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THE RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

MACMILLAN AND
LONDON

CO., Limited
BOMBAY CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY


NEW YORK

ATLANTA

THE MACMILLAN

BOSTON CHICAGO
SAN FRANCISCO

CO. OF
TORONTO

CANADA,

Ltd.

ML

THE RHYTHM OF
MODERN MUSIC

BY

C.

F.

ABDY WILLIAMS

MACMILLAN AND
ST.

CO.

LIMITED

MARTIN'S STREET LONDON


T

9]9

8WGHAM

ubrarY
PROVO, utah

GLASGOW PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS


BY ROBERT MACLEHCSE AND CO. LTD.
:

PREFACE
In this book

have endeavoured to deal with the

Rhythm of Modern Music

in

its

aspect,

aesthetic

rather than as an element of formal construction.

In the present highly developed condition of musical


art,

the power of influencing the

of rhythmical devices

infinite variety

with melody

and the

mind through an

is

to composers,

are

of Rhythm, although well


not invariably

made

by performers, except by those of the


those

who have

combination

perhaps generally recognised,

not

capabilities

in

known

full

first

use of

rank, or

paid special attention to this element

of music.
Musicians, professional and amateur, as well as
listeners,

the

are

melody of

apt to pay considerable attention


a piece

and

little

the latter happens to be in

melody, however,

is

to

some

not

its

Rhythm,

to

unless

self-evident form.

merely an arbitrary

distribution of intervals over a portion of the scale,

but a distribution of intervals regulated by some

kind of rhythmical arrangement, through which

becomes

a living organism, capable

it

of moving the

PREFACE

vi

The

emotions.
is

not entirely in the hands of the composer,

however
is

rhythmical arrangement, moreover,

down his ideas,


have them made ineffective

carefully he

quite possible to

may

for,

write

it

in

performance by faulty accentuation or phrasing.

Rhythm
that

has been so

studied as

little

has not yet arrived at a generally recognised

it

nomenclature of

its

German

own.

theorists

gone a good way towards the invention of

names

we cannot conveniently use

of

their

language

while

English does not lend

the technical terms

writing

own.

our

in

to the coinage

itself easily

compounded out of
Hence we, perhaps more
driven back upon that

of new words being

allows

materials already at hand.

most

nations,

are

wonderful Hellenic language which


to express

To
School,

so well able

is

whole ideas by single words.

those

discipline

who have undergone

of

" Compulsory

wholesome

the

Greek "

at

Greek rhythmical terms would

difficulty.

to

special

terms, for this requires a language which

scientific

than

have

for the various parts of a rhythmical whole,

but

of

science

But

wish

the general reader

use of Greek

technical

my book
hence

to

Public

offer

little

be acceptable

have avoided the

terms as far as possible,

though some few, for which

have been unable to

find satisfactory equivalents, have been introduced.

But

hope that they

will

become

sufficiently familiar,

PREFACE
in

process

of

reading,

obliged

to

them

prevent

to

For the

proving repellant.

vii

rest, I

from

have been often

use combinations of words to

express

what one Greek technical term would have expressed

more

conveniently.

meanings
I

the

effort

Whether

must leave

to

make my

without the intervention of Greek,

have made rather a free use of

letters.
I

clear

In

to the

have succeeded

judgment of
C.

F.

Milford-on-Sea, 'November, 1909.

my

capital

initial

my

effort

in

readers.

ABDY WILLIAMS.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
Introductory

CHAPTER

pp. 1-18

II

Measurement of Time
The Measure and the Poetic Foot The Period
a Period Phrasing
Functions of the two Rhythms
Instrumental Music The Caesura
Song Phrasing
Tempo Duple and Triple Rhythm-species Masculine
and Feminine Endings Time Signatures The Bar
Accent

Prose, Poetry and

Music

in

in

in

Diaeresis

------CHAPTER

pp. 19-44

III

Preliminary Measures The Overlap


Rhythmless Music The Four-bar Phrase Accents, struck
omitted Rhythmical Accentuation The Material of
formed Different Rhythmical Schemes
which Rhythm
used simultaneously The three Kinds of Accentuation
and Melismatic Song Rhythms within Rhythms

The

Anacrusis

or

is

Syllabic

pp.

45-78


CONTENTS
^CHAPTER
of

Effect

and

longer

IV

Notes on Accentuation

shorter

Ancient Theory and Modern Practice

Well-marked

Combined Rhythm-

Influence of Note-values
on the ^Esthetic Character of Music Repetition of Definite

species

Rhythmical Figures

Syncopation

Species

Time

of a given

Time

Triple

against

Signatures

Melody

tuple and Septuple

pp.

79-104

CHAPTER V

Duple

Rhythm

Temporary

Change

Brahms'
Time

Changes of
Accentuation

of the

Mastery of Rhythm

Quin-

pp.

105-132

CHAPTER

VI

Schubert's
Rhythms Beethoven's Rhythms Half-Rhythms Threemeasure Rhythms Five-measure Rhythms Rhythms of

Importance

of

the

Seven Measures

Four-measure

Times

of

Haydn's

Strauss'

"Tod und

The

humorous

Verklarung"

Grieg

Unbarred

^S-^S

and

Empty

VII

Pause
use

PP-

of

Rests
Rests

Rests

Examples of

--------

Brahms and
106

Tempo

CHAPTER
Variations

Rhythm

Music

in

R.

Diaeresis in

Beethoven,

Op.

pp. 159-181

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
Staccato

Forte,

Piano,

Organ and Accent

The

VIII
Diminuendo

and

Crescendo,

Mechanical

xi

The

Instruments and Accent

Rhythmical Scheme of a Complete Composition

illustrated

by Brahms' Rhapsody, Op. 117

CHAPTER
Brahms' Symphony

phonic pathetique, Op. 74

Tschai'kowsky,

182-209

pp.

IX

D, Op. 73

in

pp.

Sym-

210-255

CHAPTER X
Vincent D'Indy, Sonata in

Masques

Op. 45

Hommage

Elgar,

for Piano,

Rameau

Op. 63

Stanford,

Symphony, Op. 55

Debussy,

Quartet No.
-

pp.

2,

256-307

APPENDIX
The Agogic Accent
Index

p.

308

~P-3

MUSICAL ILLUSTRATIONS
Beethoven,

Ex.

Sonata in D, op. 10, No.

Rondo,

3,

Anglican Chant taken from Sonata Patetique, op.


Sonata, op.

14,

in

in

D,

3,

46

l68

12

52

No.

1,

App. 311

No.

2,

App. 312

flat,

op.

26, Andante,

op.

28, First

3,

Sonata in B

flat,

Quartet, op.

132, First movement,

106, Largo,

op.

38

60
I40

41

149

5i

13

56

57

16

movement,

Overture, Leonore, op. 72, No.

Page

Second movement,

Piu allegro,

78

33

33

45

156

47
29

Brahms,
Ballade,

"Edward,"

op.

10,

Intermezzo, op. 10, No.


Serenade, op.

Variations on

1 1

First

No.

3,

movement,

Menuetto I.,
Hungarian Air,

Pianoforte Quartet in

1,

170
10

21

94

2,

36

130

minor, op. 25, Rondo,

43

153

42

35

129

24

Quintet, op. 34, Scherzo,

Song, "Agnes,"

op. 59, -

Symphony, No.

2, op.

73,

op.

21,

No.

movement,

First

>>

25

99
100

?J

T>

57

210

11

>>

58

212

T>

">)

59

213

MUSICAL ILLUSTRATIONS

XIV

Brahms (continued),
Symphony, No. 2,
>">

Ex.

Page

60

214

6l

215

62

2l6

movement,

op. 73, First


>?

?>

I")

>>

J?

>>

79

>>

63

217

>>

?*

Adagio,

>>

??

">y

>y

>

??

>)

>>

77

>>

>>

?>

>J

7)

>>

?>

?>

Klavierstiicke, op.

>?

>?

Fantasien, op.

76,

No.

69

225

70

227

7i

228

72
22

229

2,

23

98

73

23O

74

232

75

232

76

234

77

235

42
122

No.

?>

?>

>?

116, No.

34
27

I I I

1,

10

46

2,

9
17

43

3,

Drei Intermezzi, op. 117, No.

1,

No.

2,

Klavierstiicke, op.

7,

No.

3,

118, No. 2,

No.

4,

72

5o

33
18
19

Intermezzo, op.

IO7

30

>>

116,

movement,

Andante,

>>

98

op. 90, First

3,

No.

Capriccio, op.

224

77

>>

223

68

Finale,

Symphony, No.

67

>'

>?

?>

5?

66

219
221

?>

?>

>>

65

>>

Allegretto,

>

218

?>

9f

64

120
75
76

20

76

41

34
!?Q

32

MUSICAL ILLUSTRATIONS
Brahms

xv

(continued),

No.
op. 119, No.
Rhapsody, op. 119, No. 4,
118,

Klavierstiicke, op.

Ex.

Page

5,

49

175

2,

38

52

194

55

55

55

53

198

55

55

55

54

203

55

55

55

55

204

56

208

39

144

Clarinet Sonata, op. 120, No. 2, Second

movement,

______

Chopin, op. 24, No.

55

>>

104

34
267
268

55

55

105

268

5'

106

269

55

107

269

108

270

55

109

271

55

10

271

in

272

12

272

113

273

6 3) First movement,

95

257

96

259
260

2,

Debussy, Masques,

55
17

55

He>m
Hommage

55

55

Rameau,

103

55

yy

55

D'Indy
Sonata, op

55

55

55

55

55

55

'5

55

55

97
98

55

55

55

99

262

55

55

263

55

55

5}

99 A
100

55

'5

Finale,

IOI

265

102

266

40

148

127

289

128

290

129

292

Second movement,

Dvorak, Slavische Tanze,

261

264

Elgar,

Symphony,

op.

55,

First

movement,

MUSICAL ILLUSTRATIONS

XVI
Elgar

(continued).

Symphony,

Ex.

movement,

Pag

130

293

131

293

132

294

133

295

134

296

>

135

297

?>

J?

136

298

?5

298

>?

137
I38

>

Third

139

299
300

>?

140

302

302

op.

55,

First

Second movement,
it

if

19

?>

141

>?

142

303

H3

34

I44

3o5

145

305

50A

176

48

173

37

131

26

59
102

114

276

115

277

116

279

117

118

279
280

119

281

120

281

121

282

122

284

123

285

124

286

125

287

Finale,

5?

Grieg, Violin Sonata in F, op.

8, Finale,

Haydn, Quartet in E flat, Finale,


Kuhac,
Slanca from "Chansons Nationales des
Mozart, Sonata

in

Slavs

du

Sud,'

minor, First movement,

Schumann, Pianoforte Concerto,

Finale,

Stanford,
Quartet, op. 45, First movement,

Second movement,

Third movement,
Finale,

MUSICAL ILLUSTRATIONS
Stanford

(continued),

Quartet, op. 45,

Finale,

xvn
Ex.

Page

126

288

28

IO9

44

155

42

152

Strauss, R.,

Violin Sonata, op.

18, First

movement,

Ein Heldenleben, op. 40,


Symphony, Aus Italien, Third movement,

TsCHAIKOWSKY,

Romance

F minor,

in

Symphonie

Patetique, op. 74, First


>

55

55

55

55

55

movement,

78

236

55

79

2 37

55

80

238
240

55

55

55

55

81

55

55

55

55

82

241

55

55

55

55

83

244

55

55

5>

84

244

55

55

>

55

55

55

55

Second

55

55

55

))

55

Third

5>

5)

>J

55

85

m ovem

86

245
246

5>

37

247

mo veme

88

248

55

55

89

J)

55

'5

90

249
250

>

J>

55

55

91

250

55

55

55

55

92

251

55

55

Finale,

93

253

55

it

94

254

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTORY

The power

of expression that has been reached


the power of the composer,

in instrumental music,
or, as the

tone-poet,

Germans more happily


to

move

the

express

it,

of the

and appeal to

emotions,

the intellect through the agency of

mere sound,

one of the greatest achievements of modern

is

civilisa-

tion.

The poet, the painter, the architect appeal to


much the same faculty as the musician, namely, that
which is vaguely known as the artistic sense
but
:

they

work with more

or less concrete material, and

everyone has some

they treat of things of which


experience.

The

which we can
which we can
is

poet's

see, or
feel

work

imagine we

or emotions
art-material

ways that appeal to

our sense of beauty and order

The

see,

His

and describe.

speech, arranged in certain

itself is

to idealise objects

is

but the material

one of everyday use.


painter cannot use his art without depicting

some concrete

object

however

ideal

may

be his

RHYTHM OF MODERN

MUSIC

conception or however lofty that ideal, he can only


express himself through representations of something
definite

The

and

which most nearly approaches to that

art

of music in
thing that
is

tangible.

power of moving us through some-

its

not a representation of natural objects,

is

architecture

for the feelings that are experienced

when we contemplate

moved by any
but by

some

material itself
for

it

association

reason

is

condition

appeal

tangible object,

to

this case also

in

dug out of

is

with a

arrangement of hewn stone

the

for

that

a beautiful cathedral are not

forms

in

Yet

us.

found

the

nature,

in

the earth, and brought

to a

use in art through the chisel of the

for

workman.
Instrumental music differs

we have mentioned.

the three arts

all

or

represent

art-material

not found in nature.

natural approach to

removed from
instinct

it

the

as is

of animals

and

The

the song of birds,

it,

from

cannot

It

any natural object

idealise
is

in certain respects

its

nearest
is

as far

mind of man from

the

and even the sound produced

by the wind, though

it

present a musical tone,

may sometimes
is

actually re-

not like the sound that

is

used by the musician.


Instead
speech,

can

be

of taking any natural material, such

or stone, and working

of service in

art,

it

as

into a form that

the musician combines a

INTRODUCTORY
number of

produced sounds

entirely artificially

in

such a way that not only are they pleasant to listen

number of bright colours representing


nothing in nature may be pleasing to the eye, but
that they shall go further, and appeal to the mind
to, just as a

through the
strumental

music

charming

it

has

expresses noble

For

and the emotions.

intellect

no longer merely

is

point

arrived at a

thoughts,

and

acts

incentive to nobility of character.

And

or

pretty,

in

as

in-

which

it

powerful

this

has to

be done, not with a lasting material, such as canvas

and

paint, or stone, but with a material that vanishes

immediately the vibrations of string or pipe which

produce

it

cease.

musical sound

we

say

to

whether

that its
it

is

" tone "


pleases

and

pleasant or unpleasant,
is

good or bad, according

us or not.

combination

of satisfactory sounds sustained in harmony


pleasant to the civilised ear than

single

is

more

sound

but the pleasure such a combination gives, or even


a succession of such combinations,

is

only superficial,

and may be compared to the delight of a child


the

kaleidoscope.

made

Before pleasant sounds can

to appeal to the mind,

in

be

and not the ear only,

another element must enter, namely, time.


Pleasant sounds must not merely be drawn out
to an indefinite length, but

must be regulated and

brought under control through the agency of time

RHYTHM OF MODERN

MUSIC

made to appeal to a
feeling that exists in the human mind, and in no
other part of nature, namely, the sense of Rhythm.
The art of music consists, therefore, of combining
pleasant sounds in a way that appeals to the ear,
and regulating them through Rhythm in a way that
makes them appeal to the intellect. The pleasure
we derive from mere musical sound is elementary
sensation only.
it is a
The satisand external
faction that is given us when musical sound is
allied to Rhythm is intellectual.
Hence these two
and by

means they

this

are

elements

in

music are always combined

convenient term " Melos "


while

itself,

It

Rhythm

through

is

Rhythm

the

and the

applicable to the

is

applies to

its

combination

sound

time divisions.

of

Melos

that purely instrumental music

is

with

possible

and Rhythm, from being merely an element of Form,


has become, in these latter days, a very powerful

means of expression.
be charming for a
if

it

is

Melos without Rhythm may

moment

to have strength

The

capacity

for

but

and

it

requires

Rhythm

solidarity.

appreciating

an

abstract

idea

without some kind of concrete presentment of


in

words,

other

images"

the

ability

to

for ideas, implies a very high

of a particular faculty, and on

music

discard

will

always

make

this

it,

" graven

development
account vocal

a wider appeal than purely

instrumental music, for, like poetry,

it

deals with

INTRODUCTORY
The

concrete ideas.

Sonata and the Symphony, on

do with something

the other hand, have to

that

is

and can only speak to those

entirely

impalpable,

who by

association or training have been initiated

into

has

their

The body of

mysteries.

grown very

rapidly

of

late

the

years

initiated

but

abstract idea has always been too difficult for

who would

minds,

from the

profit

art

something

definite

when they

like a

apt

give

to

it

the

many

yet fain obtain enjoyment and

of music.

Such minds require

on which they can

fasten,

and

composition very much, they are

name, such

" Moonlight " Sonata.

Many

as,

example, the

for

invent for

will also

themselves some " programme " in connection with


their favourite compositions,

and by

this

means

will

obtain a pleasure which they might not otherwise


experience.

Composers themselves have recognised


culty,

and have often

instance,
in his

Kuhnau

in

provided

his

" Bible

for

it

this diffias,

Sonatas "

for

Bach

"Capriccio iiber die Abreise eines Freundes"

Beethoven in his " Pastoral " Symphony, and his


"
" Lebewohl " Sonata
Brahms in his " Edvard
:

Thus has arisen what is now known


u Programme music," and, owing to the desire

Ballade.
as

to

hear

orchestral

music

having

spread

of

late

years to so wide a circle of the public, and to the


fact that

many of

the general public

still

have the

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

difficulty

which we

to

Programme music

allude,

has increased to an extent that almost threatens tem-

overwhelm purely

porarily to
it

would be contrary to experience

not

eventually

revert

to

the

has in the past, of an

a concession to the

mankind did

if

higher

Programme music may be expected


it

But

abstract music.

while

ideal,

to take the place

occasional appearance,

as

weaker brethren.

In the days of purely vocal music, in what


the " Polyphonic " era,

Rhythm was

adjunct to Melos, though

it

is

called

not a necessary

The

was often used.

voices

moved about and intermingled

with one another

in a "

concord of sweet sounds," as

it

Shakespeare

the

human element of

was called by
the voice, and

the ideas expressed by the words, could appeal to

the highest emotions, without necessarily utilising the

element of Rhythm.

In the church,

looked upon with disfavour, owing to

Rhythm was
its

association

with worldly pleasures, especially with the dance


the want of

we

yet

constantly read of

people

felt

edicts

forbidding the playing of dance music on the

organ.

it,

for

But instrumental music,

did not yet exist.

as

If music was played

these instruments merely performed

of madrigals, and the pleasure


chiefly that
in playing

opera.

an

art for

itself,

on the

viols,

the voice parts

in the

music was

of association, just as we derive pleasure

on the piano what we have heard

The

in the

solo instruments, such as the organ

and

INTRODUCTORY

harpsichord, occupied themselves to a great extent

who

with arrangements of vocal music, and he

of

excite the admiration

his listeners

could

by playing the

voice parts of a madrigal or motet with the greatest

amount of " colour/*

that

is,

ornamentation, was con-

If a keyed instrument was

sidered the best musician.

required to play other than the voice parts of vocal

music,

performer would

the

strive

admiration of the audience by his


point, or his dexterity of finger,

of the

Toccata,

or

thought

of,

counter-

in

through the agency

Fantasia.

the

we understand

instrumental music, as
as yet

skill

the

excite

to

Expression

in

was hardly

it,

and the instrumentalist was an


composer.

executant rather than a

Thus we

find

long sets of variations on such dull material as the

six

Rhythm

or

notes of the Hexachord played without

measure, as in the "Fantasia" quoted by Kircher, as

one of the best examples of the


or

we

find intricate

time, as in

Even
some

skill

of Froberger

and impossible complications of

some of John

in these early

Bull's harpsichord works.

days there was a yearning for

sort of expression

musicians were not satisfied

with mere meaningless ornaments and vapid scale


passages,

and with Frescobaldi, and some of the

English composers, a certain amount of real expression

is

arrived

Rhythm had
the

at.

a long

But

way

power of being used

not

through

to travel before

Rhythm
it

reached

for emotional effects.

RHYTHM OF MODERN

MUSIC

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries instru-

ments were

in

They

an early stage of development.

were weak of tone, and for the most part

accentless.

Musicians had discovered that to make people dance


their tunes

must

fall

some kind of

into

contrast of

the nature of accented and unaccented notes, and


the triple measure, with

natural alternations

its

of

long and short notes, was the simplest means of


giving the required contrast on the accentless organ

and harpsichord.
Measure, they

and

short

When

found that alternations of long

still

notes

were

useful,

rather

Moreover,

successions of even notes.

ning to be

it

between poetry and music,


began to bring

their

corresponding

with

long

than

was begin-

there was something in

felt that

Even

they wanted to use

common

and the madrigalists

music into short regular phrases,


the

verses

of

poetry

they

discovered that these short passages might be conveniently distinguished by clausulas, or closes.

The

instrumentalists were not behindhand in this matter,


at

any rate for dance music, and about the beginning

of the seventeenth century they began to construct


phrases in something like verse form, and to find

out the

importance

harmonies
It

was

in consolidating the

a great gain

their instrumental
it

of the

tonic

and

dominant

rhythmical phrases.

when musicians began

music

in

to cast

forms that could make

independent alike of vocal music and of mere

"

INTRODUCTORY
For

exhibition.
self

and

justify

it

could

now

begin to speak for

it-

existence as an independent art.

its

" thing sounded,


which was not a dance or a "fantasia sopra un soggetto "

Then
the

the " sonata, " the

arose

work was

and had no necessary

self-contained,

had gone before

association with anything that

it.

In the early days of purely instrumental music

Rhythm was of just


it

was only used

in the

same manner

dance or march of to-day, to

The

regularity.

the

Melos

as a

idea of using

now,

it is

as in the

with

accents

in conjunction with

as

not yet thought

an appeal to
All ex-

of.

was made through harmony, melody and

pression

counterpoint,

which began to be

For Rhythm

rhythmical forms.

in

cast
itself

definite

was as yet

an early stage, and continued to be so for another

With

century.

the

eighteenth

He

great Sebastian Bach.

on the labours of
the

to the

possible in

not

and

makes

more or

put the crowning point

in a

and inaugurated

days.

way

contrapuntal

that

was im-

With him Rhythm

framework on

less

the

which instruments are made

emotions

harmonic
it

in

their earlier

merely

century came

his predecessors

modern school

to appeal

is

it

mark

means of expression,

the imagination, was

in

as

shape and comprehensibility to melody

as giving

but

much importance

as

which

combinations,

a living thing,

to

build

but

he

and greatly

adds thereby to the power of instrumental music.

:;

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

io

Thus, he
it

off,

starts a

fugue subject, and suddenly breaks

and the audience has to carry on the

Rhythm

in

imagination through a silence of several beats of the


bar, as, for instance, in the great

major

and

some

in

of

Organ fugue
Clavichord

his

Buxtehude and others had done


before him, but he enlarges and

accent and

rhythm

Rhythm

with him

are driven

fugues.

kind of thing

this

makes more use of

way

In his violin music he writes in such a

it.

in

home

that

to the hearers

begins to be a greater force than

before and to appeal to the intellect as well as the


sense of order

his

instrumental music speaks to

the sense of mystery and romance, in

nature,

Chromatic Fantasia, or the Prelude

as in the
flat

human

minor of the

work was with

book of the " Forty-eight."

came Mozart and Haydn.

Bach

After

first

in

courts,

and

the formality of courtly

life.

their

Their

music

reflects

Their Rhythms are

straightforward and well balanced.

Yet every now

and then they make daring excursions into unac-

customed

territory, as, for instance, in the

of Mozart's

the accentuation

Haydn,

Major Quartet, where he upsets


by alternate loud and

soft

notes.

indeed, sometimes plays rhythmical pranks

with his audience


it

Minuetto

must have

its

life

is

not

humorous

to
side,

be

all

even

serious
in

such

solemn music as the quartet and symphony.

Then came Beethoven, who brought

with

him

INTRODUCTORY
human

con-

gone before.

In

music that was to strike deeper into


than

sciousness

any

had

that

Mozart and

place of the well-polished periods of

Haydn, he indulges
upsets

discords,

unexpected

in

smashing and astonishing

by

sforzandos,

Bach had used the

of things

order

regular

the

unlooked-for

silences.

measures, but he

silent

by

could

not use sforzandos, because on the organ and harpsi-

chord

they were impossible, and in

the orchestra

they would not have been understood by his players.

Moreover, to Bach Music was an innocent recreation


to

Beethoven

it

was bound up with

Revolution

With

in the

French

the point of view had changed.

the desire for greater powers of expression

there went a gradual

response to the

In

the passions

all

and energies that found their outlet

improvement

demand

for a

instruments.

in

more

expressive

keyed instrument, the pianoforte came into existence


during the eighteenth
light

and shade, and more

capability

of accent,

The

harpsichord.

and

century,

their

intonation,

frets

perhaps

supersede

to

viol tribe, with their

which

interfered

with

violins.

its

the

weak tone
perfect

had been gradually ousted by the

far

The clumsy

cornet and shawm, with their faulty and un-

certain tuning, disappeared


is

it

power of

its

especially

caused

more capable and vigorous


old

and

practically

and the

coeval with the

clarinet,

pianoforte,

which

added a

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

12

new

voice

the

to

of great

orchestra,

Improvements went on

value.

in

the

expressive

remaining

instruments, and by the beginning of the nineteenth

century the increase of capacity for expression made


possible the music of a Beethoven and a Schubert.

With

the

improvements

an advance

in the instruments

in the intelligence

came

also

of their players, and,

what was of more importance, the outlook on music

Music

began to change.

in

its

highest sense, was

no longer to be a pleasant pastime for the


with

newly

its

diminuendo

more

and

power

acquired

way

of accent,

it

stirring the soul in a

had never been possible before.

that

and

of crescendo

particularly

became a powerful means of

rich

Only the

organ remained accentless, and must ever remain so

and

for this reason the great

favour of the pianoforte. 1

in

it

composers neglected

The new

style,

that of

making music appeal

was

a great art, as an expression of noble thoughts,

shown by Beethoven and Schubert

The composers
and

as

ideals
1

To

them were

before

art

overcome

in

their

times

certain
sees

this difficulty a double-bass

extent

the

double-bass

want
in

stringed instruments can give


others.

as lofty

minded
but the

day were not so advanced.

with the organ in French churches.


to

to be possible.

devoted to ideals as they were,

of

as

Wind

of accent
a

English

is

sometimes used

instruments share

hence

some-

Band,

for

attack than

any

Military

more accent and

one

"

INTRODUCTORY
To

Bach, as
to

creation,
for

courtly

best

and that they gave

circles,

Beethoven took

existed.

of

is

To him

music.

it

view of the

no

was

their

kind that

its

different

of their

evidence that

desired the best thing of

audiences

art

we have said, it was a pleasant reMozart and Haydn it was a luxury

supply this luxury

to

13

longer

pleasant recreation only, but a living force, a thing

by

that

penetrating

will stir in

like

what

on

the

it

is

" entertainment "

noble

am

hoped

tried to do, aye,

by wedding

fine

hoven succeeded
and
it

in

soul

Handel, on being congratulated

Dublin had enjoyed

them

the

into

noble thoughts, and help us to dis-

evil.

the answer, "

down

deep

to

in

people

the

" Messiah," gave back

his

sorry if

have only entertained

What Handel

do them good."

and has done, with

his "

music to an inspiring
in

of

Messiah,

text,

Beet-

doing through instruments alone

so doing he raised music to a height that

had never before attained

in the world's history.

For never have instruments, however pleasing they


were

in the past,

feeling

as

been capable of stirring the inmost

they have done since the

beginning of

the nineteenth century.

very large part of

due

to

creates

is

Rhythm.
desire

to

this

From

newly acquired power

being an element which

dance or to march, and from

being a mere means of formal construction,

Rhythm

RHYTHM OF MODERN

now been brought

has

on the moral

to bear

of our nature, and has taken

MUSIC
side

place as the equal

its

of Melody and Harmony, in expressive power.

Rhythm
obvious,
the

that in which

is

The

sides.

the interest

This

been in use, and

is

of

Rhythm

in a

more or

side

found

in

figure,

of energy, or pleasure

in us feelings

excitement.

centred on

is

some rhythmical

noticeable manner, in

which awakens

and most

first,

which follow one another

individual notes,

some
or

two

has

has always
less

marked

degree in some part of every composition, for instance,

in

Rhythm

the

expression

Symphony.

Seventh

Beethoven's
this

opening of the slow movement of

the

case

like

more important element of

is

In

than the Melos.

movement

In the

to

which we

refer,

reiteration

of a single note with various harmonies

below

it

passage

The
lectual,

it

its

Melos

the

consists

largely of the

the rhythmical figure that gives the

is

powerful expression.

other

side

of

Rhythm

the less obvious

that

is

it

the

is

more

in

intel-

which the

phrases are of unexpected lengths, or are divided in

some

particular way, so that

effort

on the part of the

the composer

has

is

been made,

aiming
the

music has become


finds

delight

in

requires

it

listener to
at.

the

understand what

But when the

difficulty

familiar,

some mental

overcome, and

the

artistic

effort

listener

structure

not

the

only

of such

INTRODUCTORY

but his intellect has been braced up and

passages,

refreshed by the effort that

No

make.

to

it

upon

has been called

music that aims

merely being a

at

make much use of this


only those who are in earnest can

pleasant easy pastime can

Rhythm

side of

or appreciate

use

up

the present

to

The

it.

the

We

arrived

side

believe that Brahms,

begun by Beethoven, and

direction

Schubert, has advanced


intellectual

Rhythm on

the art of

beyond the point


and

in this he

its

which they

at

that he has, in fact, continued

in its natural course,

more

our examples rather

for

than on other composers.


following

it

Brahms, and hence we have

is

drawn upon him

greatest exponent of

work

their

being followed

is

by some of the younger composers.

At

present, and

phrase,

in its

it

may

many

"
be always, the " four-bar

varieties,

must continue

the normal rhythmical structure, since


that requires the least

the

allows

composer

mental

effort,

appeal

to

to

through the

Melos, and through

of Rhythm,

the

expect music

to

what
bars

is
:

fall

practically

and when

this

thing,

structure
is

his

audience

other

We

side

always

" four-bar " phrases, or,

the same

the uncultured listener


is

into

and therefore

the

note-arrangement.

the one

is

it

to be

is

into

pairs

departed

of

from

puzzled, and the cultivated

pleased with the novel effect.

The

painter has the advantage over the musician

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

that

in

work

his

self-contained,

is

and needs no

collaboration with another artist to introduce

This

the public.

When
it

not the case with the musician.

is

he has conceived a work of

down on

paper,

of a second

it

and written

of several others,

The

to be represented.

art

has to pass through the hands

or

artist,

to

it

in

order

painter speaks for himself

through himself, the musician has to speak through


the agency of other minds.
Is

possible for any executant or conductor to

it

an

give

exact reproduction of a composition as

was conceived
a

well-known

The

It is

no two persons can describe

of which

have both

they

no two persons see

witnesses, for

describes

the brain of a composer

fact that

any event

alike

tant

in

it

it

alike,

been

and each

according to his personal experience.

it

personal element of the conductor or execu-

must

to

some extent

influence his interpretation

of what he conceives to be the composer's ideal


indeed he can sometimes even improve upon
violin

sonata,

or

concerto,

much improved

in

skilled violinist,

who

his

for

phrasing

its

example,
if

it.

may be

submitted to a

brings expert knowledge of

instrument to bear on the composer's work, and

conversely, a performer

who

has not the power of

putting himself into sympathy with the composer's


ideas,

may

composer

is

ruin the effect of the

always more or

work

less at the

thus the

mercy of

his

INTRODUCTORY
Many

interpreters.

own music

composers cannot interpret their

We

satisfactorily.

were once present

at

new and important work, which

the rehearsal of a

Things went

was to be conducted by the composer.

the orchestra and the composer, with

very badly:

the best intentions in the world, could not under-

At

stand one another.

last a

was amongst those invited


to take the baton,

famous conductor, who

to the rehearsal, offered

whereupon

all difficulty

vanished

and

everyone was pleased with the performance,

most of
by

all

the composer himself, as one could see

his smiling face.

The

interpretation of a composition

sequel to the

work of composing

it,

is

the necessary

and

genuine

understanding of the principles of rhythm, whether


natural or acquired,

of the greatest importance to

is

How

a conductor or executant.

often do

we

executants of the highest degree of technical

who

hear
skill,

play every note and every shade of expression

but

correctly,

something
touch

is

who

yet leave us with the feeling that

wanting?

is

We

say perhaps that the

hard or unsympathetic, or there

in the playing.

The

fault

is

is

often that the delicate

expression which a sensitive feeling for

bring out,
sufficiently

evidence

is

wanting.

marked
in

no character

rhythm

will

Perhaps the accents are not

perhaps they are too

much

in

either case the performance will not

give us quite the amount of pleasure that the com-

RHYTHM OF MODERN

position

is

MUSIC

Perhaps the phrasing

capable of giving.

not sufficiently observed, or perhaps

is

Here

done.

again,

the one case,

in

other.

The

tivated

is

drum,

musician

we

shall feel a certain

so

why

that

delicate

this

monotony

banging of
amateur

cultured

highly

the

every

feels

it

though probably not one amateur


exactly

over-

when uncul-

pleased with the reiterated


in

is

or an oversentimentalism in the

sense of rhythm, which

is

it

nuance,

ten can

in

or

say

conductor or this player pleases him

and that one does not.

The great interpreters of instrumental music are


those who can most nearly enter into the composer's
ideals, or can even improve upon them, and who
are able to give a delicacy or force of accentuation

and phrasing, which

it

notation to express.

This

a " reading "

outside the possibility of

is

is

what

of a composition.

is

meant by giving

The

days of cold

" classical " performances of great works are practically over.


stir

executant or conductor

must pay homage

work by

to the artist

interpreting

warmth, tempered by an
its

now

the deeper emotions of the audience

so he

the

The

rhythmical as well as

it

who

seeks to

and

to

do

conceived

with enthusiasm and

intellectual appreciation of
its

melodic

possibilities.

CHAPTER

II

Measurement of TimeThe
Foot The Period Functions of
Measure and
Song Phrasing
Period Phrasing
two Rhythms
Tempo Duple and
Instrumental Music The
Triple Rhythm-species Masculine and Feminine endings

Accent

Prose, Poetry

and Music

the Poetic

the

in

in a

Caesura

in

The

Bar

Music,

in

Time-Signatures

Speech and

must be subjected
through

arises

Diaeresis

order

to the contrast

the

be

intelligible,

which

Accent.

to

of

alternation

unaccented factors, and these must,

and

accented
in

their turn,

be disposed in short, easily recognisable groups, in


order that the mind
it

is

may understand

each

idea as

presented.

In spoken language the individual words are


intelligible

certain

by the

syllables

stress or accent

from the

rest,

made

which singles out

and ideas are ex-

pressed by groups of words, called Sentences.

Prose sentence becomes unintelligible

if

long, and the competent speaker or writer

knows how

to

group

his

clearly express his ideas,

due

another.

sense

of

it

is

is

too

he

who

words into sentences which


and

balance

at the

and

same time have

proportion

one

to

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

20

grouping of the units by

well-proportioned

which ideas are expressed and connected

Prose, Poetry,

and Music

together in a whole,

the foundation of

is

the Rhythmical Art, and Prose

much

is

influenced

by a feeling for Rhythm on the part of the speaker


or
is

The proportion between

writer.

made by

not

rule, but lies

vidual sentences.

with

prose

depends

by

its

sentences

are

relations

is

more nearly

neighbours than

and

theoretically

the

time to the indi-

In Poetry, on the contrary, the

time occupied by each Verse


to that occupied

who

with the author,

an approximately relative

allots

sentences

its

intelligibility

in

Music

of a

the case

time-

the

upon

for

exact,

is

related

this

of sounds

series

which are uttered independently of ideas conveyed

So subtle

by words.

is

the Art of Music, that the

undue lengthening or shortening of a


sometimes

Time,

alter the

nto measure of

be

defined

occupied

Fine Arts
Art-material

our

the

in

as

concerned

artistic

some kind

and Rhythm

measuring of

performance

such

in

the

manner

of

the

to

Time
of

the

render

the

certain

as

intelligible

becomes

when brought

of Time.

to

only

Distance,

appreciable to our senses

Measurement

may

whole character of a phrase.

Space and

like

single note will

and interesting

sense.

Our powers of measuring Time without mechanical assistance are

exceedingly limited.

No

one, for

MEASUREMENT OF TIME

21

example, by single taps on a table could measure off


intervals of so short a duration as three seconds each,

were to mentally divide up the space

unless he

between the taps by counting, or by imagining


taps

between those that are heard.

limitation of our sense of time

lesser

Out of

measurement

this

arises

the need for the alternation of accented and un-

accented

whether produced by voices or

sounds,

instruments.

The

accented sounds serve to divide

by the Art-material into

the time occupied


portions,

definite

but the accented sounds themselves are

only rendered appreciable by being alternated with


the contrasting unaccented sounds.

unbroken succession of

And

since an

alternately accented

and un-

accented sounds in music would quickly become as


unintelligible as a lengthy prose

punctuation,

it

is

sentence without

necessary to arrange the divisions

of time formed by the combinations of accented and

unaccented sounds in groups, corresponding to the


Sentences of Prose, and the Verses of Poetry.

such groups, called Rhythms, or Phrases,

all

Into

Music

and the words Rhythm and Phrase mean


exactly the same thing.
For the sake of avoiding

is

divided

constant repetition

of either word,

we

use them

indifferently in this book.

Our
is

ability to recognise the

measurement of time

not only limited in the direction of length.

regard to brevity

we

With

are equally limited, and, as the

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

22

unaided eye cannot perceive the details in microscopic objects, so there

is

a limit to the capacity of

the ear to distinguish the accentual details of notes

one

succeeding

Hence,

extreme

rapidity.

the individual notes of the shake, the

in

of the violin or pianoforte,

tremolo

and

with

another

in

acciacature^

in extremely rapid scale or arpeggio passages of

an ornamental nature, the ear perceives no relation


of accent and non-accent, and such passages are, as

rhythm

far as

sustained

concerned, in no

is

notes.

with them, as
perceptible

it

If

rhythm

way

exists

different
in

almost invariably does,

by something

from

connection
it

is

made

exterior, such as changes

of harmony, accompanying melodies, accents intentionally given to single notes, or

and the rhythmical

effect

remain precisely the same

if

by other means

of such passages would

we

played them without

the ornaments.

Hence

it

will

be seen that the

art

of rhythm

has to do with marking off short portions of time

"Rhythms," and we divide

into

into units

the

"Rhythm"

by alternations of accented and unaccented

notes.

The
with

unit formed by a single accented note together

its

called a

accompanying unaccented note or notes,

is

Measure.

The Unit of

Poetry, formed by the combination

of a single accented with one or more unaccented

THE MEASURE AND POETIC FOOT


syllables,

consists

is

The Verse

Foot or Measure.

called a

union of several Feet, ,

of the

which are generally printed as a single and

Two

line.

combined

Verses

Couplet, and

When

ideas

the Poetic

form

combinations

larger

or Stanza. 1

make

23

Strophe

are expressed

in

Verses

they are said to be brought into Metre.

The Foot
syllables,

of Poetry

is

limited to two or three

but the Measure of Music

may be

sub-

divided by notes of small time-value to an almost

unlimited extent, and with an infinite variety of

arrangement.

for subdivision

The

capacity of the Musical

Measure

makes the study of Rhythm more

complicated than that of Metre, and at the same time

opens up for the composer an unlimited source of

Harmony,

expression, apart from the resources of

Counterpoint, and other technical

Music has

a construction

and

like

analogous in

two or more Verses, form a Period,

The Period

consists normally of an even

balance of two Rhythms, but


fined to this

the
1

is

is

more

form

by no means conin large

works

variety, perhaps, in the Periods than in

Hymnology, both

usually

it is

on the contrary,

Rhythms of which they


In

Period.

complete composition consists of a number of

Periods.

there

many ways

Thus, two or more The

to that of Poetry.

Rhythms,

details.

wrongly called

in

are composed,

and

it

is

England and Germany, the Strophe

" Verse."

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

24

sometimes almost impossible to say that a Period

much do

ends here, or here, so

they melt into one

another by ways that will be duly explained.

Attempts have been made


further,

to carry the analogy

by dividing compositions

into Strophes, like

we do

those of Poetry, but with this view

The

not agree.

construction of Rhythms, and, to a lesser extent,

that of the Periods

all

is

that

aims of the com-

intelligent understanding of the

poser,

required for an

is

and further analogy with the

more complicated

Poetry only renders


already

sufficiently

intricate.

It

art

sister

will

of

subject

be our en-

deavour to explain the theory of modern Rhythm


in as simple a

manner

as possible, avoiding the use

of special technical terms except in so


are absolutely necessary.

senses, first to the

the

to

Verse,

be applied in two

to

group of Measures corresponding

and

secondly

in

general

corresponding to the term Metre of the

The

context will generally

use

the word, but

wherever

they

have been noticed

It will

word Rhythm has

the

that

far as

to

show

avoid

in

sense,

sister art.

which sense we

ambiguity,

we

group

Rhythm,

possible, refer to the

as a

shall,

with a capital R, and use the word in the other


sense without the capital letter.

The
Period
to

function of the
is

first

to enunciate an idea

complete,

to

confirm,

to

Rhythm of
;

normal

that of the second,

enlarge

upon, or to

TWO RHYTHMS
comment

on

expressed

idea

the

A PERIOD

IN

This fundamental form of Period,


is

known.

The whole of Hebrew

well as

that

and grammarians have

it

as

Hence

fundamental

the

in

form

for

and
is it

first.

Functions of

r^Iis

in

a Period.

founded on

is

ages

recognised

Prose

sentences.

all

modern Musical Period, of two equal

portions, satisfies a feeling that

seated in

two

Poetry,

of the Egyptians,

it,

the

in

one of the oldest art-forms

portions,

as

in

25

the

human mind, and

definitely

is

it

to understand,

evidently deeply

is

more simply

the

constructed,

the

more easy

and the more "popular"

is

the

music likely to be.

Though

two-rhythm Period, and the four-

the

measure Rhythm, must ever be the prevailing form,


a composer of a high degree of cultivation often

more

requires to express his ideas in

both of Period and

Rhythm

subtle forms,

and the more music

advances, and the higher the intellectual capacity of

more complicated

the audiences, the

forms.

It

is

more

especially with

will

be these

the elaboration

of the Period and Rhythm, as practised by modern


musicians, that

we

shall

course of our work, and


these elaborations
a desire to

are the

endeavour to deal in the

we

shall

hope

to

show

that

and complications are not due to

do something out of the common, but

genuine

art expressions in a highly civilised

and complicated condition of

society.

RHYTHM OF MODERN

26

singer

Thrash?

is

compelled by the necessity of taking

breath, to break

in

SonS-

MUSIC

up

his

melody

into shorter

or longer sections, and in this matter he

assisted

by certain rules that have arisen

The

of experience.

upon

as the

recited or

is

as the result

single verse of poetry

is

looked

normal amount that can be comfortably

sung

in a single breath,

and

has been

it

thought that the need for renewing the breath

first

suggested the arrangement of words in verse form.


In the simplest form of song the Verses coincide with
the

Rhythms of

the melody, and

therefore be taken

the breath will

between the Rhythms.

If for

any reason breath must be taken within the Verse or

Rhythm,

the singer will avoid doing

of a word, for that would


likewise avoid doing

it

in the

it

make nonsense

at the

reasons. 1

He

will

he will

beginning of a bar,

according to an empirical rule, having


aesthetic

middle

choose,

origin in

its

if

possible,

punctuation sign in the text as a place for renewing


his breath,

and

will, if

he

is

intelligent,

make

a virtue

of the necessity imposed on him by nature, by using


as a very powerful

it

interesting

and

means of rendering

attractive.

And

all this

his

song

applies not

only to the singer of high-class music, but also to


the performer of the most trivial of songs

in order

to attract the attention of his audience, the music1

Because of the weakness associated with the extreme form

of the Feminine Ending.

PHRASING
hall singer finds

of

classical

it

equally necessary with the singer

music to study the most effective arrange-

ment of

his breathing-places.

To

instrumentalist

the

off of the melody,


t

renewal

27

i
r 1
or breath

or

Caesura,

the

equivalent to the

is
A

the

to

.1

singer,

and,

equally with the singer, he can render


his

music

or

intelligible

Phrasing in
Instrumental

Muslc
The Casura.
artistic

unintelligible,

or inartistic, feeble or vigorous,

manner

cutting

according to the

Not

which he manages his Caesuras.

in

that a brilliant

and correct execution, or a beautiful

touch, or a sympathetic expression of the notes, will

not attract

but

if to

intellectual phrasing,

all

these there

is

added an

the performance will gain in

expression to an extent that can hardly be realised

by those who have not thought of the matter.

What
that

is

that compels us to listen to

it

makes

his

performance go through us,

one
as

it

artist,

were,

while another, playing the same composition, with

perhaps better mechanical


us,

or will

skill,

The

even weary us?

chiefly in the

power of giving

through the phrasing

and

will scarcely

difference

effect to the

this

move

power

lies

rhythm

arises either

from the innate rhythmical feeling of the performer,


or from a carefully cultivated insight into the secrets

of

how rhythmical
What we have

effects are

said

brought about.

refers

more

performers on keyed instruments.

especially

to

Nature imposes

RHYTHM OF MODERN

28

on them no necessity

music up into

for cutting their

can play a piece from beginning to

They

phrases.

MUSIC

end without a break

they are so disposed, and

if

finding no

their listeners,

''resting places

the

for

mind," as a quaint old German writer expresses

it,

are wearied with the strain, or cease to be interested.

