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Home / Peer Reviewed Article / Formulating equation to calculate fibre percentages in weft

knitted fabric

Formulating equation to calculate fibre


percentages in weft knitted fabric
Abul Hasnat
Author is the Champion of Textile Talent Hunt2012, can be reached at ahrupak@gmail.com
Issue November, 2013
Volume 06, Issue 011
Print this News
Abstract: Yarn Count, yarn composition and structure of repeat are responsible to change fibre
percentage in a fabric. There are standard process of ASTM*5& ISO*6 to find out fabric
composition or fibre percentage. Those processes are based on chemical quantitative analysis
and require extreme precaution &dedicated laboratory facilities, differentiating among Cellulosic
fibres (Cotton, Viscose, Linen & others)in lab stage of typical factory is also difficult. To follow
a laboratory process, a standard amount of sample fabric is needed to be in hand, so being sure
about resultant final composition is impossible before production or during planning. Lab results
depends on so many variables, in other side chemical handling is always a risky job and requires
expert hand to perform the test. So, a formulated way to find out fibre percentages in weft
knitted fabric will solve these problems. In this attempt, an equation is formulated to calculate
fibre percentage or fabric composition, using this equation it will be possible to be sure about
resultant final fibre percentages in fabric in planning stage.Keywords Fibre
percentage,knitfabric, yarn count, yarn composition,chemical quantitative analysis, repeat.1.
Introduction
A knit fabric may contain one type of yarn or more in a single course. It may contain a large
number of yarn combinations in one repeat. A simple single jersey or double jersey
(Rib/Interlock) may have a large number of stripes from various yarn containing different yarn
number and yarn composition in one repeat. A basic Fleece fabric contains at least three yarns,
according to the structure a fleece may have several types of yarns & all yarn can be varying
from each other for their yarn number and fibre combination. After fabric formation, its difficult
to find out fibre percentages or fabric composition in factory stage without having advanced lab
facility, especially when complex designs &combination of different cellulosic fibre is used. In
factory level, fabric composition is calculated using simple algebraic method by counting
number of different yarns& their composition only. But when a mix of different yarn number &
stitch length is used, only number of yarn cant show proper composition. Yarn number, yarn
composition, stitch length, number of yarn all are equally important to have proper composition.
Without proper logical and mathematical method & proper variables, only assumptions can be
made but not precise result. Thats keep lab facility the only way to know composition properly.
Nowadays different kinds of yarns of dual-blend or tri-blend with unusual fibre concentration
are used in one fabric that makes the chemical analysis more complex, and its always a
requirement to know what will be the resultant final fibre percentages during planning, & in

planning stage lab process is impossible. So, there have to be some way to know a fabric
composition accurately. Taking all proper variables (those are related with fibre percentages
variation) in action can only show the composition perfectly. Yarn Count or yarn number, stitch
length (SL), number of the yarn & yarn composition (blend ratio) are the proper variables, and
they dont change in any stage of processing. So, using those variables it will be possible to get
accurate results always. Fibre percentages (weight fraction) in fabric remain same in both
greige& finish stage, only some special process like enzyme wash, resin finish etc. may change
the fibre concentration in a yarn & thus the fabric. The change can be calculated as a specific
enzyme act on a specific fibre, the loss of that fibre depend on wash parameters & can easily be
found out. Dyeing process also adds some amount of dyes in fabric and changes weight a little.
Lab results & calculated results both should be adjusted according to these facts.
2. Definitions
Fibre Percentages means the fibre concentration expressed in percentage in a fabric, generally
spoken as fabric composition. It is important because comfort and thus the value of a fabric
depends on the fibres and ratio of those fibres at that fabric. Fabric manufacturer have to supply
fabric at right composition of right fibres as required, he may need to adjustprocessing system
(or parameters) according to fibres & fibre percentage of the fabric.Fabric composition is also
important to know howto handle a garments during end-use, thats why there are Care Levels.
Yarn composition express fibre percentage in that particular yarn, ratio of fibres in a yarn. Yarn
strength, color, shed and other aesthetic properties after dying or finishing, appearance etc.
depend on fibre(or fibres) and their blend ratio.
Yarn Count/ Yarn Number*1, 14, various units (Count) such as: English cotton count (or
Number English Ne), Denier (D) and Tex system (tex, Tt), Worsted count (NeK), Woolen count
(YSW or Dewsbury), Linen count (NeL), Number metric (Nm) and others to measure textile
yarns. Count is numerical expression of Linear mass density of fibre in a yarn. Yarn is spun
thread used for knitting, weaving, or sewing.
Cotton count is another measure of linear density. It is the number of hanks (840 yd. or 770 m)
of skein material that weigh 1 pound (0.45 kg). Under this system, the higher the number the
finer the yarn. The number is now widely used in the staple fiber industry.
Denier or den is a unit of measure count or yarn number. It is defined as the mass in grams per
9000 meters. The International System of Units uses the unit tex instead. Tex is a unit of
measure for the linear mass density of fibers and is defined as the mass in grams per 1000
meters. The unit code is tex. The most commonly used unit is actually the decitex,
abbreviated as dtex, which is the mass in grams per 10,000 meters.
A repeat means a unit or a stripe (may be unit with several stripe) which have all the parameters
of the knit fabric and is repeated all over the fabric.Stitch length means average yarn length
allocated for a stitch or loop (unit for knit fabric).

3. Theory
Assume, A repeat of a knitted fabric contain following specifications:

N1s(Ne) yarn with composition of A type fibre fA1% & B type fibre fB1%with stitch length of
SL1for n1times
N2s (Ne)yarn with composition of A type fibre fA2% & B type fibre fB2%with stitch length of
SL2for n2times
N3s(Ne)yarn with composition of A type fibre fA3% & B type fibre fB3%with stitch length of
SL3forn3times
.
.
.
.
.
Nns(Ne) yarn with composition of A type fibre fAn% & B type fibre fBn% with stitch length
of SL3for nn times
Lets find out fabric composition for that repeat:
It is known,N1s(Ne)yarn means;N1840 yd. yarn has weight of 1 lb.

So, N1840 3625.4mm yarn has 1 lb. weight.

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