Rupper

{Rupper}

4.32V

4

CoL

1kF

12.0V

R1

{RLED}

Vac

B1

Voltage

V(err)

Vref

2.5

The simulation results confirm the calculations are ok

dB

10.0

G (s)

0

-10.0

-20.0

-30.0

150

arg G ( s )

130

50

110

90.0

70.0

10

100

1k

10k

100k

TL431

Feedback generalities

The TL431 in a compensator

Small-signal analysis of the return chain

A type 1 implementation with the TL431

A type 2 implementation with the TL431

A type 3 implementation with the TL431

Design examples

Conclusion

The type 3 with a TL431 is difficult to put in practice

Vdd

R pullup

Vout

RLED

R pz

R1

fz1 =

f p1 =

C pz

G=

Rbias

C2

C1

Rlower

1

2 R1C1

f z2 =

1

2 ( RLED + R pz ) C pz

1

2 R pz C pz

f p2 =

1

2 R pullup ( C2 || Copto )

R pullup

RLED

CTR

a zero position

TL431

Once the fast lane is removed, you have a classical configuration

Vdd

R pullup

Vout

Vz

Rz

RLED

R1

C1

1

2 R2C1

f z2 =

1

2 R1C3

f p1 =

1

2 R3C3

f p2 =

1

2 R pullup ( C2 || Copto )

G=

R pullup

R3

C3

Rbias

C2

fz1 =

R2

Rlower

RLED

CTR

TL431

We want to provide a 10-dB attenuation at 1 kHz

The phase boost needs to be of 120

place the double pole at 3.7 kHz and the double zero at 268 Hz

Calculate the maximum LED resistor you can accept, apply margin

RLED ,max

Vz V f VTL 431,min

Vdd VCE , sat + I bias CTR min R pullup

X 0.85

1.3 k

G2 =

R pullup

RLED

20k

CTR =

0.3 = 4.6

1.3k

G fc = 1010 20 = 0.316

TL431

The mid-band gain from the type 3 is therefore:

G0 0.316

G1 =

=

= 0.068 or 23.3 dB

G2

4.6

Calculate R2 for this attenuation:

R2 =

G1 R1 f p1

f p1 f z1

fc

1+

f p

1

f z1

1+

fc

fc

1+

f p

2

fc

1+

f z

2

= 744

The optocoupler pole limits the upper double pole position

The maximum boost therefore depends on the crossover frequency

The decoupling between Vout and Vbias affects the curves

dB

G (s)

10.0

-9.3 dB @ 1 kHz

0

-10.0

Isolated 12-V

dc source

-20.0

-10 dB @ 1 kHz

-30.0

arg G ( s )

240

200

160

135

120

80.0

1

10

100

1k

10k

100k

TL431

Feedback generalities

The TL431 in a compensator

Small-signal analysis of the return chain

A type 1 implementation with the TL431

A type 2 implementation with the TL431

A type 3 implementation with the TL431

Design examples

Conclusion

The single-stage PFC is often used in LED applications

It combines isolation, current-regulation and power factor correction

Here, a constant on-time BCM controller, the NCL30000, is used

141V

Ip

X2

XFMR

RATIO = -250m

Vout

Iout = 2.4 A

52.5V

-210V

8.74V

7

vc

154mV

X1

PWMBCMVM

L=L

GAIN

3.09V

V1

{Vrms*1.414}

Fsw

Ip

68.4V

Dc

1 V = 1 s

19

598mV

R1

100m

0V

R2

50m

X5

K = Gpwm

GAIN

D4

1N965

52.5V

R7

65k

26.9V

9

4

11

50 V

2 A string

1.57V

22

L1

{L}

C5

0.1uF

C1

2.2mF

B1

Voltage

V(errac)-0.6

Rsense

1.24V

0.5

Vsense

23

parameters

Vdd

15.1V

{Vdd}

Vrms=100

L=400u

1.25 V

1.24V

ILED

14

R5

{RLED}

5.00V

R4

{Rupper}

18

Ct=1.5n

Icharge=270u

Gpwm=(Ct/Icharge)*1Meg

On-time

selection

VFB

errac

LoL

1k

2.17V

CoL

1k

20

AC = 1

V3

12.2V

17

16

X4

Optocoupler

Cpole = Copto

CTR = CTR

C2

{C2}

Ac out

R6

{Rpullup}

2.17V

29

0V

ac in

2.17V

10

11.1V

13

1.24V

15

X3

TLV431

R9

{R2}

C4

{C1}

28

1.24V

Average simulation

Once the converter elements are known, ac-sweep the circuit

Select a crossover low enough to reject the ripple, e.g. 20 Hz

dB

8.00

4.00

H (s)