With

violinists,

and with the whole

tribe of

wind

the same as with the voice

instruments, the case

is

the limitations of the

bow

force the violinist to adopt

some kind of phrasing, and when we speak of

"bowing" we

his

Wind

really refer to his phrasing.

players are, of course, under the

same necessity

renewing their breath as

and the conductor

vocalists,

of an orchestra sees that they

make

for

the best use of

this necessity.

Musical
%.

Tempo.

being
But,
in

Rhythm is founded on the division of


Time into groups of Measures, there

may

it

the pace

at

Measures

four

generally

be

said,

music

varies

that

is

six or eight

taken

prestissimo

much

very

which these Measures are taken

group of four such units played

may occupy

group.

each

in

to

example,

times the amount of time

perform

movement.

largo, for

similar

How

can

group
both

in

equally

satisfy the rhythmical sense?


It is

undoubtedly possible to perform a properly

constructed melody so slowly as to eliminate the


sense of rhythm, or,

even

if

it

is

maintained, to

TEMPO

29

Now

produce insupportable weariness.


observed

that

movements

slow

very

in

there

always one or both of two things present

Rhythms

the normal four-measure


or

Caesuras,

groups

of

by

their

two,

or

small

into

even

Measure,

Fourth

Beethoven's

melody

is

many
little

sub-

these

cases

rhythmical figures

Symphony.

movement
Here the

in very slow notes, which, taken

by them-

be almost impossible to play in equal lengths


the accompaniment

made up of

is

interest

The

but

a characteristic

rhythmical figure, by which not only

demand

ness,

or

and without mentally dividing them, would

selves,

little

by

some way divided

of their own, as for instance in the slow


of

either

are broken

one

of

In

notes.

form interesting

divisions

is

harmonic construction, into

the Measures themselves are in

up

be

will

it

is

our

for small time-dimensions satisfied, but the

of the music

is

very greatly increased.

opposite extreme, rapidity in place of slow-

by shortening the time occupied

in arriving at

the end of the rhythm, produces the same kind of

mental exhilaration as

ground
for

at a

we

feel

when

passing over the

very rapid pace, as on a galloping horse,

example.

Music makes
only,

namely,

use
1.

That

time occupied by the

of the Measure

is

of two
in

species

which

of Measure

the

accented portion

equal to that occupied

Duple and
-Jl

species.

RHYTHM OF MODERN

30

This

by the unaccented portion.

by any pair of notes of equal value,

sented

either the

first

&
That

ill

to one,

&

d;

d:

J;

etc

which the relation of the accented to

'

of the Measure

called Triple, or

is

third,

be

two

as

is

e.g.,

'

may

accent

it

or the second.

the unaccented portion

This

may

understood that the accented note

being

Duple

called

is

Measure, and may be repre-

Measure, or Even

2.

MUSIC

when

occur on the
the

Measure

!.

J.

I.
!

Uneven Measure, and

the

or second, or on the

first
is

etc

divided into three equal

parts.

For convenience we have here used the word


note,"

to

describe

portions of Measures

the
:

accented and

but

unaccented

must be understood

it

that

any portion of a Measure may be represented

by a

rest,

or by a

one here given.

number of

It will also

notes, in place of the

sometimes be convenient

to allude to the Measure-portions as

"Times," or

"Values" instead of "Notes."


It is

of the utmost importance to be able to refer

in general terms to the

fundamental

"Time"

which

name Duple or Triple respectively to


Measure, and from now onwards we shall

gives the

the
dis-

DUPLE AND TRIPLE


or Notes, or Values.

Measure
to

is

make up

Measure

Times,

The Primary Time

of any

the value of that note of which two go

and three

a Duple,

respectively

if

to

make up

be the crotchet

will

tains that of three crotchets, its

likewise be the crotchet

its

Primary

Triple Measure con-

if a

a Triple

Duple Measure contains

the value, for example, of two crotchets,

Time

31

Subsidiary

Primary and

between

tinguish

SPECIES

Primary Time

will

and the same applies

to

every other note-value, so that the minim, quaver,


etc.,

can equally be Primary Times.

Where

Times of a Measure

the Primary

into smaller values of any kind

values the general

name of

we

are divided

shall give these

Subsidiary notes, or Sub-

For we base our Phrasing on the

sidiary values.

Primary values of the Measures, while the Subsidiary


notes have a function of their own, which will be ex-

As

plained in due course.

J
Our

are Primary Notes.

J
m

m 9 m m
!

'

an example in Duple Time.

are Subsidiary Notes.


'.

statement that there are only two kinds of

Rhythm-species
Theorists

is

usually

Three-time,

not,

we know,

distinguish

Four-time,

rhythm, explaining each


scientific

the orthodox view.

Five-time
in

Two-time,

between

and

their turn.

Six-time

For purely

purposes this classification undoubtedly has

many advantages

but by going so

much

into detail

RHYTHM OF MODERN

32
it

seems to us that there

MUSIC

a danger not only of

is

wearying the reader, but of to some extent losing


sight of the aesthetic value of the various

We

Rhythm.

hope, by reducing

its

forms of

theory to two

and by looking on Four, Five and Six-

classes only,

time Rhythms as modifications of these two

more on the

to keep the attention

classes,

on

aesthetic than

the mathematical side of the question.

Measures are distinguishable by

Rhythms

are in the

their

harmonic

and

in

instance

first

made evident by

second place by Caesuras,

closes, in the

some

the third by

accents.

their

feature

of melodic or

harmonic construction.

The

affected

,.

and Feminine or

of
is

one

is

or

by the

the

heard

the

or Period

of

nature

is

the

much
Closes

Cadences which mark the conclusion

phrase.

which

in

cadence
final

Rhythm

character of a

Masculine

concluding

the

Close

chord of

the

on the accented portion of the

penultimate

Measure of the phrase.

This chord may be repeated or extended into the

makes no

weaker part of the Measure, but

it

ence

the

in

the

aesthetic

Masculine ending

on the

accent,

probably

it

is

it

or Masculine Ending.

is

of

is

struck

repeated or not.

Such

and strength

why

essence

that the final chord

whether

a Close gives force


this is

is

effect

differ-

to the phrase,

called a

and

Masculine Close,

MASCULINE AND FEMININE ENDINGS


Ex.

1.

Second Movement).

Beethoven (Quartet Op. 132


Allegro. ,.

fe*
^

0L

ILjLjr

33

-*.

-PL

p4=?2I

?=c

?="-

Masc. ending.
^

M#=*a
P
u^^-J^_p
-s

?=:

Masc. ending.

Masc. ending extended.


"N

Ar^P
f^H-

f-

ipiji

v_

'

<r-

-p-/i

1-

/"

0-

=-+-

-1

etc.

t:

Feminine Close or Ending

is

concluding chord of the cadence

one

until after the accent, as in


Ex.

Ex.

which the

delayed by a

is

suspension or other means, so that

in

it

is

not heard

2.

2.

Beethoven (Op. 132).


Piu

allegro.

Feminine ending.

RHYTHM OF MODERN

34
It

is

supposed to give an

sentiment,

Ending

and the difference

of tenderness or

effect

or of less vigour

MUSIC

than

Masculine

the

in ethos in the

two forms

of ending holds good of every kind of cadence,

whether

perfect, half, deceptive, etc.


Ex.

Brahms (Op. 118, No.

3.

2).

Andante teneramente.

Wm

-Gh-

y.

y3*=j:

^r:p_

Ft

5^

:r

Caesura.

life

Mr n

tPFt

The movement from which Ex.


the Feminine

Ending

<&/.

&M

Feminine ending.

Masculine ending.

headed Andante teneramente

and

after the

is

quoted

is

frequent use of

its

Masculine produces a

particularly tender effect.


Ex.

Chopin (Op. 24, No.

4.

2).

Allegro non troppo.

3;

E^E

r *

-^ j
T-=

Feminine

nn

*J

close.

MASCULINE AND FEMININE ENDINGS

form of Feminine Close, producing,

rarer

a rule, a special effect of languor,

the concluding chord

is first

of a Triple bar, as in Ex.


is

35

that in which

is

heard on the

Here

4.

as

final

beat

Rhythm

the

divided into two portions by the incomplete Full

Close in Bar

2,

and ends with a Full Close

but in both cases the concluding chord


final

Chopin uses

beat of a bar.

this

in

falls

Bar 4
on the

form of cadence

in all the repetitions of the phrase quoted,

but in

the other phrases of the composition he employs


the

more usual forms, though he concludes the whole

with the extreme Feminine Ending.

form

peculiarity of the Polonaise

that its

is

Periods for the most part end with the extreme form

of feminine cadence.

Polonaise

not, as a rule,

is

a languorous yearning kind of composition,

may

how

well be asked

can

it

make use of

extreme form of Feminine Close, which

and which

associated with this effect,

forbidden

Music

to

young

delights

as a

composer

that

seem

of what

in

composers

occasional

is

for

proper, so

we

is

it

the

usually

frequently

is

this

paradoxes

will often please us

to contravene all

and

reason.

and

just

by dissonances

our preconceived ideas

shall find that

rhythmical

forms are often effective in proportion as they are


unexpected.

The

question

fundamentally

in

of whether

piece

of music

is

Duple or Triple Measure must

RHYTHM OF MODERN

36

MUSIC

Time

not be entirely decided by the

Signature, but

Time

rather by the position of the Closes which

Signatures.

m ark

the ends of Phrases and Periods

on the construction of the Phrase and Period

for

The normal Phrase

based the art of Rhythm.


that

however, contain three, or

The number of
cases,

six

made

definite

up such

extended

the

Rhythm

there

is

long

the

effect

of breaking

But the normal four-measure

frequently divided by a Caesura or a Close

is

two equal portions

important place in most

we

it

occurs

as

Half-rhythms.

We

is

of phrase into small and easily

understood portions.
Phrase

isolated

in

of a very short motive,

has

figure

a length

or

indefinite,

succession of repetitions

whose

or

proportions,

Measures.

six

only exceeded

is

ordinary

its

purposely

into

or

five,

is

Phrase may,

where, for instance, a Cadence

beyond
is

which contains four Measures.

is

this division takes a


classical

shall allude to the

very

music, and where

two-measure groups

must then base our conception of Duple or

Triple Rhythm-species on the Phrase, without re-

number of
Measure, or the manner
tributed.
The relation of

garding

the

Signatures

The

may

notes
in

in

the

which they are

the Species to the

be explained as follows

Signatures

C,

-|,

individual

--,

are

connection with Duple Measure.

dis-

Time

always

used

in

'

TIME SIGNATURES
A

37

Bar may contain the value of one such Measure,


Rhythm

of 4 Measures.

Measure.

Ijjjl'j
m m m
m

'J

1
1

el

Close

marking end of Rhythm.

we

In this case

call

the Bars Simple.

we

observed that in numbering the Measures,


the

number over

place

the accented note of the individual

whether

Measure,

be

will

It

Measure begins with an

the

accented or unaccented note.

Bar

may
1st

contain two

Duple Measures,

as

2nd Rhythm.

Rhythm.

Measure.
2

,11

,'J m

3
,ii

mm

|,

m\

4
,11

mm

,1

J!

3
,1

m m

hi
ml

mi

mm
i

i'

Close.

End

we

In this case

End

Rhythm.

of

call it

Compound

Close.
of Period.

Bar.

Or more rarely the single Bar may contain as


many as four Measures, as in the Andante of
Beethoven's Quartet in B flat, Op. 130, in which all
the Full Closes occur on the fourth crotchet of the
bar.
1st
1

Rhythm.

~^

2nd Rhythm.

Close.

i
i

Close.

End

of Period.

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

38

The

Signatures having 3 as their Numerator are

Measure

generally used in connection with Triple

but occasionally, as in Ex.

5,

Ex.

Brahms (Op. 119, No.

with Duple.

5.

2).

12345
**&

Andantino un poco

-m-m

agitato.

1st

sost.

* r F "y-f
I
m m m m g
^
g f^*jjr ff*y^f * *%* fen, K*

J0#0 zw

r~d

^-

-I

2nd Rhythm.

Rhythm.

'

u.

'

'

dfc/ig.

*/

@jggjg;5^:9=|feil|f3^^=^^
-

Half

close.

Signatures having 6 as their Numerator are used

Duple and Triple Measure.

equally for

2nd Rhythm.

Rhythm.

1st

123

Measure.
I

rnn
li

ft

'r>

12

||

II

Thus

m4

II

1
1

3
i!

II

rn

End

Close.
Eirid of Period.

Close.
of Rhythi n.

shows two Rhythms of Triple Measure, the Bars


being compound.

But
Rhythm.

Iit

*I.

I
1

J.
'

1.*

rrn
\mm00mmm'
i

i.

j.*

Close.

TIME SIGNATURES

39

shows one Rhythm of Duple Measure,

which

in

the accented and unaccented halves of the measures

sub-divided into three portions, and the

are each

Such a rhythmical scheme

Bars are simple.

indicated by the signature


is

then written as a

often

and each half measure


See Ex. 32, page 120.

triplet.

when we come to the


of Primary and Subsidiary Rhythm.

This will appear more


explanation

-|,

is

clear

Signatures with 9 as their Numerator are always

connected with Triple, and those having 12, will


indicate

Duple or

Triple, according to the position

of the Closes.

It is

customary to look upon the Bar as the unit

of Rhythm, as the equivalent of the Foot

of Poetry

Bar

two

is

but this

is

The Bar.

misleading, for although the

often of the same value as the Measure, the

things

criminate

rarely

reference

to

the

An

coincide.

actually

Bar

as

if

indis-

were a

it

Measure, an unit of Rhythm, leads to certain misunderstandings.

Thus, owing

print of the Bar-line,

it is

to the

prominence

often convenient to refer

to a short section of a composition as

ending with such and such


or Phrase, rarely begins and
at a Bar-line,

in

bars.
still

beginning or

But a Rhythm,

more

rarely ends

and unless a young musician

is

gifted

with a strong rhythmical instinct, or has been well


trained in the art of Phrasing^, a constant reference
to the

Bar rather than the Phrase

may

lead

him

to

RHYTHM OF MODERN

4o

MUSIC

look upon groups of Bars as rhythmical sections, to

That music

the detriment of intelligent phrasing.

gains enormously in significance by recognition of


its

Phrases as distinguished from groups of Bars,

we

shall

It

hope

to

show

possible that

is

in the course of this

much

of the misunderstanding

new and

that leads to hostility towards

works of great merit,

is

work.

in

unfamiliar

no small degree due

to

an inadequate appreciation of the unconventional


rhythmical forms frequently

On

composers.
this

we

direction

few generations

much

the

development

believe
is

made use of by modern

advance, quite

to

on the development of

as

in

music of the next

the

destined

rhythm

of

its

other

as

artistic

resources.

''The Bar

is

a short section of music contained

between two Bar-lines^


lines is to

The

show where the

function of the Bar-

accents are to be placed,

not to mark rhythmical units.


slurs,

also

rests,

harmonic or melodic construction, and

by Closes.

in the matter,
is

These are shown by

shown by

A well-trained

ear finds

no

difficulty

and the intelligence of a performer

his treatment of the ''phrasing."

these latter days composers are far

more

In

careful than

their predecessors to indicate as exactly as is possible

in print,

The

how

they wish their music to be phrased.

older composers

to the

left

their

music more or

less

mercy of editors and performers, with some-

THE BAR
almost

times

ludicrous

41

hands

the

in

results

of

inexperienced amateurs.

The Bar
ways

its

from the Measure

Measure may begin with

several

in

While the Bar must begin with

portion, the

or

differs

its

accented
accented,

its

unaccented portion, or with any part of either

portion.
Ex.

Brahms (Op. 117, No.

6.

3).

Measure.

molto

e sotto

Measure.

Bar.

Bar.

voce sempre.

In Ex. 6 the composer has carefully slurred the


single

Measures

come before

quarter of each
quarters

after

The

it.

way

such a

in

as

to

make one

the Bar-line, and three

quarter

Bar-line forms the Anacrusis (a

that

precedes

word which

the

will be

presently explained), and the Measures, though equal


to the Bars as to their Time-value,

do not coincide

with them, since each Measure occupies portions of

two successive Bars.

2/ The Measure, though commencing with the


accent,

may

be,

as

we have

value than the Bar.M

already seen, of less

RHYTHM OF MODERN

42

Ex.

Brahms (Op.

j6,

No.

II

fc^^Lfc

p f

-t==t

Bar.

Measure.

the Feminine

shows the end of the

na

II

n-Tra,-

; r'f r

v.

7,

Measure.

Measure.
II

In Ex.

7.

2).

Measure.

*
=**

MUSIC

Bar.

Ending

im
w

-*

I
Feminine Ending.

in the second

Bar

Rhythm, whose four

first

Measures only occupy two Bars.

3.

single

Measure may be of greater value

than the single Bar, though this


Ex.

Brahms (Quintet Op.

Measure.

*. .^^0. *- *-

Bzgn*-

8.

34).

Measure.

:fe

rarely the case.

is

Measure.

Measure.

-S-

BE^

ss
TV

ttH*-

^4*

Measure.

!l

-Q.

7f

fm "K

f,

h
p

^"tfii
J * J

In Ex.

the

8,

a Period

-|

its

^
-*

"1

4fof

of

J
1

_,

by a Period

sake of

writes

'

VT

ceeded

f-|

_^^q_,_ p

J
J *

time Measures

Measures,

is

though

sucfor

proper accentuation the composer

time Bars.

The

therefore of the value of

The Measures may

single

Measure

is

here

two Bars of \ time.

absolutely coincide with the

THE BAR
bars in every respect, but this

is

It

9.

and

closes,

and

rare,

only used for specially languid

rule,

Ex.

43
as a

is,

effects,

as in

generally involves the use of feminine


this

kind of
Ex.

Brahms (Op. 116, No.

9.

2).

Andante.

AzlEl z
it

tEi

*^m
=t

&-

WW

-*f3St
:
a

-GK-

4st

iMeasure

coincidence of Bar and

which the expression

to
'

'
'

is

Four-bar

Three-bar Rhythm," and so on,

is

the only case

Rhythm "

or

strictly appli-

cable.

2^> '''The idea that the Bar and the Measure are the

same thing

is,

however, very prevalent

of the Bar having

made

since its introduction


Staff

the
is

itself felt

the tyranny

more or

ever

from the Tablatures into the

Notation some three centuries ago.

word Anacrusis,

less

Hence

to be treated in the next chapter,

convenient in connection with the construction of

the Measure.

In
is

(or f) time, the accentuation of the notes

sometimes temporarily changed, so that

Diuresis.

44

RHYTHM OF MODERN

instead of J J J J

J
'"

'"

we have

MUSIC

J"j J~j Jj

for a

time, followed by a return to the normal accentua-

This most useful device, which

tion.

applied

in

modern

music,

may be

is

conveniently

alluded to as a " Change of Diaeresis, "


Diaeresis

the

word

meaning the distribution of notes according

to their accentuation, the


in a

constantly

arrangement of the notes,

given passage of melody or harmony.

CHAPTER

III

Preliminary Measures The Overlap Rhythmomitted


Music The Four-bar Phrase Accents,
Rhythmical Accentuation The Material of which Rhythm
Rhythmical Schemes used simultaneously
formed
and Melismatic
The Three Kinds of Accentuation
Song Rhythms within Rhythms

The

Anacrusis

struck or

less

is

Different

Syllabic

A Rhythm

may commence,

as

we have

an accented note, or with an unaccented


or

note,

with

When

notes.

group

a
it

of

unaccented

seen, with

7^
Anacrusis.

commences with an unaccented, or

with a group of unaccented notes, the note or group


precedes the

that

first

accent has been given the

name of Anacrusis by modern Rhythmicists, from


avaicpovo-is,

and

as

this

term used

in

The

ancient

very useful word

familiar to students of
tation

in

using

it

Anacrusis

rapidly

from

it.

hesi-

work.
to

the

Measure what has

been called a " Rising Accentuation "


say, the material rises to

becoming

Rhythm, we have no

in this

gives

is

Greek poetry

its

that

is

to

accent, instead of falling

Such an arrangement helps

to

make

the

phrase vigorous, and compels the attention of the

RHYTHM OF MODERN

46

auditor.
rarely

It

of great

is

aesthetic

found absent

be

in

MUSIC
and

value,

will

compositions,

classical

unless they are distinctly intended to be of a very

soothing,

reposeful,

not necessarily

opening of the

measure

first

bar

the

being
note

part

and

the

in

form

commences,

first

measure

of

the

first

which joins the

slur

bar to the

of the

the

no Anacrusis, but

by the

indicated

note of the

last

has

this

Anacrusis does

make its first appearance with


movement
thus, in Ex. 10

anacrusic

of

The

nature.

of the

first

last

The

next.

bar therefore forms an integral

second measure, being

its

Anacrusis,

of the measures continues to

this construction

the last bar of the period.

It

recommences with

the second measure of the second period, and will

be found to predominate throughout the piece


in

some

places

the composer impresses

it

and

forcibly

by the sforzando.
Ex. 10.

Brahms (Op. 116, No.

i).
1st

Presto

m
|

energico.

Rhythm.

-a.

-I

-I

Anac.

z&twi

Anac.

m-

w .teE

f
Anac.

Anac.

^
t-

"

THE ANACRUSIS

47

2nd Rhythm.

The second

the Intermezzo in

quoted,

has

measures

of a

is

are

collection (Op.

16),

minor, from which Ex. 9

no Anacrusis

The movement
its

same

piece in the

throughout
reposeful

accordingly

of

its

course.

and

character,

the

is

" Falling

order.

A
is

of

due appreciation of the value of the Anacrusis

of the greatest importance for a good rendering


music.

classical

By

its

means not only do many

well-known passages gain very greatly


others that

and

may seem

obscure

will often

in effect,

become

but

clear

interesting, if they can be played with an obser-

vance of the Anacrusis.


stance,

how few

of the

first

March

Sonata.

as if

it

But the

pianists

It

is

remarkable, for

in-

understand the significance

half-bar of the

Finale of the Funeral

The passage is nearly always played


commenced with an accent, thus
:

first

half-bar

is

an Anacrusis, which gives

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

48
rising

accentuation

phrase

of

instead

w=p
W
i

fc

Anacrusis.

the closes will

fall

u
in

r
their right

places,

Rhythms of

special care to

In the same

in the other

become

is

effective.

movement

r#^

the phrase

3-

^
m

-1-

nearly always accented wrongly, as above

Anacrusis should be made

on the second

it

three measures each, which require

is

and the

sounds meaningless, more especially as

it

the

Measure.

passage will sound rhythmically correct

in

if

played thus

is

Measure.

case

and

falling,

effective

natural, thus

&*
2=3:

*e

the

by an accent

%
*

=*

Anacrusis.

so that rising, instead of falling accentuation

parted to the passage.

In

is

im-

other words, the chief

accent should

not be on the highest note of the

melody,

more

first

as

is

usually

the

case,

but on the

note of the measure, which must be brought

PRELIMINARY MEASURES
owing

into special prominence

49

to the shape of the

melody.

must

It

not

supposed

be

commences with
or that

Anacrusis

the

with the

contrary,

many

in

will

two

bars, or

are

merely introductory,

were,

to

They

are

be

the

cases

when

measures

a full bar its

necessarily coincide

will

that

Preliminary

Measures.

bars,

On

the

or the

first

wanting.
bar,

first

even the accent only of the

Rhythms

the

outside

to

are about

that

Rhythm

the

first

attention

call

piece

to

bar,

as

it

follow.

and are

proper,

equivalent to the few words that precede a speech,

such as "Ladies and Gentlemen, " which have no


connection

with what follows further than to

attention to the fact that something

There

said.

Notes

the

is

or

difference,

this

Measures

opening of a speech,

that

the introductory material

the end of the

at

movement,
clamation,

make

since,
it

is

we

is

in

however,

the

though

at

between

of and
case

the

of music

often repeated, either

Rhythm, or

first

about to be

is

speak

call

first

in

the

used as an

ex-

later

frequently of sufficient interest to

part of the tone material of the

piece later

on.

When

there

is

an Introductory

Measure, such

Rhythm

proper com-

mences with the second Measure (or

third, as the

as

we

case

are contemplating, the

may

be),

and

is

usually

provided

with

the

RHYTHM OF MODERN

50

MUSIC

The matter depends on

Anacrusis.

position

the

of the Closes or Caesuras.

His

Let us examine an example from Brahms.

116, No. 3, opens with a complete

Capriccio Op.
Bar,

and looks

with

its

as

if

But

Bars.

Measures must coincide

its

this is far

Ex.

Brahms (Op. 116, No.

from being the

case.

11.

Capriccio.

3).

Allegro appassionato.

Half-measure.

Measure.

Measure.

4--id^jr|j
*

^*^

__

Anacrusis.

Half-rhythm.

End

s
I

of Half-

rhythm.

The
is

first

half-bar

extraneous to the rhythm

is

it

development of the idea of an introductory chord

or note, as a kind of exclamation, to call attention.

Brahms here

In place of the introductory chord,


anticipates

end

the

whose

last

half-measure only

introduction to what
as

shown

portions,

in

is

going to

and presupposes an imaginary

his half-rhythms,

phrase,

with which he

figure

to

is

is

heard, as an

come, and the Measures,

Ex. 11, commence on their unaccented

therefore,

turbulent character

with
is

the

Anacrusis,

while

given by the sforzandos on

the unaccented portions.

McCDNE SCHOOL OF MUSIC & ART


PRELIMINARY MEASURES

51

major

The" same device

Symphony, where

is

used by him in his

will

it

by the basses alone, recurs

bar, played

in

bar

the device

and

it

have to allude to

will

freely

is

1 1

similar

which movements commence with a

cases
:

frequently

shall

at the close

See Ex. 5 7 5 8 pp. 2 1 0-2

of each of the Rhythms.

We

be noticed that the opening

full

used by every composer,

be convenient to refer to the introductory

note or notes as the "Preliminary Measure."

The

chaining together, as

Periods by causing their

were, of

it

Rhythms and

accent to

final

pie
Overlap.

coincide with, or in other words, to overlap, the first accent,

of the succeeding phrase

of the resources

known

the

to

older

but more in evidence with the moderns.

when
the

accent of a

the final

of

accent

first

the

phrase

the

up of

mechanical

his

at the

too long.

with
It

is

command of
a

music into sections, whereby

would

be

would make the melodies easy


to

It arises

definite

precision

would be apt

composers,

phrase.

composer for the avoidance of too

cutting

another

coincides

succeeding

one of the most useful devices

is

produced,

to

which

understand, but

produce monotony

if

continued

See Ex. 44, page 155.

By means of

the Overlap a continuity of

Melos

can be carried on while the regularity of the rhythmical phrases

is

maintained, without the too frequent

use of the Deceptive Cadence.

To

us English one

RHYTHM OF MODERN

52

MUSIC

of the most familiar of Overlaps, though


recognise

such,

as

it

is

that

we do

which occurs

in

not
the

middle of the Anglican Chant, and which eliminates


the

monotony which would ensue

the Psalms

if

were sung to constant repetitions of a pair of equal

Rhythms.

It

this

is

Overlap that results

in

the

seven-measure Period, which has sometimes puzzled


foreign

observers of our Chant.

may be

It

ex-

emplified by a comparison of a well-known chant,

borrowed from
original

melody by Beethoven, with

its

form, the two examples being quoted in

the same key for easier comparison.


Ex. 12.

Beethoven Sonata Pathetique.


Adagio.

1st

Transposed.

Rhythm.

:2=a

2nd Rhythm.
2

25

Chant.

;e

-&-

-&

-&i

&~

-<s>-

-<s>-

Overlap.
1st
I

Rhythm.

3~~

2nd Rhythm.
4

~i

i
-o-

22:

-c^Oh

ZZ **-

-e>-

Overlap.

-&- -&-

-&-

THE OVERLAP
will

It

be seen that the eight measures of the

Period

Beethoven

reduced

are

Chant, by causing the

final

seven

to

note of the

coincide with, or overlap the

to

53

first

the

in

Rhythm

note of the

first

second Rhythm.

This
stalls
is

is

Rhythm the more usual form


which the first Rhythm is extended to

the end of the

that in

five

an instance in which the Overlap fore:

Measures, so that

Rhythm

fall

Measure, and the

fourth, but in the fifth

of the next

Close does not

its

enters thus within

in the

first

note

the con-

cluding Rhythm.
In such a case

it

often results in producing a

Period of, say eight Measures, without any perceptible break between

not often

its

two Rhythms

used within a Period in

Far more frequently

it

this

but

it

is

manner.

occurs at the end of the

Period, so as to join the Period to the next Period,

Rhythm to its companion. When


Rhythm of a Period is extended to five

rather than the

the second

Measures or

six

Measures

in such a

the final note to coincide with the

next Rhythm, the object

is

When, on

without a break.

way

first

to carry

as to cause

note of the

on the Melos

the contrary, the second

Period anticipates the close of the

we have

first,

entering

too soon, as

it

Rhythms of

the Anglican Chant, the object

arouse

were, as

attention.

The

apparent

seen in the two


is

to

seven-measure

54

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

Rhythms of

Waltz

the

in

Act

Scene 5 of the

III.

Meistersinger are the result of overlapping on the

same principle

as that of the

The

Anglican Chant.

Periods are of eight bars in length, but each Period


after the first enters a bar sooner than

The

effect

wonderfully

is

expected.

it is

and bright,

sprightly

but that the Periods are really normally of eight


Bars can easily be proved by playing the figure

i
twice

over each

time

orthodox "four-bar"

it

occurs,

Rhythm

The seven-measure Period


sense of a want of balance, for

master of his
effect,

but

if

craft

to

when

will result.

here

us

causes

Wagner

no

is sufficiently

be able to employ

an unskilful or

regular

it

inexperienced

with

com-

poser endeavours to use an Overlap in this way,

without

having

previously

fundamental rhythmical

harmonic

basis,

well

basis, or

established

without a suitable

he will be apt to produce an un-

we

comfortable feeling of want of balance, and


feel that

his

the music

is

somehow weak

in its

shall

Rhythm.

Overlaps can be very effective in the orchestra,

where a new

set

of instruments can be made to

enter unexpectedly,

or in a double chorus, where

the second chorus can enter as the


phrase.

first

But the chief use of the Overlap

finishes its
in

modern

THE OVERLAP
music

to

is

produce that continuity of Melos of

which Richard Wagner was the


in

great exponent

first

For by delaying the end of a phrase

our days.

that

55

would naturally be of four Measures, but

is

extended to

five so as to overlap its successor, the

periods are

made

melt imperceptibly into one

to

mind ever onwards

another, and thus to carry the

on the stream of musical sound, without an apparent


break.

To compare

the older

method with the new,

let

us imagine a traveller, advancing through beautiful

country on a road provided with prominent milestones, which, while

do not

progress,

they
the

in

enjoyment of the scenery.


listens

make him aware of

his

with

his

least

So

interfere
is

with

the older classical music,

to

And

punctuated Rhythms and Periods.


traveller,

in

who

with him

it

its

well-

the

same

walking through equally beautiful scenery,

which the milestones are

also

concealed under luxuriant foliage,


listens to the

continuous Melos of

modern music.

To

artistically

concealed,

is

much

demands

its

are

him who

like

of the best

construct music that

mentally rhythmical, and yet has

but

there,

is

funda-

"milestones"

technical

ability

of

the highest order.

Another kind of Overlap, made familiar


Bach,

is

to us

by

exemplified in the following quotation from

Beethoven's Quartet in

minor, Op. 132

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

$6

Ex.

13.

Beethoven (Quartet Op. 132).


1st

Rhythm.

2nd Rhythm.

Allegro.\
1st.

Vn.
T5
l

'

2i

bJ-

Anac.
Overlap.

Cello.

2nd Vn.

Anac.

fl^l

t=
Viola.

pgp
@

4=5-

*^t

.Q.
221

Here

triplet leads

fs
rhythmical

the

violoncello,

note

S3.

is

movement begun by

completed by the

first

violin,

the

and the

us to expect the phrase to end with the

on the

first

But the

beat of the bar.

is

delayed by suspension to form a feminine ending,

and

this causes

the

second

it

to coincide with the Anacrusis of

Rhythm.

Thus

the

Rhythm

first

extended half a Measure beyond what

is

due

to

is
it,

and overlaps the second Rhythm, the same note


serving to end one and begin the other.

Yet another form of Overlap


Ex.
the

14,

and

this is

Fugue form.

is

exemplified in

even more familiar to us through

^
THE OVERLAP

57

Ex. 14.

Beethoven (Quartet Op. 132).


1st

Rhythm.

Overlap.

W *==
j

<s>

If
1

2nd Rhythm.

J.

"T

figures,

F^i

here contains two dis-

one founded on crotchets, the other

on quavers, and the phrase

is

caused to overlap

such a manner that the contrasting figures

itself in

are heard at the


case of

N^Ef

The four-measure Rhythm


tinct

*LJ-J-

same time.

This

is

merely another

one rhythmical figure supplementing another,

a device

which gives so much delight

to

all,

whether

learned or unlearned.

Music

that

harmony, but
structure,

is

is

is

apt

composed

in

devoid of
to

modern

tonality

intelligible

be characterless

and

rhythmical

and

insipid,

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

58

unless the composer

strong enough to

is

and consciously,

Rhythmless

deliberately

Music,

mystery by Melos alone.

composers

church

Wagner

had

this

express,

a feeling

of

The Polyphonic

ability,

and Richard

has pointed out that the mystical beauty

of the music of Palestrina and his contemporaries


is

due to the absence of

The modern

rhythm therefrom.

definite

great masters are beginning to recog-

nise that an occasional absence of rhythmical


is

form

Richard

capable of being intensely emotional.

Strauss has seen this, and has used the device in

Symphony, with mar-

several places in his Italian

vellous

"On

effect.

the

In

the

first

movement,

entitled

Campagna," the opening passage, with

massive pianissimo
occasional

change

chords,

of

in

which

harmony,

there

but

no

is

its

an

apparent

rhythmical form, reflects the feelings that must arise


in

most persons when they

aspects of the vast, silent,

And when
they

come

first

gaze upon certain

and mysterious Campagna.

rhythmical figures begin to be heard,


at first spasmodically, as if the

thoughts

only gradually began to collect themselves and take

shape

eventually

the

form

rhythmical

becomes

definite.

And

again, in the

same work, the dazzling maze

of pianissimo sound with which the third movement


opens,

"On

the shore at Sorrento,"

recognisable rhythmical form.

It

is

quite without

seems to

reflect

RHYTHMLESS MUSIC

59

the almost unbearable brilliance of the rippling sea

under the influence of an

Such passages

Italian sun.

of rhythmless music are very daring, but they are


justified

result, for they appeal intensely to the

by the

emotions in connection with the "programme" to

which they are joined.

Owing
Phrase "

to

(with

and two),
the

one

predominance,

its
its

divisions

it

we

not the right view,

The Four-bar
Phrase.

as

form of Rhythm,

That
hope

shall

show

to

to caprice, or seeking after novelty,

growing

however,

this,

" four-bar " phrases

the use of other than

due

Four-bar

being attributed to caprice

on the part of the composer.


is

upon

and only practicable

any departures from

'

two

into

generally looked

is

'

the

of

appreciation

the

aesthetic

for

is

not

but to a

of

value

various forms of phrase other than the normal.

The ordinary
Rhythm is shown

construction
in

Duple time
Ex.

Mozart

of

in

Four-measure

Ex.

15.

15.

Sonata.

Allegro molto.

1st

Rhythm.

tr.

p== p r^g

'XL

FjPK

m m m

3=S
P4=-

VH

J.

m
3I

z
Cses.

Cses.

Half-close.

f^

RHYTHM OF MODERN

6o

MUSIC

2nd Rhythm.

mm & W+

tr.

"-=):

^5
fc

Here we have

?=?=--

3E

Full close.

Caesura.

im

4s

a Period of

two Rhythms, each

divided into half-rhythms by a Caesura.

Rhythm ends

The

first

with the orthodox half-close in the

masculine form, the second with the (incomplete)


full

close,

also

in

The

the masculine form.

bars,

each containing one Measure, are simple.


Ex.

Beethoven (Op.

6.

26).

Rhythm.

B^##M
1st

Andante.

jl^

n**=*
gggya

dgnOT
e

H"

Half-close.

2nd Rhythm.

Z=*

m^

fcfc

j
^

lw

q-l

^r<?j-.

ttg- jjg-

Half-close.

THE FOUR-BAR PHRASE


Exs

shows a Period

Triple Measure.

but

in

Here, again, the bars are simple,

with an unaccented note, that

As

two Rhythms

of

be observed that the passage commences

will

it

61

the signature

is

is,

with the Anacrusis.

the measures

must

consist

of three quavers each, and since this unaccented


note

is

an integral portion of the melody,

that each

Measure commences with an unaccented

and overlaps

note,

follows

it

its

bar-line, as

shown by the
This

perpendicular lines in our example.

we mean when we

short

what

is

Measure and the

say that the

and

Bar, although they are frequently,

modern

in

music nearly always, equal in time-value, do not

On

often coincide with each other.

the recognition

of this principle depends to a large extent an intelligent

The
a rule,

method of phrasing.

filled

with sound, except for the

may

Caesuras that

occur in

j
melody
may ube more
i

rhythmical

its

more

Rhythm

space of time occupied by a

it

and

its

^i_
prominent than

or

structure,

the

is,

as

struck or
omitted.

rhythm may be

noticeable than the melody, or,

what

is

more
two

usual, both are of equal importance, as in the

examples quoted here.

When

the

accentuation

attracts attention

made prominent,

more than

that

it

feel

a pleasant exhilaration,

the

accents

acting

is

which

on the mind

the melody,
is

in

so

we

the result of

such

way

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

62

than the emotional

physical rather

to stir the

as

faculties.

on the contrary, melody and harmony are used

If,

without the support of an adequate rhythmical


the

music

But

it

apt

is

to

be weakly and sentimental.

must not be considered

without
varied

Human

value.

its

that

materials to express

perhaps adapt

of

more than any other

of

human temperament.

But Rhythms, and more

Though
may be

nor are
a hard

all

the

and

accents

said in a general

filled

necessarily

with

heard.

cannot be drawn,

line

fast

art to the

especially those of four

Measures, are not necessarily completely


sound,

different

and music can

itself

infinite varieties

is

so infinitely

is

infinity

emotions

its

music

that such

nature

an

requires

it

basis,

way

that

it

when Rhythms

begin to omit any of their accents, they begin to


appeal to

than to

the

the

imagination and the intellect more

physical

For

faculties.

it

requires a

higher degree of culture to recognise a thing that


is

only hinted at than a thing that

The omission

before one.
sarily

for

made by means of

instance,

sustained over the fourth.

Rhythm

is

filled

be imagined.

of accents

rests

on the third

is

is

plainly set

not neces-

a cadence can occur,

accent,

and

its

chord

In this case, though the

with sound, the

last

accent has to

But here again may be a difference

for the closing chord

on the third accent

is

often

ACCENTS

62

repeated in some

way on

case the appeal

to the physical side of us,

is

the

is

more pleasing

the fourth

in that

and

in this

and

it

unexpected.

is

it

But with our power of using two or more rhyth-

we do

mical schemes at once


final

accent entirely unheard

not often leave the

though

for

omitted in the Primary accentuation,


heard in the Subsidiary
react

it

may be

it

generally

is

and thus the two rhythms

on one another, the Subsidiary supporting and

supplementing the Primary, and making


understand

the imagination

it

easier to

appealed to by the

is

Primary, the physical nature by the Subsidiary.

Some Rhythms have


strongly

accented

feature,

which

Rhythms,
contested

each alternate Measure

than

the

not

is

present

so delicate that

is

by some

This

rest.

its

in

Rhythmical
dccentuatten,

all

existence has been

yet

theorists,

we

have,

due consideration, come to believe that


light

some composers,

that
it,

on many passages

and that

this

is

at

in

classical

any

more

rate,

it

throws

music,
are

after

and

aware of

what leads them to express

compound rather than simple bars.


For the essence of the compound bar is that the
first of its two measures is more strongly accented
their

ideas

in

than the second, in however slight a degree.

opponents of the view

we

The

take can point to the fact

that composers, especially Bach, will frequently place

the

first

note of a given subject in the

first

or second

RHYTHM OF MODERN

64

compound

half of a

MUSIC

bar indiscriminately, but there

no evidence that they do not do

is

with the

this

express intention of altering the order of accentuation


in the pairs of

Be

this as

Measures.

it

may, we propose to allude

to this

and weaker Measures, where


Rhythmical Accentuation "
as

alternation of stronger

we

believe

'

it

to exist,

to distinguish

Measures

it

from the accentuation of the single

and we

'

shall

speak of

Accentuation " as being of the

ing"

according

order,

Measure comes
In

Ex.

'
'

Rising " or

whether

to

" Rhythmical

stronger

the

after or before the weaker.


it

be

will

noticed

that

there

on each alternate accented note,

discords

Measures

Fall-

' *

and 4
inclination will be
2

in each

to

Rhythm, and

strike

i.e.

are
in

that our

these discords rather

more strongly than the concords on the intervening


accents.

In addition to

three places
discords,
It

marked

this,

the composer has in

a crescendo to lead

one of which

up

to these

has, in addition, the sign

sf.

seems to us then that he has distinctly singled

out the alternate measures for special accentuation,


and that the example gives an instance of " Rising

Rhythmical Accentuation."

more

phony,

in

striking case occurs in the Fifth

the

passage

Sym-

quoted below, where the

composer has indicated nothing, but conductors are


beginning to find out the value of giving

it

Rising

RHYTHMICAL ACCENTUATION
Accentuation.
this subject

let

gains

it

$m F

the reader try

an

to

on the piano,

it

x
:

:je

more does

1=

a certain passage in the Scherzo

of the same symphony gain by

we have

But by

effect

in

without special accent, then as follows

Still

to play

with equal accent on each bar.

incredible degree
first

was formerly the custom

Accentuation

Rising

It

65

and

this treatment,

seen a conductor, in order to intensify the

Rising Accentuation, beat thus


down

up

&
The

and

it

was
is

fire

electrical

Ft

the passage

that

would have

Other cases

to time in the course of

energetic,

is

taken, but the above beat gave

the composer.

We

&

effect

however
force

3^5
I

-&

ff

down

up

it

rejoiced the heart of

will

appear from time

our work.

must now speak of the material out of which

Periods, with their

two or more Rhythms,

The Material

are constructed.

As an

let

j>j*ZJ*

us tap on the table a series of crotchets,

firmed.

experiment,

giving an accent to each alternate tap, thus


1

It

must be remembered that the orchestra

gives far

to such nuances than the piano can possibly give.

more

effect

RHYTHM OF MODERN

66

While tapping,

J
let

J. J

MUSIC
J

J.

us mentally form a melody of

sixteen notes, one to each crotchet, with a Caesura

We shall then have imagined

after the fourth accent.

two Rhythms

a Period of

Duple Measure, com-

in

mencing with the Anacrusis, and ending with

Masculine Close.

But

to a listener the taps will represent nothing

more than

a meaningless series of sounds, akin to

the ticking of a clock.

Now

let

make

us

a second series of sixteen taps,

but instead of their being


the series (one in the

a quaver, thus

it

91. 9 9

equal, let

and one

first

Rhythm) be longer than


shorter, so as to

all

two out of
second

in the

the rest, and

its

successor

form a dotted crotchet followed by

J
9

J
9

J
&> 9

J.
9 9 9

'l

'l

>

The listener will now immediately perceive that


is Rhythm we are tapping, for the greater relative

value of the dotted crotchets singles them out from


their neighbours,

or

special

and gives them a

importance,

which

clearly

special accent,

indicates

the

rhythmical form of the whole series of taps.


In the

first

instance

Primary values of a

The

fact

of

all

we tapped

series

the fundamental or

of eight Duple Measures.

the taps being of equal duration,

THE MATERIAL OF RHYTHM


though we accented each

mind could

point on which his

we

instance

intelligible

gave the

pair,

rest.

caused our sixteen

67

no

listener

In the second

taps

form an

to

rhythmical whole merely by making two

out of the series more prominent than the

and

rest,

thereby giving the listener a point in each set of

mind could

eight on which his

To

rest.

Let us write out

continue our experiment.

and harmonise a simple melody of sixteen crotchets,

We

using no other kind of note.

make

shall

be able to

the form of the Period quite clear now, by

placing harmonic cadences at the eighth and

Thus we

teenth crotchets.

closes will give the

Let us

the

alter

notes in the

its

series

mind

more

clear, for the

on which

places

harmonic

it

can

manner suggested

we

striking

shall

find

and

for

The

that

at

it

distances,

number of

count them from

melody

one another

pins in an unbroken
distance.

we have made

This can

assistance.

short

is

incapable of enumerating a

similar articles placed close to

without external

by placing

is

rest,

once

This

vigorous.

prominence than the

eye, equally with the ear,

number of

rest.

our second

because, by bringing two of the notes of the


into greater

to

melody by lengthening two of

of taps, and

becomes

Harmony

shall call

our aid in making our rhythm

six-

Unless

easily

row and
the

at equal

be proved
trying to

eye

can

find

definite resting places, such as objects near the pins, or the person

counting
find

it

is

near

enough

to

impossible to count

point

at

individual

more than four or

pins,

five.

he will

RHYTHM OF MODERN

68

rhythm speak

the

assistance

has

it

for

itself,

MUSIC

addition

in

to

the

from the harmonic construction.

We

have made a contrast

the

notes.

in the relative values of

This kind of contrast

is

one of the

most valuable elements that the composer has

hand

in the material out of

which he constructs

at

his

Periods and Rhythms, and the elementary principle


of varying the relative values of notes
of

infinite

variety

in

extension,

the

so

treatment

that

of

the

is

capable

ordinary

the

of

possibilities

eight-

measure Period are inexhaustible.

On

this principle is

founded the sub-division of

the Primary value of the

smaller value

Measure

into

and such sub-divisions

notes of

group

will

themselves naturally into accented and unaccented


notes, just as

Thus,

is

the case with the Primary values.

for example, the time value of

two minims

forming a single Duple Measure, might be subdivided in some such

way

rm'm

as this,

44

in

which case the upper notes

will

Measure, while the smaller notes


time group themselves in pairs or
each of which has

its

own proper

still

form a single

will at the
triplets, as

same

shown,

accentuation.

distinguish the accentuation of the

minims

in

To
the

THE MATERIAL OF RHYTHM

69

above example from that of the smaller notes, we


refer to

Primary Accentuation, and the other

as

it

as Subsidiary Accentuation.

The composer
at

He

disposal.

his

Measures
and

has yet another rhythmical resource

in

can

divide

one manner for

in a totally different

accompaniment, so

his

manner
two

that

his

Different

melody,

Rhythmical
Schemes

for the

used simul-

or

taneously.

more

arrangements of the rhythmical material are heard


the same time.

at

or

more

istics

Metre

of music.

music

to

yet

it is

differing

is

Poetry what

to

and yet

The

effects are

different

due

in

Rhythm

impossible to conceive of two

from one another

of their accents.

though

most remarkable character-

two metrical schemes

reciters uttering simultaneously

sense

use of two

different rhythmical motives, familiar

to us, is, one of the

it is

is

The simultaneous

in all except the position

result

would be

utter non-

Music some of the sublimest


simultaneous use of several

to the

rhythmical arrangements,

produce senseless confusion

if

such as would

applied

to

spoken

Poetry.

Rhythmical
have their

at

the

the

however ingenious, can never

full aesthetic

value apart from melody of

drummer were to beat a given


and another drummer played another figure
same time on a second drum tuned to

some kind.
figure,

figures,

If a

same note

as

the

first,

the effect of the two

RHYTHM OF MODERN

yo

drums would be

to

drum.

=1

2nd drum.

Resultant.

But

'

ji

two simul-

Thus

rs.n

JJ J J

not

the listener,

taneous figures, but one only.

ist

MUSIC

J"l

v j"^rj

.taje

JJ J JJ J73j"j3

c)

one of the above rhythmical schemes were

if

played on a drum, and the other in a melody on a


fife,

for example, the resultant, instead of a

mono-

tonous succession of similar Measures, would be


a spirited march.

Hence

that combination of

follows that to produce

it

rhythms which

is

so essential

modern music, we require two contrasting

a part of

voices or

melodies or instruments

without melody does not

mere rhythm

suffice.

Different rhythmical schemes must generally agree


in

having their chief accents

bar, or

rule

is

at the

of a chief portion of a bar.

This unwritten

sometimes broken, however, by modern com-

posers, with excellent effect, as in

and the
this

beginning of a

art

of

Rhythm seems

Ex. 28, page 109,

likely to develop in

and other directions hitherto unthought

Putting exceptions aside,

modern music

of.

most of the charm of

consists of the combination of

two

rhythmical schemes, one of which enhances or completes the other, as

two drums.

One

we saw

in the

example of the

of the simplest applications of

COMBINED RHYTHMICAL SCHEMES


the principle

is

when

a song containing, for example,

a succession of crotchets in its melody,

The

panied on the piano by quavers.

schemes of

all

71

accom-

is

rhythmical

polyphonic music are a more or

less

highly developed application of the principle here


exemplified.

From what
of

each
r

kinds

three

are

there

has been said,

which

fulfils

of

be seen that

will

it

accentuation,

own

its

Kinds of

special

Accentuation.

function.

The

the Primary accentuation, which affects

first is

one note of the two or the three that go to make

up

Duple or Triple Primary

the

Measure.

It

forms the foundation of rhythm in general, in the


sense

rhythm

that

primarily

of

out

arises

the

arrangement of alternately accented and unaccented


factors.

But a single Measure, although

it is

unit, cannot

be recognised as such by

measures

least

we

can

at

a rhythmical
itself.

Two

are required to be heard before

know what

species

is

And

intended.

as

one

of the two Measures that are required to satisfy our


sense of rhythm

is

than

there

the

other,

accentuation, which

Accentuation.
together
order,

in

so as

frequently of
arises

the

to

second

we have named

Its function is to

pairs,

more importance

in

kind of

the Rhythmical

group the Measures

" Rising"

or

" Falling"

produce energy or tranquillity, as

RHYTHM OF MODERN

72

But

required by the composer.

it

MUSIC
is

only present

in certain cases.

The

third, or Subsidiary Accentuation, has as its

common means
melody

of

enforcing

the

office,

is

to

repetition,

or

the

two.

very

of enhancing the interest of a given

add Subsidiary rhythm


increase

to

been present with

Ex. 17 with Ex.

it

on

its

shown by a comparison of

as

it,

to

which has already

that

9.

Ex.

Brahms (Op.

other

17.

116, No. 2).

4-4

gztJ^J^PJj
V?

3
?= r- 1-*-

-0-

Ex.

9,

page 43, shows


of measures

portions

Accentuation,

while

are

the

Rhythm whose
marked

unaccented

by

accented

Subsidiary

are

not

thus

divided.
In Ex.

an

17,

increase

shown

in

from the same composition, there

of Subsidiary

Ex.

ment, by which
rhythmical

in

9,
all

form

Accentuation

is

over that

both melody and accompani-

chance of the somewhat unusual

of

the

opening

wearisome through repetition


interest

is

increased.

is

bars

avoided,

becoming
and the

ACCENTUATION

73

Subsidiary rhythm plays a large part in vocal as


well as in instrumental music.

when

alluded to

is

upon
only

the

'

piece

is

four-measure

it is

often looked

having nothing to do with rhythm, and

as

when measures

are sub-divided in

manner does the ordinary


is

normal

so taken for granted that

is

generally what

It is

rhythm " of

The

mentioned.

specially

phrase

'

some

special

listener notice that there

anything remarkable about the " rhythm."

Verse can be

music

set to

two ways, but

in

The

usually
set in a mixture of both.
J
first

way

is

what the Gregorianists

call

"Syllabic," in which each syllable has a


single

note,

Poetry.

the

matic,"

in

more than

closely

less

The

second

which

single

one

note,

out, so that they extend

accented

The

first

or

with

manner

is

is

'

they

beyond the

equivalent

to

Verses

given

even

are

corre-

of

the " Melis-

are

syllables

or unaccented, of the

way

the

and

Melismatic

Rhythms of music

so that the

more or

spond

p *, ,.
syllabic

is

to

spread

single portion,

musical

Measure.

Primary, the

the

Subsidiary rhythm of instrumental

second to the
music.
In

purely

syllabic

melody the musical rhythm

corresponds to the metre of the words, each syllable


1

We

noticed lately an article in which the writer advocated

the disuse of the

word Rhythm

four-measure phrase

altogether

as

applied

to

the

RHYTHM OF MODERN

74

having
melody,

Primary

single

note. 1

Melismatic

In

rhythm plays

subsidiary

MUSIC

Melis-

part.

matic song seems to belong to an earlier stage in


the development of any particular style of music

than

we

the

for

Syllabic,

melodies

and the ancient Greek and Armenian

possess,

church music are extremely


times they became

more

" Proses

the

the

Gregorian

earliest

of

"

whereas in

florid,

example,

syllabic, as, for

Roman

and only
an

to

florid character

in recent years

older

of

its

in

Another

Church.

instance occurs to us in Italian opera, which

remarkable for the

later

became

melodies,

have the fioriture so familiar


of

generation

opera-goers

begun

to

disappear under a more highly developed condition

of the

art.

human

The reason for


The average man

can appreciate

more

the expression of deep emotion

easily than

seems

this

hence his attention

is

to lie in

more

skill in

attracted

nature.

performance

by

brilliance

As

of execution than by earnestness of expression.


the

vocal

advances

art

the

cultivated,

its

externals

auditors

are

become more

toned down,

and

deeper expression becomes possible to the composer

without fear of being misunderstood.

If

we com-

Wagner and his successors with


pre- Wagner composers we shall be

pare the Melos of


that
1

As,

of
for

the

instance,

church hymns.

in

"

God

save

the

King," and

in

most

AND MELISMATIC SONG

SYLLABIC
struck with

more

its

syllabic character

Mozart, for example, find no place

in

75

the fioriture of

Wagner's music.

But while vocal melodies become more simple


and expressive in the matter of rhythm, the accompaniments

more

become

music has developed

later

than vocal, and becomes

more and more important and


power

Instrumental

elaborate.

The

expressive.

been added to instrumental music

that has

by the development of Subsidiary rhythm is very


It can form an outward and non-essential
great.
ornamentation

can be a means of display

it

it

can increase the attraction of a melody which has

been previously heard in a simpler form, and


it

finally

can be a means of intense emotional expression.


In

the

way

last

Intermezzo,

Op.

is

it

117,

used by Brahms in his

No.

2,

of which

Ex.

18

shows the opening four-measure Rhythm, whose


phrasing, as given by the composer,
in its dignity

Andante

Col Ped.

No.

117,

tion troppo,

quite Greek

and mastery of rhythmical


Ex. 18.

Brahms (Op.

is

2).

con molto espressione.

-4-

***

^*

effect.

RHYTHM OF MODERN

76

MUSIC

Sfe=F=S

H^
In Ex.
its

19

we give

Subsidiary

the

melody

rhythm.

It

Ex.

is

alone, deprived of

severe

in

19.

2,S

-N-

-E3=-5
-r

like the Scherzo of

light "

Sonata,

and

>

3f>

-h

"P"

composer

the

last

4i\

4:

P"

Beethoven's so-called

phrasing by causing the

Iambics,

"Moon-

intensifies

the

beat of each bar to be

connected to the succeeding bar as an Anacrusis.


Ex. 20.

as3

^=&A^
^grsM

3H

&$&&

,_
*jife^^^^fe=
w-#-

:&:

r^tzzN:

'

^k^^

SYLLABIC

AND MELISMATIC SONG

77

Ex. 20 shows that the Subsidiary rhythm naturally


divides

of

phrases

four

into

itself

Duple

three

Measures each, and these Subsidiary

(Subsidiary)

Measures are further divided into Subsidiary AccenMoreover, each Subsidiary

tuation of their own.

Measure has

its

own

Anacrusis, so that in Ex.

Anacrusis of each bar

We

Anacrusis.

combination of

which

gives

expression,

Rhythm

within

wonderful

They would have


to

make

Rhythm,

to the Greeks,

and

found

piece,

this

for

in

~,

within

their

We are able

a subordinate

to

'

theory.

perforce been content with

pure Iambics of Ex. 19.

and

in

resource

laws

the

by a Subsidiary

intensified

have, therefore,

unknown

following

yet

is

8 the

go

the

further,

rhythm accompany the

Iambics, on principles that the Greeks themselves

would have acknowledged

to

be in accordance with

their artistic theory.


It

will

sidiary

be noticed that in setting out the Sub-

rhythm

Rhythms

in

Ex. 20 we give the complete

as of three

usual four.

important

Measures each, instead of the

This brings us to one of the most


of

modern

rhythmical

developments,

namely, the grouping of Measures by threes, or


fives,

or in

some other number than

four.

Such

groupings were occasionally employed in isolated


Periods by Mozart and Haydn, and by Beethoven
in

his

Ninth

Symphony,

in

the

Funeral

March

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

78

Sonata

Op.

(last

movement),

Quartet

as well as in his

But the older composers seemed

101.

to

look upon this as a departure from the rule, that

might be misunderstood, so they


the

matter very

struction,

evident

by

their

made

carefully

harmonic con-

while Beethoven sometimes labelled the

passage in the score.

Modern composers have

arrived at a fuller mastery

over these Rhythms, or perhaps


to

say

that

modern audiences

it

is

are

more

more

correct

able

to

assimilate them,

and instead of a tentative Period

here and there,

we now

whole compositions,

measure rhythm

in

find

which

prevails,

whole

sections,

nay

the three- or five-

and the four-measure

is

the exception, and a peculiar piquancy and charm


is

thus produced.

We

shall

question in another chapter.

go further

into

this

CHAPTER
Effect of

IV

Longer and Shorter Notes on Accentuation

Ancient

Combined Rhythm-species
Well-marked Rhythm Influence of Note-values on the
Character of Music Repetition of Definite Rhythmical Figures Syncopation
Theory and Modern

Practice

^Esthetic

In any melodic figure containing notes of unequal


value there will be a tendency

the longer
notes as having
&

more
if

we

accent,

shall

notes

Thus,

on

&

<3

G
J

<J

the

that

feel

jCcentua-

tton '

Ill

I
I

that of the last three

that of the first

<3

natural accentuation of the

'l

minims being

two Measures

rhythmical figure or scheme has

even

Shorter Notes

,,

shorter.

is

mind

of
Longer and
Effect

more weight,

the

feel

write without bars

O
we

than

to

for

made

established

when once

by
a

itself felt, the

desires its accents to continue in their course,


if

the note- values change.

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

80

The above

division of the

Duple Measure

into

one long, followed by two short notes produces the

form known
If

we

we

as the Dactyl.

two shorter notes before the accented

place the

long note

Greek musicians

to the

obtain the Anapaest,

which, owing to

its

character than

Anacrusis,

the Dactyl.

J
of a more exciting

is

The Greek

frequently used Anapaestic rhythm at

dramatists

the end

of

their choruses as a climax.

The

transition

from the Dactyl to J J J J and

from the Anapaest to J J J J


is

merely the

division

instead of one, into

of the Dactyl

it

strong
it is

in

when

of both

very simple

lessens the accent


its

value.

the Anapaest,

it

In the case

on the

first

The same

whose accent

the accented note

measure-portions,

two equal notes.

by taking away from


obtained

is

is

is

note

result

is

not so

divided, as

when

undivided.

The

other forms of four-note Measure are both

J J J J and J J J J ; so that it will be


seen that out of all the above forms of a four-note

anacrusic,

Measure, three

have

Rising,

and only one has

Falling Accentuation.

The

division

of the Duple Measure into four

NOTE-VALUES AND ACCENT


notes

is

one of the commonest forms

and ancient music, and


Measure.

If

it

is

known

desired to

is

in

81

both modern

as the four-time

divide both portions

of the Measure into two notes each, and yet retain


the strength of the accent,

II

or

J\in

we

can use the figure

which

the

longer

note

obtains the feeling of a stronger accent on account

of

its

greater prominence.

In Triple
that

Time

the most natural form, the one

we most quickly

Greeks

as the

Trochee,

feel,

is

<J

J,

that

or

known

its

to the

inversion the

Iambus, J J, in which the accented note is in the


So
proportion of two to one of the unaccented.
strongly

is

this felt

by us that when we divide the

long into two equal short notes differing in pitch,

we

not infrequently join them by a slur, so as to

strengthen the impression of accent, thus

w^?=*
When
effect

is

all

three notes are joined

produced

the accented note

by a

and the opposite


is

is

slur a

smooth

the result

when

detached, and the other two

are slurred, for in this case a disturbance of accent

takes place which will be discussed under


pation.

Synco-

RHYTHM OF MODERN

82

By

Measure
is

the

dividing

accented

and thus give

first,

of a Triple

portion

two unequal notes, of which the

into

greater than the second,

the

MUSIC

we enhance

first

the weight of

additional accent, as

it

we

have already shown with regard to Duple Measure,


thus
the
I

s
If we give two subsidiary notes to
J j J
second half of the accented portion, thus
:

fl
we
000

and

in

we wish to retain the


accented note, we must make

sforzando on

accent

relative

a slight

it.

can give subsidiary notes to the unaccented

portion, thus

JH and

<J

the accented note will

more strongly than

out

stand

if

this case,

force of the

We

some extent weaken the

to

the

if

unaccented

portion were undivided.

We

can divide the accented and unaccented por-

tions into

equal

and

notes,

thus:

smooth and flowing

This gives a
music,

subsidiary

is

much used

in

J JJ jjj

effect

to

accompaniments

the
to

Primary-note melodies to produce movement without

Thus,

emphasis.

special

for

example,

the

accompaniment of the opening trochaic subject of


the Eroica

the

Symphony

Andante

Quartet in

con

is

mo to

in equal subsidiary notes

of

Brahms'

Pianoforte

minor, and the passage from his

major Symphony quoted

in

Ex. 6o show similar

NOTE- VALUES AND ACCENT

83

treatment, and other instances will easily occur to


the reader.

When

used

in

slow tempo, the division of the


is

often

Rhythms of two Measures

each,

Triple Measure into six subsidiary notes

connected with

and the Periods are of four, not eight Measures.

We

form of Period

shall discuss this

In

all

we have

that

later.

referred only to the accentuation that

is felt

of long and short notes alluded

instinc-

arrangements

tively in connection with the various

What we may

to.

the natural accentuation of a given passage can

call

be,

we have

said in this chapter,

and very frequently


for

sforzandos,
effects

is,

emotional

specially

dramatic

or

unexpected plays a

for the element of the

through

entirely reversed

very large part in musical composition.

We

have alluded to the Greeks.

seem

sight

first

as

if

modern music can have

It

viin
little

common

if

Ancient

Theory and

Modern
Practice.

and

this ancient people,

at

rhythm of

the

with the dactyls and spondees and iambics

of

might

we expect

to find compositions entirely written in these simple

forms

we

Hymn

shall

tunes

have to confine our attention to the


of

'Proses " of the

Roman

of the ancient forms


passages

of

Anglican,

the

is

classical

Beethoven's Seventh

or

Church.

met with

thus

Symphony

mediaeval

But the simplicity

occasionally

music

the

is

the

in short

allegretto

of

founded on an

RHYTHM OF MODERN

84

alternation of dactyls

and spondees

the same composer's so-called "


is

Moonlight" Sonata

dation of the melody of the slow

the minuet of

Schubert uses dactyls as the foun-

in Iambuses.

posthumous

MUSIC

minor

movement of

quartet, and anapaestic

his

rhythm

occurs (accompanied by subsidiary accentuation) in


the finale of
finale

Schumann's piano quintet, and

of Beethoven's

Our

sonata.

first

rhythmical structures are, as a rule,

complicated,

and

in

in the

this

more

they

reflect

life

but funda-

respect

complicated conditions of modern

far

the

mentally they follow the same principles as those

of the Greeks,
of

Rhythm

who developed

the art and science

to the furthest point

it

could attain so

long as only unison melody existed.

In rhythmical

theory they were in advance of us, and there

much

in

aesthetic

their teaching that can

value

if

applied to

be of the highest

modern

power, peculiar to modern European

combining various melodies

in

is

But the

art.

civilisation,

counterpoint,

of

and

of using independent accompaniments to a given

melody, has resulted


resources

unknown

in

command of

rhythmical

to unison melody.

Since about the year

1880 much attention has

been given on the continent to ancient Greek rhythmical theory in

its

modern musical

art,

have been issued

in

application to the conditions of

and editions of

classical

which the phrasing

is

works

arranged

ANCIENT THEORY
think,

is

But

theory.

we

this,

The performer is, after all,


and however much he may admire

going too

an individual,

far.

he should only use

a given theory,

and

Greek

with

accordance

in

85

train his individuality, not to

Greek theory

application of

print, involves the use of

bidding-looking

to

swamp

The

it.

works, in

classical

sundry strange and

and

signs,

to develop

it

is

it

for-

the

for

better

student to use his judgment (after duly studying


theory) than to slavishly follow a stereotyped edition,

which may or may not be

own

feeling

familiar

every

in

in accordance with his

and cherished work,

novel signs,

is

An

respect.

full

The more
more

indicated, the

is

the

is

performer of small experience likely to overdo

and

to

acquire

Theory cannot do everything

The human element


tions,

to

all,

if

to

existing

used

with

are sufficient for nearly

move

the

can only guide.

knowledge
all

phrasing

imperfec-

its

the emotions.

which

signs,

are

and

discretion,

may be

who

so,

however

indicated

by new

will

do

The

familiar

purposes, and he

plays without understanding,

strongly

it

of feeling, with

must be present

conventional

it,

method.

unsympathetic

hard

of strange and

apt to prove repellent.

strongly the phrasing

of

edition

signs.

This applies more particularly to the older

classical

music, to which the composers have, as a rule, given

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

86

Brahms and most of

few indications of phrasing.


the moderns are careful to

wish

and

for,

it

show the renderings they

will generally

be found that

aesthetic

reasons for their indications can be deduced to a

from Greek theory

large extent

our composers instinctively

much

in

same way

the

described them.

other

words,

rhythmical effects

feel

the

as

in

Greeks

and

felt

has been observed also that our

It

great executants feel the rhythmical structure of the


older classics in very

much

power of expressing
degree to

do

make
of

those

it

the

Greek way, and

contributes

in

their performances appeal

the

musician

who

no

their

small

more than
solely

on

listen to

two

relies

brilliance of technique.

The

our being able to

possibility of

j.

or

more melodies

Combined
Rhythm-

possible, as

tion

once makes equally


n
'

s
'

simultaneously.
other,

at

we have shown, the appreciaof two or more rhythmical forms


As a rule one supplements the

we have

as

accompaniment

explained

to a song,

in

which

reference
is

the

the simplest of

the rhythmical combinations as a rule.


plicated,

to

More com-

and non-supplementary, are combinations

of triplets against duplets, or against quadruplets

and so on.

further development of this kind of

opposition of species
triple

is

where one part has Primary

and the other has Primary duple time, so that

the whole

Measure

is

involved, rather than a portion

"

COMBINED RHYTHM-SPECIES
of

as in

it,

the Soldiers'

Damnation de Faust."
/V Another
well-known
rhythms

where the confusion

of

instance

Don

'

La

conflicting

Giovanni,

the minds of Zerlina and

in

shown by

graphically

is

Berlioz'

in

that of the passage in "

is

Masetto

Chorus

87

confusion

of

rhythms, combined into a homogeneous whole, in

^an

artistic

highest

manner only

order

to

possible for a genius of the

and

conceive

minuet forms the rhythmical


time,

triple

its

carry

basis.

It

out\

The

in

slow

is

Primary accents being marked by

relatively longer notes.

Masetto divides the indi-

vidual beats of the Measures into three-time Subsidiary

rhythm

in other words,

he sings in

rhythm would not appear unusual

and so

far the

were

not for the notation employed.

it

^But Don Giovanni

way

as

to

sings in duple time in such a

bring his Primary accents on

beats of the

minuet bar

in turn,

the confusion of the lovers. vv


is

triplets,

The

all

three

and thus adds to


principle involved

the same as that of the passage in R.

Strauss'

Violin Sonata, quoted in Ex. 28, page 109.

Great ingenuity was exhibited in complications


such as this in the sixteenth century.

The

between them and modern examples


were usually puzzles or jokes of no
while our composers use
or emotional purposes.

them

is

difference
that

they

artistic value,

for highly dramatic

RHYTHM OF MODERN

88

When we
Well-marked
Rhythm.
its

say of a composition that

marked"
mean,

Measures

" striking"

arranged

has

'
'

well

rhythm,

we

within

produce

to

as

The word rhythm is here used


for if we wish to call attention
of

punctuation

well-defined

it

the notes

that

rule,

so

are

in its general sense,

or

as

strong accentuation.

to

MUSIC

individual

the

Rhythms, we should probably use some expression


indicative of clearness of phrasing

it is

not generally

recognised as yet that Phrasing and rhythmical con-

same thing.

struction are the

Let us imagine a Period

of

4+4

Measures

containing only notes of Primary value, and having

no accentuation beyond that given by the position


of the notes in the bars.

If

it

slow tempo

in

is

the effect will be solemn, dignified, stately, or tranquil, reposeful, languishing,

employed.
itself will

these

may

dynamic
If

In

any case the rhythmical form of

not produce energy and emotion, though


arise

from the employment of

force, or special orchestration

we add

special

and harmony.

a second Period, likewise only in notes

of Primary value,
ness

according to the harmony

we

shall

be apt to produce heavi-

and monotony, unless we can invent some

specially striking

If our Period

or Allegro^
character,

it

will

harmony.
is

in

still

faster

tempo

as

be of a more or

Allegretto

less tranquil

though with more movement

and the

WELL-MARKED RHYTHM

of a second similarly constructed Period

addition

would

be apt to produce monotony.

still

tempo

the

If

89

is

very

example,

for

presto,

fast,

there will be a feeling of pleasant exhilaration, with-

out excitement, such as one would experience in a


ship sailing with the tide and

smooth

sea

wind on an absolutely

movement

but even a presto

consisting

only of Primary notes would soon become mono-

tonous

continued long.

if

Such a Period would become modified


effect if

we were

more, by making

The "Rhythm"
Marked "
the
than in

The
notes

its

it

energetic,

special

neighbours.

more

become
that

its

to

is

or

stress,

or

say,

less

would

and make more impression

original condition.

application of the principle of singling out


for

special

accentuation,

or,

what amounts

the

same thing,

for

special

to

practically

length, impresses a phrase

harmonic variety
its

by

longer than

passage,

become more

either

would

'

'

its

to single out for stronger accen-

tuation any one note,


still

in

relation to

on us more

for the function of

Rhythm

is

relative

forcibly than

harmony

in

to define the boundaries

of the phrases rather than to influence their internal

rhythmical
certain of

tuation
a

effect.

If

the

notes

are

them can be singled out

by

Rhythm

sforzando.

Even

made

shorter

is

if

or

all

Primary,

for special accen-

only one note in


longer

than

the

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

9o

Primary note the ethos of the passage

differs

from

that of a similar passage containing only Primary notes.

For contrast
measure
tion

produced, and contrast within the

is

affects accentuation,

and

this attracts atten-

by breaking the monotony of a succession of

equal notes.

But though

it

rare to find a Period containing

is

only equal notes of Primary value,


rare

The two

lengthened as described.

Measure

almost as

is

a Period in which only one note

find

to

it

is

portions of a

are capable of an infinite variety of treat-

ment, by being broken

into

subsidiary

by

notes,

being joined together, and by being given special


accentuation,
to

of which means the composer uses

all

produce variety and

a specially

marked

'

'

sense, he constructs a

interest.

rhythm "

If he wishes for

in the usually accepted

Measure, or a pair of Measures,

with a certain definite distribution of longer and


shorter

notes,

certain

"motive," and repeats

Measures
mind.

until

it

rhythmical

more

the fact that

its

becomes well impressed on the

readily than duple,

itself to this

owing perhaps

to

natural arrangement of long and short

notes gives a foundation for well

Hence

or

this distribution in successive

Triple measure seems to lend

treatment

" figure "

marked accentuation.

the frequent use of a repetition of a definite

figure of one or

two bars

in length, in scherzos

other three-time movements of rapid tempo.

and

WELL-MARKED RHYTHM
Some kinds of

Subsidiary

figures

91

seem

be

to

associated to a certain extent with particular musical

Thus, what

forms, though not confined to them.

we may

which there

in

frequent repetition of dotted

is

notes alternating

with relatively shorter notes,

March form, and

often a feature of the

met with

is

it

also

of solemnity or

dignity

is

required.

have already noticed that a longer note will

give

greater

of

sense

by contrast with

accent

an adjacent shorter note than would be

whether the longer note

by a

rest

it is

is

in

felt

This holds good

of two equal notes.

succession

sustained, or

is

cut off

the division of time that here gives

the sense of accent, and hence of rhythm.


the

is

slow movements, in which a strong

in

impression

We

Dotted-note rhythm,"

for convenience call

drum, which cannot sustain

note,

Thus,
and the

organ, which has no power of stress, can produce


" Dotted-note

rhythm"

just as forcibly as

any other

instrument.

The

March form is that it should


have some strongly marked Subsidiary Accentuation
applied to Rhythms in well-defined four-measure
form.

essence of the

We

require

to

through the ear to a


the muscles, as the

One of

the

marking

Subsidiary

appeal

real or

drums

in

certain

sense

imaginary exercise of

excite soldiers to march.

most convenient

ways

Accentuation

is

of

strongly

through

the

"

RHYTHM OF MODERN

92

MUSIC

and short notes, and Marches


that are entirely without " Dotted-note rhythm
Handel's " Dead March form the exception.
alternation of long

in

"Saul"

one of the exceptions: the rhythm of

is

Primary Time,

the slow solemn major chords, in


is

here punctuated by the equally slow beats of the

In Schubert's well-known pianoforte march

drum.
in

major, the rhythm

is

made prominent, not by

dotted notes, but by dactyls, both in the Primary

and Subsidiary notes


the principle
notes, for

it

dactyls within dactyls.

practically the

is

same

as that

But

of dotted

the alternation of long and short

is

notes in the dactyl that gives

it

rhythmical force.

But here again we meet with another paradox.


For while "Dotted-note rhythm" can "mark the

time"

in a

March, and can impress us with dignity

and solemnity

in

slow

movement

(the

opening

passages of the Sonata Pathetique, for example),

it is

also capable of expressing light-hearted jollity, as in

the Finale of Schubert's Sonata in


in

that

of

although in

his
|-

great

D, Op.

and

Minor Quartet, which,

time, has exactly the

"Dotted-note rhythm."

53,

same

effect as

This kind of accentuation

can also be capable of irritating frivolity and emptiness if carelessly used.

Are these
alone

We

differences of ethos

to the

rhythm

we believe they are due to


composer who knows how to fit the

think not

the insight of the

due

WELL-MARKED RHYTHM
and melodies

right harmonies

what he requires.

press

different feelings

And

to the

93

rhythms

to ex-

in its ability to express

by the similar

figures,

not differ from tonality, for the

Rhythm

Minor

does

key, usually

supposed to be associated with melancholy feelings,


can, equally with the major, be used for brightness

No

and pleasure.

one could

Schubert quartet a

call

the Finale of the

melancholy movement

is

it

more suggestive of the fun of the pantomime than


anything

When

else.

there are successions of even

notes whose

normal accentuation

is

Subsidiary

not

influence of

interfered with

by external means, such

as Note-va/ues
e

sforzando or syncopation, in place of the

^L

excitement or energy that

Character of

by

is

suggested

unequal arrangement of notes,

the

the even distribution gives a character of tranquillity

and repose, or of languor.


case

pace
to

when the tempo


is

is

fast there will

mark

Especially

moderate or slow

is
:

this

the

when

the

almost always be a tendency

the natural accents strongly, and thus to

give an energetic character to the music.

The

tranquil character that arises

sidiary notes

is

Op. 118, No.


No.

from even Sub-

exemplified in Brahms' Intermezzo,


2.

of the same

See Ex.
set,

3.

In the Romance,

there are Subsidiary crotchets,

quavers, and semiquavers,

all

of which in their turn

contribute to the quietly flowing character of the

RHYTHM OF MODERN

94

This does not, however, hold good when

piece.

way

equal notes are phrased in such a


the

MUSIC

accents

prominence

into

n,

Scherzo of the Serenade, Op.

accompaniment

example,

for

as to bring

the

has crotchets as the

to the melody, but their phrasing,

jC

SdlbzdS

'Ml

~-P~-

iz*fc

produces an accentuation equivalent to

Ml
d
and the movement
in contrast

is

c3

of a vigorous character.

Menuettos,

to both

which the even

in

flow of the quaver accompaniment

by any

Ex. 2

Brahms (Serenade Op. n.

* S?
:**

is

not disturbed

produced by phrasing,

special accents

It is

e.g.,

1.

Menuetto

I.).

mm &

Sd^ffl^dd
U 3S
^

39:

T=f*r

m^mmm
V?

f&

tt

Pizz.

ff~~

^j-r^'*^-

OS
S
F qg=gm

AL

*i-35

=S5ff

d J

:h

ill

INFLUENCE OF NOTE-VALUES
With

95

Subsidiary rhythm of equal notes

general effect

is

the

frequently modified, or even entirely

reversed by a strong Primary accentuation, as in

Ex.

11.

music,

In cases like

whether

the

this

appassionato,

agitato,

of the

character
etc.,

is

given

by the more strongly marked rhythm, whether

it

occurs as Primary or Subsidiary, and the equal notes

form a background which welds the whole together.

What we

say about the reposeful

of

character

even Subsidiary rhythm applies more especially to

movements
rapidity

of

and with

moderate

With

tempo.

special accent

on the

great

note of

first

each group, equal notes can be given great energy,


as, for instance, in

Schumann's Toccata

in C.

Rhythm

In the majority of cases the notes of a


are distributed unequally, so that variety

is

to the various parts of the Period and

aroused.
interest

melody which would be of no

with equal notes

may be made

imparted

interest

is

particular

beautiful

by

an unequal distribution, whereby the longer notes

form a contrast

to the shorter

and we have already

alluded to the importance of a Subsidiary accentuation in the accompaniment,


a

whereby the charm of

melody of Primary notes may be greatly

very favourite device in the construction of a

Rhythm
first

increased.

is

to

form some

Measure, repeat

it

definite

figure

in

the

(rhythmically, not necessarily

melodically), in the second and then introduce

new

RHYTHM OF MODERN

96

figures for

"Definite

Rhythmical

and fourth Measures

the third

form
Repetition of

....
rhythmical

species

of

lished,

for

or to

measures and repeat

pair of

MUSIC
its

'

By

figure.

rhythm

means the

this

once

at

is

estab-

Figures.

grasp

when

it

the

two Measures or the

first

when they

pairs are alike than

more

the listener can

be found that this construction

is

every composition, especially in

met with

its

two

first

Hence

differ.

easily

will

it

in almost

opening subject. 1

Beethoven sometimes constructed Periods

in

which

nearly every measure differed from every other, a

form of composition, but one which, when

difficult

deep thought

successful, generally gives a feeling of

Thus

and introspection.

is

constructed, for example,

the opening Period of the slow

movement of

Sonata Pathetique, whose rhythmical scheme


follows

12

00
1

2nd.

3rd.

3 4

&

I
!

J
\S

00

P! II
\0

'

.
'

4th.
3

IS

as

is

Rhythm.

1st

the

jj
\0

>'0

iti
g

e>

a m
1

The

bars

marked

and B are

but since they

alike,

occur in different parts of their respective Rhythms,

they give no feeling of a repetition.

temporary disturbance of the regular flow of


accents

Syncopation,

is

means of expression.
1

There

is

no

an important and
It

is

much used

produced either by a

necessity to give an

alluded to will be found in the greater

example

the construction

number of our

quotations.

SYNCOPATION
by which

sforzando,

made prominent,

note

unaccented

single

97

so that the attention

is

attracted

is

away from the normal accent, or by what is known as


Syncopation, a word which means "a cutting off."
Syncopation can occur in both Primary and Subsidiary
accentuation.

An

It is

accented note

brought about

in the following

cut short, or

is

is

way.

represented by

a short rest, and the succeeding note, entering before


its

expected time,

made longer than

is

accented note or rest

by

its

relative

measure.

It

equal value to
is

not by

value,

may be

receives an accent

it

its

position

in

the

followed by other notes, of

so that the disturbance of accent

itself,

continued,

hence

the shortened

sometimes through many Measures

(Primary or Subsidiary) in succession.


a continuous syncopation the notes

To

produce

must be struck

on the weaker, and sustained into the stronger portions of measures,

must be

and

tion,

If

it is

it

necessary

on any strong portion of the measure,

and yet to continue the

starts

an Anacrusis occurs,

tied to its accented note.

to strike a note

must be

if

effect

of Syncopation, there

a fresh cutting off,

and the Syncopation

anew.

When

applied to Primary accentua-

Syncopation can be a means of kindling the

strongest emotion, as in a well-known passage in

Symphony, where the accented portion


of the Measure is represented by a rest and the full
the Eroica

orchestra bursts in with a tremendous chord

on

its

RHYTHM OF MODERN

98

weaker

Everyone has

portion.

MUSIC

felt

the

of this passage.

effect

Another way of producing Syncopation


a cutting off, but

not by

is

by tying an unaccented note

The long

succeeding accented note.

would

receives the accent that


if

intense

the two notes were not

fall

bound

on

to the

note thus arising

its

second portion

into one.

Ex. 22.

Brahms (Symphony No.


Presto ma non assai.

Op.

2,

73).

W^^^^M w

i-t.

:jv

If

m
V?

h-i

>*

SEi

iV

/I
tt

/I

r
Ex. 22 shows syncopation in the Primary rhythm
the

first

note of each measure

is

cut off, and the

succeeding note, being of double

its

being brought

portion

the

into

accented

length,

and

of

the

measure, causes a fresh accent to occur within the


measure.
Ex. 23.

Brahms (Symphony No.

2).

Allegro largamente.

I.

JrM.

-s

mi

fe

d^m
r

r-r

tfrr

jj rJ

w ,UC

122

I2

-.0-

ft
I

31

"*s

SYNCOPATION
The melody

of Ex. 23 shows the same treatment

duple measure.

in

99

The

bass

is

syncopated in the

second way described above, namely, not by a cutting


off,

but by tying the unaccented note to the succeed-

ing accented note.

It therefore receives

an accent,

not by position, but by value.

Ex. 24.

Brahms (Symphony No.

2).

Tranquillo.

:|

=5fc

&

m
=^=^
-<s>-

S^^g
f

: 4

18^3=1=1
Ex.

shows

24

rhythm.

The

syncopation

of

the

Subsidiary

disturbance of the regular accentua-

tion here produces an undercurrent of

movement

in

the accompaniment, in contrast to the regularity of

the

Primary rhythm

therefore,
in

in

the

melody.

We

have,

simultaneous rhythmical figures differing

ethos, a

most expressive device.

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

ioo

Ex. 25.

Brahms (Symphony No.

2).

=Jk

n^fn

K=VH

% % J* *-***
i

/W0 y &

marc.

^S3
JaBE*

3
II

In Ex.

25,

aMwrf

it

its

accompaniment

dactyl, as

of its

we have

own on

is

more

probable that Brahms was the

is

to use syncopation

melody continues
the

disturbance of accent

the

pronounced, and
first

:p:

in

exactly this way.

even course
is

in

Primary notes

Subsidiary dactyls.

in

The
;

The

seen, has an accentual significance

its first

note; but Brahms here, with a

wonderful fineness of rhythmical perception, disturbs


its

natural order, and places an accent on the last note

Other composers

of each dactyl by syncopation.

have doubtless done the same kind of thing, but as


as

we know,

notes, while
sidiary

their dactyls

have been

Brahms syncopates them

rhythm

Flat,

to

the Primary
in

the Sub-

Primary rhythm.

against a Sustained

Syncopation can give to music a


character.

in

far

far

away, dreamy

In the Adagio of Beethoven's Sonata in

Op. 106,
major,

the

five bars after the

melody,

first

in

change of key
the' bass

then

repeated in the treble, contains for about sixteen

measures, only the three notes of the tonic triad,

SYNCOPATION
while

accompaniment

the

101

merely in tonic and

is

dominant harmonies, with the addition of a few

There

ornamental notes.
the accompaniment,

duple to
in a

is

movement from

increasing in

the Primary

triple,

Subsidiary rhythm in

rhythm of three quavers

measure being represented by the melody.

To

the three notes of the tonic triad

reiterate

through sixteen bars, and accompany them by simple

and dominant harmony, would seem to be

tonic

commonplace

how

by altering

could,
it

of

to absurdity
it,

could

etherial, far

so delicate

instantly

away

is

Beethoven's handling

of filigree work, a rough

destroy

effect of the

Rhythm, together with the

The

it.

melody

by the syncopation of the

entirely

We

very slightly, reduce

this passage

that, like a fine piece

hand

depends on

all

used in connection with rhythm.

is

it

therefore

effect

its

first

beautiful,

is

produced

note of each

contrast effected

by the

composer's resisting the temptation to repeat the


syncopation in the corresponding place on the note A.

Such a passage
wanting,

as this

how much

would prove,

the

greatest

if

proof were

masterpieces

of

music depend on an extreme delicacy of handling


in regard to

rhythm, to which the executant,

wishes to realise them in their


give at least as

much

full

recognised,

he

grandeur, must

attention as to the correctness

and tone quality of the actual notes.


always

if

even

by

some

This
eminent

is

not
per-

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

io2

formers, and

is

it

not infrequent to hear a perform-

ance in which brilliancy of technique

is

relied

evoke applause, rather than careful and

on

to

intelligent

accentuation and phrasing.

Where

a lengthy syncopated

normal accent

passage occurs the

generally heard, either in the syn-

is

copated passage

some other

or in

itself,

carried

is

on without

support, so that the hearer, unless he


the passage,

is

apt to

lose sight of the

case he

no longer

but

Schumann's music,

there are cases, especially in

which the syncopation

part

is

in

this

familiar with

become bewildered, and

to

normal accent altogether, in which


feels the

syncopation as such.

In

the well-known passage in his Pianoforte Concerto,

Schumann omits every

12
fag

alternate

normal accent, thus

Ex. 26.

34

Schumann, Pianoforte Concerto.

E^ESE

:&

PP

^SW^feeisi^
^^E^MfElrf
1/

:&

51

'

SYNCOPATION
The
easily

listener

'

six

is

Duple, and the phrase

Measures, thus,

J r Jr U-i Jilr IJ r J-J* lir-Jr-

until

he

may

does not see the conductor,

imagine that the time

one of

who

103

is

undeceived by

passage, in which

all

the

-i/J r Jr ji
I

repetition

of

the

the normal accents are heard.

The rhythmical scheme is that of the so-called


Deuxtemps Valse " in which Falling accentuation
takes place, and the steps of the dancers are guided

by the accents on each alternate

by

bar, rather than

those of the single bars.

Hungarian and Bohemian music


its

well-defined rhythms.

stant use of Syncopation,

This

is

is

noticeable by

due

to the con-

which involves a strong

of accentuation on the naturally accented

increase

notes of the individual Measures or portions thereof.

The kind
music

of Syncopation specially peculiar to this

differs

from that usually found

in

classical

music, in that the lengthened note completes the

Measure or Half-measure, and


is

begun

after each

long note.

a fresh Syncopation

Our meaning

be made clear by the following comparison


Characteristic

Hungarian Syncopation ^Pj

Ordinary Classical Syncopation

The
makes

result

is

that

a strong stress

the

\J\F*

performer

will

JH"1

^^
\

instinctively

on the short note, and through

RHYTHM OF MODERN

io 4
this

means the music becomes

and

exciting.

Syncopation in

peculiarly to suit the

and

abounds

it

guishes

is

is

the rule

forms seems

its

all

melodies as well as in the


this peculiarity that distin-

is

music from ours, for their use of

their

harmony

It

vigorous

intensely

temperament of these peoples,

in their

accompaniments.

MUSIC

simple enough.

with us

it is

vigour of the music

itself,

fervour with which

formers gives

it

the

it

With them Syncopation


The natural
exception.

and

still

more, the intense

executed by native per-

is

a peculiar

charm

to us

there

spontaneity, an enthusiasm that carries us away.


is

good

for

it

accent

accent

In

when

for us to play

it

and

to hear

it

is

a
It

sometimes,

kindles in us a feeling for the importance of

more

perhaps, any other music

than,

and

of great importance in most music.

is

the

early

as yet

part

of

the

seventeenth

century,

Folk-music was looked upon

as

un-

worthy of the attention of serious musicians, the


attraction

of syncopation was

would sometimes

"Lombardic"

felt,

deliberately use

style

it

and composers

and

of composition.

posed to have been invented by Vivaldi.

^ee

Spitta's

"Bach," English Edition, Vol.

It

call it

was sup-

I.,

the

p.

414.

CHAPTER V
Duple

Time

Signatures

Melody

Temporary

Change

Brahms'

Accentuation of a given

of the

Mastery

Changes of Species

Rhythm

of

Quintuple

and

Time

Septuple

The

Time

Triple

against

make simultaneous use of Duple

to

ability

and Triple Measure introduces an element

j) upie against

of contrast and variety which especially Tripk

Time.

appeals to the intellectual side of our artistic feeling.

Bach employs

more use of

and Beethoven

it,

composers apply

form of
time

so-called

These

in the familiar

accompaniment frequently

the

form

Alberti

more.

still

most part

some simple arpeggio

repetition of

this

Mozart makes

accompaniment against an even-

and

consists of the

In

for the

it

triplet

melody,

figure.

device rarely

this

Bass,

it

is

which

development of the
consists

of keeping

up an undercurrent of Subsidiary rhythm by means


of broken chords.
It

goes without saying that modern composers

have not neglected the

possibilities of a

of so intellectual a character

and

in

combination
place of the

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

106

occasional triplet arpeggios of Beethoven,

whole

by Brahms,

pieces,

melody

for example, in

we

find

which the

Duple and the accompaniment Triple

is

throughout

and the triple-measure, whether Primary

or Subsidiary,

not confined to simple arpeggios,

is

but often forms a definite and beautiful figure, as

melody

interesting as the

The

use of two opposing species of rhythm at

the same time


delights.

is

one of the paradoxes in which music

It is also

another instance of the remarkable

stage of development

who

fail

to

tries to

life

do two things

No

in each.

which the musical brain

to

In ordinary

has advanced.

he

itself.

it

at

is

supposed that

once

is

liable to

two things- could be more opposed

one another than the division of a given space

of time into two equal parts and into three equal


parts

yet musicians are able to do the one with

their right

hand and the other with the

left,

and not

only to find intellectual pleasure in the task, but to


give pleasure to their listeners through the refinement
of

artistic

The

sense that such

feature

we

have to do with
said,

very

work demands.

allude to

classical

is

familiar to all

music.

much more used now

It is, as

who

we have

than formerly, and

in place of the triplets being merely an accompani-

ment
as

to the

melody, they sometimes take their place

double

counterpoint

beautiful example

is

that in

to

it.

Brahms'

particularly

F Major Sym-

DUPLE AGAINST TRIPLE TIME


phony which we quote

in

The

Ex. 27.

107

triplets are

here syncopated into one another as are the dactyls


in his

the

Major Symphony, quoted


form

triplets

double

Ex. 25

in

counterpoint

to

but
the

melody, while the dactyls are merely an accompaniment.


Ex. 27.

Brahms (Symphony No.

Op.