-2.5 dB

20 Hz

0

-4.00

-8.00

80.0

40.0

arg H ( s )

-11

0

-40.0

-80.0

1

10

20

50

100

200

500

1k

Given the low phase lag, a type 1 can be chosen

Use the type 2 with fast lane removal where fp and fz are coincident

dB

20.0

2

1

10.0

fc = 19 Hz

13

0.5

15 V

-10.0

3

-20.0

5V

10

6.1 k

11

ton

generation

10 k

20 k

180

90.0

T (s)

m = 90

586 nF 13.6 k

395 nF

-90.0

12

G (s)

-180

1

argT ( s )

2

10

20

50 100 200

500 1k

A transient simulation helps to test the system stability

6.00

4.00

2.2 A

2.00

I LED ( t )

0

-2.00

VFB ( t )

5.00

4.60

4.20

3.80

3.40

4.00

2.00

0

I in ( t )

-2.00

-4.00

20.0m

60.0m

100m

140m

180m

Vin = 85 to 265 V rms, Vout = 12 V/1.7 A

Fsw = 65 kHz, Rpullup = 20 k

Optocoupler is SFH-615A, pole is at 6 kHz

Cross over target is 1 kHz

Selected controller: NCP1216

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Look for gain and phase values at cross over

Compensate gain and build phase at cross over, G(s)

Run a loop gain analysis to check for margins, T(s)

Test transient responses in various conditions

Capture a SPICE schematic with an averaged model

DC

vc

a

duty-cycle

389mV

90.0V

X2x

XFMR

RATIO = -166m

3

PWM switch CM

839mV

-76.1V

Vin

90

AC = 0

D1A

mbr20200ctp

12.0V

vout

12.6V

R10

20m

0V

X9

PWMCM

L = Lp

Fs = 65k

Ri = 0.7

Se = Se

vout

13

L1

{Lp}

8

V(errP)/3 > 1 ?

1 : V(errP)/3

12.0V

1

C5

3mF

B1

Voltage

Coming from FB

Rload

7.2

Observe the open-loop Bode plot and select fc: 1 kHz

dB

40.0

180

20.0

90.0

H (s)

Phase at 1 kHz

-70

0

-20.0 -90.0

-40.0

-180

10

arg H ( s )

Magnitude at 1 kHz

-23 dB

100

1k

10k

100k

Apply k factor or other method, get fz and fp

fz = 3.5 kHz fp = 4.5 kHz

Vout(s)

Vdd

38 k

2 k

20 k

k factor

gave

C = 3.8 nF

FB

VFB(s)

10 nF

2.5 nF

install

10 k

Copto = 1.3 nF

Check loop gain and watch phase margin at fc

4

dB

180

80.0

90.0

40.0

T (s)

argT ( s )

m = 60

0

-90.0 -40.0

Crossover

1 kHz

-180 -80.0

10

100

1k

10k

100k

Sweep ESR values and check margins again

12.04

Vout(t)

Hi

line

12.00

Excellent!

11.96

11.92

100

mV

Low

line

11.88

200 mA to 2 A in 1 A/s

3.00m

9.00m

15.0m

21.0m

27.0m

To speed-up your design studies, use the right tool!

1.

Enter

calculated

values

3.

Compute

pole/zero

check open

loop gain

2.

Show power

stage gain

and phase

4.

See final

values on

TL431

www.onsemi.com

NCP1200, design tools

Conclusion

Classical loop control theory describes op amps in compensators

Engineers cannot apply their knowledge to the TL431

Examples show that the TL431 with an optocoupler have limits

Once these limits are understood, the TL431 is simple to use

All three compensator types have been covered

Design examples showed the power of averaged models

Use them to extensively reproduce parameter dispersions

Applying these recipes is key to design success!

Merci !

Thank you!

Xi-xie!

Semiconductor at www.onsemi.com

the design of highly efficient power supplies at

www.onsemi.com/powersupplies

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