F.

3,

90).

Andante.

x^

^^P

EteS

rpgf

EB3

r^r

*i

In this Andante the chief melody


simply, without Subsidiary rhythm.

of a particular passage

is

is at first

heard

Since the effect

mostly due to

its

con-

nection with what has gone before the composer


will, as a rule,

seek to enhance the interest,

he repeats a melody, by some change

when

and one of

RHYTHM OF MODERN

108

the most potent


to

it

at his disposal is the addition

of subsidiary rhythm which has not previously


In the present case Brahms adds orna-

been heard.
mental

of

passages

semiquavers

At

means

MUSIC

the

at

Subsidiary
first

triplets

of Ex. 27

in

even

repetition of the melody.

second repetition he gives

its

rhythm

it

the syncopated

and whether our readers agree

or not with our contention that the use of triple


against duple subsidiary measures
lectual

is

of more intel-

than emotional significance, those

familiar with this

symphony

who

are

will probably feel with

us that the slow triplets above the melody

make

strong appeal to the intellect, and that the passage


is

of deeper import than

its

predecessor with duple

ornamentation.
In the
Sonata,

first

Op.

movement of Richard
18,

Strauss 5 Violin

the intermingling of duple with

The

measures

is

used in a striking manner.

normal rhythm

is

duple, and each bar contains two

triple

Primary Measures.

The

first

chord of Ex. 28

preceding Rhythm.

with the D, which


its

is

the final note of the

The new Rhythm commences


is

an Anacrusis, and

accented note, receiving something of

is

tied to

its

accent,

the second and third Measures being contracted into

one
with

triple

the

Measure.

At

this point the violin enters

Anacrusis of the third

Measure of

Rhythm, whose two previous Measures

its

are repre-


DUPLE AGAINST TRIPLE TIME
sented by rests.

But

109

since the piano has contracted

second and third Measures into one, and has

its

Ex. 28.
R. Strauss (Violin Sonata Op. 18

First Movement).
1

Violin

^g=^j^^gj

if:

End

of

Piano. J

Rhythm
2 and 3

W i H s**

fc=t

Anacrusis.

Anacrusis.

fefarftoM

2 and 3

3^

e:

te

wj

iN
fct*
L b,

last

its

the

ra

-4

=t=t
"#

-#

""IF

rhythm-species from duple to

note of the violin's

the piano's

*T

Anacrusis.

"#*

changed

Rhythm

falls

triple,

on the

new Rhythm, forming on Overlap.

Overlap occurs

both

with

the

two

first

the

of

And
instru-


no RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC
ments together, and with the piano alone
three-time

latter's

together

of

bar

is

Rhythms,

two

numerals in our example.


results

in

duple with

kind
as

of

indicated

by

the

This seeming confusion

novel and delightful combination of

triple

it

for the

telescoping

rhythm, which gives both players

and audience a pleasurable exercise of the

Moreover,

intelligence.

by no means a dry experiment

is

it

has an aesthetic significance in the tumultuous feeling

with which

it

introduces the succeeding appassionato

melody.

temporary change from duple to

Temtorar
Changes of

or vice versa >

much used

in

triple species,

tne principal melody,

modern music, and

is

often

produces a delightfully fresh and unexpected

effect.

The change

Primary values,

as

in

can

Ex. 29,

take place in

but

it

more

the
fre-

quently affects the Subsidiary Measures, as shown in


Ex. 29.

Brahms (Serenade Op.

1 1

First Movement).
1st

Rhythm.

t*

Pei
-o-*

^
espress.

nips

-<s>-

d:

r<SH

-s

TEMPORARY CHANGES OF

SPECIES

Ill

2nd Rhythm.

r-

m
$

^r-

-&

iGt

&

m
&m.

a.

L&UdA
I

FH^

-
:z2

r r

P-P|

=ft 1
t=

Ex. 30, where the fourth bar leads the mind to


expect a series of triplets, and a surprise

is

experi-

Ex. 30.

Brahms (Symphony No.

3,

Op. 90).

Andante.

JBJ - J U

SEE
espress.

&EE

zScg a:
_

r
enced on the

f
last

22:

P" -rjr

i ^o:
rr

f
beat of that bar by the sudden

return to the duplet form of Subsidiary Measure.

RHYTHM OF MODERN

ii2

The

various combinations of five notes

four, seven against six,

the

MUSIC

of

principle

against

and so on, are extensions of

duple against

They

triple.

rarely used as yet for lengthy passages,

are

and are most

frequently found where a scale or arpeggio requires

one or two extra notes to arrive

at

destination,

its

while the accompanying passage can get there with

normal number of notes.

its

Sometimes, however,

such mixtures of notes can be used to


highly agitated

effect, as

produce a

the " Storm " in Beet-

in

hoven's Pastoral Symphony, where the disturbance

of nature

is

expressed by the violoncellos and double

playing quadruplets and quintuplets

basses

taneously

and

for such

simul-

purposes they are coming

now than formerly.


In Chapter II. we referred to the relations between
the Time Signatures and the Measure and
Tjme
Signatures.
The reader will by this time
t ie j>ar.
more

into use

have become well accustomed


expressed, and
further.

It

we must now

will

be

30, that although the


each,

Ex.

we give
29,

discuss

noticed in

Time

the

to

and two crotchets

to
in

the

there

subject

Exs. 27, 29, and

Signature

two minims

idea

is

the

Exs.

the

same

Measure
27

in

in

and 30.

In other words, the Measure equals the Bar in the


first

instance,

and the half-bar

The methods of

in the

indicating the

other two cases.

Time

or

Rhythm

species in our system of Notation have been allowed

TIME SIGNATURES
grow up more or

to

always been, and

random, and much has

less at

still

This

experience of the performer.

insight

and

only natural,

is

no system of notation can possibly be devised

for

meet

that will

music

art as

the requirements of so subtle an

all

and unless there

composer and performer,


its

the

to

left

is,

113

due

effect,

by notation

even

is

if

sympathy between

is

composition must

fail

of

everything that can be intimated

conscientiously observed to the letter.

The performer must

feel

what he plays

no amount

of printed signs can supply the want of understanding


the composer's intention.

We

do not

mean

by

this

imply that an

to

absolutely correct performance will be entirely with-

out value
directly

such an idea would be dispelled at once

we think of

the delight given to thousands

by the many mechanical musical instruments that


have for the

last

three centuries been playing music

with an exactness that

We

mean
performance may be,
fingers.

is

unapproachable by

good

that,
it

as a

human

purely correct

can never represent the spirit

of the music in the sense of mind speaking to mind


hence

it is

that a piece played

understands what he
tion,

same

even

if it is

piece

is

about

by

human

will give

more

who

satisfac-

mechanically less perfect than the

played

without

understanding

machine, or a mechanically perfect

As

being

human

a guide to the construction of the

by

being.

Rhythms

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

Time

the

Signatures are

vague and undecided,

still

though with the rapid increase


the

means of expression

that

taking place in

is

this difficulty

gradually dis-

is

appearing, and composers are becoming

by

to indicate their rhythmical wishes

The

Common-time Bar

so-called

In the

first,

the bar

more

careful

their signatures.

of two kinds.

is

equal to the value of two

is

minims, the minim being the Primary value, and the

Rhythm and Period occupy


Bars as Measures.
is

the

case,

Properly

though the perpendicular


frequently omitted, yet

more

their

signature

line

no.

must discover
Measure

in

be

found

himself that

for

are of equal value

In Exs.

The
known

signature

and 23
(p

in

matter than

this

bar with

Ex.

i i

as Alia breve time.

the

the

page

Bar and the

all

fact

by

ambiguity

what

is

his
is

Primary,

and

legato

obviated.

technically

It signifies that

the breve

two minims instead of four

crotchets, or, according to our theory, that the

value.

still

but the careful modern

indicates

to be divided into

the

is

In such cases as these, the performer

signs.

is

and

Exs. 15, page 59, and

in

composer usually indicates the

is

(f

this

modern composers show

50, and with the signature

29, page

be

to

through the

careful

will

when

speaking,

The two-minim

predecessors.

proper

same number of

ought

Signature

the

tendency to be

the

the

The conductor

is

crotchet
at

the

liberty to

minim

Subsidiary

make

four

TIME SIGNATURES

ii5

beats in the bar if he wishes, in what

ought to be

Alia breve time, whether

marked by or by

but

he will be counting the Subsidiary and

in that case

not the Primary rhythm

he

require

will

sixteen

instead of eight beats for the four-measure phrase,

and
at a

he

as a result

probably take the

will

slower pace than the composer intended.

In the second kind of


the signature

pound, since

The

is
it

crotchet

is

-J

Common

Time,

properly C, the bar

is

which

in

com-

really

contains the value of two Measures.

here the Primary note, and

composers now indicate


ture

movement

many

by using the signa-

this fact

instead of C.
Ex. 31.

TSCHAIKOWSKY ROMANCE.
Andante Cantabile.

**
EffiE

=3:

SWee

Rhythm.

1st

^era
:btt:

dolce.

f-^&-

rv

H-

3,

-4-

-dfLJk

*
2nd Rhythm.

.**

4-4

* * ;*

zber
End

m^>

*^^+zXj&
of Period.

=jat=z<fcp

RHYTHM OF MODERN

n6

Ex.

In
bar

2,

the

first

the

first

first

bar

being occupied by two

The

at bar

The
each

at

Pre-

on the sub-

Full Close

end of the

3 clearly indicates the

Rhythm, and the

at bar

commences

Period

31

liminary Measures.

dominant

MUSIC

full close in the principal

shows the completion of the

first

key

Period.

Bars are evidently therefore of two Measures


:

Primary note

the

the

is

crotchet,

and the

quavers give Subsidiary rhythm.

The use of the C signature, as


compound bars, that is, in its right
to the question of Rising

whose existence

is

it is

sense, gives rise

and Falling Accentuation,

When

denied by some theorists.

a bar contains what

time,

Ex. 31, for

in

known

usually

is

generally accepted that the

as

Quadruple

first

and third

crotchets are accented, and the second and fourth are

and

unaccented,

that

accented than the third.

the

first

We

is

are

slightly

more

ready to admit

that

the difference of accentuation

most

cases as to be almost imperceptible, but that

is

so slight in

does exist will hardly be denied, even

if in

degree as to be ignored

Assuming

it

in practice.

it

so small a
that

exists, the phrase, if its first accent occurs at the

Bar-line, will

which the
the second.

fall

first

into pairs of measures, in each of

will

Hence

tion will take place.

be slightly more accented than


a Falling
If,

Rhythmical Accentua-

on the other hand, the

accent occurs on the third crotchet of the

first

first

bar,

TIME SIGNATURES

117

Rising Rhythmical Accentuation will occur.


are isolated cases in

which a composer seems to wish


the Rising Accentuation by

to specially point out

writing in

Common

time instead off, and beginning

For

with a half bar.

in this

to bring the closes

on the

first

according

or

he

to

rule,

in

Did he arrange

way.

movement of
minor com-

it

thus in order

instance, the last

Mendelssohn's Pianoforte Trio

mences

did

note of their bars


feel

the

difference

between Rising and Falling Accentuation

Where

there are

two measures

cluding chord of a Period will


or

second

the

Accentuation

accent,
is

There

Rising

fall

according
or

in a bar, the

on the

first

whether

the

Ex.

33,

either
to

con-

In

Falling.

page 120, the Period ends on the secondary accent

Ex.

in

7,

Feminine
Ex. 3

page
Close

the closes

the

42,

suspension

comes on the
fall

same

in

the

place.

In

on the third measure, and are

sustained into the fourth to complete the

Rhythm,

which has Falling Accentuation.


All that

and

is

we have

said regarding the Signatures (p

applicable to the other

the only difference

being that

Even-time signatures,
the others have no

means of distinguishing whether there are

to be

one

or two measures in the bar, so that the performer

must

rely

on the Closes and Caesuras.

page 41, the phrasing

is

distinctly

In Ex.

6,

shown by the

composer to consist of one measure to a

bar.

In

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

n8
Ex.

page 42,

7,

ring as
clearly

it

shows

Ex.

In

does

Feminine Cadence,

the

at the

second half of the bar, equally

two measures

that there are

page 194,

52,

occur-

the

in the bar.

form of the

dactylic

bars leaves no doubt that they contain one measure


each.

The

Signatures
bars

indicate

^ and

one

containing

Primary Time of which


quaver

respectively.

the majority of cases

in

-|

measure

the

is

The

This

measures.

form

are

and

the

simple,

and

number of

shown

is

the

crotchet

bars

the Periods will contain the same

each,

bars as

many of our

in

examples.

But the Signature \


with

compound

case

the

Rhythms

bar

(or

can sometimes be used

-|)

bars for duple measures, in which

contains

consist

of three,

and

measures,

three
six,

or

the

nine measures.

It will
Ex. 5 page 38, shows an instance of this.
be seen that the first Rhythm, here quoted, contains
j

six

duple measures in the form of anapaests.

succeeding
measures.

Rhythm (not quoted) contains nine such


The duple give way to triple measures in

the form of triplets at bar 13.

In the second section

of the piece, where the key changes to

signature

The

is

major, the

repeated, but the bars are simple, as

indicated by the legato signs.

Thus

a short composition the signature

compound and simple

bars.

in the
is

course of

used both for

TIME SIGNATURES
No

doubt the idea that

for duple measures will

who
bar

be used

this signature can

come

as a surprise to those

are accustomed to the orthodox view that the

But

equivalent to a measure.

is

such

from which Ex.

in the piece

if
is

we take

it

as

quoted, the

unmanageable length, and

result will be a phrase of

we

119

not only ignore the composer's intention, as

shall

distinctly indicated

by the

legato signs, as well as

the half-closes in bars 2 and 5 (showing that the

two Rhythms are

by

first

two and

to consist respectively of

three bars), but shall leave unnoticed the fact that

the succession of anapaests gives the impression of

duple rather than

With

measure.

triple

the Signature

or

the Primary Measures

When

are either duple or triple.

they are duple the

two portions of each measure are divided into Subsidiary

Measures of the

species, as in

triple

Ex.

8,

This arrangement of time is more convenient for quick than for slow movements, and the
page 42.

bar

is

In

simple.
his

Intermezzo, Op.

Brahms shows
-|,

this

118, No.

4,

kind of barring not by

with quaver triplets as

f would probably have been

the

Ex.
-|,

32,

but by

Subsidiary rhythm.

the signature here with

the majority of composers, but

Brahms seems

to

have

chosen f to enforce the fact that the Primary duple


is
divided into triple Subsidiary, and the four

measures of the complete

Rhythm occupy

the space

120

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

of four bars, not two,

as

might be inferred by the use

f signature. The most general use off in slow


movements is with bars containing the value of two

of

Ex. 32.

Brahms (Intermezzo Op. 118, No.


Allegretto

un poco

measures each,

4).

agitato.

as

in

The mind

Ex. 33.

appreciate large intervals of time, and


to

it

is

cannot

necessary

keep the groups of measures which constitute

complete

Rhythm

within a measurable space of time

hence arises the different use of

-|

in

slow and quick

movements.
Ex. 33.

Brahms (Three Intermezzi Op.


Andante moderate.

P
-T=fc=fi
fefc=ifc

1st

117, No.

1).

Rhythm.

dolce.

f^f

T=F^

TIME SIGNATURES
End

2nd Rhythm.

of 1st Period.

121

si

^==j:

*-h*

*"ii^

Masculine ending.

But there
for

'
I

more

another and

is

Ex.

difference.

this

r .

might

33

have

written with bars of three quavers each,

the signature
case

but

mercy of

at the

Measures

to the bar

first

we

of

accentuation,

given

by

falls

with

in

that

giving two

the full close at

on the weaker of the

hence

keeping

in

character of the
is

i.e.

obtain a stronger accent on

and

measures,

By

the player.

of each pair of measures

the end of the period


pairs

lost

been

rhythm-accentuation, or this feature would

its

have been

the

would have

it

reason

subtle

we

with

have

the

Falling

cradle-song

movement, while an inward strength


the

Anacrusis

and

the

masculine

closes.

The

f time are either equivalent to


three Primary Measures each, or to one Primary
bars in

Measure.

In

-|

or

both

Primary or Subsidiary,

cases
is

the

rhythm,

whether

of the Triple species.

Ex.

34 shows a peculiarly beautiful use of -| bars for sixmeasure Rhythms. The first accent is Preliminary,

RHYTHM OF MODERN

122

MUSIC

Ex. 34.

Brahms (Symphony No.

3,

Op. 90).
1st

Rhythm.

Grazioso.

P-

7>

i^

mezza voce

Caesura.

32

32

3d
=d=

3
3=t
:

2nd Rhythm.

&#

i
Feminine

End

close.

~=

=t

of Period.

2*

at

32t

3d:

and the rhythm proper begins with the Anacrusis E,

Since

sharp.

each

Rhythm and

half

Rhythm

begins on the unaccented portions of bars, and ends

with the bar-accent, the accentuation


order.

the

The

word

grazioso, to

end of the
second

character of the music

first

complete

Rhythm

the Period

full close.

of the rising

is

indicated by

which the feminine close


gives

effect,

Rhythm commences without

The end of

is

is

decisively

at the

while

the

the Anacrusis.

shown by the

CHANGE OF ACCENTUATION
A

charm

peculiar

given to the second

is

123

Rhythm

by a device made familiar by Beethoven,


.

Change of the

consisting of the repetition of a few notes

Accentuation

of melody and harmony with a new dis-

-L

on them

tribution of the accents


first

four notes of the

A,

sharp,

not only

is

first

Rhythm, E, F

are repeated in the second

the accent here on

sharp, but the

cut off

is

P,

the

i.e.

ven

sharp,

Rhythm, but

sharp instead of

by the bowing, and

given to the preceding Rhythm.

This nuance

may

be conveniently called " Diaeresis of Melody."

may seem
but

details,

unnecessary

such

into

minute

these details which, in their collective

it is

make up

whole, go to

go

to

It

the character of a composi-

tion.

An

example of

simple, will be
in

Signature, in which the Bar

found

in

Brahms' Pianoforte quartet

minor, Op. 23, in which the

Intermezzo, ending with a


nant,

each

contains

Rhythm

Whether
to

full

first

close

four-measure

three

is

Period of the

on the domi-

Rhythms, and

occupies four bars.

the bars of any particular signature are

be considered as

we

compound

have

decided,

as

cassuras,

and the tempo

or simple

must be

shown, by the closes


will

also

and

have to be con-

when no indications are given for it must


always be remembered that too long a phrase without
sidered,

a break

conduces to a sense of weariness, owing to

RHYTHM OF MODERN

i2 4

want of

MUSIC

It is
grasped rhythmical divisions.
probable that the " dryness " formerly associated in

its

the public

easily

mind with Bach's wonderful organ fugues,

so full of rhythmical interest, was chiefly

due

idea which seems to have prevailed in the

many

organists

one long wearisome

in

minds of

must be played

these works

that

to the

from beginning to

legato

end.

we cannot refrain from


one more of the many cases in

Before leaving this subject

noticing

which Brahms shows his peculiar grasp

Mastery of
"

'

of the science of rhythm and

effective

method of

most

its

In his Second Rhap-

notation.

sody, Op. 79, Molto passionato,

ma

non troppo allegro ,

the Subsidiary Measures are triple throughout, and


are

written

would

have

nature here;

him

to

contain

two

Many

triplets.

tempted

use

to

composers
-ig2-

the

sig-

but Brahms' unerring instinct caused

signature,

Primary

Rhythm

same general
J 2g

been

use the

Subsidiary

the

quaver

as

effect

and make each bar

Measures,

that

is

triple.

while

No

it

is

the

doubt the

could have been obtained by

signature and the avoidance of triplets, but

the notation would in this case have suggested triple

Primary instead of Subsidiary Measures, whereas


the

C makes

it

clear

that

the

Primary Measures

are duple.

We

have now to speak of a method of combining

QUINTUPLE AND SEPTUPLE


two

the

Rhythm which

of

species

125

gradually

is

being more and more used, as composers

are beginning to realise

and Septuple

what

We allude

means of expression.

for fresh

to

opportunities

its

is

called Five-time

\ or by

the signature f

Rhythm, represented by
and

alternate bars of triple

duple time.

Quintuple

was much

time

ancient Greeks, and

found

is

in

favour with
the

in

the

folk-songs of

the Finns, Turks, Negroes, Basques, and in Bavarian

and Bohemian dances.


said to be

can therefore hardly be

It

an unnatural kind of rhythm

much connected with


favour when our classical

in fact

it

was, perhaps, too

the people's

music to find

instrumental

music began to

rhythm

tuple

Whatever the

rise.

so

is

rare

with

us

cause,

that

Quinnot

is

it

familiar to the musical public, or even to musicians,

and

it

is

therefore

something of an

There

is

apt

to

be

looked

nothing unnatural
:

Brahms has shown us

If the

of

in a succession

our English poetry makes use of verses of


blank verse.

as

eccentricity.

measure Rhythms

in

upon

mind can

this,

five-

and

five feet

easily appreciate a

Rhythm or a verse of five measures, there seems no


reason why it should not grasp a bar of five portions

it

is

only because such rhythm has fallen into disuse

that

while

our appreciation of

we

can enjoy the far

it

has become atrophied,

more complicated

triplets

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

126

against duplets, with which the great masters have

made us

We

familiar.

have explained in Chapter

that the

II.

mind

does not accept a group of more than three notes

without imagining a secondary accent

we have

notes

equal

four

accent on the third.

same

succession,

in

on the

stinctively place an accent

that directly

first

and

we

in-

secondary

In the bar of five beats the

instinct leads us to place

an accent on the

first,

and a secondary accent on the third or fourth beat


if

we attempt
and

accent,

imagine the bar with only one

to

the

of

rest

the

beats

we

unaccented, as some have suggested,

rhythm

five-time
impossible.
is

The

and

repulsive

only question

is

Triple

and

in the
in

as to

equally

shall

peculiar,

if

find

not

which beat

whether the bar

to receive the secondary accent,

to be divided

all

is

order Triple-Duple, or Duple-

many

cases the

composer arranges

the matter for us, either by placing a dotted barline

before the secondary accent, or by writing Triple and

Duple
ways,

bars alternately.

we must be guided by

tion, or

no

If he adopts neither of these

clue,

the harmonic construc-

by the phrase-indications

we

shall

have to

distinction in whichever

trust

way we

and

an

to

feel

Moreover, the order of the grouping

if these

it

give

arbitrary

to be best.

will

be some-

times changed, either by the composer or by our


feeling.

That

group of

five

equal notes with only

QUINTUPLE AND SEPTUPLE


one accent

possible,

is

attempted

is

it

vagueness of

we do not

believe

and

if it

can only lead to an unsatisfactory

effect.

Five-time rhythm

used

is

mind

intense agitation of

for the

of

portrayal

second scene of the

in the

Wagner's " Tristan," and

third act of

127

in

Handel's

opera " Orlando," of which passage Burney, steeped


as

he was in

Italian

methods, remarks that

it

"a

is

division of time which can only be borne in such a


situation."

Chopin uses ^ rhythm

his sonata in

minor.

crotchets, the third

in the

The

slow

first

it is

is

two bars are

in

and fourth of which are joined by

a legato sign, the rest being staccato

third crotchet

movement of

moreover, the

a chord of the diminished seventh

thus singled out from the other crotchets, which

are tonic triads

hence everything combines to place

the secondary accent on the third crotchet, and the

bar therefore consists

Triple Measure.

Since

of a Duple followed

we maintain

that a

by

composer

nearly always indicates his general rhythmical idea in

the

first

two or three measures, we must take

this as

the prevailing accentuation of the succeeding bars.

Paderewski makes use of J time in the second


section of his " Chants des Voyageurs," No. 4. The

movement

is

headed Andantino

further direction,
1

misterioso^

in

mistico,

the

Burney, History, Vol. IV.,

p.

and there

first

364.

bar.

is

The

RHYTHM OF MODERN

128

MUSIC

character thus indicated in the heading

by the rhythmical scheme, the accents


section (in

supported

is

in

the

first

time) being displaced by various means,

and the accentuation of the beautiful chord-successions


of the second section,
a

time, being arranged in

in

of orderly disorder,

sort

The whole of

mystifying the hearer.


consists

of repetitions

Period

of

four

accentuation

The

mind.

first

two

section

this

various keys of a single

in

bars

becomes

the intention of

with

in

length,

impressed

gradually
bars,

whose

owing

unusual

on the

to the construction

of their melody, give the impression of being divided


into Triple-Duple

Measures; and by the same means

the second pair of bars give the opposite impression,


viz.
|,

Hence we

of Duple-Triple.

and

The

J, f, within a single Period.

phrasing

others, generally

of

Quintuple

for

time

is,

like

all

by four-measure Rhythms, the four

Measures consisting of
Thus,

get a mixture of ,

example,

alternate three

and two-times.

the passage of " Tristan f

in

referred to, the orthodox

form

is

retained, in spite of

the agitato character of the music.

The harmonic

structure, in which the closes are artfully concealed,

so as not to check the

onward flow of the music,

makes Rhythms of four Measures

each, the measures

being alternately triple and duple, and the five-time


bars contain two measures each.

In

the

Paderewski

example

exactly

the

same

QUINTUPLE AND SEPTUPLE


relations

obtain

Rhythms

Paderewski

between the Bars, Measures, and

but here there

the

first

Rhythms, ends with


hence each

The

no attempt

is

The Chopin movement

the closes.

of

like that

a full close in the fourth bar,

second Period, of 4
bar

is

to conceal

Period, of two four-measure

Primary Measures.

two

contains

bar

full close in

129

Measures, ends with a

9.

song "Agnes," Ex. 35, which is fundamentally in J time, Brahms shows how expressive
In

his

Ex. 35.

Brahms ("Agnes" Op.

59).
1st

Con moto.

poco

Half-Rhythm.

fczfe

s=& 3

-H5

Je:z1E-;l
Ro-senzeit,

wie schnell vorbei, schnell vorbei

2nd Half- Rhythm.


I

poco

*=t=

IF

bist

du doch

music can be
alone.
trives

to

By

ge

made

gan

gen.

through

phrase-construction

an exquisite delicacy of touch, he con-

throughout the song to give intense pathos

certain

salient

ideas

repetition of the second

Rhythm, while

retaining

second Half-Rhythm.

by echoing

them

measure of the
the

first

normal form

in

Halfin

the

RHYTHM OF MODERN

130

Tschaikowsky uses rhythm

phony

in the

accent on

its

in

MUSIC
Sym-

his Sixth

order ^, J, each bar having

its

third crotchet throughout

secondary

the

move-

ment.

Seven-time rhythm
triple

is

either a combination of a

with a measure of four Primary values, or

it

forms a seven-measure Period.

The

first is

exemplified in Brahms' Variations on a

Hungarian Song, Ex. 36,

which the crotchet

in

is

Ex. 36.

Brahms Variations on

Hungarian Song (Op.


1st

21,

No.

2).

Rhythm.

feiigSfE
f

2nd Rhythm.

00-

*S

J.

the

PS

rF

Primary note and the measures succeed one

another in the order f ^.


The
Period of eight Measures, and
,

divided by the

Theme
its

first

consists

of a

Rhythm

is

harmonic construction into Half-

shown by our analysis. In the first


Rhythm each group of seven Primary notes forms a
Rhythms,

as

QUINTUPLE AND SEPTUPLE


Half-Rhythm,
closes.

are

clearly defined

and

continuous,

by the half and

Rhythm

In the second

the

131
full

the four measures

of

result

whole

the

is

delightful.
Ex. 37.

Slanca
F.

from " Chansons


Z. Kuhac.

Nationales
Rhythm.

1st

^fl

j*P

ft*

Ne-coj

i
I

bo

^fe
pa

slanca

2nd Rhythm.

ist

na-ze-

:;,:,!

t~

j-t

Rhythm.

234^

7 ||i

rags

5-+vT*#-5

13^ S

le-ne travnike

End

pad -la

mmnmi4m
234567M1

du Sud."

Slavs

des

bo za

*BB5
gvisno

po-mo-ri

- la

vsete

of 1st Period.

L
2nd Rhythm.

^s^ipi
drobne

ro

rP-

End
-

zi

ce.

^f

of 2nd Period.

RHYTHM OF MODERN

132

The

method

other

words are

happens

The

37.

in vocal music, the single feet

words do not

the

Ex.

in

in ordinary verses of four feet each, but,

as frequently

of

shown

is

MUSIC

correspond

measures of the music.

In the

to

the

single

present case

the

verse of four feet covers seven Measures, and the

ends of the Rhythms are carefully defined by

closes.

The result is that the four verses are applied to four


Rhythms of seven Measures each, making two
Periods.

Saint-Saens, in his Etude, Op. 52,

No.

4,

changes

the Diaeresis 1 of two sets of notes having exactly the

same appearance on paper, by


from f to
In

the

crotchet
a

is

duplet,

and a

--,

is

the Primary

divided into a

In

triple

making

f SJ2S2 Decomes Jjjjj

thus,

crotchet

-|

altering the signature

the

quaver

time measure

compound
J

triplet,

is

is

note

the

first

the second into

the Primary

note,

succeeded by a duple,

time bar.

See page 43.

CHAPTER

VI

Schubert's Rhythms
Beethoven's Rhythms Half- Rhythms Three Measure
Rhythms Five-Measure Rhythms Rhythms of Seven

Importance of the Four- Measure

Rhythm

Measures

Up

to the present

four-measure

the

to

we have confined our

....
occasional allusion
Half-rhythms.

Rhythm, with an
,.

to

its

Upon
r

this

built,

form of phrase

to the bar or the

rhythmical

all

Rhythm

structure

Measure
Rhythm.

built,

for

by

far

music, whether classical or

+ 2, whether

applied

undoubtedly the

easiest

For the balance of

otherwise.

Importance of
t^ e pour_

and must always be

the largest portion of

into

division

is

attention

is

the

mind

to

grasp,

and

therefore the one that gives the satisfaction to the


greatest

number.

Moreover,

rhythm leaves the mind


ties

rhythm

is

easily

grasped

free to appreciate the subtle-

of the Melos with which

essence of

an

it

is

clothed.

The

balance and due proportion,

and by dividing time into four equal parts we obtain


the most satisfactory balance.

Our

readers will have noticed that in

examples the close which ends a phrase

some of our
falls

on the

134

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

third

measure instead of the fourth, but that by

extension or repetition of the final chord or note, the

due proportion of four measures of time

The same

result

would obtain

were represented by

would

still

be entirely
the

of time

a rest, for the balance

with sound

substance

essential

preserved.

the final measure

if

Rhythm would

be kept, though the


filled

is

and time,

after

all, is

rhythm

of which

out

not

is

made.

composer

will

sometimes, however, place his

concluding chord on the third measure, and cut off

and the Rhythm

the fourth altogether;

consist of three measures only.

This brings us to

the important subject of the divisions of the


into other than four measures,

uneven numbers, such


divisions,

which are

music, were
posers,

as

occasionally

more

three

used

Rhythm

especially into

These

and ve.

known

well

in

by the older comin

present day, because audiences are becoming

and

enjoy

departures

where we find

in

with

folk

certain

but are becoming more in evidence

cultivated;

then

will

increasing

cultivation

from the beaten

more
they

Thus,

track.

Mozart or Beethoven an

the

occasional

Period with two or more three-measure Rhythms,

Brahms and
compositions
measures.

his

on

And

successors base whole

Rhythms
these

of

other

composers,

sections of

than

greatly

four

daring,

often obscure the endings of such phrases, so that

it

IMPORTANCE OF FOUR-MEASURE
to say

is difficult

and a keen

135

where one ends and the next begins,

intellectual pleasure

experienced.

is

In the classical music of the eighteenth century


(apart

from that of Bach) the Rhythms are very

precisely

shown

by cadences, so

that

unlearned or careless listener cannot


them.

fail

the

to perceive

Into the formal moulds which resulted, the

composers poured the inspirations of

great

most

their

genius, giving expression to the highest aspirations

of their time with marvellous


grace,

the

formal

in the

courtly

and manners of the

etiquettes

century are reflected

The

skill.

music of Handel, Mozart,

and Haydn, and their contemporaries, who used


well-defined forms for their

own

duced through them music

Greek drama,

will

purposes, and prothe

that,

like

to

make

continue

ancient

appeal

to

generations yet unborn, in spite of a simplicity of


construction that
spirit

is

no longer

keeping with the

of the age.

The human

feeling that

efforts of artistic genius

for

in

human

is

expressed in the highest

makes

its

nature never changes

appeal to

all

ages,

only the methods

of expression vary with the different generations, and


for a
his

be
a

modern composer

to try and give expression to

emotions with the formality of a Mozart, would

much

the same as if he were to appear in public in

powdered wig and knee breeches.


But Mozart and Haydn sometimes

tried experi-

RHYTHM OF MODERN

136

ments with new forms of Period.

would

construct

MUSIC

For

instance, they

one of three-measure Rhythms,

or they would extend the orthodox form by one or

more measures
clearly

but they never

Thus

what they intended.

indicate

to

failed

they

obtained

variety in their rhythmical schemes, without offend-

ing the tastes of their day.

Towards

the end of the eighteenth century

man-

kind was beginning to weary of formality, and the


courtly order of things began

freedom of

to

change for more

and a greater

manners,

Democracy commenced

outlook.

liberality

of

ascendancy

that

which has been growing ever since, and of which the


first

great external evidence was seen in the French

The

Revolution.
flected in art

for art

began to be re-

feeling naturally
is

the expression of the emotions

of those for

whom

Democracy

not concerned with forms, and

and

is

etiquettes.

sion to

its

and by

What

feelings,

it

whom

requires

is

it

is

produced.
styles,

to give free expres-

and under the older regime the

enjoyment of art was a privilege of the upper

classes,

so that artists expressed the promptings of their genius


in a style that

was congenial to the only audiences

that they had.

When

new

begun to obtain.

ideas had

Beethoven came to the fore

Though he was

one of the people, the new power that was making


itself felt

had advanced to such a point that he could

dare to set at nought the etiquettes and formalities of

IMPORTANCE OF FOUR-MEASURE
the aristocracy

on

whom

he depended for

137

his living,

own way with impunity. While


adhering to the four-measure Rhythm more closely
than his predecessors, he made it less evident by
and

go

to

his

rounding off

its

edges, and thus he laid the founda-

Melos which takes so

tions of the continuous

modern music.

place in

The

large a

formality which

is

so

marked

music of Mozart and Haydn,

Beethoven

and with him came

who

Schubert,

is

a feature in the

tempered down by

modern

forestalled

man

that remarkable

another way, to be shortly referred

methods

in

After them

to.

came Mendelssohn and Schumann, both of whom,


especially the former, returned to

some of the ancient

formality in phrase construction.

The influence of
many years, and

Mendelssohn was paramount


while this was the case

for

critics,

while admiring the

wonderful melodies of Schubert, found

him because

his phrases

was

in

advance of

irregularity, far
stitutes

music.

his age;

from being

had

as

and

his

Schubert
Rhythms.

a fault, conhis

delightful

keen a sense of rhythm

the great composers, and well

knew how

to

But Schu-

and the

one of the chief charms of

He

with

do not always conform

the orthodox four-measure construction.


bert

fault

as

any of

to use

it

unexpected phrases, startling as they must

have been before they became familiar, were, like


Beethoven's novel use of discords, merely a com-

138

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC


demand

pliance with the


for

freedom from the

was making

that

itself felt

formality of a previous

strict

generation.

Thus, for example,

Op.

Sonata,

42,

in the

we

find

of

numbers,

which are evidently not

though

chance,
listeners.

and

must

they

measures

seven

large

in

the

result

puzzled

have

In the Sonata in

minor

constructed

carefully

Rhythms

five

Scherzo of his

major. Op.

of

early

147, a

large portion of the Allegro giusto consists of delightfully fresh six-measure

Rhythms.

ment of

are

the Sonata in

intermingled

with

In the

first

Rhythms

five-measure

flat,

of

those

move-

and

four

three

measures in a way that gives a contemplative and

Other instances might

mystical feeling to the music.

be found of Schubert's intentional departure from


the

four-measure phrase,

not

in

the

formal

and

conscious manner of his predecessors, or from want

of mastery of his materials, but with a


excite the imagination

scheme

design to

by not allowing the rhythmical

to be too obvious.

Beethoven's strong and novel

more by

telling

effects are

produced

harmonies and syncopations than by

variations in the length of his

Rhythms, and when he

departs from the four-measure construction he some-

times labels the passage, so that the performer

make no mistake

as to

what he means.

Thus,

Scherzo of the Ninth Symphony, a passage

is

may

in the

marked,

SCHUBERTS RHYTHMS
"

Ritmo

and

di tre battute,"

when he

later,

marks

"

i.e.

Rhythm of three

Rhythms without marking them by


most

conductor

the

delicate

municate

seems

to

of

expected

is

to his audience,

it

closes

to

have

intensify

com-

to

of

advent

the

who have

musicians
a

this

and the composer here

anticipated

conducting to

his

on the

feel

nuance of accentuation, and

famous modern
art

To

movement, he shortens

the excitement of the

contrary,

bars,"

returns to the four-measure, he

" Ritmo di quattro battute."

it

139

special

those

the

raised

branch

of their

profession.

Beethoven began the modern practice of trusting


to

the

of

intelligence

his

audience

in

131, he constantly uses the expressions,


battute,"

" Ritmo

" Ritmo di due battute "


conductor's

beat

Rhythms.

In his Quartet, Op.

rhythmical matters.

quattro

Beethoven's

to

assist

tre

di
in

"Ritmo

and

battute,"

this case

there

the audience.

di

no

is

But the

appeal to the intelligence of the listeners began far


before this late
28, the

first

work

for in the Piano Sonata,

Op.

Period of the opening subject contains

ten bars undivided by anything equivalent to a close,

and the sound

is

carried

on

at the

end of the Period

without a break, by the repetition of the bass notes


in bar 10.

tion

it
1

This Period

is

of an unusual construc-

demands Falling Accentuation

Battuta, literally a beat,

means

a bar

to produce
in music.

its

RHYTHM OF MODERN

4o

quiet pastoral effect


fall

on the

must be

first

the

Rhythmical accent

first

will

and the alternate bars

in the bass,

more accented than

slightly

MUSIC

the rest.

It

is

one of the few exceptions from the four-measure

The com-

structure found in Beethoven's works.

poser himself indicates Falling Accentuation later on

by the sforzandos

thus, Ex. 38.

Ex. 38.

First Movement).

Beethoven (Op. 28

-&>-

:t

Us:

^:

^g^

25fc
-<S>-

-j

sfp

21-

-S-.
f

The

If

fc&

H|

practice of obscuring the ends of the

Rhythms,

instead of sharply defining them, has been developed


in

our

By

its

own

time by Wagner, Brahms, and others.

means the

intelligence

is

called into play,

the imagination of the audience


effort required

stirred,

and the

forms no small portion of the pleasure

of listening to music.

The more

public becomes, the greater


to the

is

and

composer

is

intelligent

the freedom available

to express himself in a

manner

would have seemed abstruse and impossible


earlier generation.

But

the

that

to an

in this matter the nineteenth

HALF-RHYTHMS

141

century composers were anticipated by Bach, whose

Rhythms and Periods

are not so sharply defined as

Mozart and Haydn.

those of

Let us now examine how composers use Rhythms


of other than

normal number of

the

measures,

commencing with the two-measure, or Half-rhythm,


since this, next to the four-measure,
in evidence.

may

It

rhythm takes

A
to

four-measure

a place equal to the

sort of division into 2

+2

Rhythm of instrumental music

is

measures.

the equivalent
is

Halfrhythms.

fundamentally such a sentence as can be


comfortably uttered in a single breath.
the Verses of poetry and

than

in

number of Rhythms

the single verse of poetry, which

may

most

be said, indeed, that the Half-

importance, since the greater

show some

the one

is

the

But both

Rhythms of music

be for dramatic purposes divided into shorter


the

normal

two

verses of

lengths,

so

feet, for instance,

they

that

or

become

Rhythms of two

measures.

succession of verses of two feet

in the "

Midsummer

Night's Dream,"
2

On

the ground
2

Sleep sound,
1

I'll

apply

To

is

your eye

possible

e.g.

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

42

23

Gentle lover remedy

When
Thou
True

thou wakst
takst

delight

In the sight

Of

thy former lady's eye.

Short phrases analogous to these are

By some

frequent in music than in Poetry.

they

are

The nomen-

Half-rhythms, or Portions of rhythms.


clature

is

importance

is

importance

of great

not

by the performer whether we


rhythms or half-rhythms.

when

what

of

is

must be made evident

are rhythmical sections, which

except

understand that such short phrases

to

convenient way

theorists

Rhythms, by others

two-measure

called

much more

to

is

them two-measure

call

view the most

In our

look upon them as half-rhythms,

the complete Period

instead of eight measures, as

is

of four

consists

often the

case

in

slow movements.
If

we

write Shakespeare's lines as four-feet verses

the rhymes will divide


effect

I'll

Two

or

the same as before

apply to your eye,


lover,

remedy. 1

Greek rhythmical theory

" Colon. "

is

and the

the ground, Sleep sound,

Gentle
tn

into half-verses,

when reading them aloud

On

them

a verse or a

more colons form

Rhythm

" Period."

is

called a

Half-verses

or half-rhythms, such as the above lines, are called Semicolons,

and any portion of

verse or

rhythm smaller than

this

is

HALF-RHYTHMS
It

be noticed

will

stanza

143

the final verse of each

that

not divided into half-verses, but contains

is

number of four

the normal

feet.

known anything
on which so much

Shakespeare could scarcely have

of the Greek rhythmical theory


light has

been thrown of

late years

but he, like

all

great poets and musicians, instinctively constructed

forms that can be best explained by

his periods in

reference
that

when

The Greeks noticed


of poetry, or the Rhythms of

Greek theory.

to

the verses

music (which with them were


into

or

half-verses

seems

instinct

Rhythm of

half-rhythms,

demand

to

Period

the

identical), are divided

rhythmical

the

the final verse

that

complete

be

shall

or

and

This instinct led Shakespeare to give

unbroken.
the full

number of four

period,

and

it

feet to the last verse

how

remarkable

is

of each

frequently instinct

leads our musicians to treat such periods as begin

with half-rhythms

in

Many

the same way.

instances

might be adduced but for considerations of space

we

illustrate

by

it

from Brahms' Clarinet

a passage

Sonata, Ex. 39.


"

The grammarians

Comma."

these divisions

by certain

signs,

Roman Empire marked

of the

and

were transferred from the divisions of poetry

marked these
as
is

poetry.
as

yet

notation.

divisions,

They

are

nothing

and the

signs

now known

exactly

names

in course of time the

were used

as

to

the signs that

for prose as well

punctuation signs

equivalent

to

them

in

there

Musical

RHYTHM OF MODERN

44

MUSIC

Ex. 39.

Brahms (Clarinet Sonata Op.

120, No.

Second Movement).

Allegro appassionato.

Clarinet.

S^ J

^~

Z2I

t=

<s-

10
1-

-&-

'\\

Caesura.

1^:

Caesura.

zp*:

m&3h=%
I
y^y a^ij

-q-

r r

|S>".

In this example there are two well-defined Half-

rhythms of two measures each, followed by


plete

Rhythm
in

com-

of four undivided measures, which

concludes the Period.

found

further

example

will

be

the Andante con moto of the same sonata.

The Rhythms

are in the latter case divided by the

phrasing signs into single Measures, each bar containing two Measures.
the fourth bar with

one knows

common

that

The

Period concludes

first

two undivided measures.


similar

in all classical

short

music

phrases

but

it

is

are

at

Every
very

perhaps not

HALF-RHYTHMS

145

generally noticed that a succession of such phrases

is

almost always succeeded by an unbroken phrase of

double

of the

length

the

shorter

phrases.

It

probably

our sense of balance that demands

treatment

the rhythmical

faculty

not

is

is

this

satisfied

with small doles of accents, but requires a complete

rhythm
1

For

and counterbalance them. 1

to succeed

of what

confirmation

here adduced a volume of

is

We

Beethoven's Sonatas forms an easy means of reference.

opening Periods

only to the

movements

further course of

Sonata No.

by

divided

concluding rhythm of the period

ending with the

the

of four unbroken measures,

is

close at bar 8.

full

The melody

Menuetto.

the

four measures are definitely

first

half-rhythms at bars 2 and 4

into

half-closes

investigate

for himself.

The

Adagio.

I.

reader can

the

refer

opens with

measures, followed by

an unbroken phrase of two measures.

The melody

Prestissimo.
1

+ + +
I

measures

of the

first

rhythm

broken into

is

the two succeeding rhythms are of four

connected measures.
Sonata No.
2

first

period consists of

measures followed by four undivided measures.

Scherzo.

Sonata No.

followed by

Allegro con brio.

3.

The

2.

by

2 followed

4.

compound, and the fundamental Phrases


here two- not four-measure Rhythms.
In bar 7 there are two

Adagio.
are

The

Largo appassionato.

2.

half-rhythms,

bars are

followed

measure rhythm.

(In

immediately

by the fundamental two-

E minor

the

portion there

change of rhythmical construction into which

is

radical

we cannot

enter

here.)

Sonata No.

Sonata No.
bar

is

4.
5

in

Largo.

introductory.

minor.

+ + +
1

followed by

Allegro molto con brio.

The rhythm
K

4.

The opening

proper commences with an

RHYTHM OF MODERN

146

The

may

principle

MUSIC

be briefly stated thus

when

Period commences with a series of short detached


phrases,

usually conclude with an unbroken

will

it

phrase of double the length of the single detached


phrases with which

commenced. 1

it

Anacrusis of three notes in this bar, and

second

The

bar.

first

is

its

be 2

commence with

period should

struction

should

first

+ +
2

accent

in the

is

down

the

to

which the concluding four-measure rhythm of

thirteenth bar, in

the

phrasing

But

Anacrusis.

The

not shown in the ordinary editions.

this con-

in bars

and 13 should form the end, not the beginning of the


phrases, and the F, E flat, of these bars should form the Anacrusis.
11,

9,

Let the reader play the passage thus, and he will probably agree

with us that

gains greatly in brilliance and energy, in keeping

it

with the "con brio" of the composer.


Adagio
Finale.

Sonata

molto.
1

No.

followed by 4.

followed by

2.

Allegro.

6.

+ + +
1

followed

seems superfluous to pursue the references further

we

the later sonatas

2,

minor.

Sonata No. 29, Op. 106, in B

bar does the


1

movement.

flat.

In the scherzo of

Allegro.

till

may

hymn which

a Caesura.

poetry.)

rests.

by

measure

the eighteenth
enter.

contains four equal verses to each stanza,

let

momentary break

in

making

the continuity of equal bars, a Caesura, at the end of the


;

think the following experiment worth trying.

there be a slight pause for breath,

the second verses

2 followed

this sonata the single

an unusual time, and not

for

complementary four-measure rhythm

Choirmasters

In any

First

followed by a phrase of eight measures unbroken by

4 without rests.
phrases continue

It

4.

find

Sonata No. 27, Op. 90,


2

by

but amongst

then

let

first

and

third and fourth verses be sung without

(By verse we mean, of course, the

single line of the

This will be in accordance with the Greek

law that two detached phrases should be followed by

aesthetic

single

HALF-RHYTHMS

147

In symphonies long successions of Half-rhythms

more

are often found,

working out

especially in the

have the

section, for such passages

of carrying

effect

on an unbroken Melos, while the Half-rhythms are


not indicated by any Caesuras or closes, but by the

melodic construction.

two-measure figure repeats

over and over again before

itself

than ordinary length

is

mind cannot grasp

we

quickly

seize

melody, and

number
in

such

unbroken

passages

only.

section

fully to the

are

much

of

it

Let

the

symphony,
into

falls

and

he

Any

course.

to

be

met

in

the

" working

reader

middle part of the

any

almost

but

our rhythmical sense, while

symphonies, and not always

out "

of time

two-measure nature of the

the

this satisfies

of

on page 21 that

a large section

Melos continues an

the

any

to

This would seem

produced.

to militate against our contention

the

comes

unbroken phrase of more

an

that

so

conclusion,

it

listen

with

care-

movement of
will notice how

first

two-measure fractions of the

Melos.
unbroken phrase equal to the two previous ones combined

we think

that the choirmaster will

treatment will give

will be

more

and

probably find that such a

vigour and significance to the

will quickly be seized

which

rhythm which
and appreciated by the congregation, and

satisfactory

than

mechanically

strict

adhesion

to the value of the notes "as written," producing a breathless


effect,

or a pause after each line,

wearisome

result.

which

is

apt to give a heavy and

RHYTHM

48

OF MODERN MUSIC

40 we quote the

In Ex.

two Rhythms of

first

composition in which the two-measure phrasing

a
is

carried out through a whole section.


Ex. 40.

Dvorak (Slavische Tanze).


1st

Preliminary.

^
A

*Lk

beSe
-4^*

Rhythm.

11

IeeI

-e=

ff
0-

-et-

si

Pi

2nd Rhythm.

This

is

rare.

It

is

folk-music, and the perpetual

flow of well-marked half-rhythms gives the effect of


restless activity.

Such

a construction

effective for a short composition,

weary us by
constructs

Rhythms,

To

its restlessness.

his
as

Trio

of

but

the

it

would soon

give repose, Dvorak

unbroken

contrast to

can be very

four-measure

half-rhythms

that

'

HALF-RHYTHMS
precede and succeed

them.

It

is

149

remarkable that

the Anacrusis does not occur throughout this dance.

movements of Triple time

In very slow

is

it

not

rare to find Periods

whose Rhythms are complete

two Measures

in this case the

and

phrase

is

in

really a

two-measure Rhythm, while the half-rhythms consist

The

of one measure only.


limitation of our

lies in

the

power of time measurement, which,

of the book,

at the outset

reason of this

we have shown

to be the

fundamental cause which necessitates the division of


music into short phrases.
Ex. 41.

Beethoven (Overture Leonore No.


1st

%=*^>

*&

3).

Rhythm.

=sm
-4-,

l*q^
w^=\^=*

m^-

sf Anac.

(Anacrusis.

i&^fcfcp:

~N

~^-

fSE
2nd Rhythm.

Jr r>
r*-i
\>t

dim:

-*-

70

etc.

Full Close.

r
-

-*-

my End*-*
ft

of Period.

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

150

It will

be seen that

Ex. 41 the Period

in

made up of two Rhythms,

the

first

with a half-close, the second with a


tonic

nothing

Rhythms

two Measures only

strictly

of which ends

full close in

be more definite.

could

are of

is

But the
Such

in length.

passages often contain quavers, which

the

make an even

Subsidiary accentuation, so that the long-drawn notes

do not weary

and the \ bar in this form is alluded


to by the Greeks under the name of a Six-time
;

Measure, of which the quaver


Following Greek

is

the Primary value.

some modern

rule,

have

theorists

explained that in music having six Primary Times in


a

measure

(with

the

Diasresis

JJ

J~2 J"j)

the

normal phrases are always of two and the normal


Periods of four
it

to

But we do not think

measures.

necessary to complicate our theory by reference


a

six-time

difficulty

measure

we

think

three Primary values, each of which

rhythmical

Rhythms

purposes
a
in

composer
slow

is

no

divided for

two Subsidiary values.

into

can, if he wishes,

Triple

time

of four

construct

measures,

by the repetition of some striking subsidiary


as in the

is

accepting such measures as containing

in

Moreover,

there

slow

movement of

the Fourth

figure,

Symphony

of Beethoven already alluded to on page 29, and


in so

doing he applies the principle of making

lengthy phrase intelligible by repetitions of a short

HALF-RHYTHMS
The

figure.

Measure

in

Rhythms,

is

slow

slow time, the


for the

more

is

this

kind of movement

is

modern music than


perhaps

modern
in

of using

life,

is

for contrast

the

which

is

found

less often

that

in

to

less necessity

measure

triple

perhaps worthy of remark that

variety.

owing

+2

while solemnity and

same purpose gives opportunities


It

of

usually expressed in even

possibility

and

have

for

three-time

the

Periods

with

tempo

very great

depth of feeling

of

value

aesthetic

151

in

very

of the older masters,

greater

reflected

strenuousness

of

our music

we

in

than our forefathers for variety

slow movements.

The Rhythm of

ways.

that

by the cutting off of

measures, usually the

its

succeeding

the

used in several

is

normal Period may be unex-

pectedly curtailed

one of

three Measures

entering before

its

effect occurs at the

Op. 55.

See Ex.

Period

due time.

last,

so

T T
*

Measure
^

by

compels attention

An

example of

this

very outset of Elgar's Symphony,


127, page 289.

This example,

however, shows a somewhat novel use of the three-

measure Rhythm

to

curtail

the Period,

combined with an apparent Overlap,

for

it

as explained

is

on

page 290.

more usual use of

Rhythm

is

found

in

the isolated three-measure

Ex. 42.

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

152

Ex. 42.

Third

Strauss "Italy" Symphony

Clarinet.

M=
#
F

i
^r

r-

Movement.

An

pp

E flJ TS

J-

ml>

t_jL

^gpp

~^~

n^

IV U-I

g_^zzg1

Feminine ending
of 4 Measure

Rhythm.

^
Feminine ending of
3 Measure Rhythm.

3
I

IS

:fr"M
g
TT\L
W
-/v
t
w g

J.

-^F-===
P

glflg
w- -#i

-j

1-

**

The three-measure Rhythm

here occurs

in

the

midst of a Period, between two normal Rhythms.

THREE-MEASURE RHYTHMS
The

clarinet

ends

enters with a

its

new

phrase on the B, and the violin

whose commencing chord

phrase,

shows that here there

no kind of Overlap.

is

modern music, and we

shall

value

in

meet with them when we

to the analysis of compositions.

but more

in the older music,

Isolated

common

three-measure phrases like this are very

come

153

They

are found

Their

rarely.

aesthetic

movement going with unno monotony is possible with an

that they keep the

is

flagging energy, for

intermingling of three- and four-measure Phrases.

We

have noticed that Mozart, Haydn, and Beet-

hoven occasionally employ short successions of three-

Brahms goes more boldly

measure Rhythms.
the matter, and

makes the three-measure the funda-

Rhythm

mental

of a whole section of a movement,

example, in his

as, for

into

minor Pianoforte Quartet,

of which Ex. 43 shows the opening bars


Ex. 43.

Brahms Pianoforte Quartet

in

Minor (Op.

25)

Rondo

ALLA ZlNGARESE.

Rhythm.

1st

IS/
9

2nd Rhythm.

^g
E
SE?

*-+-T-^

*t

^-*-m+

Pt

Half-close

"

Rondo alia Zingarese," and its


three-measure Rhythms are suggestive of wild gipsy
It

life.

is

headed

contrast

is

produced by the

strictly

four-

measure structure of the second section, and of part

RHYTHM OF MODERN

154
of

meno

the

throughout

but

presto,

MUSIC
Rhythm

prevailing

the

that of three measures.

is

*
" Most potent, grave, and reverent Signiors,
-

Masc. ending.
2

My

very noble and approved good masters,


Fern.
2

That

have ta'en away

this old

man's daughter,

4.5

Fern.

-J

_
It

most true

is

12

The

true, I

have married her

Masc.

Caes.

very head and front of

my

offending
Fern,

Hath

no more."

this extent,

Caes.

The above
_,.

T/

analogy

ture

Measure
*

from u Othello

lines

on

masters, so far as

an

we

The Rhythm of
recognised, and

is

will serve as

rhythmical struc-

extended

scale

amongst

has
the

gives

that

it

it

been
great

are aware.

five

measures has always been

described by

H.

C.

Koch

" Anleitung zur musikalische Composition, "

He

an

are about to describe, the use of

Brahms alone

by

attempted

in verse for the

we

which

'

1S

in

his

1787.

the technical term of " Fiinfer," and says

can arise in several ways.

It

can be an exten-

sion of the " Vierer " (four-measure), by a repetition

of

its

final

Or one of
repeated
is

not

chord, with or without ornamentation.


the internal measures of a Vierer can be

but

in

both these cases he considers that

a true Fiinfer,

it

but merely an extended Vierer.

RHYTHMS

FIVE-MEASURE
The

real Fiinfer,

which there

feminine, on

its

The above
found

in

is

is

repetition,

natural ending,

its

fifth

he says,

rare,

no extension or

is

comes to

phrase

which

SS

one

in

but the

masculine or

measure.

kinds of five-measure phrases can be

almost any

classical

work,

but they are

used as a rule in such a manner that they do not


disturb the even flow of four or

Rhythm,

they overlap the succeeding


last

accent coincides with the

Hence

+4

the 5

two measures,

since

so that their

of the next phrase.

first

measures only make a Period of

eight measures between them.


Ex. 44.
R. Strauss, Ein Heldenleben (Op. 40).

^pqc^pzizpi
:

fc-i#-L-i L

rr J

^S

U- -m-m
4-r

1-

E&*
+m

-!-

F** -s-r
hr

i-

-\-

&-

-ff

-ww

fete

Overlap.

l%gif"~^jp

RHYTHM OF MODERN

156

This construction

carrying on an unbroken
further into

common

so

is

MUSIC

Melos

that

means of

as a

we need not go

But Brahms, ever expressing himself

it.

by means of new rhythmical forms,

utilises

the five-

measure Rhythms without Overlaps as the

of

basis

whole sections of compositions, so that a musical


equivalent to the lines of Shakespeare quoted above
results.

Thus

the piquant effect of the Trio in the

minor Pianoforte Quartet

two introductory

that, after the

built

on Rhythms of
Trio

to the

largely

is

five

due to the

triplets,

it

measures each.

fact

is

entirely

contrast

formed by the Intermezzo, which

is

in

saw the value of five-measure rhythms early

in

is

very regular four-measure Rhythms.

He

In Ex. 45, from his Ballade, Op.

his career.

No.

1,

"

Nach der

the five-measure

and

falling accentuation,

of the story,

Ballade Edward,"

schottischen

Rhythms, with

their alternately rising

seem to

reflect the

which a son murders

in

10,

horror

his father at his

mother's instigation.
Ex. 45.

"Edward"

Brahms, Ballade

tf-

it&t

:fc

1,

the five

five-measure

10,

No

1).

Rising ace.

"Am
feet

is :Ei3

Falling ace.

In his song,

No.

(Op.

VJttZ

"*"

*=3*L
Falling ace.

Sonntag Morgen," Op. 49,


of the verses are wedded to

Rhythms with charming

effect.

SIX-MEASURE RHYTHMS
Next

Rhythms of

to

four and of two measures

As

those of six are the most used.

they are

made by adding

a rule

Rhythm
follows

we

so that

it,

without

+ 3,

fourth measure.

of

Caesura,

Six-measure
the

as in

first

Rhythms

Six-measure
such

as

Ex. 34, page 122;

in

beautiful.

into 3

its

cases

perceptible

of the two
very

are

the whole

can speak of the six-measure

as having a Caesura at

But there

this

from the half which

distinctly divided

is

Measure

such a way that

frequently done in

Th

Half-rhythm to

an ordinary four-measure phrase, and


is

157

can

second

the

and they are

also

divided

be

of Ex. 34, or 2

+ 2 + 2,

by Caesuras.

very

common

use of the Six-measure

Rhythm

is

shown

in

Ex. 52, page 194, from Brahms' Rhapsody,

Op.

9,

No.

in

the

in

it

overlaps the next Period,

connection with

the

six-measure

this

Rhapsody

with overlap

measures, the result

is

we

five-measure

on

the overlap

the flow of five-measures

composer builds

as

same reason

for the

In this example

page 155.

where

same way, and

described

disturb

4,

in

does not

upon which the

but where there

is

the midst of four-

a Period

of nine measures

instead of eight, and an intentional slight disturbance

of the regular flow of normal phrases.


In Ex.

5,

page 38, we have shown six-measure

Rhythms produced by Duple

Subsidiary, in combina-

RHYTHM OF MODERN

158

Primary Measure

tion with Triple

MUSIC
but such cases

are rare.

Rhythms of seven measures


,

isolated cases, their


at the

Seven

end of

are only

met with

in

most usual place being

a series

of Periods, where

they are formed by several repetitions of


the concluding chord of the full close.

They

are,

however, sometimes used with an Overlap, so that


the

impression

given

of several six-measure Phrases

is

but a Phrase of so considerable a length as

seven Measures almost always repeats some definite


short figure, which, as
satisfies

we have

our sense of rhythm.

already explained,

CHAPTER

VII

The Pause
Haydn's humorous
of

und Verklarung" Examples of


Beethoven,
Grieg Unbarred Music

Variations of

Tempo

and Empty Times

Rests

"Tod

Rests in R. Strauss'

Rests

use

Diaeresis

Brahms and

in

Op. 106.

Since the fundamental element of rhythm consists


in the division

of accents,
the

more

it

of time by definite groups

would seem

precisely

to follow that Tempo.

we can measure

of time, the more satisfactory

But

this

performer

is

plays

precision of time

Our

off these intervals

will the

by no means always the

who

artistic

is

Variations of

with

absolutely

rhythm

be.

and

case,

mechanical

apt to weary his listeners.

feeling resents

the

presentation of

anything connected with the emotions


mathematical exactness

of detail

and

with
in

rigid

all

per-

formances in which the feelings as well as the fingers


take part, there will inevitably be slight variations of
tempo y

almost

imperceptible

perhaps,

" personal equation " of the player.

due

to

Such variations

from mechanical precision give a performance a

human

expression, which

is

the

absent from the

living,

most

RHYTHM OF MODERN

160

MUSIC

perfect of mechanical efforts, whether carried out


the fingers

on

by

keyboard or by the revolutions of a

wheel.

The

principle involved in the slight variations of

tempo

due

player

is

effect

the varying emotions of the artistic

to

enlarged upon by composers to enhance the

of certain passages by a deliberate and gradual

quickening or retarding of the general speed of the


music.

time

In an

accellerando

passage

the

between the successive accents

reduced
vivacity

more

The

of

gradually

is

and an increase of

effort is called for,

the result.

is

interval

accellerando

of music may

perhaps be compared to the action of two persons

walking together, and engaged

a friendly argu-

in

ment, or an exciting conversation.


that the pace of the

be found

It will

walk increases

in rapidity with

the increasing heat of the argument, or the greater

excitement of the conversation.


excitement

an

produces

motion, an increase of
excitement and effort
accellerando of the

The

is

increase

effort,

and

of

of

rapidity

of

music the

purposely augmented by the

composer or performer.

ritardando, the gradual increase of the intervals

more weighty utterance


is

to the

effect

rhythm,

of giving

if

the force

sustained, or, as frequently with Beethoven,

augmented.

more

increase

in the

of time between the accents, has the

of tone

The

If the ritardando is

accompanied, as

often the case, with a diminuendo,

it

is

results in a

VARIATIONS OF TEMPO

161

relaxation ot effort, to prepare for a fresh start,

renewal of effort when the original tempo


taken up

or

it

To

again

is

impresses the passage more forcibly

by calling attention to
languorous

it

or

has a contemplative,

it

effect.

produce a true accellerando or ritardando de-

mands

Those who have

a certain artistic capacity.

whether instinctive or acquired,

not

this

will

be apt, instead of making a gradual increase or

capacity,

decrease of pace, to suddenly change the tempo from,

and

say, andante to allegro^ or vice versa,

away with the intended


alters

For

effect.

will

thus do

sudden change

the character of the music, while a gradual

only

change
impress

slightly

given

modifies

passage

and

it,

more

serves

forcibly

on

to

the

hearer.

In dramatic music great use

is

made of

and ritardando for expressions of joy,


emotions
feelings

the

music,

following

accellerando

grief,

the

and other

ever-varying

of the actor, quickens or slows down

in

accordance with the sentiment to be expressed.

Beethoven, ever alive to the importance of moving


the

mind

rather than merely pleasing the ear,

great use of the accellerando and ritardando.


in his

sonata in

flat,

Op. 31, No.

3,

the

established by the pair of measures which

shown
sense

to be the smallest

of rhythm.

The

number

made
Thus,

rhythm

is

we have

that can produce a

accentuation of these two

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

62

measures

we

meant to

are

feel the

And no

other.

home

driven

is

sooner

rhythm

is it

the

composer

relaxes

rttardando

combined

with

than

by strong discords

to us

and no

to be this,

established in our brain

movement by

the
a

crescendo

paradox

(a

which seems to have been invented by him), leading


us,

we do not know

we suddenly

whither, in key or rhythm, until

find ourselves happily launched into the

with the

principal key,

tempo of the two

original

opening measures re-established.

when

It is said that

playing his

hoven sometimes adopted


ever-varying
nuance^

moods had

own works

a tempo rubato, in

free

Beet-

which

his

This delicate

play.

which consists of here and there

slightly

measures, while

the

relative time,

is

un-

doubtedly a powerful means of expression

in

the

altering the tempo within

Rhythms

retain

their

the

normal

hands of a competent executant.


absolutely
division

opposed

to

mechanically

perhaps more into evidence by

possible

On
:

the

yet

orchestra

such

is

the

it

it

exact

would

time-

growing

scarcely
discipline

and

it

and

take

quite possible that the tempo rubato

is

be attained,

Rhythmical

seem

their conductors,

we never know what developments may

place,
will

of course

than by most other

sympathy between orchestras and


that

is

and the personality of the player comes

means.

It

if it

has not been already.

movement may,

for

dramatic and

THE PAUSE
expressive

be

effects,

or rest

The

Fermate^ or

by sustaining

interrupted

beyond

note

163

value.

relative

its

us

Pause, causes

Tie Pause.

concentrate

to

our attention on the single note, or on the passage


that immediately preceded

on

rest,

that

mind

we

ceases

the

The

which follows.

which

time-intervals

is

last

attracts

of a Rhythm, and
Beethoven,
has

shown

in

his

still

more
more

if

if it is

if it is

of

succession

what

our attention

note of a Period

of a

in

deliberately broken,

are compelled to take notice of

The Pause

case

been established

has

rhythm

in the

or,

it,

our

and

happening.

is

occupies the

it

on the

last

note

Rhythm.

within a

Symphony, and elsewhere,

Fifth

that pauses can be effectively

employed

before the establishment of the rhythm, with very

dramatic

results.

opens with

In

our Ex.

the

however,

This,

pause.

40

movement
is

not for

dramatic effect, but merely to strengthen the impression of the preliminary or exclamation note.

The
can

Pause, like the ritardando

be made to

fail

of

its

due

and

accellerando,

The conchoirmaster, who

effect.

scientious unimaginative player, or

carefully gives a pause a definite value with relation

to the preceding rhythm, entirely misunderstands the

nature and object of the pause.

proceeding

which

it

is

merely to

result

of

this

Rhythm in
four-measure Rhythm

prolong the

occurs, so that, say, a

becomes one of four and

The

a half, or five measures, as

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

64

may

the case

Ex. 53 shows two Rhythms, in

be.

each of which a single note

dwelt on for the space

is

The

of two definite measures.

dwelling on these

notes does not constitute a Pause, for there

is

break in the continuity of the rhythmical flow

no
the

sustained notes have a definite relation to what has

gone before, and we

the accents though

feel

they

are not yet expressed.

Pause

consists,

tional rupture in the

on the other hand, of an inteneven flow of accents.

very nature indefinite, and, whether

its

nature,

so long as the time

to

allotted

affect

Pause

is

in

its

has no

it

definite relation to the preceding measures.

is

held for

is

it

does not

a longer or shorter period, this

It

sometimes introduced by unintelligent

or uncultured singers on the penultimate note of a


full
1

close,

especially

at

the conclusion of a song.

Modern composers sometimes, however, add

the end of a

of the

Rhythm,

indefinite

so as to

extension

make

a definite

a half-measure at

extension in place

by the

indicated

Pause,

as,

for

example, Brahms' Trio for Horn, Violin, and Piano, Op. 40, in
the Adagio,

fe
-m

*-*

*-0

*-P=

*-m-

-l

=t
4
i'

A
I

J.

'

lo
I

IS
1

$$=*

v
1

ig^iliilgSi

it
it

*^
=t

THE PAUSE
This note

frequently a high one, and the final

is

cadence, as

name

its

There

tonic.

the contrary, there

is

is

rhythm here; on

usually every reason against

it.

introduction of an unwritten pause in this place

due entirely to the vanity of the

who

audience,

uncritical

ridiculous

it is

and

with

pleased

are

mere sound of the powerful


noticing that

singer,

it

amount of applause from

generally results in a large

an

the

to

it

no dramatic or ex-

rule,

as

is,

from

implies, falls

pressional reason for breaking the

The

165

high

the

without

note,

from every point of view

other than the personal display of the performer.

make nonsense of his


an indefinite time on some

If a public speaker were to

sentences by dwelling for


single syllable of a

that

it

suited

applauds

the

his

word merely because he found


mouth, the same audience that

senseless

laugh at him.

Pause of the singer would

In the older display pieces, in bravura

songs, in instrumental concertos, and similar


positions, there

usually a Pause, indicated by the

is

composer, on the antepenultimate note of the


cadence, that

dominant.

is,

on the f chord

This pause

is

nature from that to which


is

comfinal

that precedes the

of an

entirely

we have

alluded,

different

though

it

introduced for the express purpose of giving an

opportunity

for

caprice or vanity

display.
:

structed as to lead

It

is

not

the

the preceding Period

up

to

it,

result
is

of

so con-

and the audience expects

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

66

rhythm

a break in the

The

at this point.

display

does not take the form of a senseless prolongation of


a

single high

On

the

note as long as the breath will

embellish

Pause with

the

own

exhibits his

performer

the

contrary,

passages

individuality,

the hand of a first-rate

is

last.

expected

to

which

he

in

and these passages,

in

frequently take the

artist,

form of a masterly development of the themes of


the composition.

The composer,

in fact, here gives

do

his subject justice,

place to the performer,

who,

must be more or

on the same

the composer

less

whose work he

Mendelssohn

opens

Dream Overture with


in

which

Rhythm.

to

there

the

interpreting.

Midsummer

attempt

These Pauses are on

at

establishing
series

liminary chords, and serve to keep the


alert

with expectation

Night's

a series of long held Pauses,

no

is

is

artistic level as

of Pre-

mind on

the

they are an extension of the

principle involved in the Preliminary

Pause seen

in

our Ex. 40.

That the whole of


and
Empty Times,
Rests

Rhythm, whatever

f Measures,

occupied

numerous

occurred

in

rests

ancient

number

not necessarily entirely

sound needs not

with

mentioned, for everyone

which

is

its

is

to

be

familiar with passages in

occur.

Such

rests

Greek music, under the

turesque name of " Empty, times."


the places where a melody ceases for

also
pic-

They are not


a moment and

RESTS

accompaniment

the

"

AND EMPTY TIMES

Empty

continues

course

its

of which we have to

times "

167
the

speak are

those in which sound entirely ceases, and the rhythm

continues to

though

exist,

it

no longer heard.

is

After a rhythmical form has been established, rests,


or cessations of sound, on the unaccented portions of

measures, whether primary or subsidiary, are natural

enough

we

hear the accents, and

that

is

we

all

require in order to appreciate the rhythm, and such


rests are, as a rule,

cessations of

siderable

more

But

of the nature of Caesuras.

sound on accented places make

demand on

the

and

intelligence,

a conthis

is

especially the case if they occur early in the

piece, before

the

rhythm has had time

to

become

established.

To

the cultured musician they give

his musical faculties are trained to seize

every rhythmical

But

feature without

a fairly high degree

little

effort

on and enjoy

conscious

effort.

of intelligence in an audience

must be presumed before

composer would venture

to write such a passage as the

Rondo of Beethoven's

opening bars of the

Sonata,

Op.

10,

No.

3,

Ex. 46 (see next page).

Were

it

bewildering

and

The

not
if

so

familiar

we heard

it

to us

Period

would prove

without seeing the notes,

this is evidently the intention


first

it

ends with a

of the composer.
full

close

in

the

dominant, the two chords forming the close being

68

RHYTHM OF MODERN

MUSIC

both paused upon, and embellished with ad libitum


grace notes, so that the rhythm
as

soon as

it is

established.

is

broken up almost

It is in

the beginning of

the Period that the strange cessations of sound occur.


Ex. 46.

Beethoven Sonata

in

(Op. 10, No.

1st

Rhythm.

Rondo.

3)

2nd Rhythm.

lfeft4
End

first

of
Period.

S7\

pHr
The

bars contain

from the

f
two measures each

full close,

this

ending the Period

is

in the

evident
fourth

The second and fourth


measures of the first Rhythm are left entirely to the
They exist, for the perimagination of the listener.

instead of the eighth bar.

former carefully counts them, but they are unheard.

AND EMPTY TIMES

RESTS
To

appreciate the existence of a thing that

presence yet
call

on our

mind.

enough

our

a great

and presupposes a cultivated

faculties,

the music before us

passage

this

in

is

unheard and unseen makes

we had

If

hearing

is

169

matter

the

but Beethoven

would

not

could

when
be

first

plain

have supplied

copies to his audience.

The strain on the imagination is relieved, or, we


may perhaps say, the puzzle is solved for us, with
Rhythm, which

the second

is

startling silences occur in this

full

Other

of notes.

well-known movement,

and similar instances of the use of

rests in place

of

accents will occur to the reader. 1

In the Adagio of the

Waldstein sonata the im-

pressive effect caused by the silence on the

of the second and fourth bars


bars contain

not at

is

on the

last

uncommon, but a
Rhythm is rare, and

profound

silence

all

accent of a

effect

The

measure of a Period
silence

on the third

in this case

produces

rhythmical device must be treated

So

delicate a

An

amusing example of the

difficulty

the ordinary listener

Cambridge many

years ago.

undergraduate orchestra played Beethoven's First Symphony,

and the
last

all.

of earnestness.

has in appreciating rests occurred at

An

familiar to

beat

two measures each, the Rhythms four

measures.

is

first

local reporter, hearing the

movement

appreciate the

for the
rests,

in starting the last

first

curious introduction to the

time, and being entirely unable to

remarked that " the band had some

movement "

difficulty

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

170

very carefully
if

it

could easily become commonplace

repeated too often.

same phrase

peats the
silence

filled

is

re-

movement,

the

later

up, and to

attention

deliberate,

Hence, when Beethoven


the

in

make

somewhat elaborate Anacrusis

the

to

called

is

clear that this

it

the

of

principle

by the

fact

in the bass.

In the Intermezzo, Op. 10, No.


carries

Ex. 47, Brahms

3,

Empty Times "

"

is

to

an

Ex. 47.

Brahms Intermezzo (Op.

10,

No.

3).
1st

1st

Allegro.

introductory 2nd introductory


measure.
measure.

Rhythm.

R>

fizza
-

:&

it

/
3j=(3

fi

IP*

/fc*.

!sl==^lE=]s:-

Jt

^tr

fr

-3

:3=3s

-*-y-P-

^
z^zzg^

etc.

*&-

jjEg

extreme point, for he allows only the Anacrusis of


the two Preliminary Measures to be heard without

the accents that would

make them

intelligible.

It

is

impossible for a person listening to this piece for the

RESTS
first

time,

the

first

AND EMPTY TIMES

171

and not seeing the music, to know that

two chords

two

of

Anacrusis

the

are

The
make

measures whose accented notes are omitted.


player cannot, short of visibly beating the time,

them sound otherwise than

For

as accented notes.

the whole of our experience leads us to expect single

introductory

chords

to

not on the

certainly

last

on the

occur

first,

note of a bar

hoven's " Eroica," Mozart's " Jupiter,"


till

the unexpected entry of the

bar are

we aware

unaccented

rhythm thus

and

(e.g.

Beet-

etc.).

Not

sharp in the third

that the introductory chords are

and the sudden apparent change of


early in the

movement

and astonishment, and has

all

and alertness of which

Brahms

causes a shock

the elements of energy

gives

so

many

examples.

At

the end of the

first

section of this piece, after

the orthodox full close in the dominant, the Intro-

ductory Measures are repeated in rhythmically the

same form

as at first,

significance,

molivo

is

but

we

are

now aware of

and are not taken by

developed

at

surprise.

the

is

but here,

no longer any rhythmical novelty about

composer takes advantage of the

pianissimo chords

fact to

it,

introduce

on each accent, which are sustained

until the Anacrusis

And

Their

the end of the second section,

before the return of the principal subject


as there

their

is

heard low

down

since the peculiar rhythmical

in the bass.

structure of the

RHYTHM OF MODERN

172

Preliminary Measures
listener, the
it
it.

composer

many times,
The thing

is
is

as if he

now

able to linger

capable

it,

repeating

consummate

feeling as only

is

art

Brahms

of.

favourite orchestral device with the older

posers
in

on

was particularly pleased with

and such inward delicacy of


is

quite apparent to the

treated with such

is

MUSIC

com-

more measures known

the silence for one or

Germany under the name of the " Generalpause."


movement is suddenly interrupted by a total
of sound just where the

cessation

would

listener

expect the rhythmical figure to be carried on.


generally occurs at the end of a

Rhythm, and

It

usually,

though not always, towards the end of the movement


itself.

Mozart makes use of

great symphonies, and


,

Haydn.

not infrequent

it is

The

humorous use of

of Rests.

Q uartetj

it

of

in those

composer makes

latter

Humorous Use

flat

this device in his three

in the finale

No# 38) hy

of

his

eav i n g not

only the end of a rhythm, but the beginning of the


next entirely to the imagination, after having, however,

prepared

Pauses"

his

in the

The humour
already occurred

wrong

audience

by several

Ex. 48.

preceding periods.
consists

several

in

this

times,

" General

full

close

and always

place, namely, at the first half

in

has
the

of a rhythm,

the second half being occupied by a half-close.

few bars of adagio have followed one of the

A
full


HUMOROUS USE OF

RESTS

and subsequent repetitions of both

closes,

have been followed

half-closes

The joke

173
full

and

by general pauses.

complete when three whole measures are

is

Ex. 48.

Haydn, Quartet

K
fefe
&

in

Presto.

v jj

'

Finale (Last

j,

End

-3-

of Period.

=SzE=3:

fctt

Eight Bars).

3=3:

J,

=fi

E Flat

-gg r

4"i- -ig h-

^4===^
-

^1

"i

F^F
PP

s
4

given

-3-

in

silence,

appears in

its

after

which the

full

-n

close at

-^fl

last

proper place, namely, at the end of a

Rhythm.
But,

most
bars

in contrast to this,

tragic

of

The opening

expression.

Richard

Verklarung"

Rests can be used for the

of

Rests in

d
-Tod und una
'Tr
"J
y erkla-

Strauss'

consist

The
S

the

repetition of a single chord

pianissimo rung."

on the unaccented parts

of each measure, the accented parts being represented

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

174

by

"Empty

Times," or by

The

notes.

soft reiteration

which

in a rhythmical figure

owing to the absence of

rests

against sustained

of a single minor chord,


impossible to seize

is

it

accents, depicts in a vivid

and ghastly manner the scene described


stanza of the

poem

prefixed to the

in the first

The

symphony.

unearthly Death motive, rhythmical and yet without


accent, the rare changes

of harmony, the occasional

intervention of a melody of four measures in length,

of whose

only one

help

is

struck, the

two-measure phrase

sigh of the

all

normal accents

complete

to

the

weird

Then,

picture.

again, in the Allegro molto agitato, the tragic tone of

the fortissimo opening

phrases

altogether produced, by the


place of accent
is

same

enhanced,

by

and although the

again,

Alia breve^
accents

sound.

syncopation

if

if

not

device, the Rest in

work, yet the normal accent

at

obscured
yet

is

not

full
is

by

orchestra

everywhere
rests.

And

stormy motive that starts at


there are " Empty times " in place of
in

for

the

silence

is

often

more expressive than

EXAMPLES OF DIURESIS

175

with

Brahms,

change of

favourite

Diaeresis

already alluded to on page 123,

is

Examples of

that of

Diuresis in

which Ex. 49 shows the construction.

Brahms and
Grieg.

Ex. 49.

Brahms Romance (Op. 118, No.


2

5).

rit.

End

^3
E

g^=rH?

Although not written


to

The

Syncopation.

latter

zi

so, the

change

bar

is

is

of Period.

really

equivalent

due
to

Ex. 50.

- atet m

=#

^a
P

p *

-O-

o
ms.o 22

lES zi:

z
-<s>-

fThe

effect

can only be introduced at or near the

end of a Rhythm,

in

in F,

Op.

the accentuation has been

Grieg makes use of

established.

notes

after

the last
8.

movement of

it

his

in Subsidiary

Violin

Sonata

RHYTHM OF MODERN

176

Ex. 50

Grieg (Violin Sonata

#.

Last Movement).

Op. 8

F,

in

MUSIC

m?

*-

4=it

?r

ft*

Equivalent to

The
it

passage looks difficult to read at sight, but if

imagined

is

Primary to

all

The Largo of
Unbarred
Music;

106,
j

Beethoven,

difficulty vanishes.

Beethoven's Sonata in
is

unbarred.

It

is

flat.

Op.

preceded by a

Adagio,
of a character
Q contemplative
r
e>
>

so noble, so elevated, so dignified, that

Op. 106.

-f

Subsidiary accentuation, as shown in

our example,

change of Diaeresis from

as

could only have been written by a composer

was completely out

of

touch

with

the

it

who

everyday

world, whose thoughts were entirely occupied with


the highest expression that music

That such
this sonata

movement

is

capable of.

as the adagio sostenuto

could ever have been produced, even by

the genius of Beethoven,

if

the composer had not

been cut off by his deafness from the


life, is

soul,

of

inconceivable.

communing with

of sound that existed

It is

trivialities

of

the expression of a lofty

itself,

wandering

in his brain,

in a region

and made acces-

UNBARRED MUSIC
sible to

177

ordinary mortals by a genius so transcendent,

so grand, as occurs only once in

many

centuries.

The Largo is the logical outcome of the Adagio.


The rhythm of the Adagio is continuous throughout.
In spite of

its

length, there

of rhythm-species
flow,

no change of tempo or

is

there are no pauses to break the

and only two

ritardandos.

The

massive wealth

of sound pours forth in a never-failing stream, and


of

in a continual regularity

triple

rhythm.

great

tension has been placed on the faculties in sustaining


so lofty a height

there must be a temporary break

new rhythmical movement.


movement as the Largo to the

before encountering a

To

subject such a

Yet we

dissecting knife seems almost like sacrilege.

venture to do

it,

in the

hope that our readers, when once

they have followed our analysis, will forget


it,

and give themselves up to enjoying the emotional

effect

of the music, without thinking too

technical skill exhibited in

it,

conta

Largo

nel

^fe^^fe^."

sempre

"For

the

much of the

great though

Beethoven gives the direction, " Per


quattro

bars

in

it is.

la

misura

semicrome^

the

semiquavers must always be counted."

audience, but not in regular rhythm.

He

make

Recitative.

contrast

to

si

four

The movetalks

is

cio

Largo,

The composer

ment

to

about

all

to

his

wishes

the long-sustained rhythm

of the previous movement.

He

keeps to

only enharmonically changing the notation.

his key,

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

178

The

-^

signature

not in use: hence, for the

is

purpose of analysis, we have

Ex. 51 changed the

in

semiquavers to crotchets.
Ex. 51.

Beethoven Sonata (Op. 106).


Largo.
ST\

=f

Largo.

{Con moto).

ES

2
TX

@^e

H#n=H*-

t:

fc^z

:
Preliminary
Measure. Anac.

Anac.

Rhythm.

1st

Anacrusis.

/T\

^=JS

=&

=t

1*

=^=

SE

r-

:fc

^O

/T\
-\

/-

.8
*

:a

^=^F
Anacrusis.

Anacrusis.

zr=

JEEEE

=r

>
3-

Anacrusis.

3=e
-*-

2nd Rhythm.
1

ifczd:

TJ-TLMi LEX iLLU

Beethoven's
Barline.

s^e

^CT*^
J:


UNBARRED MUSIC

179

Additional Half-rhythm.

*&-*

-p

=*

p-

-f

p 1

-1

etc.

fw;

/T\

*=
L i>

:E

Beethoven himself gives a barline

There

have indicated.

of

flat

end of

is

Rhythm.

key

a full close here in the

major, which shows that

we

in the place

this, at least, is

the

In order to get at the underlying

rhythmical scheme,

we must work backwards from

the barline in measures of four semiquavers (in our

example they

will

obtain the following results.

movement occurs on
is

We

be four crotchets).

The

shall

then

accent in the

first

the pause on the high F.

the accent of a Preliminary Measure, and to

This
it

is

joined an Anacrusis of three-quarters of a measure,


divided into

triplets,

whose

accented preliminary note


accent

is

not

struck,

final
:

but

note

tied to the

is

hence the Preliminary


imagined,

since

it

is

incorporated into the Anacrusis.

The Pause on

this

unstruck Preliminary accented

note breaks up the expected phrase.

new Ana-

crusis

opens the four-measure Rhythm, but instead

of

first

its

accent being heard, or even tied to the

Anacrusis, the sound ceases altogether,

being represented by a

rest.

This

is

the accent

the case with

RHYTHM OF MODERN

MUSIC

the remaining measures, and the

Rhythm

180
all

ends with

composer makes

He

allows us

on the high

pause

the

itself

The

flat.

a strong appeal to the imagination.

to

no rhythmical accent

perceive

nothing but the unaccented portions of the measures

and even these are made more incom-

are heard,

prehensible by the pauses

we

are in

realm of

mystery.
In the second

Rhythm he

is

more

mencing with an Anacrusis, almost


in

he

length,

lets

each

whole measure

be heard, and

accent

Period of two Rhythms ends with the

flat,

already alluded

additional
first

Half-rhythm, which

Rhythm and
and

Pause,

It

to.

the

Com-

explicit.

is

the

full close in

succeeded by an
ends, like the

also

the Preliminary Measure, with a

movement

then

goes,

by

easily

understood rhythmical phrases into the key of

sharp major.

We

are led

to the conclusion that the first three triplets

on the

To
note

return to the opening Anacrusis.

are Anacrusis notes,

does not commence with

and

that the

an accent,

backwards from Beethoven's barline


confirmed when

later

by working
and

this

is

on the same passage occurs

in

another key, preceded by an additional


triplet

movement

note

and

which undoubtedly form the accented portion

of the measure of which the three

commencement form

triplets

on F

at the

the unaccented three-quarters.

UNBARRED MUSIC

181

This contemplative and intensely suggestive move-

ment

is

divided into two portions by a short fugato

passage, which suddenly breaks off in the midst of


its

course, and

leads back

to a

repetition

opening Anacrusis in a new key.


of the subsidiary rhythm
after the final pause

is

between

The

distribution

the two

very striking

of the

it

hands

gradually

quickens to a prestissimo^ and leads into a vigorous


fugue.

CHAPTER
Staccato

and

Piano,

Forte,

Accent

and

Crescendo,

Mechanical

VIII
Diminuendo

The

and

Instruments

Organ

Accent

Rhythmical Scheme of a Complete Composition

The

Illustrated

by Brahms' Rhapsody, Op. 117

of sounds

series

or,

as

styles

The

be

closely

connected

together in a legato style, or they

Staccato.

played

may

staccato,

every other

with

may

musical feature, the two

be intermixed.

principle of detachment

indicated by

is

the same, whether

between the notes, or dots over

rests

them, or a combination of dots or slurs

To

a question of degree.

explain what

it

we

is

only

believe

to be the principle involved in the staccato style,


will

be

from one another

detached

i.e.

may

we

again have recourse to poetry.

Except for certain dramatic


poetry

is

punctuation
Single

music

sign,

the verse
Caesura,

words may be

others, but

we

can

each verse of

what may be compared to the

recited in

legato style in

effects,

is

only broken

occurs

occasionally

in

its

detached

if a

midst.

from

hardly imagine single syllables

STACCATO

183

being separated by a distinct break in


unless, perhaps, for a

humorous

the sound,

object.

But instrumental music, on the contrary, obtains

some of
of

its

its

most striking

by the detachment

effects

we have

notes in the staccato, and, again,

feature in which poetry

and music, so

like

the

in

fundamental principles of their rhythm, are very far


apart in

But

its

details.

a verse can be divided

into half-verses, just as a

by rhymes or Caesuras

Rhythm

can be divided into

half-rhythms and single measures, by

and

closes.

our view,

In

rests, Caesuras,

staccato

is

of

simply the principle

division carried a step further, and applied to single

This separation of

notes instead of single measures.

musical sounds, whether of the measures composing


the

Rhythm

effect

or of notes forming the measure, has no

on the fundamental rhythmical structure, and

whether we play a passage

staccato

or

legato,

the

grouping of the music into Rhythms and Periods


will

not necessarily be obscured.

But

staccato

rendering will produce a totally

different aesthetic effect

from the

legato.

If a

melody

which has been conceived and constructed to be


played in the legato manner
will

is

performed

staccato, it

sound either ridiculous or meaningless; and

on the other hand, what was intended


played

legato, it will

for staccato

have a heavy and dull

if,

is

effect, or,

RHYTHM OF MODERN

84
any

at

rate, will lose the vivacity

which the composer

In either case the aesthetic character of

intended.

damaged

the passage would be

much

just as

as if

we

omitted Rests where they are written, or

arbitrarily

made

MUSIC

Caesuras where they were not intended to be.

Let us take, for example, one of the most beautiful

movements, the well-known

of Beethoven's early

Andante with Variations

Op.

in the Sonata,

14,

No.

2,

whose whole ethos depends on the contrasting

inter-

change of

legato

staccato

with legato passages

throughout, but with

strict

and what do we get?

Or

play

staccato

it

play

observance of

mere study

throughout

we

its

in

it

phrases,

harmony.

get a tiresome

succession of detached chords.

No

doubt

appear a mere platitude to the

this will

enthusiastic
pieces, for

by

amateurs

between

completely

and

ruining

master-

legato

by

their cutting a legato

to pieces with unwritten Caesuras, or joining

what ought to be played

mixture of both

staccato has, in

seen (page 81)

or

instrumental music, as impor-

how

We

have already

the slurring of two notes at the

beginning of a measure
a similar

staccato^

styles.

tant an aesthetic value as legato.

and

do we hear

which they have the greatest admiration,

staccato

together

The

often

want of insight into the important difference

their

melody

how

but

experienced musician,

intensifies their accentuation,

treatment of two notes, the

first

of

STACCATO
which

is

an unaccented place, will produce the

in

The

of syncopation.

effect

185

detaching of the notes

either side of the slurred notes adds additional

on

force to the passage

is

When
the

more

notes

the

all

e.g.

forcible than "7k j

are

performer

intelligent

proper accentuation just

played

be

to

does

he

staccato,

the

gives

instinctively
as

-iH

legato

in

phrase.
It

makes

phrase

is

little

rhythm whether

difference in the

played loudly or softly, as long

as the passage in question

is

Forte

sustained at

good

deal of influence

power we

of the

force

on rhythm.
at the

decessor,

and hence we get

slightly

carried through

accentuation

mendous

successive

than

its

pre-

several measures, instead of being

We
is

gradually

a Rising Accentuation

confined to pairs of measures, as


it.

Each

more accented

is

By

same time increase

accentuation.

measure

explained

Diminuendo.

But the Crescendo and Diminuendo have

increasing the

the

and

^Tescendo and

an equal degree of force from beginning


to end.

believe that

due

emotional

in

we have

to the

hitherto

increase

no small degree the

tre-

many well-known
and the conductor who
of

effect

passages in orchestral music

of

has his band well under control can utilise this

means

86

RHYTHM OF MODERN

MUSIC

of expression more powerfully than can be done on

any solo instrument.

The Diminuendo
of the Crescendo.

has,

of course, the reverse

It consists

effect

of a lessening of the

successive accents, of a gradual relaxation of effort


a Falling Accentuation

is

produced on a large

and from energy we are brought to

scale,

tranquillity, or

to a less demonstrative expression.

Crescendo usually leads to a Forte or Fortissimo.

As long
affected

as

this

sustained,

its

available for

long and short notes,

And

accents, etc.

exactly the

the

enforcing

Pianissimo passage, so that

give

rhythm

the

is

not

by the loudness of the music, but by the

arrangements of

and

is

same

rhythm

in

sforzandos

effects are

a Piano

or

mere loudness does not

nor softness weakness.

strength,

its

Power of

expression in both depends on whether the rhyth-

mical construction

way
the

is

conceived and carried out in a

The tremendous effect of


movement of the Fifth Symphony is due

that appeals to us.


first

more

to the intensity

harmony or

its

of

loudness

its

accentuation than to

its

frequently several measures

consist of the repetition of a single chord, which, if

played without a vigorous accent would be more or


less

meaningless.

A certain pianissimo passage towards


rhythm

the end of the Scherzo consists of

with

unchanging harmony.

the contrary,

its

It

is

emotional effect

not weak
is

alone,
;

on

just as great

FORTE AND PIANO


as

of the forte parts.

that

performance

first

of

this

It

the conductor failed to

work

Opera

in

to

the

as

upon

look
highest

Can

it

If
all

fine

shades

form of musical
fire in

much upon

so

etc.,

deny

spite

Italian

art,

the

were

human

Accent, with

Falling,

how

that

of

which

instruments,

placing a stress

in

of

can

it

7^

Organ
and 4ccen&

on the Organ, and on the whole

mechanical

will

importance

sweets

the

of Rising,

Syncopation,

sforzando,
exist

be that

it

rhythm depends

its

the

that the audience,

unprepared for " music that strikes


breast "

London

appreciate the

of accent and rhythm, or was


accustomed

that at the

said

is

gradually melted away.

audience

187

are

on individual notes

rhythm can

exist

tribe

of

incapable

of

For no one

on these instruments,

this limitation.

In this matter there comes to our aid one of the

most subtle and mysterious

parts of our

nature,

namely, the faculty for imagining that we feel or


hear a thing which does not exist, and yet which

wish to

exist.

The organ and

the

we

machine-made

music have the same means of making their phrases


intelligible

by harmonic structure, and by Caesuras,

as are available elsewhere


this is

accent only

supplied by our imagination.

structure,

is

absent,

and

The harmonic

and the combination of longer with shorter

notes leads us to expect and desire accent, and

we

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

88

instinctively feel that

not

what we want

is

there,

though

tangible form.

in

And

the organist

who

the accents, but

feels

who

has not the power of expressing them through his


instrument,
exact

very careful to give

is

value,

and

especially

to

every note

advantage of

take

every longer note in " Dotted-note " rhythm.


will

its

He

never yield to the temptation of breaking up the

time by holding on a note beyond

due length

its

in

order to change his stops, and he never indulges in a


trick of holding a meaningless, rhythmless note at

the beginning and end of his piece.


that,

owing

to

its

For he knows

accentless nature, the organ punishes

any defects of time and note value more than does

any other instrument.


time

is

On

other instruments, if the

accidentally lost, the

rhythm can be quickly

recovered by marking the accents; on the organ


cannot.

The

organist

knows

that a rhythmless

it

and

undecided manner of playing produces insupportable


weariness in the listeners,
this

who

are at his

respect if they are in a church.

mercy

in

In a concert

room they have at any rate the opportunity of


getting up and leaving, as we once saw done in
Germany during a rhythmless performance of some
very fine music on a

first-rate

organ.

In this case

the technique was faultless, the tone of the organ


irreproachable.

Only the rhythm was wanting, and

the performance was ruined thereby.

MECHANICAL INSTRUMENTS
Everyone who has
the Piano-organ,
b

as

listened to the

machine known

must have noticed

'

that,

when

Waltz,

it

plays a properly constructed

entirely satisfies

in

feeling,

One

it

of

spite

Mechanical
Instruments

our rhythmical
to produce accent.

its inability

reason seems to be that the single bass note at

the beginning of each bar

the

189

rest,

for

bass

is

more prominent than


has

string

more

powerful

vibrations than strings of the higher pitches.

This

prominence of the single bass note, coming

in the

expected places,

in addition to

of the tune, acts to

on

stroke

single

demand

all

the harmonic structure

intents

and purposes

drum, and thus

for an accent.

like a

our

satisfies

And what we

have said of

the waltz applies also to other music in which the

construction
be,

on

But

is

very simple, and the accents would

a musical instrument,
if

the music

construction, or

not very simple in

if it is

We

many

remember hearing

times over, but

making out where


from being

at

first

its

modern complayed on a

we never succeeded

accents

should

meaningless

repetition an irritation

While

harmonic

not already familiar to us,

position which was unfamiliar to us

pianola

its

by mechanical means may be incompre-

a piece played

hensible.

is

somewhat marked.

it

in

come, and

became

with

to us.

investigating the

question of rhythm

connection with mechanical instruments,

in

we had an

RHYTHM OF MODERN

190

opportunity of visiting the


instruments at
wissenschaft

organs

the

were

set

in

at

Museum

Munich.

motion for

We

ments had been prepared

us,

coincidence,

mechanical

one being an
all

the most

found that both

to

Weber's Overture

namely,

der Natur-

Two

ancient specimen, the other containing

modern improvements.

of musical

fine collection

Deutsches

und Technik

MUSIC

play the same piece,

" Oberon."

to

we remembered

instru-

that

some

As

thirty years

ago a gentleman, wishing to exhibit the powers of


his

newly-acquired

same

piece as the

the Overture to

Orchestrion,

first

on

Oberon

his

had selected

Why

programme.

reason struck us at once, on hearing

The

Munich.

is

by

so especially favoured

the owners of mechanical instruments

The

the

it

at

frequent repetition of the figure

TTTj
in various

melodic shapes, gives

marked accentuation
found to

suit

from

apart

the

on

stress, so that

it

is

mechanical instruments particularly well.

In England and France

marches

this piece a specially

it

is

the custom to play

organ, in spite of the

the

march requires

fact

to be specially accented,

organ has no accent of

its

own.

that

and the

Here, again, the

simple harmonic form of the march, and the juxtaposition of longs

The

and shorts come to our

ease with which an

"

Organ March

assistance.

"

can be

MECHANICAL INSTRUMENTS
composed and executed has
hands of

incompetent

led to

organists,

development

sufficient intellectual

cold calm accentless organ

is

191

abuse

its

in the

who have

not

to discern that the

relentless in its exposure

of anything approaching poverty of invention or

want of
player.
effective

The " Organ March " can only be


when written by a composer of high

really
intel-

and played by an executant of con-

lectual power,

siderable intelligence
trivial

on the part of composer or

intelligence

otherwise

it

will

sound either

or vulgar, both of which qualities are parti-

on so noble an instrument.

cularly out of place

Space forbids us to enter into a discussion of the


rhythmical structure of contrapuntal and other music

more

Our only

closely associated with the organ.

reason for alluding to the instrument at

show how

large a

place

all

is

to

our imagination takes in

listening to or performing instrumental music.

All compositions that are conceived and carried

out

at a

reasonably high level of art will

be found more or
.

rhythmical

point

less interesting
r

or

'

view;

for,

from a
i-i

while

^
Rhythmical
Scheme of a
Complete

melody and harmony produce grace and

Composition:

beauty, rhythm gives force and dignity to

Rhapsody,

the music.

P- IJ

From

the big

drum of

dignified accents of a
cry.

the Salvation

Army

Beethoven or Brahms

7-

to the
is

a far

Yet the big drum, which drives the accent home

RHYTHM OF MODERN

92

whom

into the heads of those for

same function

the

classical

The

hammering

give

to

difference

the

that

is

the

to

drum,

big

at the accents incessantly, leaves

more

of

features

character

to the imagination, while the classical

suggests

intended, has

is

rhythmical

the

namely,

music,

melody.

as

it

MUSIC

nothing

composer often

ideas than he allows to be heard, as,

for instance,

when frequent

drum makes

its

rests

big

appeal to those that cannot think

The rhythm of

for themselves.

The

occur.

classical

music

is

intended for cultured and sensitive brains, and the

more

the rhythmical sense

pleasure does an

cultivated, the greater

imaginative

rhythmical

Both methods of appeal have

give.

the world

if

offered

not intended.

is

structure

their place in

but each method would annoy rather

than stimulate
it

is

rhythm, which

in its

We

to an audience for

which

propose to examine

most elementary form

is

how

repre-

sented by the Salvationist's drum, affects the ethos

of

artistic

compositions

when

used

in

its

most

highly developed form.

To
this

analyse a

work

to

number of compositions would


too

large

dimensions.

We

swell

must

therefore be content with a few only, leaving to the

reader the fascinating task of examining others, and

he

will find that there is

enormous
music that

the

is

it

is

no lack of material.

So

mass of rhythmically interesting


embarrassing to have to make a

SCHEME OF A COMPOSITION
E

flat.

we

but

selection,

will

Op. 119, No.

combined with

strength,

Rhapsody

take Brahms'

4, as

193
in

an example of dignity and

a delicacy

and an imaginative

rhythmical structure of the highest order.

is

The tempo is Allegro risoluto. The general form


a modern development of the old Rondo, in which

a chief subject recurs several times, with contrasting

between

subjects

The

its

recurrences.

subject

principal

is

subject in the dominant, after which

Then comes

by a second

followed

it

is

repeated.

a third subject, in the relative minor, a

the subdominant, and a return through

fourth, in

the second to the

first.

The

piece ends with a coda,

of fresh material.

The Rhythms
Measures each,

of the principal subject are of

form of which Brahms makes con-

use in his shorter pianoforte works.

siderable

appeal to the imagination,


tion,

and

its

its

is

Its

freedom from conven-

broad outline, give such pieces as

occurs in a peculiar charm, which, while

them

five

it

it

makes

particularly attractive to the cultured musician,

found

a little difficult, perhaps,

only accustomed to simpler forms.


alluded to

it

by those who are

We

have already

on page 154, where we compared

it

to

the " Heroic Verse " of English Poetry.

Opening with strong masculine


the

accented

sforzandos,

the

notes
first

dactyls, in

which

made more forcible by


Rhythm ends with a solemn
are

3
i

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

94

spondee, whose two notes are likewise impressed on

us by sforzandoSy and, as

strengthen the effect of

if to

the spondee, the unaccented note which precedes


is

it

also given a sfoi%ando.

Ex. 52.

Brahms Rhapsody (Op. 119, No.

4).

Allegro Risoluto.

Period

1.

isp?

=t

sfc^ 8
Period

1?'

it

3=

2.

pp

rnTTjriisf ggE

,p

-t=J

g ^

to*

iEEtefr

it

-ff

Period

3.

First

Rhythm.

1
I

BE

t=t
Overlap.

SCHEME OF A COMPOSITION

195

Overlap.

Third Rhythm.

Overlap.

Period

4.

Fourth Rhythm.
4

-ML

W U

-*-:

I-

Overlap.

In the dactyls, the contrast between the sustained


crotchet

sforzando
staccato

and the quavers shortened

enhances the accents, which in the

first

measures are marked as strongly as possible.


there

a lessening of accent, the

is

having on

its

on

its

crotchet

strong

weak

by

three

Then

fourth measure

portion two quavers, and a

place.

This change of accentua-

tion has the effect of keeping the attention

on the

alert.

The
full

fourth measure leads us to expect a feminine

close

instead

and

an

a four-measure

unexpected

Rhythm

chord,

we

get

form

of

but

fresh

accentuation, and an additional unexpected measure


in

the

Rhythm.

RHYTHM OF MODERN

196

The same

MUSIC

features are found in the second

Rhythm,

except that here the fourth measure ends with no

chord
the

at all,

air,

as

it

We

only the bare octave.


were, and the

first

are left in

Period ends with

nothing approaching a close of any kind.

For we have a big work before

must be kept

expectation

which the

us, in

and not checked by

alive,

conventional formality.

The second Period opens with a repetition of the


But in the fourth measure
first Rhythm of the piece.
there

on

is

second

its

no

an important change.
half,

showing plainly that there

full close, there

again

is

is

to be

We

again a bare octave.

are

moment, and an unex-

in suspense for a

left

Instead of the chord

pected modulation occurs, leading to the dominant

of the principal key.

The second Rhythm of


sures,
is

this

and ends on the low B

an Overlap here, for with

new

Period.

The

Period has

marked

flat

this

The

at the

fourth

having

its

refers to the Period

which has

new Period which

measure of

this

Rhythm,

instead

of

natural accent weakened, as in the preit

strengthened by a sforzando

and the weight of the spondee, which


is

There

same moment on the same note.

ceding Rhythms, has

bass,

mea-

note commences the

just concluded, and the p to the

commences

fp.

six

lightened

by

the

is

heard in the

subsidiary

semiquaver

accompaniment of the right hand.

Let us play the

SCHEME OF A COMPOSITION
second Period apart from
find that

it

its

197

we

context, and

shall

seems to demand a masculine close on

the fp note, thus producing a six-measure instead of

harmony and melody


this

we

demand, and

is

it

of

structure

are sufficient to

the

account for

strengthened by the fact that

are here completing an important section of the

and embarking on

piece,

responding passage,

crotchet^ on the

the

Rhythm.

The

new

See

In

a cor-

so arranged that

is

leads

it

not the sixth measure of

fifth,

Ex.

key.

movement, the entry

later in the

of the semiquaver motive


to a

The

Rhythm.

five-measure

This

55.

is

absolutely

entrance of the dominant key

is

an

important event, and the previous

Rhythm seems

to

demand

would not get

if

logical.

first

a masculine close,

we adhered

which

it

rigidly to the five-measure form.

In the

seventeenth period, Ex. 55, a masculine close

is

pro-

duced without altering the flow of the five-measure

rhythms

The
which

the modulation there

Period

third
are

alike,

has

four

is

merely transient.

Rhythms, three of

of solemn spondees,

consisting

followed by two more in the bass, which are, however, lightened

by an accompaniment of semiquavers

in the right hand.

In the fourth

Rhythm of

Period the spondees are continued to the end


right hand, the semiquaver

three

is

in the bass,

reiteration

of

a single

in the

accompaniment of the

and there
chord

is

in

a crescendo to

ff.

this

last

The

the last two measures

198

RHYTHM OF MODERN
Rhythm

of each

single note,

here gives

way

to a reiteration

of a

accompanied by various harmonies which

lead back to the original key of

look upon

MUSIC

this

Rhythm

the last overlapping the

flat

and we may

as containing six measures,


first

of Period No.

4.

Period Nos. 4 and 5 are rhythmically a repetition

of Nos.

and

2.

No.

5 leads to a deceptive cadence

which introduces an independent single

Rhythm of

four measures, Ex. 53, forming no part of a Period,


Ex. 53.
Period

6.

Independent Rhythm.

-,

fcfc

-o

X -G>

Ufct

*-^S>

Bi^a
Period

7.

fe

HH33=^*=

^^g
0-m
t-b=fa*fm

r r

3-

*t

.S^g

ffftj r

m
*

t:

SCHEME OF A COMPOSITION
Period

l&E

8.

199

ft.
1

13===^

JgL;_L

3
/

i
p

?2I

t:

Period

9.

E&

*"i~r

fa

/*

^fc-,=

EEEp
V,

* *lv

C2I

grazioso.

Period

^-

!--

iS

1_
1

-*-*-

y=#^=

n
*#*=
==

as

-01

|3^i=j

Period

b*

fc*

10.

#^=*Jti =i=^3z

E^

zpz^zp:

11.

krF-=\

* IT

^=fc
'-J*

-s>-

E
-

*-

RHYTHM OF MODERN

200

MUSIC

but serving as a kind of bridge by which we pass

over to the new subject in


is

This "bridge

minor.

made use of again later on.


The five-measure Rhythms are now given

C minor

the

section

contains two Periods only, the

first

general character

is

by the sforzando on
while

dignity,

it

still

each

the

to a

life

long,

This

half-bar.

of

division

form of rhythm which,

would be apt

to

Rhythms.

spondaic, as indicated

if

gives

accented

the

half of each spondee into a triplet gives

and

It

of which (Period

6) has two, and the second (Period 7) three

The

up, and

orthodox four-measure.

in

is

"

movement

continued too

become heavy.

Since the frequent repetition of the single triplet,

combined with the spondaic character of the music,

would make

Rhythm of
a

it is

varied in the second

each Period by two successive triplets in

spondee,

single

Period

monotony,

for

three

while

in

successive

Rhythm of
measures are made up
the

final

entirely of triplets.

The whole of

this

section

simple tonic and dominant


portion

simple

practically built

the

extreme

yet

so

The melody
carefully

in

is

the

is

rhythmical scheme thought out that the result

movement

on

harmonies, the greater

on a tonic pedal.

being
in

is

is

which dignity and vigour combine

a
in

an appeal to the highest imagination and the noblest


musical emotions.

SCHEME OF A COMPOSITION
Did Brahms argue
work

set to

the matter out in any such

which we have indicated

as that

201

Did he

way

deliberately

to put a few simple chords together

and

then clothe them with a rhythm that should satisfy


the conditions

We

think not.
instinct

we have described
prefer

We

believe that

to

prefer to

it

was the

of his great genius, combined with a highly

cultivated brain,

that

prompted him

to

write this

passage without seeking for aesthetic reasons

The work of

should be thus or thus.


create

it is

work of the

the

can, the aesthetic reasons


his

work

in

its

genius

is

analyst to find out, if

why

it

to
h.4.

the genius constructed

such a way and no other.

Our C minor
close in

why

section ends with an orthodox full

tonic, in the feminine form, perhaps in

order that the transition to the next passage should

What

not be too abrupt.


called a

"bridge" now

Rhythm

we, for convenience, have

recurs, but this time

its

single

followed by a complementary Rhythm, the

is

The comsecond Rhythm here

two together forming the eighth Period.


poser

is

not content to

make

On

exactly like the

first.

the interest by

making the

twice

as

of the

quickly

previous

expectation

as

the

the

the contrary, he increases


first

corresponding

Rhythm, and

by dwelling

two measures move

for

then

rouses

our

two whole measures

on a f chord of the new key that


enter.

measures

is

about to

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

202

The

rhythmical scheme of the section in

Periods 9 and 10,

Brahms, whose

peculiarly delightful, even for

is

so

abounds

If

we count

music

rhythmical expression.

number of

when we examine

delightful

in

the

bars,

we

and tenth Periods contain

shall find that the ninth

the orthodox

flat,

eight measures each.

It

is

the arrangement, the Diaeresis, of

the Period, that the fascination begins.

by the

to the effect produced

delicate

form of the accompaniment, we

In addition

and original

find that there

is

an

equally delicate and carefully thought out rhythmical

scheme.

we have

First

Rhythm of three

But the six-measure

then one of six measures.

Rhythm

is

by means of the

divided

measures,

slurs into a

phrase of two followed by one of four-measures, which


overlaps and sounds like a three-measure

Hence our eight-measure Periods


unusual form of 3

+ 4.

This melody

Diaeresis,

the

novel Diaeresis,

The
its

two

is

of the orthodox

Greek

in its rhythmical

attached great
in

and

which

is

orthodox.

importance to

any rhythmical

Brahms has

own,

his

eleventh Period

Diaeresis

into

all

are arranged in the

in place

quite

way

was divided

section

+ 3,

is

The Greeks

charm.
the

4-

also

Rhythm.

to this

applied

melody.

of eight measures, but

Its first

pairs of measures, while

Rhythm
its

is

divided

second, accord-

ing to the principle explained on page 146, contains

four undivided measures.

SCHEME OF A COMPOSITION
The

twelfth Period

is

203

rhythmically a repetition of

the ninth.

The

thirteenth Period, Ex. 54, consists entirely of

two-measure phrases, which, contrary to the general


not followed in the same Period by a four-

rule, are

measure Rhythm.

The

however, injured, since

feeling for the rule

this

Period

not,

is

succeeded by a

is

Ex. 54.
Period 13.

>=$

S^Ei
p
series

=F

**
dim.

of unbroken four-measure

fourteenth and fifteenth Periods.

Rhythms,
Being

in

the

a repetition

of the scheme of the sixth and seventh (enhanced

by additional
special

We

triplets) these

two Periods require no

comment.

now

return to five-measure Rhythms.

The

sixteenth and seventeenth Periods are an elaboration

of the

first

and second.

forms are retained

The

dactyl

and spondee

in the bass, while the right

hand

divides the longer notes of these forms so that there


are

four

quavers

in

each

bar.

In

the

sixteenth

Period the principal melody, uttered with the extra

2o 4

RHYTHM OF MODERN

notes,

combined with the

and pianissimo pro-

staccato

duces a mysterious and agitated


seventeenth this

the

The

legato.

strict

the

five-measure form

of

legato

and

in

the

heard again, but in

is

the

The Rhythms

fascinating.

is

effect,

between the

contrast

and

sixteenth

periods

new motive

MUSIC

staccato

of

seventeenth

adhere to the

the music continues pianissimo

Ex. 55
Period

16.

3 w M& JM--*PF

fct

fe

WA
ry-fW^

=p

*=*

^e
Period

17.

ay

1-

l! >

" r r -f- -H^P:

-*=?.--

SCHEME OF A COMPOSITION
8

m&
Efc

m
1

QP

-P-

8.

ItZIjZJL r^r

IS-

If

g^

r*

^S^^^
tete

Id

:p:

^Igl

Period

205

:p=*

ia

18.

ip=M

fM

Overlap.

Overlap.

=t

3=N
1*

Spa ^fe
H?rt
Overlap.

Se

J
4 u
^rv
^r-f

&!

206

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC


Period

mm

19.

b.-

Pt=:

Anacrusis.

-^

fet

HE Sg=

tq

as

:
Anacrusis.

Anacrusis.

gglfc^g

^gEJ=Ejg=@E^g
jj

fete^

Anacrusis.

*MM
S3

^s
each

effect

l*
ftt

The

brings the motivo at a higher pitch

known to the Germans


which we have no technical

which

fc=J^K

:p=zrpi

producing a delicate example of that

last,

rung," for

fi

Overlap.

new Rhythm

than the

is

seventeenth

Period

ends

with

as " Steige-

equivalent.

the

same

melodic figure as the second, but with the difference


already
third

explained on page

Rhythms

composer

in

are

here

such a way

197.

The second and

carefully

slurred

by the

as to enforce the fact that

they are of five measures, while the

last

Rhythm

is

SCHEME OF A COMPOSITION

207

by the

same

divided

two-measure

into

phrases

means.

The

new "

eighteenth Period forms a

Steigerung."

has four Rhythms, of which the last has four

It

measures, and makes a crescendo from pp to

The movement now becomes


mendous chords

The rhythm
a time

Tre-

very stormy.

alternate with the great arpeggios.

Attention

changes.

is

to be centred for

on the grandeur of the harmonies rather than

The

on rhythmical refinements.
the

f.

nineteenth

period

divided into pairs, or

Half-rhythms
anacrusic.

measures.
followed

the

measures,

and each rhythm

The Half-rhythms
closes,

eight

of

say that there are four

succession,

in

by masculine
breathless

contains

we may

Rhythm

first

final

are

is

sharply defined

one increasing the

excitement by being cut into two single

The

series

of two-measure phrases

by an undivided

is

Rhythm

four-measure

which completes the Period, and leads to the

reprise

of the chief subject in Periods 20 and 21.

With

the

twenty-second Period, Ex. $6, com-

mences the coda.


anacrusic.

It

It

introduces a

new

figure,

is

begins with a five-measure Rhythm,

but the second

Rhythm

is

broken into three single

measures, succeeded by a group of four.


less

and

excitement

is

increased

The

rest-

by sforzandos on the

unaccented detached semiquavers of the right hand,

and fresh ardour

is

aroused

in the twenty-third,

the

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

2o8

Ex. 56.
Coda.

Period 22.
2

r"3

M-
Yfe
?ESEi;

3-^
fe
S^=*Mfcri

E]Ei

J^ Anacrusis.
4

*==&

EfcS

i==

Anacrusis.

Period 23.

-(ft)|

-P

j>

j^

-^ m-J

Overlap.

I-

toi-#

SE

'~Tmm*-^

T.r.

se^

-a*--

Jr

?*-,-

tf
*f

One Rhythm

Period 24.

only.

S
j

J ^

,*

-P-

Jtf.

last

-pf="

Period, for the semiquavers here give

staccato

piano

triplets,

works up

way

to

and the Period, which commences


to

fortissimo,

while

the

melody

SCHEME OF A COMPOSITION
gradually rises
octaves.

The

in
final

pitch

through a space of two

cadence

rhythm of four measures

209

in

occupied by a single

is

ponderous chords, com-

mencing with an Anacrusis.


This composition

only one amongst the

is

examples Brahms has given us of


rhythmical

possibilities.

modern development of
directions
his

but

we

He

pushed

mastery over
forward

the art of music in

the

many

believe that in no direction was

work more important than

in

gave to the cultivation of a high,

and

his

many

intellectual sense

of rhythm.

the impetus he

artistic,

emotional,

CHAPTER
Brahms,

Symphony

D, Op. 73 Tschaikowsky, Symphonie


Pathetique, Op. 74

in

Allegro non troppo, Key

The

D, Time Signature

bars are simple, hence the

conductor
Rhythmical
Analysis of
Brahms'
Symphony

No

IX

2 in

marks

Measure,

and

occurs,

easy

is

the

down

the

beat of the

of

accent

to

liminary Measure, which

is

Rhythm

is

allotted to the horns

the second to the clarinets

The

and bassoons,

and bassoons.

Ex. 57.

Brahms' Symphony (Op. 73).


1st

Rhythm.

H
rn
'

=t

*ePreliminary
Measure.

#:

its*

3>
v..

r-

-G>-

rJ-

m^EE

Pre-

succeeded by a dignified

Period containing only Primary accentuation.


first

it

distinguish.

The Primary note is the crotchet.


The movement opens with

D,

op. 73.

each

when

Anacrusis,

enough

'3-

-Gfr

bZBt

BRAHMS' SYMPHONY

21

2nd Rhythm.

-0-

A.

&-

-&-

E|r
/>

aW.
"~N

fiStl!

-s
fr

t:

M-

second Period, while rhythmically the counter-

part of the

first,

and

A, and the close

measures.

is

more

melodically, for

prolonged

audible,

first,

and

of

sets
it

closes

through

seven

strings

enter,

During the cadence the

almost imperceptibly at
ally

it

same

to the

allotted

instruments, differs from


in

-Gh

-ei-

T*

r
The

*^

then becoming graduafter the

finally,

wind has

ceased to be heard, they carry on an arpeggio figure


alone, always in

nine bars.
give

way

Primary notes, through the space of

Rhythmical phrasing seems to


to a

vague wandering up and down

unison on a triad and dominant seventh.

vagueness

from the

is

only apparent

triad to the

really

skill

in

that, while

in

this

the change

reality

it

of the passage with

seems to be formless,

conventional form, and

cultivated hearer to discover

it

is

passage ceases.

left

it

to

The

roll

is

is

the

and appreciate the

with which the underlying convention

The unison

But

in

chord of the seventh marks

the four-measure construction

such

and

cease,

art

hidden.

of the

drum

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

2i2
is

heard on the tonic for a whole measure pianissimo,

We

unaccompanied.
the
is

drum-measure
completed

is

must

the

listen carefully here, for

first

of a new Rhythm, which

by the trombones

three

in

bars

of

harmony.
Ex. 58.
4

Fl.

Ob.

i%-

Tt=-

Trombones.

PP
tr.

m-%

pp

The

final

flutes

1p=

measure of

and oboes,

%?o-

this

Rhythm

is

:&z

taken up by the

of the Preliminary

in a reminiscence

movement opens. The fourmeasure Rhythm allotted to the drum and trombones
and then, with a
is repeated with new harmonies
Measure with which

the

single tap of the

drum,

it

enters again for the third

time, with modifications, and leads to the


in the

key of D, shown

Down

to this

new

subject

Ex. 59.
point we have heard nothing but
in

Primary Rhythm, and there has been an

effect

of solemn

dignity and grandeur, of solidity and earnestness of

purpose befitting a great and important work of

We now experience a lighter vein


enters,

and

for the rest of the

important part.

It is,

Subsidiary

movement

it

art.

Rhythm
plays an

of course, a commonplace of

BRAHMS SYMPHONY
1

213

musical composition that the interest can be enhanced

by the gradual introduction of notes quicker than


those of the opening subject, and

known

only using an effect well

But there are two ways of using

Brahms

here

is

to every composer.

The

it.

increase of

movement may be introduced in such a way as to


make the listener feel that it is only there because
the composer has come to the end of his resources
Ex. 59.

^m

I,

'

Wind

'

Hi be

_C2_.

-*-

-J

=r
etc.

sustain.

+H* J*
F

f*

K*

II

II

Overlap.

Primary

in

introduce

it

The

Rhythm.
in

other

way

to

is

such a manner that the listener

The

is

surprised and pleased at

its

method

of the highly trained work-

man

is

due to the

the second

is

skill

of the

first

subject

we

for an increase of

are not given a repeti-

enhanced

Rhythm, though we perhaps

come

first

that of the great artist.

In the present instance


tion

appearance.

feel

by Subsidiary

that the time has

movement.

Brahms

the opportunity of introducing an entirely

new

seizes

subject

RHYTHM OF MODERN

2i 4
at

MUSIC

Rhythm

the point where the Subsidiary

enters,

thus attracting our attention away from the formal

of construction, and charming us with new and

detail

beautiful melody.

This melody, beginning with subsidiary notes, and


accompanied by them,

and then descends.

rises to a
It

sustained high note

contains a Period of 5

measures with an Overlap, which makes the Period


nine measures in length.

It

is

followed by several

of measures, ending, according to

pairs

We

unbroken Rhythm of four measures.


a succession of
a

legato

with an

rule,

now have

two-measure phrases, which end with

four-measure

Rhythm

on

and

strings

bassoons.

new and

dignified subject,

commencing

thus,

Ex. 60.
1

1.

Cello, f
Viola. _<A_

Mt

is

in

tim

T
well

denned

rr

rr

four-measure

Rhythms

occasional Half-rhythms) throughout


its

tFizz.

etc.
"I

Bass.

-111

closes are for the

its

most part feminine.

tando" " singing;" the chief melody

is

(with

course, and
It is

"can-

allotted to the

BRAHMS' SYMPHONY
string of the violoncellos,

first

particularly fitting in the

and melody seem to


violas play

mark

basses

suit

and there

215

is

something

way with which tone-colour

The

one another absolutely.

below the violoncellos, and the double


the

rhythm by

their pizzicato notes

on

the accents.
It is succeeded by a contrasting
u dotted-note " rhythm, Ex. 61.

new

subject in

Ex. 61.
1

^S^S

*F=S
gps^g^a
f "rJ -.

^3.
P^:

IS

4^

a
:

marc.

IE 3

-J,
:

W*t^$

*=3f

j/" <fe?z

I <i

-4f=M

*gf

quasi ritenente.

i^^

j^=^at

SeI

#3fe2t:
Overlap.

nine-measure Period,

vigorous character

is

+5

with Overlap, whose

due equally

the large melodic intervals,

4 + 6 of strong

is

to the

rhythm and

succeeded by a Period

staccato Subsidiary dactyls,

which give

RHYTHM OF MODERN

216

way

MUSIC

remarkable syncopated dactyls shown in

to the

Ex. 25, page 100.

The

syncopated Subsidiary dactyls are the accom-

paniment to a sustained anacrusic melody


notes, distributed between the basses
is

in

Primary

violins.

It

Half-rhythms, defined by the bowing.

The motive of Ex. 60

and

in

Major, and the

ment

to

it

re-enters, with Anacrusis, in

flute plays a beautiful

in Subsidiary triplets,

thus

accompani-

Ex. 62.

jjM^^AJUl -On

Flute.

The

triplets

occur again beneath the melody in

double counterpoint.

Rhythms, which, owing


disturb

the

series

to

of four five-measure

their

Overlaps, do not

four-measure form, conclude the

first

portion of the movement, leading to a double bar

and

Da

The

Capo.
" working out " section commences with the

first five

notes,

bars of Ex. 57, embellished with Subsidiary

and arranged

at

four-measure phrases.

some length

in

very definite

The second Rhythm of

this

BRAHMS' SYMPHONY
subject (Ex. 57, last four bars)

new

217

provided with two

is

Subsidiary motives, giving a fine example of

triple counterpoint.

Ex. 63.
marc.

=&-

JM^^g F?^^ft*
'

/ ff rr rf

Trt v

f-

We

quote the subject with

two counterpoints

its

only, omitting the filling-in parts.

adhered to in

The

its last

It is

counterpoint, on the violas, starts with

first

up an unbroken flow of
the

made

is

its

This counterpoint keeps

staccato

Subsidiary notes.

sforzando to enforce the Anacrusis of

accents

Its eccentric
felt,

occupies a whole

Primary note of the measure,

last

new motive.

throws

it

second counterpoint, on the second violins,

begins on

the

is

the inversions of the counterpoints.

all

measure except the accent.

which

cut short by

measure, an alteration which

the longest possible Anacrusis, for

The

^Ufepfe-fe*:
e

the omission of

tr

^=&

as!

ff

This motive,

anywhere but

conduct

Some of

the

in the

in this respect

and adds much

will

it

wind instruments

fill

normal

makes

to the interest

be noticed,

its

places.

presence

of the passage.

in the

harmonies,

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

218

and

at the

marking
has had

same time

its

aid the second counterpoint in

When

accents.

the triple counterpoint

Measure of Ex. 57
heard on the trombones, and is now worked up
pairs

its

say, the Preliminary

of measures with Diaeresis of melody, and

is

in
in

diminution, by various wind instruments, to a tremolo

accompaniment on the

strings,

till

gives

it

way

to a

favourite device with Brahms, of changing the Diaeresis

of the \ bar to that of the bar

see page 43.

After a fortissimo in which, amongst other things,


,

change of Diaeresis of the

measure of the

first

opening subject occurs, Ex. 64,


Ex. 64.

fc=fe=

ff

fez

% zx.

Change

(Full orchestra.)

^Plpj^
*e

*--

\?

of Diaeresis.

3
~ -J^A *
l

the orchestra softens to piano and Ex. 57 re-enters,

accompanied by Ex. 59 as Subsidiary work, and the


third section of the movement runs its normal
course.
naturally

From

rhythmical

more or

less

point

of view

repetition

section, with slight differences of detail.

of the

The

measure Rhythm preponderates, and where


measure occurs,

it is

it

is

first

four-

a five-

usually concealed by an Overlap,

BRAHMS' SYMPHONY
so that the general effect

is

that of easily

219
understood

four-measure groups.

Key B.

Adagio non troppo.


It is

Signature C.

impossible to describe the rhythmical subtleties

of the opening passage of


without a

full

this beautiful

movement

Ex. 65 shows the

quotation.

first

two Periods, with the composer's phrasing.

In order

that the underlying rhythmical construction

may

we have omitted some of

be obscured,

not

the wind parts

which merely double those given.


Ex. 65.

Brahms (Symphony No.


Adagio non

2).

troppo.

1st

Rhythm.

2nd Rhythm.

^* rSfS
m
sra
I
I

7="

ngsf i

--

~er

jtt*

f^r

i^zz*:

iz

B
r>

-t-~PC
it=
J

-ML

220
End

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC


of 1st Period.

u*
I

^MMi
re*

Rhythm.

1st

MJ44 n~n

u"

i'TJ

S!

=^
-}-

=*

3rd Rhythm.

2nd Rhythm.
"I!

0m^m
*

mg.
fc

-ei-

/->
h^= h=-t

!-

atzM

ifcH

V?

aa

fe^ ipZ
si

End

-P-

*? r

of 2nd Period.

-fe**

^M-

afcafc
etc.
H

^14
li$E?

1-

r
The

bars

are

Measures, and

compound, each containing

the crotchet

is

the

two

Primary note.

The melody is given to the violoncellos. The first


Rhythm consists of four Measures, whose melody is
carefully divided

by the bowing into two similarly

constructed Half-rhythms, each of which begins with


the Anacrusis.

BRAHMS' SYMPHONY
The horns and double

basses

221

sound

solemn

syncopation in notes of the value of one Measure


each,

on the dominant pedal.

of the violoncello

the bassoon has

attention

calls

accompanied by

is

no dotted note
to

and

itself,

general rhythm, by the rapid

in its

Ana-

a dotted

Anacrusis, but

slightly modifies
little

the effect of which

semiquavers,

Anacrusis

first

In the second Half-rhythm

on the bassoon.

crusis

The

is

of demi-

scale

to

the

bring into

prominence the unaccented note on which the

scale

ends.

The
but

it

first
is

Rhythm

concludes with a Full Close,

obscured by the dominant pedal below the

tonic triad,

by which the composer rounds off the

edge of the phrase.

So

we have had

far

rhythms

the following combination of

Ex. 66.

Melody

!l

Accompaniment

72 J

Pedal

The second Rhythm


Like the

first

it

is

it

lead to

is

material.

unexpectedly repeated with

This

an altered melody.
will

new

divided into pairs of Measures

but the second pair

what

introduces

at

once attracts attention

Naturally a

full close

on the

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

222

tonic triad

expected, after the dominant seventh

is

been twice so

has

Rhythm.
triad

is

prominently heard

falls

single

The

But we are again surprised.

hinted at: the seventh, E,

in

to

tonic

orthodox

its

note, D#, but instead of the other parts of the chord

leading to their regular resolution, they pause for a

and then enter on an entirely unexpected

single beat,

chord, so that the end of the Period, like the end

of the

Rhythm,

first

of what, in

is

concealed by the avoidance

and orthodox

the conventional

style,

should occur here.

By this
to

the

deceptive cadence the

we

second, and

are

first

Period

is

welded

on without

carried

strongly defined punctuation to the next sentence.

The
to

thing probably seems formless and meaningless

many,

especially to those

who

have every-

like to

thing clearly marked and easily understood.


those

who

marked

can appreciate

closes,

this

it,

quartet,

is

as

to

avoidance of well-

subtle concealment

which underlies the whole

Haydn

this

But

as

strictly

of a form
that

of a

particularly refreshing and attrac-

tive.

The second
which the
similar

first

pairs

Period contains three Rhythms, of


is

divided by the bowing into two

of Measures, each beginning with

Rhythm

quaver as Anacrusis.

In

the

second

phrase of two Measures divided into

by a phrase of three Measures.

The

i, is

followed

third

Rhythm

BRAHMS' SYMPHONY
has four Measures,

223

commencing with the Anacrusis

of three quavers, the largest Anacrusis we have yet

had

into 2

+2

Here
the

movement.

in this

first,

It is

divided by the bowing

Measures.

the second Period ends.

It contains,

like

several unexpected harmonies which conceal

the ends of phrases, and

of the

intelligence

welded together

make

listener,

so

demand on

that

the whole

the
is

continuous Melos.

in a

After a curtailed repetition of these two Periods,

making

the horn enters in a solo passage,

melody

plative

as follows

contem-

Ex. 67.

Oboe 1
r~

-Q

%k

'

I-

-G>-

:&

-&

"P-

^-

HORN.

JiliHJ
i
m*#ry
n

ii'u,1f;t

This motive

is

taken up in turn by other wind

instruments and the strings.


it

is

It will

be noticed that

anacrusic and has Rising accentuation, but

second accent
to the accent

is

omitted, and this gives

on the

final

Measure.

more

its

force

RHYTHM OF MODERN

224

There

is

MUSIC

change of signature to

-^-,

the

new

" L'istesso tempo."

material being indicated as

In

other words, the Primary rhythm continues to be


duple, while each

The

triplets.

Measure

J 2- bars
g

divided into Subsidiary

is

contain two Measures each

hence we must look upon this part of the movement,


for rhythmical purposes, as if

Time.
with the

In

fact, later

signature.

it

were

on, the

is

in

still

actually

Common
combined

Ex. 68.
Uistesso tempo

Wood

ma

wind..

j!|p^p^S

J*l

Cello.

The

N \A

l;

grazioso.

3:

12

Pizz.

first

32
-Hf-^- -33=3

ff

two Rhythms,

-#^
3-=

=rhEz=1zp=i1z^==1

allotted to the

instruments, are of four measures each.

wood-wind
Both begin

with Anacrusis, and conclude with a feminine close.

We

notice that the obscurity of

the

syncopations and

instruments

is

made

sustained
clear

rhythm involved

in

notes of the wind

by the pizzicato Primary

notes of the violoncellos.

Another melody, Anacrusic, and with Rising Accentuation, appears, being preceded by an

"

Empty

BRAHMS' SYMPHONY
Time
on

" on

an

accent.

re-appearance

its

occurs

It
is

it

shown

simply

first

accompanied by a double

whose commencement

counterpoint in semiquavers,
is

at

225

Ex. 69.

in

Ex. 69.

i &2

IS

-I

t^

^*^

ijaki

Anacrusis.

It

afterwards accompanied by

is

which add very


Its chief

the

much

motive

1^

demisemiquavers,

to the increasing excitement.

then used as a counterpoint to

is

opening melody, Ex. 65, with a combination

of the

developed

and
at

signatures.

This arrangement

some length, and the Rhythms

is

are

easily recognised.

The

final

Period of the

movement

is

observing, as containing an effect of which

makes use

in

The drum

beats soft triplets on the

his

worth

Brahms

Requiem, and perhaps elsewhere.

of measures, being

silent

In this final Period

use

weak portions

on the accented portions.


is

also

made of

semiquaver figure of bar two, Ex. 65


tent recurrence here

is

very effective.

the demiits

persis-

RHYTHM OF MODERN

226

Allegretto

grazioso {Quasi

MUSIC
Signature &.

Andantino).

the Adagio a mysterious effect

If in

been

has

produced by carefully obscuring the divisions be-

tween Rhythms and Periods,


exact opposite

and clean cut

clear

instead

as

of a movement

in
full

profound sentiment, we have


not

aspects,

whit

of deep

its

the

thought and

a Scherzo which, while

behind the Adagio

charms us with

Allegretto

Here everything is as
a Mozart Sonata, and

the case.

is

in the

in

lightness

intellectual

its

and delicacy of

touch.
Its bars are simple,

note.

One of

its

the crotchet being the Primary

characteristics

is

the

persistent

flow of Subsidiary rhythm, chiefly in the accompani-

ment, which
in

quavers

played on the violoncellos pizzicato

is

and where the quavers cease on the


motion

violoncellos, the

is

maintained by syncopa-

tion in other instruments, so that there

no break

This refers to the principal sub-

in its continuity.
ject,

is

but in the other subjects the same features will

be found, and the Subsidiary rhythm rarely ceases.

The melody
Primary notes

of the principal subject consists of


for

mencing with the


Played

simply

its

first

two measures, com-

accent.

and

without

expression,

there

would be nothing remarkable about the rhythm of


these two bars, merely three ordinary cotchets in a

BRAHMS' SYMPHONY
But by

bar.

little

nuance

Brahms

character of the tune, and gives


that

make

the

last

it

irresistible.

crotchet

of

He

each

it

227

alters the

whole

and

a spring

life

on

places a sforzando

bar

accompanies

he

Ex. 70.
Allegretto grazioso.

this

by an

crotchet

further

marks

that the note

it

unexpected

by an

acciacatura.

triplet,

the

last

which

result

is

melody.

crotchet of the fourth bar there

forms the

still

this gives a

Anacrusis

of the

rhythm, though joined to the end of the


slur.

and

The

becomes an Anacrusis, and

special character to the simple

On

chord,

is

second

first

by

This connects the two Rhythms together with

excellent effect.

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

228

The second Rhythm


by

is

two repetitions of

of four measures, extended

measure to

closing

its

six

measures.

The second

Period

measures followed by one of


a

Half-rhythm

Rhythm of

contains a

and ending with

six,

and here there

four

is

slight

pause,

Ex. 71.
Half-rhythm.

i
-*Wt
/>N

A.

^1:
shown
this

in

_*_

rf>

4.

Pizz,

call

attention to

half-rhythm, while at the same time

half-rhythms in unexpected

movement, and they

places

are

it

The

opening theme.

the re-entry of the

this

c^

tP

Ex. 71, which seems to

gd

is

marks
use of

feature of

introduced, like the

other rhythmical divisions, so clearly and decidedly,


that there can be no mistake as to

poser

means.

We

shall

what the com-

have more to say about

the kind of pause here used, in Chapter X.


third Period
for

no

is

of 4

arranged in a way that

calls

special description.

This ends the


is

+ 6,

The

first

section of the

followed by a change from

to

movement.

It

f rhythm,

the


BRAHMS' SYMPHONY
rhythm running more or

subsidiary

229

less

through

The

the parts, and not only in the accompaniment.

melody

is

opening subject reduced from

that of the

duple measure.

triple to

are easily recognisable,


after the

new

Its

till

it

four-measure Rhythms

comes

to a half-rhythm

second period, which prepares the way for

most

in-

consists of

two

subject in dotted rhythm, with

The Period

teresting construction.

complete
order 4

and two half-rhythms, arranged

+ 2,

4+

marked by the

2.

The

division

is

in

very

difference in the internal structure of

Ex. 72.

feSd=aSi

Eta

*f

ft*

the

clearly

the whole and half-rhythms.

all

r
4

J=l s
1

3
j_rj

to

RHYTHM OF MODERN

230

MUSIC

This ingenious device makes for great brilliancy

and energy, and,

as

there

Primary Time, the energy


After this

pitch.

pursues

its

way

is

increased to the highest

is

passage

exciting

movement

the

and leads to

pianissimo^

on each

a sforzando

of

a return

Ex. 70.
Six measures

of our

last

page 98,
for

of Presto

example

The

the most

part

rest

quoted on

it is

of the movement

is

development of the subjects

whose opening bars we have given.


broken by

motive

introduce the

in syncopation

Ex. 22.

in

-|

The time

pause on the Anacrusis of the

is

final

Rhythm.
Allegro con Spirito.

The

bars

Primary

are

note.

Major.

The

movement

peculiarly Brahms-like phrase.


in octaves,

minim

the

simple,

Signature C.

accompanied by

fifths

being

starts

single

on the

the

with
is

struck

strings

and

Ex. 73.
Allegro con spirito.

iiiU

m-mEi3S m
P

Sotto voce,

-4
i^
gpE^

mmmmWf
I

BRAHMS' SYMPHONY
brass, sotto

by

voce,

quaver

strings

on the

rest,

alone,

and then a melody

D, with

naturally expect the single

proper to

on the

starts off

We

special orches-

its

Preliminary note, and the melody

commence with

But the

the Anacrusis.

composer does not intend anything of

He

anything so obvious.
first

followed

It is

unison, with an Anacrusis.

in

tration, to be a

accent.

first

23

the

sort,

has placed a slur over the

four bars, and included the opening

in

it,

showing that these four bars are to constitute the


first

Rhythm, and the

but part of the

first

not a Preliminary note,

is

Rhythm, separated from

its

com-

panion measures by a Caesura.

The second Rhythm


five-measure Rhythm

ing

the

last

measure

Brahms here does


first

and not

contains Hve measures, and

made by

just the contrary

measure.

his last

repeat-

of a four-measure phrase.

opening of the movement


voce,

often

is

by the unison of the

is

he repeats his

The mystery of
enhanced by the

Rhythm ends

sotto

two measures, by three-

first

part writing doubled through several octaves.


first

the

with a feminine close

there

Anacrusis to the second, and the whole of the

The
is

no

first

Period, except where interrupted by the rest after


the quasi-preliminary
ceptible division into

note,

flows

on without per-

Rhythms.

The second Period opens

with a

succession

of

two-measure phrases, each of which has an Anacrusis

RHYTHM OF MODERN

232

The whole of

of three crotchets.

this Period,

ends with a six-measure Rhythm,

down

part writing

to

its

four-part enters for the

To
Then
full

point

this

there

is

last three

first

is

which

only two-

in

measures,

when

time.

everything

on the

a rest

MUSIC

has

been

first

accent,

sotto

voce.

and the

orchestra bursts in with an Anacrusis of seven


repetition

of

period in a simplified form, with

full

quavers,

leading

counterpoint,

to

the

opening

harmony and

and with quaver rhythm throughout

every measure.
Ex. 74.

Anacrusis.

The Rhythms now continue for some time to be


four-measure, until we come to a brilliant passage
Ex. 75.

r-^

-J""j*T"i

uk

n
"

1=1
etc.

ff

t-

BRAHMS' SYMPHONY
ending

with

are

in

fully

Ex. 75,

crusic figure

um
All

now

is

the

j
#

and

fire

m
r
life

are

clarinets

in

heard

quaver movement that

i-

ana-

in the

closes,

full

there

the

comes
on

midst of the busy

the

perpetually going on in

is

wind.

way

the other strings give

great arpeggios

syncopated notes of

The

violoncellos begin

time with crotchets

the

Then

Two

in

um

'

four-measure Rhythms,

sustained

against

primary value

mark

following

j
*

a diminuendo to pianissimo.

to

and

whole orchestra being employed.

the strings,

wind

the

quavers,

which are strongly punctuated by

the

is

while the strings

accents with

the

mr

with

This

tonic.

commencement

very telling

is

occupied

drums mark

the

in

Rhythm, whose

seven -measure

shown

close

full

233

the second subject enters

the quavers of

to crotchets,
it

is

quoted

and
in

finally

Ex. 23,

page 98.
It

begins with a

five-measure

Rhythm of

Rhythm, but

by Overlap on the

fifth

as the

+ 2,

followed by a

new Period

measure of

this last

enters

rhythm,

Throughout the
4 + 4 is maintained.
movement, wherever a five-measure Rhythm occurs,

the

balance

it

almost invariably overlaps the succeeding period,

as

it

does here.

The

second subject

is

a strong

one owing

to the

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

234

syncopation in

its

most part accompanied by quavers

for the

accented portion, and


portion of

its

heard

on the

triplets

made

material

the

to

its

in unison, forte,

a sforzando

The

It is

with quaver

in

grows out of what has gone

the

triplets,

is

measure.

and

is

fresh

before.

the following, in

up

wind instruments keep

quavers and the strings punctuate

and

return

quavers,

particularly attractive effect

which

rhythm, until

subsidiary

do not continue long


quadruplets

in each

repeated several times

crotchet of the

final

is

the unaccented

finally also in

measures.

with modifications of
it is

The melody

measure.

first

it

flow

of

with pizzicato

crotchets.
Ex. 76.
u

It is

makes

fff rrn
\

one of those many passages in which rhythm


its

appeal in the simplest possible

manner,

by notes which are evenly distributed throughout the


Period.
in

The charm of

this particular

example

lies

the contrasting tone-quality of the instruments

which carry out the two rhythmical schemes.

BRAHMS' SYMPHONY

*3S

During the course of the development the following tumultuous syncopation occurs

Ex. yy.
4

$#==
% fc

-*-

iSh-

^P^E?

-m-

pe

fc

-e>-

?2Z

f5>-

32^=13:

HE*?
y J

ms:>

_a

J*Ll
p

t-

-_

^r

-kS>-

tt

-e*-

-o-

t-

t-

-r;

f=

Overlap.

The
form

first

four

contain the

bars

of syncopation, that

represented

by

In

silence.

second subject (Ex. 23)

through

rhythm

Beethoven
sidiary

and

alone
is

in

which the accent

the last two bars

is

the

represented by the bass

is

most powerful

favourite

device

with

accompanied by syncopated Sub-

work.

The whole movement is a masterpiece of strength


and energy. The Rhythms are straightforward and
easily understood
no special demand is made by
;

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

236

them on the

intellectual

No

faculties.

pauses or

course, which

ritardandos occur to break

its

on with an earnest and

dignified

is

carried

impetus that

is

irresistible.

Tschaikowsky.

Symphonie Pathetique.

Op. 74.

While many of Brahms' works appeal

to

rhythmical faculties through the grouping of


sures in

Phrases

Mea-

of various kinds, Tschaikowsky

more on

generally relies

the

grouping of the notes

within the Measures than on variety of Phrase.

other words,

our

Brahms makes more use of

In

the Primary

and Tschaikowsky of the Subsidiary Rhythms.

In

Brahms' music we more often meet with unexpected


Overlaps and Deceptive Cadences, which influence
the lengths of Phrases, or mystify us by obscuring
limits,

their

while

with

Tschaikowsky the four-

measure and the Half-rhythm


and they are generally

The

introduction

are the

more

prevalent,

clearly defined.

of

this

Symphony opens with

the following Period, the crotchet being the Primary

note

Ex. 78.

Tschaikowsky (Op.
Adagio.

Prel.
|

74).

Bassoon.

T>'Y<&V^
cres.

f*

TSCHAIKOWSKY

Feminine

237

close."

The Motive is anacrusic, and two measures in


length.
The accent of the second measure is disby Syncopation.

placed

and diminuendo

But, through

crescendo

each measure, through slurs and

in

through changes of harmony, the normal accent

we

enforced in such a manner that

is

are confronted

with a phrase of great emotional significance, which


at

once gives the symphony the right to

its title

of

Pathetic.

At

end of the Period there

the

a slight

is

climax;

the accented note occupies a whole measure, and

reinforced by the telling

moreover, the
paused

final

take

to

harmony and

measure

breath

is silent,

the sforzando
as if the

continuing

before

is

music

its

sad

message.
After a repetition of the opening passage,
slight alterations,

Recitative,

mences.

the
It

and

Allegro

with

a few bars of very expressive

non

troppo,

(Ex. 79), com-

has the same motive as the introduction,

but with a different treatment.

Here
is

the second accent of each pair of measures

represented by a

and

rest, in place

change of harmony we

of the syncopation

heard

in

the intro-

RHYTHM OF MODERN

238

duction.

succeeding

The

MUSIC

compels attention, and the

silence

four-measure

Phrase, with

slurred

its

Ex. 79.
Allegro non troppo.

mm

*H*-

A-F-

toE

-f

OEM

QE
p

^^gEEb^^ll^;

Ij^l

J=

F
as;!

*)-

-m

^:

=3:

"?mm +*
-

if*

^i1=3:

=t

^d
-

-0

1=3:

* -f=3t

<?

*!

iz

3:

Anacrusis.

3EES

Ft

semiquavers on the accent, answered by the notes on


the

half

measures

and energetic

in

the

bass,

has

an

agitated

effect.

Soon afterwards there comes

a five-measure Phrase,

TSCHAIKOWSKY
which
of

brought about by the interposition of a bar

is

time,

i.e.

if

is

means

this

maintained, which

it

would

the five-measure Phrase were ended within

a bar of Common

No.

By

of a single measure.

the falling accentuation

not be,

239

Time.

Compare Brahms, Op.

10,

Ex. 45, page 156.


After the \ bar, the opening motive recommences,
1,

with

additional

figure

actual

(Ex.

An

rhythm.

Subsidiary

anapaestic

announced loudly on the horns, but

is

motive

pianissimo

enters

accompanied

80),

by

on

the

descending

its

strings,
scale

in

double counterpoint.
Ex. 80.
(Outer parts only.)

S3

'tzgz==a^@^5
v?

&

-J=2=f5^

Pt

Anacrusis.

This passage

Anacrusis.

is

Anacrusis.

extremely expressive

poser insists on the Anacrusis being

by the bowing,
parts.

the

pianissimo^

the

anapaests,

while

the

the

com-

made evident

every measure, and in

The combination of

staccato

cance.

in

smooth
whole

all

the

scales with
is

played

has an emotional effect of deep signifi-

RHYTHM OF MODERN

2 4o

We

come now

explained

that

by the

drums beating

two

rhythmical figures

In Chapter

Ex. 81.

to

MUSIC
two

simultaneously would

one figure

listener as only

III.

we

different

be heard

but that when

Ex. 81.
Flute.
Violin.

jM-

10

V-'grnG

**

P=*
Horn.

rfe=fc

Cello.

/-

tl

#.

F-

3fe=
etc.

*=

i=F

different instruments or voices

took part

rhythmical figures simultaneously, the

in different

effect

of both

could be heard, not as a single figure necessarily,


but

as

scheme

in

combined with each


It is

here

of

which

other,

two or more

and yet were

this invaluable resource that

avails

himself,

and

the

figures

distinct.

Tschaikowsky

movement

under

TSCHAIKOWSKY

241

number of

consideration contains a

com-

beautiful

binations of Subsidiary figures.

In Ex.

the different figures are allotted to in-

struments of contrasting tone, and are easily distin-

The

guished.

and

bassoon

the

violin

marks

flute

its

accents by the slurs,

have a noticeable

arpeggio, the horn stands out through

note " figure.


is

will

It

worked up

with changes of detail too


Subsidiary

figures

the wind

in

motive

semiquaver

is

length in Half-rhythms,

at considerable

forms the

" Dotted -

be noticed that the phrasing

The

Half-rhythms.

in

its

crescendo

numerous

material

several

to

and

to quote,

striking

Then comes

instruments.

it

diminuendo and ritardando, in which the rhythm dies

down,

until

it

ceases altogether in a pause

on

preparatory to the entrance of the second

a rest,

subject,

Ex. 82.
Ex. 82.
Andante.

Prelim.

1st

i *=m

I;

atdz*

Con

sordino.

Rhythm.

:*=*

WW

Teneramente^ molto cantabile, con espansione.

2nd Rhythm.
2

1^^^^
!

-I*

1-

I.

^-i

'/

a-

RHYTHM OF MODERN

242

The pause

MUSIC

not the only thing that breaks the

is

rhythmical flow.
The new subject is preceded by an
" Empty Time " of two measures, expectation is on
the

during

alert

re-enters
crescendo

this

from

an

with

softly,

first

its

long

to

silence,

Anacrusis.
its

effect

fall

The Masculine endings

in

is

of the

sustained

is

accompanied by

both places,

but in the

Rhythm
expected.
The

has a crescendo^ and the succeeding

it

enters by
crescendo,

long note

syncopation

pianissimo

second

The

rise

of the Rhythms

on the third accent, and the melody

to the fourth.

of a Rising

Accentuation, which coincides with the

melody.

makes

It

second accent, and by

means the composer gets the

this

and the music

an Overlap before

it

is

combined with the Overlap, has

emotional

a strongly

effect.

The decrease of movement at the ends of these two


Rhythms enhances the melancholy effect of the
harmony and melody.

Decrease of movement.

The Andante
gives

way

anapaestic

is

only a few bars in length.

to a moderate mosso, in

rhythm

in the strings

measure triplet-rhythm

phrase,

It

which a continuous
accompanies a fourthe

various

wind

instruments imitating and overlapping one another


in

very

effective

manner.

Together with

the

TSCHAIKOWSKY
anapaests

one

in

and

triplets,

crotchets, the

243

two other figures are heard,


other in syncopation, so that

there are the following four figures in combination,

each of which can be distinguished, owing to the


orchestration.

UfU
The

LffLT C-CTLT LCTCJ

substratum of anapaests against an entirely

different superstructure

The Andante

is

very beautiful.

recurs, with triplet

with powerful crescendos and


the music here

pause an
figure,

allegro

Ex.

83,

is

accompaniment,

much change of

exceedingly emotional.

vivo sets

in, fortissimo ,

tempo

After a

with a

new

whose six-measure Phrase, broken

RHYTHM

244

by Caesuras,

on the

OF MODERN MUSIC

very expressive.

is

It

leads to a fugato

two motives of the movement,

first

notes, uttered with terrific force,

quaver countersubject

in staccato

and a furious semi-

added, each entry being

is

Ex. 83.
Allegro brio.
Prelim.

3l: :3=:

3==3:

^=r^^-

S^

^f-r-

feroce

and

ff.

M-r^

sf

sf

sf

marked

j>i

iW

The wind instruments

in anacrusic interjections,

bring

which add strongly to the

accentuation, and then they join in the semiquaver


passage,

whilst

the

against them, Ex. 84.

trumpets

The

thunder

vigour of

in

this

octaves

motive

is

Ex. 84.
2

-&-

* G>-

I2I

=t

~-V*-

H9-

fff

-o-

-4
l

e*-

W4

=t=t

*&
1

ct=5ah-5

i>

F J

r^j*

fT*31

TSCHAIKOWSKY

by the addition of crotchets

increased at the end

where there were minims

new motive

fortissimo,

and

in the beginning.

way

Tlie fortissimo gives

and

to a diminuendo

enters,

which

down

as quickly dies

quickly to

to pianissimo in a

on the horns, while the

into one another and played


violins hint at the
in

rises

and piano

mixture of triplets and duplets, syncopated

gentle

it

245

again.

working

opening subject, before bringing

In a short time the

up

this subject

full orchestra

to fortissimo in an interchange

of Half-rhythms, with a particularly grand

effect.

After a stormy interchange of triplets and

Minim becomes

the

rests,

the Primary note in the follow-

ing motive, with a solemn effect

Ex. 85.

3v
jfezt
\v.O &-

otjgF"

#P

t"'

ft

-<s>-

ff
-<s>-

Z22I

Iez

ffzl
"5~

22t

**

*
jdL

1-

l&-

-&-

-Q.

31

W2^

r7

is

3T

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

246

The

re-entry of the Andante, with an undercurrent

of Subsidiary rhythm played


the

crotchet

the Primary

as

whether played

back

tremolo, pp, brings

This subject,

note.

fortissimo or pianissimo, with or with-

out subsidiary rhythm, always has a plaintive feeling,

owing

to the long notes at the

The movement ends

end of the phrase.

with a fresh reading of the

opening subject (Ex. 78), punctuated by Primary


notes played pizzicato on the strings.
Second Movement.

The

con grazia.

Allegro

Primary note

is

Signature

is

the crotchet.

movement

well-known and very graceful

This

takes the place of the Minuet, and accordingly


a Trio,

The

f.

followed

by a repetition of the

it

has

opening

section.

The compound f

Duple-Triple.

order

the

in

Bars contain two measures each,

The

Rhythms

are

throughout of four-measure form.


Ex. 86.
Allegro con grazia.

^w

tfV* '
l

-rnT

fl

K m

II

1
1

mf

There

is

can

1
1
1
1

-1
Masculine half-close.

a swing and ease that fully accounts for

the popularity of the

Time

movement, and

produce so

facile

and

that

Quintuple

readily-grasped

TSCHAIKOWSKY

247

music, supports our contention on page 125, that


there

nothing unnatural in

is

The

of time.

this division

measure

occasional intervention of a single

" Dotted-note "

form gives

feeling to the "

dancing

Minuet/' as also does, though to a

lesser extent, the single triplet seen in

The Trio forms


minor mode each

Ex. 86.

strong contrast.

pair of

It is in the

Measures has Rising

its

each second accent coincides with a

Accentuation,
discord and

and

light

in

long note.

Underneath

constant reiteration of the note

lies

all

as a pedal- point.

Ex. 87.

-J-d:

et

&

-&#<sF-.-^

j.

^=}

The

effect

Pi

of this combination, the persistence of

the bass note, the dwelling on

each
is

Rhythm,

only

the discord twice in

one of deep melancholy, which

is

dispelled

by

the

gradual

return

of the

" Minuet."
Third Movement.
Allegro

tween

molto

C and

vivace.

J^-.

The

Signature varies be-

The Primary

note

is

the crotchet

RHYTHM OF MODERN

248

MUSIC

or the dotted crotchet, according to the signature.

There

are

two Measures

The movement,
course,

rhythm
sidiary

is

is

for

in the Bar.

part of

considerable

its

of the nature of a March, whose Primary


constantly accompanied by a busy Sub-

rhythm of

staccato

There

triplets.

are eight

bars of Introduction in triplets, which continue their

course in the strings, while the

movement

regular

begins with the following motive

Ex. 88.

^s
V

-3:

*-*

:*=3=

~&- ]-*

g=rs=gfe

3=

3-

In the midst of the accompanying triplets we hear


occasional duplets, which are played pizzicato, so that

they stand out amongst the restless


strings

here

divide

into

giving another instance

no

less

triplets.

than

ten

The
parts,

of the composer's use of

orchestration to serve the purpose of his rhythmical


effects.

The

march-like figure in Ex. 88

times in different keys and with

is

various

It practically

work on which

whole movement

development of

this

many

modifica-

forms the ground-

tions of melody.
the

repeated

is

built.

After

motive a new figure enters.

TSCHAIKOWSKY

249

Ex. 89.

Fizz.

*W^-i^=^=^

-m-

--A-

:iz3==3zzr3:

P
Jf*-F- F

r^-l-^

:
i

ftIT-

"^F4-*

*-*i

*a=r
It

is

accompanied, like the

also

triplets.

The

ample the
left to

and

final

first,

reader will observe that in this

Ex-

accents are struck, instead of being

the imagination, as in Ex. 88.

melodic

by unceasing

structure

of the

The harmonic
Rhythm-endings

give a kind of arch assertiveness, such as

we meet

with in hornpipe tunes, and in some of Bach's dance


music.

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

250
Ex.

89

which

immediately

is

accompanied

also

is

by

followed

by

Ex.

staccato

90,

triplets.

Ex. 90.

4-4

^b^=

Marcato.

EE

rep

1
etc.

t
Ex. 88 now re-enters, and

is

developed, and after-

wards a new complex of figures


Tscha'ikowsky loves

is

heard, such as

Ex. 91.

m
m

JA=^3
1

3m

etc.

niS
It

is

=fc
:E:

*H

3pp

Masculine

followed by a fanfare in

triplets,

close.

which ends

in a full close.

A
Its

new subject
first Rhythm

second

is

soft,

semiquavers

enters,

which we need not quote.

has sustained fortissimo chords,

and

consists

of

moving downwards

light

against

its

groups of
a

rising

TSCHAIKOWSKY
chromatic scale
the

251

the bass, played pizzicato.

in

new Period of

eight

Measures has been repeated

several times, the original subject, Ex.

and

is

worked

again

The

now

is

which Ex. 88
note

the

and the whole

as

worked up with

in

semiquavers,

two Measures, and

this

tremendous whirlwind, Ex.

the

full

lude,

orchestra,

while

the

also

fff,

drums

and

we
are

fff,

interlude
occurs.

repeated

in

Ex. 92.

of

preceded by an

is

88

After

re-appears in

the

scale inter-

instruments

staccato chords,

drum

and

join in the
till

whose dotted notes

succession

phrases.

on

Each

excitement continues for a long time,

get a repetition of Ex. 91,

now

a climax, in

to

brass

the side drums, cymbals, and bass

The

first

full orchestra

like

punctuate the Primary notes by

fray.

the

demisemiquavers.

of

Anacrusis

ascending

of

An

pedal-point.

descending scales
scale occupies

and leads

repeated,
is

88, returns,

out.

Introduction

section

After

of one-measure

RHYTHM OF MODERN

252

The

climax of this passage

is

MUSIC

here reached, in a

figure of four quavers to the Measure, punctuated by-

dotted

crotchets

the

in

the

bass,

whole

being

marked fffff
Ex. 88 re-enters

worked out again

What
its

is

to the

movement

the significance of this

In

seem to buzz round

work round

the march-like figure like bees hard at

hive on a bright summer's day.

pleasant sunny atmosphere about

it

There

but

is

its

undoubtedly

becomes to
haps

this

all

intents

but a march does not

we miss

its

palls,

very strongly marked

and

the

and purposes

stir

movement

march.

what the composer intended

is

its

variety of orchestration, the figure

represented by Ex. 88, with

rhythm,

we soon

begin to find that in spite of the boldness of


treatment, and

is

end of the movement.

early part the staccato triplets

their

and

softly, rises to a fortissimo,

it

Perto be

the deeper emotions, and

the stimulus of the

first

and second move-

For this constant reiteration of a " dottedments.


note " figure makes no call on the imagination ; it
stamps
fine

as

appeal
the

itself
it

is

upon

us, forces

its

way

into us, and,

we cannot call it great music. Its


more to the physical, the muscular, than
is,

spiritual

side

of our

nature,

and

the

varia-

power from pp to fffff do not make up


But, on
the want of appeal to the imagination.

tions of
for

the other hand, there

is

no doubt about

its

popularity

TSCHAIKOWSKY
with an audience, and
if its

its

253

would be

existence

justified

chief function were to act as an attraction that

could draw people

to

hear

more imaginative

the

music of the other movements.


Finale.

Adagio lamentoso.

The

being the Primary note.


at first

Signature

is

the crotchet

The normal Rhythms

are

of two-measures, well divided by Caesuras.

In the opening subject use


decrease

of

Rhythm,

to

This time

movement

is

again

towards

the

made of

the

end of the

which we have referred on page 242.

it is

connected with the minor mode, and

has an almost tragic efFect.


Ex. 93.
Adagio lamentoso.

Decrease of movement.

Largamente.

The

play

of emotion

is

changes of tempo and power.

n
which, with

its

enhanced by constant

The

figure

descending melody and

its

Caesura, gives

so pathetic a feeling, constantly recurs in the adagio

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

254

and though the Caesura

frequently

is

instruments which take no part

filled

up by
motive,

in the chief

they are of contrasting tone, so that the effect of the

melody

is

enhanced by

The Adagio

company.

leads to the Andante, in which synco-

pated pianissimo

on the horns usher

triplets

Primary-note melody

accompany

tinue to

their

major mode, and con-

in the

The new melody works up

it.

to a fortissimo, with frequent change of tempo

each pair of Measures

in a

is

broken off by a

finally,

rest with a

pause, and then an important Anacrusis brings in a

resumption of Ex. 93.

It is

worked

out,

and

rises

Ex. 94.

Anacrusis.

to a climax in the moderato assai, in which


are given

two

figures

simultaneously to the wind and strings.

down to piano. There is an episode in


syncopated minim chords on the trombone, which
The andante
begins ppp and dies away to ppppp.
Then

it

sinks

melody

is

resumed, with

mendously reinforced
pedal
the

in

triplets,

movement.

it

its
is

Primary accents

tre-

accompanied by a tonic

which continues to the end of

The

last

Measures

die

away

in

pianissimo chords

on the lowest

parts of the violon-

and double

basses, the last

dying accents being

cellos

TSCHA'l'KOWSKY
by sforzando discords.

uttered

movement

is

The whole of

and the rhythmical features we

have noticed contribute quite as


;

and

this

intensely emotional, an effect to which

the frequent Caesuras

monies

255

it

forms a

" Pathetic Symphony."

much

as the har-

fitting conclusion to a great


It is said that the

kind of epitome of the composer's

life,

work

is

which, on

account of his excessive sensitiveness, was a sad one.

CHAPTER X
Vincent D'Indy,

Masques
Op. 45

Sonata

Hommage

Elgar

in

Rameau

Piano,

for

Stanford,

Movement
are

Sonata in

for Piano,

de

I.

cutant

2,

in

E.

ModSre

-J.

The

se fie

a V intelligence de Texi-

pour comprendre

et interpreter sans

combinations de rythmes binaires et tern aires

ces trois pieces

The second

note says

" Le signe ~\
portant que

signifie

un leger point

Measures, the

last

moins im-

with a

Rhythm of

five

duple

of which forms a feminine ending

the phrase, and

single

d 'arret

le /tn."

The movement opens


to

No

" L' auteur

les

Quartet

important bearing on the rhythm.

Vincent

heurts

Debussy,

three foot-notes, two of which have an

first is

T> lndy.

63

Symphony, Op. 55

D'Indy, Sonata

There

Op.

is

succeeded by a pause on a

Primary " Empty Time."

The

triple

the pause

measure

makes an

is

only apparent, not

real, for

indefinite break in the rhythmi-

SONATA

D'INDY,

cal flow.

IN E

257

pause on a minim would have been too

long: the composer wishes to renew the rhythmical


Ex. 95.

Vincent D'Indy (Sonata, Op.

63).

Modtri (J=80).
4 en retenant.

pEE
=:

"

if

tnergique.

'

,".

JS

it

off,

na
rp+'W
/T\

E^

&~fyLf*aaFg
|^

Half measure.

fe^t
^3 fe^
C*S3

/T\

:<fefe

movement

as soon as possible after breaking

of the passage demands only a short

for the feeling

pause here.

The
the

The
is

phrase

first

itself

accent

third

begins with a vigorous triplet on

the second accent

Measure

is

anacrusic, the

struck in the bass only, and the

anacrusic,

give

way

like

to

the

third.

The

the

pace

duplets,

is

not struck.

fourth accent

fifth

Measure

energetic
is

is

triplets

slackened

and

the phrase ends softly with a gentle feminine close.


R

RHYTHM OF MODERN

258

a very striking passage

It is

It

second

Rhythm, and extended

everything

is

with modifications, for the

repeated,

At

instead of five.

silent

its

opening of a

for the

work.

is

MUSIC

end

is

to

Measures,

six

a short pause in

which

except the bass note, which

is

sustained through the pause, and thus carries on the

sound into the next phrase.

pair

of new Periods now occurs.

divided from one another by the sign

lengthening of the

note, not

final

They

are

a slight

|T|,

amounting to

pause, and not sufficient to break the regular flow of

rhythmical accents.
great pianists.
it

The

This
late

effect

is

not

unknown

to

Hans von Bulow employed

Beethoven's sonatas, and he would sometimes

in

make

a similar slight delay


into prominence.

bring

it

that

this

kind

on an accented note

It is interesting to notice

of pause

is

very ancient.

much detail by the Greek


under the name of " Chronos alogos,"
portional Time," that is, a " Time " that

described

to

It

is

theorists

in

"
is

Unproout of

proportion to the other " Times," and yet does not

extend to the value of two " Times."

have been chiefly used by the

It

Greeks

seems to
as

D'Indy

mark the end of a Rhythm.


sometimes used by Brahms in the form

uses

it

It is

here, namely, to

/T\

See Appendix.

D'INDY,

SONATA

See Ex. 71, page 228.

It

IN E

259

occurs also in Brahms*

Pianoforte Intermezzo, Op. 116, No.

6.

R. Strauss

uses the sign

for the

We

same purpose

figures,

The

Verklarung."

which

triplets.

the
is

very

fine

of the bass

determination

solid
;

and the " Chronos alogos

on the feminine ending of the Period makes


of climax before the

on a

totally

some

first

unexpected chord.

similar

sign,

"

a kind

motive (Ex. 95) re-enters,

comes

have to be invented for

If the sign

general

into

appears likely to be the case,


will

it

of the somewhat agitated right-hand

effect

progression,

in

here an interesting combination

is

accompanied by

against

part,

Tod und

quote the second of the Periods

occurs, for there

of

"

in

jTj,

use,

or
as

some convenient term

it.

Ex. 96.
1

IsJ-

JL

ts

Ty
fe

$^#=1^

taa
;

0Br.

&*-rii

RHYTHM OF MODERN

260

I:

en animant. 2

t:

MUSIC

S^S

atipmenfant.

Ftr*44-

if-'

fe=d!=i|

ff

i'

Ip^ps^

a
fgf

ffl

-!

-|

T~

t)*

HSSfeg^p
fcr

tj

is*

*/

p
S
i t?tjt*r
j

^-

The

Introduction leads to a "

four-measure

Rhythms.

Ex.

Theme"
97

in regular

shows

its

first

Period.
Ex. 97.

Thema.

'rffflB:

IPie

-<s>-

=t

1-*^--

-<s>-

Simplement.

J-

!-

cr

Anacrusis.
Half- close.
-s>-


SONATA

D'INDY,

^E

*N

fc
S-

1
*Fr*r*V&

Full close.

^tiLnd:

*r
It

full

will

close

is

be seen

that

melody ends with a

the

on the third Measure, the fourth being

repeated in

Theme

52=H
-GH

is

of which

etc.

#=p

by subsidiary matter, and

filled in

261

f~

-N

IN

this construction

The

some of the succeeding Periods.

followed by a set of variations, the fourth


introduces

Accentuation.

new melody, with Rising

opens thus

It

Ex. 98.

^=100.

Prelim,

f.

t$=w-

fe

_$l.

bien he et soutenu.

vv

3=^4*=E3^
3

Me^==H-

SfaM
E

#F

Anacrusis.

m^

'

+*?$$&&+
.-

etc.

262

RHYTHM OF MODERN

and afterwards changes


Later on this motive

Falling

to

MUSIC
Accentuation.

used as a counterpoint to the

is

Theme, accompanied by

subsidiary work.

Ex. 99.

:
doux mats

intense.

:=f:

ft

doit fore en dehors^ le reste, tres estompi.

Falling Accentuation
to

which

subordinate, as
tion.

The

is

the

is

counter-subject

indicated

effect

here established

Melos.

very

is

by the
entirely

by the composer's

direc-

of the three rhythmical schemes

together has here nothing novel about


nevertheless

==-

>

Le Thhme seul

Theme,

^^

azt
-_#

pleasantly

connected

it,

but

with

it is

the

SONATA IN E

D'INDY,
Movement

The

signature

most part

in

several daring

from

this

is

II.
.

I'res

anime.

The Measures

changes

movement

of

(the

Diaeresis.

work

with quintuple Measure, and


as

it

in the

following example of freedom


Ex. 990.
Tres anime.
1

for the

is

It

is

evident

dated 1907) that

that

more

familiar

composers are

more freely than


movement we find the

were, to play with

Quite early

formerly.

are

the order triple-duple, but there are

musicians and audiences are becoming

able,

263

it,

264

RHYTHM OF MODERN

The

metrical Diaeresis triple-duple has already been

well established,

fourth and

is

is

it

apparently broken at the

Measures by

change of melodic
This

common enough in modern classical


we do not know of any other case in

music,

device

it

fifth

when

of the nature alluded to on page 123.

Diaeresis,

but

MUSIC

is

used

in

which

In most of the

quintuple measure.

examples of this species of rhythm that we have


hitherto

met with

the composer has seemed

more

anxious to impress the five-fold nature of the bars

on the audience, than


of the sign

There
double

[7] is

is

mystify them.

The

is

use

here very bold and effective.

a highly suggestive change at the

bar.

tained, but

to

first

The triple-duple Diaeresis is mainmade mysterious by the omission of

the fourth accents of the

Rhythms

Ex. 100.

Un peu

moins

vite.

and a truly " inward "

Expressif.

feeling results.

The movement is of considerable length, and


contains many effective changes of Diaeresis, both

D'INDY,

SONATA IN E

metrical and melodic, and

it

265

probably the boldest

is

piece of quintuple music that has yet been composed.

Movement

Modere.

III.

This movement opens with a repetition of the


introductory Rhythm, Ex. 95.
triple

Measure,

It

then changes to

which a new theme

in

first

is

given out,

of which the following example shows the opening

Rhythm.
Ex.

101.

n
I

doux

*t
et tres express.

-^ *~

^=S=A=r

SUi 3b^=db

It is
is

worked up

diminished

extended,

Rhythms.

in

|-

in various ways.

bring

Later on,

great

as

In one place

time, but certain of


to

so

tt

3:

it

use

into
is

its

it

notes are

four-measure

made of

the

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

266

following somewhat noticeable subsidiary rhythmical


figure

which obtains

joined.

melodic notes enter

in a

which

is

it

from the Melos to

importance

its

new theme

occurs,

whose

syncopated form, thus

Ex. 102.

^T'^d

^^2j

Jar "^

** &c * ia

CESS

t^^^r^^n

gMgO'iM-PJ

^2^SS

fcs

It

somewhat

has a

to the

-|

agitated effect

it

soon gives way

form of Ex. ioi.

After a working out of these and other themes,


the

theme of the

first

movement, Ex.

97,

is

recapitu-

various changes of time, and the piece

lated, with

ends.

The

sonata

design, and
tion

is

thoroughly modern

in its

rhythmical

presumes an advanced stage of cultiva-

on the part of the audience.


Debussy

',

This
value

is

-|

presto

Masques.

movement,

the dotted crotchet,

in
is

which the Primary

of striking rhythmical

DEBUSSY, MASQUES
Much

significance.

of the

267
been

has

effect

duced by distributing the materials

as if

pro-

Debussy,

Mas? ues
f Measures, and accenting them as
The player must mark the proper accentu-.
-

for
for

ation very decidedly,

when he

will

and enjoy

feel

the "fantasque" character indicated by the composer.

The

following

the opening

is

Rhythm

Ex. 103.

Debussy, Masques.
Tres vif et fantasque.
2

LI

-m

\0

dB-Mfc

ditachi et ryihmS.

In

the

and fourth

third

quavers must
accentuation

This

kind

especially

be

combination

French

figures, its attraction


itself,

syncopation, the

being maintained

of
in

as

felt

Measures the left-hand

music.
is

in
is

normal

the right

not

Like

uncommon,

all

rhythmical

not due to the accentuation

but to the manner in which the Melos

tributed

over the accents.

from

its

Melos,

ij

is

hand.

is dis-

For the scheme, apart

the very ordinary figure

J7iu jvtjU

$rn\mrn\

French composers have a peculiar

facility in

com-

bining simple rhythmical figures with simple Melos,


in a

spontaneous and original manner.

RHYTHM OF MODERN

268

We

soon get a passage

in

apparently changes to that of


Ex.

MUSIC

which the Diaeresis

104.

aft

?
P

expressif

S34
^

=fc
ft

R?

p-p-

but the accentuation


established,

|-

has been by this time firmly

and must continue to be

Hence

the notation employed.


tion arises
left

it

in the right

affects the

must be

hand

of

double syncopa-

it is

felt in spite

continuous, in the

second half of the Measures, which

felt as if

written thus
Ex. 105.

Nr^
gi-SizH^

But
there

if

the composer had written

would have been

delicacy
thus,

?v
fcS*
*

to

of the

some

it

in

this

way,

danger of the extreme

accentuation

being overdone, and

marred.

extent,

k=;

The

passage

is

highly imaginative, and must be handled with the

utmost gentleness.
its

effect

cate

on

this

accentuation

The whole

piece

depends for

and similar combinations of


with

very

suggestive

deli-

Melos.

DEBUSSY, MASQUES
Amongst other

devices the unexpected omission of

an accent here and there

very

is

Ex.
Ce"dez

269

telling, e.g.

106.

un pen.
1

^N

m
sp^S

o fcrl-

"m.
&0~-~

%&$

k"

23t
5-^-

-f

Accent
omitted.

flP

^ tep

TZ-

"l^

as

is

also the

effect

of repeating four

Measures without change of Melos, so

successive
that the

Beethovenish

Rhythm

alone

made very prominent

is

heard,

its

accents

Ex.

107.

with

-Pm

r*

f-

sempre pp

The movement

is

long, and there

is

no change of

rhythm-species throughout, yet so attractive


that the constant reiteration of the
figure

never

increasing

give

way

palls,

interest.

to

is

it,

same rhythmical

but carries us along with ever-

Towards the end

sustained pianissimo

tempo, but on the final chord

is

the figures

chords

in

strict

reiterated, for the last

time, the opening rhythmical figure, Ex. 103.

RHYTHM OF MODERN

270

Hommage

Debussy,

This interesting movement


great use

it

Hommage a

which

largely

effect

it

a Rameau.

on

the Anacrusis,

depends

and although

remarkable for the

is

makes of

Debussy

MUSIC

for

many

in

due

its

cases the

slurs fail to indicate the Anacrusis, yet in playing the

piece

we

spite

of the printed phrasing.

the

can hardly help feeling that

minim being the Primary

after the first

few

Measure

duration.

in

It

is

value,

bars, are, for the

it

in

is

there, in

slow tempo,

and the phrases,

most

part,

of one

opens with a Period of

It

two Rhythms, of two Measures each,

entirely

in

unison.
Ex. 108.

Hommage

Debussy,
Lent

et

a Rameau.

grave {dans

le style

m* ##3

d'une Sarabande mats sans rigueur).

ki

=t

~3Zt

jEfc

TV
Expressif

Unisono.

u.

et

doucement soutenu.

t-

The
is

so

division of the

vague

definite

that

we

notes in the

can

rhythmical figure

mystify us.

scarcely

first

Rhythm

perceive

any

the composer wishes to

The second Rhythm, by

repeating the

DEBUSSY,

HOMMAGE A RAMEAU
D

and the

triplets

sharp in the same part of two

more

successive Measures, gives a

and

sion,

the

this

is

in

very delicate nuance occurs

single

Rhythm

definite impres-

confirmed by the construction of

succeeding Period

opening

271

-f

Primary Time, thus

Measures.

in the repetition

phrase

the

+3

extended

is

of the

by

Ex. 109.

Additional

Primary
Time.

This additional Primary Time

end of the phrase

as

not placed at the

usual, but in

is

has a delightfully fresh

we have an important

effect.

its

midst, and

it

Shortly afterwards

Anacrusis, brought about by

the interpolation of a bar of


tional

is

Primary Time, thus


Ex.

time,

i.e.

of an addi-

no.

Anacrusis.

=t

2*

Anacrusis.

3=3

RHYTHM OF MODERN

272

We

give the slurring as

is

it

MUSIC

printed, but surely

the three last crotchets of each bar are, in reality,

the Anacrusis of the succeeding bar


less

hesitation

in

making

this

We

suggestion,

have the
since,

few bars further on, the slurring of a similar passage


agrees with our contention.

Later in the movement, the bass takes an anacrusic

form

in three crotchets.
Ex.

in.

^ iPi
*J|E|
t-

-G>-

Anacrusis.

Afterwards the same figure occurs in another part of


the Measure, not as an Anacrusis, but as an inde-

pendent subsidiary motive

Ex. 112.

nigs

vwnfr up

and a new Anacrusis occurs

in

v&-

both hands together,

STANFORD, QUARTET

273

Ex. 113.

which

tempo

i.

here indicated by the printed slur.

is

The opening Rhythm

recurs, with

harmony, and

with a Subsidiary punctuation in the bass.

Towards

the end, the independent Subsidiary motive of Ex.

in

recurs in the right hand, and

The movement

heard.
its

rhythmical form

is

is

is

the last figure

highly imaginative, and

well adapted to

its

strange

Melos.
Stanford,
British

Qjuartet

composers of the

first

No.

2.

rank are not behind

their Continental brethren in rhythmical

Stanford,

developments.

Uuartet

to be

All nations, in fact, seem

working together

in raising instru-

Op. 45.

mental music to ever higher degrees of emotional


significance,

and our native musicians are taking

their place in this

movement,

as they did

during the

famous Elizabethan period.

great

British

change, moreover, has

the

public during the last quarter of a century.

Formerly orchestral concerts were


carried

come over

on

at

loss,

unless

for the

so-called

most part
" popular

music," consisting of waltzes and well-worn Italian

RHYTHM OF MODERN

274

overtures, formed

a large

Chamber music was heard


only, St. James's Hall

demanded

constant
so

favourites,"

for

part of the

regularly

programme.
one place

at

and even there the audiences


of

repetitions

that

MUSIC

was

there

new composer of

foreign

heard, and practically none at

all

their

opportunity

little

nationality

for

" old

to

be

one of British

birth.

now

Conditions have
can support several

chamber
ready

are

of

music
to

classical

" Popular "

audiences

first-class

societies.

listen
art,

orchestras,

London
and many

entirely altered.

to

where

and

applaud

masterpieces

formerly

they

demanded

waltzes, played

by " combined massed bands and the

grand organ "

and our composers now get a hearing,

where twenty-five years ago they could get none.

A
to

great

those

deal

of this change

undoubtedly due

is

conductors amongst

excellent

us,

both

foreign and native, who, by the exercise of a highly


cultivated imagination, have raised

the art of per-

forming orchestral music from a correct and

spiritless

playing of the printed notes and expression signs to


a

performance

The

of

full

cold " classical "

and

life

fire

manner of beating

and emotion.
time, while a

band played the notes with mechanical correctness,


a thing of the past,

and with

it

is

has passed away the

indifference of British audiences to high-class music.

For music, to move the

great

public,

must be

STANFORD, QUARTET
emotional

rises

(if it

275

above the level of that which

appeals to the muscular rather than the intellectual


faculties),

to

the

and by boldly giving emotional significance

great

appeal to the "


it

should be

of musical
nation

man

it

have made

This

the street."

in

is

them
all

as

the elevating and refining influence

can be of

art

when

musicians

classics,

is

value to the

real

thus spread over a larger area of

when

receptivity than

more

is

it

confined to the cultured

few.

As

to

Concerts " were the chief element

Monday Popular
in

music, the famous " Saturday and

Chamber

training audiences in this branch

and although

from the nature of things Chamber music can never

make

its

appeal to so large a public as orchestral

music, yet,

owing

the beneficent effect of the

to

above-mentioned undertaking, there are now


found audiences who can

fully appreciate the intellectual

performance of chamber music by our


as

well as

to be

by foreigners.

Our

own

musicians,

native performers

have given up the coldly correct and unsympathetic


style

now

of playing

hence the British composer has

better opportunities of exercising his art than at

any former time, and he

is

hold his own.

beginning to be recognised

This

is

showing that he can well

abroad, for the names of British composers, as well


as

executants,

occur

more frequently

programmes than they formerly

did.

in

foreign

RHYTHM OF MODERN

276

The

we propose

quartet

MUSIC

analyse opens with a

to

freefugato introduction, as follows


Ex.

1 1

4.

Stanford, Quartet (Op. 45)


1ST

Violin.

PP
2nd Violin.

fe
1

_fr

>

v.

Overlap.

^^

pp

It will

case

in

be noticed that the theme, as

Hence

it

has

it

Falling

enters one

gives

omitted in the

often the

it is

Rhythm,

feeling of mystery, but

are

when

heard

its first

second.

followed

by

results:

and secondly, the theme


expected, by

The second and

accents

its

This device has two

contrast,

first

at

Accentuation

Measure before

of an Overlap.

the

half bar

the

Rising Accentuation.
firstly,

is

fugues, enters with the full bar at

appearance, and with

all

etc.

means

third accents are

so that there

is

a slight

the second violin enters,


in

the

counter-subject.

STANFORD, QUARTET
The

277

short fugato introduction leads to a Piu moto

subject,

whose melody

sidiary

figures,

schemes

so

is

accompanied by two sub-

that there are three

rhythmical

combination, each of which has

in

its

own

particular character.
Ex. 115.
Pik

moto.

Preliminary.

IS
rnp

"fa

=:
,

Q3j3
E

3:

J~m~p
Pizz.

'

Marcato.

1st

Rhythm.
f

ii
X

-s

J^=w

n Jrm JTO -CTj

i=
r
2nd Rhythm.

-f**

mgni.i
*
=t

-j

p^^
Xf J

-*-

a=

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

278

3s

1
P5 Jill

J.

Feminine Close.

STLnns

accompanies

with dactyls, leads, in two

high note, whose accent

to a

through the

relative length
in

is

of the note.

prominent

The

viola

flowing semiquavers, and the violon-

punctuates the whole by

The Melos of
the

:r.

The melody, beginning

cello

;J:

8=*

places,

P2

the passage

is

its

pizzicato quavers.

very attractive, and

rhythm has plenty of energy.

It will

be observed that the Period begins with a

four-measure Rhythm, and, contrary to the general


rule, the

melody of the second Rhythm

half-rhythms.

The

next

falls

motive opens

into

with

two
the

rhythmical reiteration ot a single chord, accompanied

by a subsidiary figure

'

STANFORD, QUARTET
Ex.

/#/<?

6.

i 9
Tr f
The

279

ES^tE^*
^ag
p
returns,

and leads

to a fine combination

of four different rhythmical figures


Ex. 117.

Tl
r

r
The
the

'

first

inner

triplets,

violin has

parts

'

r r

even notes, four

have each

and the whole

is

their

in a

Measure

own scheme of

supported by the

bold

Primary notes of the violoncello. The


passage is an example of the complicated rhythms
anacrusic

through which the cultivated modern audience finds


its art

aspirations satisfied.

Three Measures,

in

two of which the accents

are

represented by rests, introduce an appassionato motive


with Rising Accentuation, and an important Anacrusis.

RHYTHM OF MODERN

280

Ex.

1 1

MUSIC

8.

Preliminary.

L
^4W=W+^g= F

Appassionato.

*T

:=:*:

[J

jT Anacrusis.

if
4W-

==#a

3=3-I

tifcr

SiiiCa

r
*c

at*

=E

3f

3J3
Mi^sE^ F=^
:

=f!=^

The

F=

Preliminary figure of this example

is

almost

immediately used again, extended to four Measures,


as an introduction to an appassionato re-entry
1

5 in the

key of

minor, with the semiquavers in

double counterpoint above the melody.


it

does not reappear.

place without

its

Ex.

1 1

rather than reduced,


to

augment the

here with

is

After this

repeated in one

Subsidiary matter, reversing the

usual order, in which Subsidiary

but

of Ex.

on

rhythm

is

increased

the repetition of a motive

the motive

interest,

is

used

Rising Accentuation instead of Falling,

as at its first appearance, thus


STANFORD, QUARTET

281

Ex. 119.

_t

etc.

--

-jt=:

&-

r
It will
first

be seen that

r
it is

here anacrusic

in fact,

three crotchets give the impression of being

an Anacrusis on a large
expect

33E

3s:

m*t

the

0^

-^

-.0-

find

to

of

difference

more

and one could hardly

scale,

striking

between

effect

example

of

and

Rising

the

Falling

Accentuation.
Second Movement.

The movement opens


measure Rhythms, the
half-close, the

there

be

can

intentions

Prestissimo.

with a Period of two six-

first

ending with the orthodox

second with a tonic

no

mistake

to

as

full close, so that

composer's

the

Ex. 120.
Prestissimo.

uW=\

St

Stacc.

4
I

3E
:ex

G>---

'

RHYTHM OF MODERN

282

The six-measure Rhythms


groups of two

harmonic

their

melodically

fall

Measures, and
construction,

MUSIC

demand

Accentuation, such as would result

if

from

seem,

these
to

into

Rising

the signature

was f and the movement opened with a half bar.


This impression, moreover, is confirmed after the
,

double bar, for here each

measure Rhythms has


accent, which gives

The Trio opens


bination
figure,

of

a sforzando

has

runs

four-

on the second

a Rising Accentuation.

with

very

rhythms.

which

Prestissimo^

it

of the two- or

been

through

interesting

characteristic

already

hinted

com-

anacrusic
in

at

the

whole of the Trio,

the

without ceasing for a moment.

It

is

given out by

an introductory four-measure Rhythm, preceded by


a

Preliminary

begins thus

melodic

material

Ex.
Cantabile.

The

Measure.

121.
1st

Rhythm.

s>-

r^^=rrrr
i

<~

4
-m

m-


STANFORD, QUARTET

283

2nd Rhythm.
4
tr.

-&

J-

#=**
##-*
'#f

LLP t_r

jf
:

'#

ifF

fac
g

m
U

^RPI

EZ

Jl

<s>-

-g:
-f
U fcr

3rd Rhythm.

The

construction

Rhythm, beginning
on

in the tonic, rises to a

second accent, and

its

half-close

Rhythm
making

ends with

on the dominant seventh.

the high note of the

bound on the

first

melody

a subtle Diaeresis of

first

Rhythm

construction in

the second

first

high note

an orthodox

is

reached in one

on the second,

melody, of a kind we

for the melodic construction

leads us to expect an analogous

the second.

Rhythm

The

In the second

accent, instead of

have not yet met with


of the

very noticeable.

is

is

The melody

carried

note of

over into the third


RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

284

welded together.

The Period ends

concluding chord.

similarly

succeeds the one here quoted.

of the Trio the melody

with a

melody being

the key of E, the

in

Rhythms

these two

without a break, so that

is

are

full close

on the

silent

constructed Period
In the second part

taken up by the violoncello,

with considerable use of duple measure against the

accompanying

triple

figure,

and the duple measure

work,

being

mostly on the

telling,

owing

to the clear

the tone

employed
'Third

The

first

for

and penetrating quality of

is

Andante

espressivo.

of seven Measures, not the

of overlapping, but of a

result

very

is

it.

Movement.

Period

string,

first

distinct cutting off,

Ex. 122.
Andante

espressivo.

mp,

1
9

*=f
r

Si

**

St

-iS>-

rate

Cello, v^
Viola.

-<s>-

-"-

(S>-

iS>

*f

:i

J__:fr
9

t--

-^

h-H

t
ft.

Ym

fT

:3:
-<s>-

Csesura.

<S>-

+G>\-

:c2:

STANFORD, QUARTET
through the feminine

half-close,

285

from the succeeding

Period.

" General-pause " introduces a

figure, which, with slight

new rhythmical

modifications,

becomes an

important feature in the course of the movement,


being combined both with new motives, and with
the motives that have been already heard.
alone,

on the

viola

enters

It

Ex.

123.

Viola.

The new motive

in this

example begins with

" Dotted-note " rhythm, and suddenly softens


in

its

notes.

down

second Measure to a piano passage in even


Space does not allow us to quote

examples from

many

forte

this interesting

further

movement, which has

other effective rhythmical features.

RHYTHM OF MODERN

286

Finale.

This movement

Allegro molto.

distinguished by the constant

is

recurrence of three-measure Rhythms,

both

MUSIC

by the melodic and

The opening Period shows

made evident

harmonic construction.
the fundamental principle

on which the rhythmical scheme of the whole


founded

but there are

many

is

contrasting mixtures

of two-, four-, and five-measure phrases with those of


three.
Ex.

124.

Allegro molto.

-firm

*3
1

1
r

It

'

M-n-

=f

^4-IP

*i

:3r

EEj
-3-

K*aS

^-P-srl

3:

i^=-1

*= *f
j-

S^z-p

ST

It will

-3-

"P"

be noticed that the accompaniment marks

the unaccented portions of the

measures strongly

STANFORD, QUARTET
this has

287

the effect of imparting great vigour to the

material.

The

phrasing

very

is

end of the

half-close at the

There

distinct.

and

third,

is

a full close

end of the sixth Measure, but the concluding

at the

coming

chord,

on the weak

in each case

on the flow of the Melos without

beat, carries

a break

in

its

continuity.

The

next Period consists of 2

and the third Period returns


construction,

which

+2+4

Measures,

to the three-measure

throughout

predominates

the

movement.

marked

strongly

two Measures,

and

motive occupies

anacrusic

its

Rhythm

is

marked

by

Ex. I2C.

PP (Cello and Viola

throwing the accent on


Measure,

the

in octaves below.)

quaver of the

third

by means of the longer

note

in

this

Ex.

126

place.

Two Rhythms

are

by the bowing of the


final

note of the

often

met with

first

in

run
first

into
violin,

to the second

modern music.

one

in

which joins the

Rhythm,

a device

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

288

Ex. 126.
Cantabile.

1st

Rhythm.
4

^ It"

rtJ.

J3

Tsr dirW ttrr fir


flK/l

fUi

:,

3=

/Yzs.

The
close

Rhythm

first

on

its

concludes with the tonic

fourth accent

but the composer has, by

bowing, indicated that there

his

here,
will

full

is

to be

no Caesura

and the Melos runs on without a break.


Accentuation

be noticed that the

accented quavers, which


Period,

is

carried

is

The motive of Ex. 124


in a sort

moderate,

and

it

of the un-

a feature in the opening

on here by the

measure

is

violoncello.

brought into four-

of quasi-recitative passage,

leads to a

It

molto

momentary resumption of

the opening passage of the quartet, Ex. 114.

Coda, Presto

assai,

begins

with

an anacrusic

dotted-note figure, accompanied by subsidiary matter.

The motive of Ex. 124 is hinted at in triple measure,


and the movement ends with a plagal close, extended
to seven Measures.

SYMPHONY

ELGAR,

289

Elgar, Symphony Op. 55.

This

is

many

another of the
origin,

Elgar,

modern

in feeling,

It

boldly

is

and shows an emotional power

fully

on

class

produced on the continent.

a level with the best latter-day

first

British

possible through the influences to

which we have alluded.

Op. 55.

The

works of

whose reception by the public has

become

'^AlPt

fine

movement

works of

its

has an introductory Andante,

which opens with two Preliminary Measures, uttered


pianissimo

on the drums and

basses.

Ex. 127 shows

Ex. 127.

Elgar, Symphony (Op. 55).


Andante.

Nobilimente

e semplice.

1st

m^

Rhythm.

V-

-"N

:p:

=t

fJ

-&-*-

-1

Half-close.

dolce.

0i~ir

4 j *
Wtt
mzr^-:^
2nd Rhythm.

-N

m*$=*

*=j

55 =p:
Cses.

PPP

g^^fe

^fc
-m

2E

5}

E
Dominant

7th.

Resolution.

RHYTHM OF MODERN

290

the opening Period.


to

Its

Measures, and

three

second

MUSIC

Rhythm

is

curtailed

combined with an ap-

is

parent Overlap, for the dominant seventh, with


resolution,

would

conclusion

of a four-measure

lapping

the

the ordinary course form the

in

next

its

Rhythm
But

Period.

here, over-

the

composer

evidently intends that this phrase shall sound like

one of three Measures,


for

he

in spite

has placed a decided

dominant chord and


heard the

its

symphony

will

just

as

it

the

its

harmonic form,

Caesura

resolution.

with this feature (even


occurring, as

of

between the

Those who have

probably have been struck


if

they cannot analyse

it),

does, at the beginning of the work,

rhythmical

scheme

of four-measure

phrases seems to have become well established.

The Period

here quoted

is

repeated several times

with varying orchestration, and leads to the Allegro,

whose

first

Period

is

given in Ex. 128.


Ex. 128.

Andante.

Allegro appassionato.

!E

' *~

SYMPHONY

ELGAR,

W=^^^:

&GL

WP

291

*=*

r^r

fS>-

4
3

:p:

m2

P3

-4-

ipd

In this passage, which begins with a very short

melody of the

anacrusis, the

Measure

first

the secondary accent, and, by dwelling on


it

The

into prominence.

with a crescendo, and

on

and

discord,

of

elements

imparted to

phrase

the

brings

a sforzando

thus

has

energy,

it,

approached

is

sounded with

is

rhythmical
it

high note

rises to

while

the

all

dignity

is

by the harmony and instrumentation

employed.
In six out of the eight Measures the arrangement

of the material

is

the same

most prominent note


results
It

the third crotchet

will

be

melodically

Rhythm

is

noticed

into

that

+2

the

Measure, and vigour

in the

from the repetition of

is

this figure.

the

first

Measures,

Rhythm

falls

and the second

undivided, according to the rule so often

referred to.

It will also

be noticed that the various

portions of the Period are welded together by the

sturdy

march of the

Primary accentuation
the

melody

is

divided.

bass,
in

bars

which

keeps

two and

up

four,

the

where

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

292

The

next

passage

we quote

with

has dactyls,

ever-increasing vigour of accent.


Ex. 129.

*n

U^-A4
E33 i

=t

Sfe=#==E
fe&:

^^

Jfe

-uL
ta

fetlF
<rm".

*==*=*

-fc

:
:

f-

In the

first

two bars the accentuation

alone

dactyls

fe

in

second,

the

is

made by

powerful

the

chords

punctuate the weak portions of the Measure, bringing

all

four crotchets into equal prominence.

next bar the accentuation of the dactyls

is

In the

further

increased by the slurred quavers and sforzandos.

There

is

change to \ signature, the dotted minim

being here the Primary note, and

this

introduces a

syncopated passage of as deep a pathos as can be

found

in

length,

is

helps

to

modern music.

It

is

one Measure

in

repeated several times, and the repetition


give

it

its

pathetic

impression.

The

ELGAR,
scheme

rhythmical

SYMPHONY
of

merely

consists

293
strong

Primary accent, followed by a syncopation

melody and

bass, while the

in subsidiary

work

secondary accent

in

the

heard

is

in the inner parts.


Ex. 130.

*=#

S
The

-o-

syncopation

emotion.
in

-s>-

is

an element of intense

here

In the next example, syncopation

is

used,

combination with the anacrusis, for the contrary

effect,

namely, of energy.
Ex. 131.
A

%m
#

e*h
-P-

in

-oetc.

sf

The

f:

J:

is

passage culminates in a broad

which the accentuation

and the smaller notes have


rhythm, though

their

little

fM

measure
J

phrase,

predominates,

or no effect on the

position, high

up on the

first

string of the double basses, intensifies the emotional


feeling of the

whole by their penetrating tone.

RHYTHM OF MODERN

294

Ex.

132.

-?

-I-

s-

MUSIC

:z2

[-.&

Tutta lafarza.

^jgjj
J.

Si
HB

*22

This Rhythm

IZ

opening

pianissimo

subject,

basses

pianissimo
triplets
is

it

Ex.

It

is

page 289,

127,

tempo

the

passage
is

played

violas in unison

accompanied by

staccato

notes

There follows

and violoncellos.

teneramente

triplets,

leads to a repetition of

on muted horns, with the

and tremolando.

on the

-<s>-

repeated with subsidiary

is

and then, softening down,


the

<S>-<s>-

duplets

in

and

quickened,

against
intensity

given by the accentuation of the duple, against

syncopation

the

in

triple

material.

The

triplets

conquer, and Ex. 130 again enters, pianissimo.


In

which

contrast,

and

permeates

the

as

relief

movement

to
as

gentle melodic passage recurs from

the
a

intensity

whole,

time to time,

SYMPHONY

ELGAR,
its

It

is

shown

Ex.

in

Ex.

little

'

espress.

-&-*-

-&!

#
--P&
Fiat.

graceful

/"""

this

130.

133.

-s

7
P

Wherever

133.

Ex.

been after

having

appearance

first

295

PP

melody appears,

rhythm

its

is

gently marked

by the pianissimo pizzicato Primary notes on the


double basses.

The movement

of great length, and

is

its

many

rhythmical beauties will become more apparent as the

work grows more


a

familiar.

We

have pointed out

few that have occurred to us from a study of the

score

to

go

into greater detail

would involve longer

quotations.

Second Movement.

The

signature

is

unusual arrangement
beats

one stroke

i.e.

^,
;

Allegro molto.

one minim

in a bar, a

very

for although a conductor often

in a bar, a

Measure cannot

exist

without an unaccented as well as an accented portion.


In

the

present

value, and the

case

the

crotchet

Measures are duple.

is

the

Primary

The movement

RHYTHM OF MODERN

296

opens with a Preliminary and

MUSIC
introductory

four

Measures, in which the basses have a striking anafigure

figure

afterwards

becomes

certain parts of the


in

Measure

of one

crusic

movement.

length.

in

basso

ostinato

The

first

This
during

subject

is

busy pianissimo semiquavers, accompanied by the

basso ostinato.
Ex.
Allegro molto.

134.

cJ=6g.
Introductory Rhythm.

^Preliminary.

3g5SE
Pizz.

J
V

Anacrusis.

Overlap.

After a passage in

quavers, a

figure occurs, which, however,


rapidity of the

tempo^

new and

owing

striking

to the extreme

seems to consist of accents

ELGAR, SYMPHONY
only, the notes between
to the ear,

them being

though the eye

The

lightning speed.

sees the

figure

is

297

practically

lost

bows moving with

Ex. 135.
sf

1
1

P==*:
&i

+%

&^&^

Ul
<m^ %*=^=d=:
-ff

*fcJ
IL-UJ

l-LlJ

^gf

3^ U-Zfi

t-

J~j:

if

'j^gEElS^g^

r r

1
j

J q H^R*bJ^|*-*i **^sa

A very
clarinets,

thus,

sprightly

melody follows on the

accompanied by detached chords

violas
;

it

and

begins

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

298

Ex.

mf

136.

marcato.

fe#

eeieee

~^&&

mt-

J#3=

J:
-H-

pp
Several Overlaps occur, by which

made

to enter a bar sooner than

rhythmical effects
variety

motive

in

the

is

is

The

expected.

movement

this

amongst them

it is

motive

the

of great

are

following

exciting

Ex. 137.

isM
$- *=^W-

%m-

j-.

p *

fc
etc.

Cymbal

pife
*^=t

b* y-fr
TlMP.
[Imp.

This example
orchestra

^:

^n#
t e r^
iK

*#y
is

^ jJ.

is

is

5^
'/

Cymbal.

=*=

^-^
TlMP.

only given in outline

engaged

in

it,

]/

the full

the basses marking the


SYMPHONY

ELGAR,

299

Primary Times with the drums and cymbals and


triangle.

melodious middle

thus with Anacrusis

commences

section, or Trio,

Ex. 138.
2

Flutes.

-O

te

PP

m-

v^1

^f

wi

Anacrusis.

t=db

rfcfe SK

-ef

etc.

-ei

-^- v-

=a^c

ei -

-<s

-3:

Oboe and English Horn.

The

of

rapidity

alternation of dotted

This subject,
is

it

and even notes

will be seen,

in absolute contrast to

before.

When

it

is

never

tempo

the

relaxes.
is

although

The

very effective.
full

of energy,

everything that has gone

finished,

the opening motive,

Ex.

134 (page 296), re-enters, accompanied by a


counterpoint, which has been previously heard as
one of the chief motives.
fresh orchestration,

and then the


beneath

legato

The Trio

is

repeated with

and with new rhythmical

basso

ostinato

returns,

Primary-note

and

melodic

is

effects,

heard

passages.

Rhythmical energy gradually dies away against a


long pianissimo holding note, which leads without a
break into the slow movement.

300

RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC


Adagio.

This beautiful movement opens with the following


classically-constructed Periods

Ex. 139.
Adagio.

Period

I.

1st

2nd Rhythm.

Rhythm.

^^mmmm

mmmmmmmmm

11

Anacrusis.

cres.

i^^

a^T2
Jh_T

Wl

u:
i

tste

? !
Pizz.

2nd Rhythm.

d *

3rd Rhythm.

SYMPHONY

ELGAR,
The

first

301

Period ends at the six-four chord in the

middle of the fourth bar, but

is

it

welded into the


Notice

next by an unexpected change of harmony.

Under

the

effect

accompaniment

in the

of the two inverted dactyls

end of the second Rhythm,

the

at

thus

^n
51 mmm
mmm

I
I

which give an unexpected turn to the rhythm.

The

second Period commences with the three-note

of the gentle inverted dactyls.

Anacrusis, in place
Its

two measures are marked by the pizzicato

first

Primary notes on the

Rhythm
third

is

is

double

The

basses.

first

The

here divided into two half-rhythms.

anacrusic,

and

ending melts into the

its

succeeding Period by similar harmonic progression to

which joins the

that

Hence

a continuous

seen in the slow

first

Period

Melos

results,

second.

such as

we have

movement of the Brahms Symphony.

very attractive passage,

I..

the

to

in

which the figure

delicate

alternates

with JT1, leads to a novel and

form of syncopation, akin

page 100.
subsidiary

As

in the

dactyls,

sidiary triplets

former

so

is

the same, the effect

The Brahms

movement, and

syncopates sub-

principle.

But though the principle


a quick

of Ex. 25,

Brahms syncopates

here Elgar

on the same

entirely different.

case,

to that

it is

quotation

played forte

is
;

it

is

part of
is

full


RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC

302

of energy and

and belongs

The present example is pianissimo


slow movement
it gives a gentle

fire.

to a

Ex. 140.
Overlap.

dim.

PPP3

I.

at
undulation

=t

*fk

^=-*

^=^

which

is

# m

y=M

\-jk-i

hardly

heard,

and only just

supports the longer notes of the melody.


the difference in the rhythm-species

Moreover,

makes

ence of ethos, for a succession of dactyls

a differis

more

vigorous than a succession of trochees.


Ex. 141.
Cantabile.

Flutes..

'.

"'.

T
Violas.

Ex.

141

shows

of strings and wind.


the strings

the

legato

somewhat novel combination

As

would play

a rule, in such a passage,

the

accompaniment

triplets,

and the wind

to the melody.

But the

composer, by reversing the usual order, makes the

SYMPHONY

ELGAR,
staccato

of

triplets

minently, as

an

the two

The same

scheme.

passage

strings also in triplets


legato

in this

of

rhythmical

the

with the

repeated,

is

they are to be played very

mark

while the flutes

and are aided

stand out pro-

flutes

part

essential

303

by the

the triplets

as before,

harps.

The last feature to which we


the movement is the Pause

can draw attention in

Ex. 142.
S7\

3
-m-

h
-HU-

&

I%
PP

&

-5^Hi

w
"0

b.

which

occurs

on the

arousing expectation by

first
its

The movement ends


last

note

of an

unwonted

Anacrusis,

position.

pianissimo as

it

began, the

phrase containing some triplets at the ends of

Measures,

in the

manner alluded

to

on page 225.

Finale.

The

Finale

commences with

a slow introduction,

which, by referring to the opening theme of the work


(Ex. 127), and anticipating the most striking theme

of the

last

movement, forms an important connecting

RHYTHM OF MODERN

3o 4

link binding the

work

The

is

introduction

into a

for the

ends with a pause on a


starts off

with a

full

MUSIC

homogeneous whole.

most part pianissimo

rest,

and then the

it

allegro

Anacrusis, as follows
Ex. 143.

Allegro.

ElE#E

risohtto.

84.

S
y

PP

j=^

Anacrusis.

tl

r?

- n

>

EaES^Efees^^EEli
Here two rhythmical

figures

are

-3-

at

n i-^k

sf

555
work, one

The Primary value is the


Primary Time is very strongly

completing the other.

minim

each

accented by the relative length of


the sforzandos

is

notes and by

and the lower parts equally strongly

accentuate the subsidiary rhythm.

whole

its

The Melos

therefore accented thus


Anacrusis.

:r==a

^
=

:;>:>

SRJTR\rmrm

as a

ELGAR, SYMPHONY
making

a powerful impression

between

distributed
reality

but the accents are

outer

the

two separate rhythmical

more gentle melody

of which

sets in,

that

so

parts,

in

figures are distinctly

After this vigorous opening has run

heard.
a

305

its

course,

the inward strength

maintained by the steady march of the

is

notes

staccato bass

Ex. 144.

a*Eyg& i

Wa

+*fc

Cantabile.

<**= e

9frU3E-l
!

The motive

that will probably always

impression, however,

is

that

Ex.

shown

ir

make most

in Ex. 145.

145.

Horn,

ff
tr.

~~N /""

:q^:
"*"

TT

as

:=T

4
SEEH
Ji^'-J- J-- v.

"St

^JFr^j

S^

22:

P5
zazjfc

rqoM
It

is

simple in the extreme, and this gives

attraction

in

contrast

to

its
TT

surroundings.

it

If

its
it

RHYTHM OF MODERN

3 o6

were played
ficance

sion

legato

would have no

it

but the punctuation

of even

MUSIC

in staccato

by appealing

notes,

special signi-

of the succesto our

directly

rhythmical sense, gives us satisfaction without mental

At

effort.

more by the

still

intellectual

side

is

by the sustained pianissimo of the horn,

interested

and

same time the

the

so that the passage

persistency of the bass figure,

is

redeemed from any suspicion

of being commonplace,

spite

in

of the simplicity of

rhythm.

its

This motive recurs again continually

two

the

dynamic

of

degree

force,

others

which

these

three

and

in

is

we quoted

in

every

in

contrast

Ex.

to

143

and 144.
Besides

examples there

other

are

important motives in the movement, and a return


is
is

made to the opening subject, Ex. 127, which


worked up with various subsidiary rhythms
;

symphony,

of

fine

rhythmical

months

old,

this

way

that

no

similar

production of an Englishman has yet done.

It is

the

in

fact,

is

full

effects.

Though not

yet twelve

has leaped into popularity in a

evident,

therefore,

art-feeling.
classic,

that

Whether

it

it

is

time only can show.

with audiences of the past,

and marches

as

expresses

destined
If

its

work

contemporary
to

become

popularity were

who demanded

waltzes

an aid to swallowing a symphony, we

ELGAR, SYMPHONY
should

consider

place.

But

demand

the symphonies of Beethoven

its

well as the best

so

that

wrong

it

in

is

that

had taken

it

attraction

is

for

307

no permanent

who

audiences

and Brahms,

as

works of contemporary composers,

not unlikely that public taste

applauding the

latest

as a masterpiece.

is

not

British composition

APPENDIX
THE AGOGIC ACCENT
The

slight delay

by which the

Hans von Balow

late

gave prominence to accented notes, as mentioned

on page 258,

is

by Dr.

called

Hugo Riemann

the

" Agogic Accent " {ayooy^ movement, hence tempo).

The

effect has

always been known, and

in tempo rubato.

For the most part

fined to " dotted-note

impressive effect
to

it

in

his

is

Violinschule

be paraphrased as follows
m'

a weighty or

Leopold Mozart alludes


that

may

" In a group such as

this,

in

(1756)
:

an element

has been con-

it

rhythm " when

desired.

way

mm' m

to be played with detached bows,


sive style, the dotted notes
their relative length,

is

and

in an impres-

must be given more than

and the short notes

less."

Lengthening the dotted notes gives them


emphasis.
this

Von

nuance,

Billow

made

special

fuller

feature

of

not only in Dotted-note rhythm but

elsewhere, and was adversely criticised for his playing

of Beethoven's sonatas,

the

critics

attacking

this

THE AGOGIC ACCENT


But though he gave

particular point.

it

309

prominence,

he was not the only performer of his day to employ


it

we read

vol.

page

i.

Joachim, and

Grove's Dictionary

in

the

that

18,

many

late

New

Charles Halle,

Sir

others used

it.

Edition,

Perhaps they

make so marked a feature of it as did von


At any rate, it seems to have been he who

did not
Bttlow.

importance in

brought about the recognition of

its

other than dotted notes, for Dr.

Riemann informs

us that von Billow's readings of Beethoven's Sonatas

him

inspired

to

develop

the

remarkable theory
1

brought forward

in

Dynamik una

his

Agogik, pub-

lished at Leipsic in 1884.

According to
built

up of short Motives^ which

Triple,

according

to

Motive corresponds
called

the

or diminishes

what we represent thus

in

The

in

in this

power

Dynamik und

playing, as well as in that of

very prominent in the

first

{Ivvaixii)^

so

it

that

J
Agogik, thus

present writer distinctly remembers

light" Sonata.

book, have

J
represented

and the

and unaccented portions,

divided into accented

is

Duple or

are

time-signature,

what we,

to

is

But instead of the Motive being

Measure.

increases

phrase

theory, the musical

this

von Bulow.

it

in Sir Charles Halle's

In the latter

movement of the

so-called

it

was

" Moon-

"

RHYTHM OF MODERN

310

This explains the


refers to

Motive or Phrase

distinction

from

occupied by

its

Agogik,

the

Dynamik

is

the

expressed, in
relative

time

portions.

must be borne

represent

of the book

title

the degree of force, crescendo, diminuendo,

with which

It

MUSIC

what

in

in

mind

that the crotchets here

book we have

this

called

the

Primary Time, and a motive may be formed of


smaller notes than

Primary Times, or several

its

Primary Times may be joined

Duple Motive

in

one note.

of two kinds

is

===

" Anbetont "

" Ab-betont "

J
(equivalent to our

Ana-

crusic form).

The

Triple Motive has three forms

" Anbetont
" Ab-betont "
" Inbetont "

Of

the above

J J J

forms

Inbetont are recognised,


all

(anacrusic).

(anacrusic).

only
or,

Motives are anacrusic.

doubtedly begin with a

the
in

In

full

Ab-betont

and

our nomenclature,
phrases

bar,

in

which un-

other words,

with the An-betonung, such as the opening subjects

of innumerable sonata and symphony movements, the


first

note

is

merely a fixed starting point for the

THE AGOGIC ACCENT


Immediately after

rhythmical feeling.

311
has been

it

struck the Ab-betont form of Motive must commence.

Accent, in the usually accepted sense, the author

does not recognise, and he adduces long arguments


to

show

its

rhythm

be made evident,

to

is

The

impossibility for artistic purposes.

not by alterations

of accented and unaccented notes, but by Dynamic


variation, that

When

perform,

crescendo

is

especially

we

call

Primary

said to be untergetheilt,

and

more easy

variations are

on the pianoforte, where

not possible on a single note.

untergetheilt or not,

moves

in

Schwerpunkt (our accent), and then

crescendo to its

diminishes

is

dynamic

Motive, whether

by the

and diminuendo.

crescendo

Motive

case the

in this

by

notes smaller than what

are used, the

to

is,

the Schwerpunkt being generally

Bar-line.

shown

In other words, the Bar-line does

not show accent, but the culminating point of the

Motive, thus:
Ex.

Beethoven (Op.
(

Vide Riemann,

No. 2).
Dynamik und

1.

14,

i=?

rise

and

degree to the Phrase, which


or more Motives

p.

244.

g iX P=PP

i
The dynamic

Agogik,

so

fall
is

applies

in

a larger

a combination of

that unless

two

composer, by

RHYTHM OF MODERN

3i2

MUSIC

special signs, indicates the contrary, all Phrases

gradually increase in force

dynamic

and

point,

they reach their central

till

then

The

diminish.

dynamic point of the Phrase


those of the

must

central

distinguished from

is

Motives by an almost imperceptible

dwelling upon

it,

namely, by the application of the

Agogic Accent.

To

carry the theory out to a practical conclusion,

Riemann

Dr.

many

has

published

He

and modern works.

classical

of two new notation

'

of

makes use

signs, the Lesezeichen

minute upright stroke

tion sign), a

editions

special

(Punctua-

(or the same,

doubled, ") to indicate the ends of Motives, and


a

flattened

which

circumflex

to

Agogic Accent

the

a passage (Dyn.

occur

/\

und Ag.,

is

show the note


to

fall.

We

both

Ex.

Beethoven (Op.

14,

No.

2.

1).

y\

#*==f=r

:::*:

dim.

m
fa,

In

quote

258), in which

p.

on

this

non dim.

y\

; ;

sf

Example

tt
&

the

harmony

is

pp

omitted, and

it

looks strange that the motives should end with the


quavers.

The

reason

is,

however, that the Dynamic

THE AGOGIC ACCENT

313

centres occur on discords which cannot be separated

from

resolutions

and the

resolutions,

their

would have more

second and fourth


there

and

first

a crescendo

force than the

Dynamic theory

the

in

from the

diminuendo

is

crotchet,

the

but

with

In the Accent theory

the second half of the bar.


the third crotchet

the

are

new motive begins

hence the

quavers

first

the

to

second

from the third crotchet

to

of the next bar.

Phrases are shown by the

and second Phrases

in

two Motives

the last

each,

first

the above quotation contain

example shows a Period of


Lesezeichen

The

legato strokes.

has four, so that the

+2+4

The

Motives.

of course, unnecessary at the end of

is,

the Phrase, since

its

place

taken by the end of

is

the legato stroke.

The above

explanation gives only the barest out-

of the theory

line

for

its

details

we must

our

refer

readers to the book.

In

his

melodic

first

succession

of

in

time,

repeating

of

how
is

two
of

to
in

it

quavers

in

writes
time,

be

|-,

or

explains that

it

Agogic Accent

on the organ, which


of

crescendo

can be

on

the

and,

in

the

from that of two and

distinguished

the

he discusses the question

grouping of three and three

the

accent,

Riemann

Dr.

chapter

and

made
first

clear

of

is

incapable

diminuendo.

He

by placing the
each

group

of

3H RHYTHM OF MODERN MUSIC


three quavers

of each pair

in

in

the

1n

is

in a

Can

it

bring

it

way

and on the

# ^H
* * m*M
m

'H
m m

no doubt that organists who

feel

strongly are able to


it

case,

that

first

the other, thus

#8 'Vri
m m m m m m
There

one

is

and

make

rhythm

their audiences appreciate

denied to

many of

their fellows.

be that they instinctively and unconsciously

out by means of the Agogic Accent, applied

in so small a degree that neither they

nor their audi-

ences are aware of any alteration in the tempo

INDEX
Bach,

AccellerandOy 160-163.
Accent, 18-21.

Omission
and note

of,

4.5

Fall-

ing, 47-

and Melody,
The
kinds

^employs

Time,

Organ Fugues, 124.


Anticipates modern methods,
141.
Bar, Compound, 38.

61.

three

rarely

S.,

against Triple

105.

62, 63.

value, 79.

Accentuation, Rising,

J.

Duple

of, 71, 72.

Acciacatura, 22.

Agogic Accent, 308.

and Measure,

Simple, 39.
and Poetic

37, 39, 41,42.

foot, 39.

Alberti Bass, 105.


Alia breve, 1 1 4.

Function

Anacrusis, 41-47.
Subsidiary, Example

Beethoven, Pastoral Symphony,

Brahms,
Brahms'
116, No.

80.

Bar-line, 39.

in

of,

77.

in

3,

Capriccio,

op.

50.

Anapaestic

of,

in

rhythm,

Examples

84.

Symphony, 239.
Bach, J. S., Capriccio tiber die
Abreise eines Freundes, 5.
Inaugurated
the
modern

school, 9.

and Rhythm,

Measures,
Attitude towards music,
10.

13-

Sonata,

5.

Influence on music,
Slow movement of

10, II.
7 th

Symphony, 14; Slow movement of 4th Symphony, 29.


Barring of Andante in op.

13,
Anacrusis
37-.

Tschaikowsky's Pathetic

Silent

40.

5-

Lebewohl

effect of,

Anapaest, 80.

of,

82,

1,

March

Symphony, 64, 65.


Various kinds
of Period, 77.
Eroica Symphony, 171.

10, 11.

in Funeral

Sonata, 47, 48.


Sonata Pathetique, 52, 96.
Quartet, op. 132, 55-57.
Rising Accentuation in 5 th

Allegretto of 7 th

Symphony,

83.

Moonlight Sonata,

84.

INDEX

316
Beethoven, His Periods, 96.

Duple against Triple Time,


105.
" Storm " Pastoral Symphony, 112.
His use of Three-Measure
Rhythms, 134.
His novel
138.
9th Symphony, 138, 139.
Quartet, op. 131, 139.
Sonata, 28, 139, 140.
Overture Leonora,
No.
in

effects,

op.

3,

Brahms,

Serenade,
Scherzo, 94.

op.

11,

Duple
Triple Time,
106.
Intermezzo,
No.
120.
Intermezzo, 117, No.
120, 121.
Symphony
122.
Rhapsody,
No.
124.
"Agnes," 129.
against

op.

18,

4,

op.

1,

in F,

op.

2,

79,

Variations on Hungarian
Song, 130, 131.
Rhythms of other than four
measures, 134.
Clarinet Sonata, op. 120,
a

149.

Sonata

in

flat,

op.

31,

161.

Sonata,
No.
167,
3".
Waldstein Sonata, 169.
No.
Sonata, op. 106, 176.
" Am 144.
Sonntag
Morgen,"
Sonata,
No.
156.
184,
Rhapsody,
119, No.
Intensity of accentuation
157, 193-209.
Intermezzo,
5th Symphony, 186, 187.
No.
op.

10,

3,

1,

op.

14,

2,

op.

4,

in

op.

Bowing of stringed

instruments,

two Rhythms

joins

to-

gether in Stanford's Quartet,


op. 45, 287.
Berlioz,

3,

and audiences,
273-275.
Bull's, John, harpsichord works,
British composers

28.

Bowing

10,

170.

" La

7-

Damnation

de

Faust," 87.
Brahms, Ballade, op. 10, No.

~ and Rhythm,

Biilow,

Hans von, 258, 308,

391,

Buxtehude,

10.

Cadences, 32.

15.

Symphony D,
and Rhythms,
210-236.
Pianoforte Quartet
Temporary,
G Change of
no,
minor,
123, 153, 156.
Careful
Chopin Sonata
C minor,
129.
Romance, 118, No.
Chronos
258.
conducting,
of
175 Intermezzo, 118, No.
274.
in

51,

82,

Caesura, 27, 29, 167.

32.

in

Species,

III.

82,

to indicate phrasing,

in

86.

op.

Classical

93,

op.

93-

alogos,

5,

style

2,

Clausulas, 8.

27,

INDEX

3i7

Elgar Symphony, op. 55,

Closes, 32.

Combination

rhythms

of

Symphony

Brahms'

in

D,

in

221.

Combined rhythm-species,

86.

Common

time, 114, 115.


Composers and phrase-indications, 40, 41.

151,

289-307.
Empty Times, 166, 167, 174.
in Brahms' Symphony in D,
^

224, 225.

Equal subsidiary notes, 82.


Even Measure, 8, 30.
Executants and conductors,

16.

Couplet, 23.
Crescendo, effect of,

on rhythm,

185, 186.

Falling Accentuation, 64.


Fantasia, 7.

Feminine
Dactyl, 80.
Dactyls, syncopated in Brahms'

Symphony No.
Dance music, 8.

2,

100.

Debussy, Masques, 266-269.


Rameau, 270273Influence

note,

Reasons of disappearance of, 74, 75.


Five notes against four, etc.,
112.
Five-measure Rhythms, 154-

Fioriture,

Hommagea
Democracy,

26

Ending,

33-35Fermate, 163.

of,

on

156.

Foot in Poetry, 23.


Forte and rhythm, 185, 186.

music, 136.
Diaeresis,

43, 44.
of Melody,
Four-bar phrase,
123, 175.
Debussy, Masques, 268. Ordinary construction
Quintuple D'Indy's Sonata
59-61.
15.

in

of,

in

in E, 263, 264.
Diminuendo, 160.

Effect

of,

on rhythm, 18

c,

186.

D'Indy, Sonata in E, 256-266.


Dotted-note rhythm, 91, 92.
in Tschaikowsky's Pathetic

Symphony, 241.
and Leopold Mozart, 308.

Duple Measure, 29-31.


Duple against Triple Time, 105108.

Dvorak, Slavische Tanze, 148.

Dynamik

und

Agogik

Four-measure Rhythm, Importance of, 133.


Four-time Measure, 81.
Frescobaldi, 7.
Froberger Fantasia,

7.

Fiinfer, 154, 155.

General Pause, 172.


in Stanford's Quartet, op. 45,
285.
Greek rhythmical theory, 83-86.
terms, 142 note.
Grieg Violin Sonata in F, op. 8,

(Rie-

175, 176.

mann's), 309-314.

Eighteenth Century, Music


135-

of,

Half-rhythms, 141-151.
in Beethoven's Sonata, 145

note.

INDEX

3*8

Half-measure, Lengthening of a

Rhythm

164

by,

note.

species

and

Bar, 41-43, 61.


81.

Four-time,

Measurement and

13.

Dead March,

only,.

29.

Halle, Sir Charles, 309.


Handel, attitude towards music,

Mechanical

92.

Orlando, 127.
Haydn,
Attitude towards music,

accent, 21.

instruments

and

accent, 189.

10.

Various

Two

Measure,

13.

kinds of period in,

Meistersinger, Waltz
Melismatic, see Song.
Melos, 4, 6, 133.

in, 54.

and Rhythm,
and Three-measure Rhy- continuous, 55 Brahms'
thms, 135, 136.
Symphony, No.
223
Quartet E
No.
Symphony, 301.
of Wagner and
172, 173.
77-

9, 15,

in

2,

in

flat,

in

Elgar's

38,

his successors,

Hebrew

Poetry,

Rhythm

of, 25.

Iambus, 81.
Instruments, Improvements in,
1

74' 75-

Mendelssohn, Pianoforte Trio


in D minor, 1 17.

Phrase-construction, 137.

Metre, 23.

1, 12.

Interpretation of Compositions,

Midsummer
Half

17.

Introductory Measures,
liminary Measures.
Italian Opera, 74.

see

Pre-

Night's

Dream,

verses in Shakespeare's,

141-143.

Overture, 166.
Mozart,
Attitude towards music,
Various kinds of period
Conflicting Rhythmical
10.

13.

Joachim, 309.

Koch,

in,

H. C, Anleitung zur
Composition,

musikalische

154.

Kuhnau

Bible Sonatas,

schemes in

"Don

Giovanni,"

Duple
Triple Time,
and Three-measure Rhyagainst

5.

105.

Legato, 182-185.

Lesezeichen

Riemann's

in

Dynamik und Agogik


Lombardic

style,

312.

thms, 134-136.

Jupiter Symphony,

171.

104

Madrigals, 6, 7.
March form, 91.

Masculine Ending, 32.


Mechanical music, 113.
Measure, 22, 23.

Note-values and ^Esthetic Character of Music, 93-95.

One-measure phrases

in Tschai-

kowsky's Pathetic Symphony,


'

251.

INDEX
Organ, 12.
and accent, 187, 188.
Marches on the, 190, 191.

Overlap, 51-57.
in R. Strauss' Violin Sonata,

109,

no.

3J9

Rhythm, and the Church,

and Expression,
Two
Definition
equivalent

6.

13, 14.

sides of, 14.

20.

of,

The

to Phrase, 21-25.

word

used

in

two

senses, 24.

Paderewski, Chants des Voyageurs,

No.

4,

127-129.

an

unstruck

accent,

179.
Period, 23-25.
of eight Measures, 53.
Piano and Rhythm, 185, 186.
Polonaise form, 35.

Phrasing in Song, 26.

" Popular"

audiences, 274.
Introductory
Preliminary or
Measures, 49-51.
Measures in Brahms, op. 10,

No. 3, 171, 172.


Primary Times, Notes, Values,

Rhythm,
Accentuation,
39.

Rhythm

in

Function

Brahms'

phony in D, 212.
Programme music, 5,
Prose, Poetry

32.

of,

Pause, 163-166.

on

and Accent,
Construction 44.
Experiments with

of,

Sym-

6.

and Music, 20.

Quintuple Rhythm, 125-130.


in Tschaikowsky's Pathetic

Symphony, 246.

of,

65-67.

within Rhythm,

Sonata in E, 263, 264.


a

composition,

Rhythmical figures in accompaniment, 29.

Accentuation, 63, 64, 65.


Function
71.
Schemes combination, 69,
70,7i-.
Complications Sixteenth
of,

in

in

Century, 87.
Rhythmless Music, 58, 59.
Riemann, Dr. Hugo, 308.
Rising Accentuation, 45, 64,

185.
in Beethoven's

Rests, 166-174.

Rhythm, and Melos,

and Form,

4.

4, 9.

Fifth

Sym-

phony, 65.
Rising and Falling Accentuation,
116, 117.
Ritardando, 160-163.
Saint-Saens

No.

Etude,

op.

52,

4, 132.

classical

Army drum and


rhythm, 191, 192.

Schubert, 12.

Sonata D,
92.
D minor, Quartet, 84,

March
D,
Phrase-construction, 137,
op. 53,

92.

Pianoforte,

18.

(see also

Half-rhythms).

in

" Reading " of

77.

of two Measures, 83

Salvation

Quintuple Diaeresis in D'Indy's

material

in

92.

138.

Schumann Piano

quintet, 84.

INDEX

320
Schumann Toccata

in C, 95.
Phrase-construction,

and
137-

Syllabic, see Song.

Syncopated dactyls in Brahms'


Symphony in D, 100.

Schwerpunkt (Accent), 311.

Triplets

Sentences of Prose, 20.


Septuple Rhythm, 130-132.

phony, 301.
Syncopation, 66-104.

Seven-Measure

Rhythms,

54,

158.
Sforzando, 83, 89.

in

D,

Kuhac,

Beethoven's Sonata, op.


106, 100, 101.
in Schumann's Concerto,
in

131,

Song, Phrasing in, 27.


Song, Syllabic and Melismatic,

73-75.
Speech and Music, 19.
Staccato 182-185.
Stanford, Quartet No. 2, op. 45,
273-288.
,

Stanza, 23.
Italy "

Symphony,

58, 152.

102.
in

Hungarian and Bohemian

music, 103.
in Elgar's

Tempo,

Symphony, 293.

28, 29.

Variations 159.

162, 308.
of,

Rubato,

Three-measure Rhythms, 151-

Steigerung, 206, 207.

R, "

Sym-

98-100.

132.
Sonata, 9.

Strauss,

in

97.

Six-time Measure, 150.


Six-measure Rhythms, 157.

from

Beethoven's Eroica
phony,
Brahms' Symphony
in

Signatures, 39.

Slanca,

Sym-

Elgar's

in

1.53-

in

9th

Sym-

" Italy "

Sym-

Beethoven's

phony, 139.
in

Strauss'

Duple
Triple Time,
phony, 152.
Brahms' Piano Quartet
108, 109.
Violin Sonata,
G minor, 153.
109,

Quartet,
no.
45,
Ein Heldenleben, 155.
286.
Tod und Verklarung, 173, Time, Measurement 20-22,
against

in

in

op. 18,

in Stanford's

op.

of,

259.
Time-signatures,
122.
Toccata, 7.

Stress, 19.

Strophe, 23, 24.


Subsidiary Rhythm, 39.
Times, Notes, Values,

Accentuation, Function
Rhythm exemplified

31,

2,

Dominant

112-

Har-

8.

of,

Tremolo, 22.

by

Triple Measure, 29, 30.


Triplets, syncopated in Elgar's

72.

7 6 > 77-

and

monies,

82.

Brahms, op. 117, No.

Tonic

36-38,

75,

Symphony, 301.
Trochee, 81.

INDEX

321

Tschai'kowsky Romance, 115.


Pathetic
Symphony, 130,
236-255.

Verse, 20, 23
Vierer, 1 54.

Uneven Measure, 30.


Unproportional Time, 258.

Wagner, Tristan, 127, 128.


Weber, Overture to " Oberon,"

Values, 30.

"Well-marked"

note.

Vivaldi, 104.

190.

and Accent,

GLASGOW

79.

Rhythm, 88,

89.

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