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10 Aufrufe43 SeitenKinematics of Fluids

Apr 07, 2016

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Kinematics of Fluids

© All Rights Reserved

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10 Aufrufe

Kinematics of Fluids

© All Rights Reserved

Als DOC, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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CHAPTER 2

KINEMATICS OF FLUIDS

Kinematics of liquids is the section of aerodynamics, which studies

types and forms of movement of liquids and gases, regardless the action of

effecting forces.

The primary aim of kinematics is studying velocities of particles. Set of

particles' velocities of fluid environment forms a field of velocities. Therefore,

to have full representation about liquid or gas movement character it is

necessary to obtain values of velocities in all points of researched area.

Thus, in general, the velocity value will be a function of coordinates and

time.

2.1. Methods of research of fluid movement

There are two methods of studying fluid movement: Lagrange method

and Euler's method.

In Lagrange method studying fluid movement is conducted by

supervision over fluid separate particles moving along their trajectories.

Each particle is considered as a material point. As there is an infinite set of

particles; they are characterized by coordinates at the initial time.

Let the coordinates of the given particle are: a , b , c when t 0 (in the

initial time). It means, that among all trajectories, the particle will possess the

one, that passes through coordinates: a , b and c (fig. 2.1). Particle's

coordinates x , y , z are functions of coordinates a , b , c and time t :

x 1 ( a , b, c , t ) ;

y 2 ( a , b, c , t ) ;

(2.1)

z 3 ( a , b, c, t ) ,

where a , b , c are the parameters

determining the trajectory of the

particle, the point special values at

the initial time t 0 .

The equations (2.1) are the

family of trajectories (in the

parametrical form), which fill the

whole space occupied with fluid

environment.

define kinematics of flow. Indeed, knowing these equations it is easy to

16

determine velocities and accelerations of fluid particles in the arbitrary time

moment by time differentiation of trajectory equations:

x 1 ( a , b, c, t )

2 x 2 1 ( a , b, c , t )

Vx

, wx 2

t

t

t

t 2

y 2 ( a , b, c, t )

2 y 2 2 ( a , b, c , t )

Vy

, wy 2

t

t

t

t 2

2

2

z 3 ( a , b, c , t )

z 3 ( a , b, c , t )

Vz

, wz 2

.

2

t

t

t

t

(2.2)

method. A trajectory of fluid particle is named a curve, which is drawn by a

particle moving in space for some period of time. A great variety of particles

trajectories may pass through each point of space. Trajectories can cross

themselves and be very complex and intricate, therefore considering them is

rather difficult problem.

But there is no necessity to know a particle trajectory for solution of

practical problems of aerohydrodynamics.

For example, it is possible to determine pressure in each point of wing

surface with the help of the energy equation, if a flow velocity is predefined in

each point. Apparently, the practical task of fluid kinematics issues the

problem to define the velocity for certain point of space, depending on

personal features of particles passing through this point.

Eulers method is used to regard stationary space filled with moving

fluid, and to study velocity variation in time in the given point.

Thus, the Eulers method represents particles velocities as function of

time and coordinates x , y , z of points of space, or in specifying the velocity

field. Then

V x f 1 (x, y, z, t) ;

V y f 2 (x, y, z, t) ;

Vz f 3 (x, y, z, t) .

(2.3)

consider functions shown in equations (2.3) as simple, continuous and

differentiable functions of coordinates x , y , z and time t . In that case to

define a trajectory of fluid particles we shall (2.3) replace V x , V y , Vz in

dx dy dz

equations to

,

,

correspondingly and integrate the system of

dt

dt dt

differential equations:

17

dx

f 1 (x, y, z, t) ;

dt

dy

f 2 (x, y, z, t) ;

dt

dz

f 3 (x, y, z, t) .

dt

x 1 ( a , b, c , t ) ;

y 2 ( a , b, c , t ) ;

z 3 ( a , b, c, t ) .

(2.4)

(2.5)

determined from the initial conditions.

Let's

consider a fluid flow characterized by the given velocity vector

r

field V . Let there be some scalar field designated as U(x, y, z, t) in the

space occupied with moving fluid, which varies with time. Let's define a rate

of change of value U with time, observing the given fluid particle, moving

according to the law x( t ) , y( t ) , z( t ) .

It is necessary to take a total derivative with respect to time of value U

to determine a rate of its change:

dU U U dx U dy U dz

.

dt

t

x dt y dt z dt

Since functions x( t ) , y( t ) , z( t ) represent the coordinates of a moving

dx

dy

dz

Vx ,

Vy ,

Vz .

particle, than

dt

dt

dt

dU

Finally for

we shall obtain the following expression:

dt

dU U

U

U

U

Vx

Vy

Vz

.

(2.6)

dt

t

x

y

z

r

For the vector field A(x, y, z, t) varying with respect to time we shall

receive

r

r

r

r

r

dA A

A

A

A

.

(2.7)

Vx

Vy

Vz

dt t

x

y

z

The first summand in formulas (2.6) and (2.7) characterizes variation

of considered value with respect to time in the fixed point of space and

therefore it can be named a local derivative. The other summands are

18

associated with movement of a fluid particle and therefore they are called as

a convective derivative. It characterizes the field heterogeneity of considered

value at the given point of time.

Using expressions (2.6) and (2.7), it is possible to calculate a rate of

change of any values of scalar and vector fields.

For example, we'll define a rate of change of moving particle density by

means of formula (2.6):

d

Vx

Vy

Vz

.

dt

t

x

y

z

(2.8)

We shall get the fluid particle acceleration vector, which equals to the

derivative from velocity vector

with

r

rof this particle

r

r respect

r to time by (2.7):

r dV V

V

V

V

(2.9)

w

Vx

Vy

Vz

dt

t

x

y

z

r

Projecting w on coordinate axes we can write down the following

expressions:

dV x V x

V x

V x

V x

wx

Vx

Vy

Vz

;

dt

t

x

y

z

dV y V y

V y

V y

V y

wy

Vx

Vy

Vz

;

(2.10)

dt

t

x

y

z

dV

V

V

V

V

w z z z V x z V y z Vz z .

dt

t

x

y

z

In general case of fluid motion, projections of velocity V x , V y , Vz ,

pressure p and density will be functions of coordinates x , y , z and time

t , that is

V x f 1 ( x, y, z, t) ;

V y f 2 ( x, y, z, t) ;

Vz f 3 ( x, y, z, t) ;

(2.11)

p f 4 (x, y, z, t) ;

f 5 ( x, y, z, t) .

If projections of a velocity V x , V y , Vz , pressure p and a density in

the fixed point of space having coordinates x , y , z will be functions of time

t , than such fluid motion is unsteady.

If values V x , V y , Vz , p and in the fixed point of space do not vary

with time, such fluid motion is called steady. It means, that an arbitrary fluid

particle which comes to the given fixed point of space, will have the same

19

values of V x , V y , Vz , p and in this point as former fluid particles in this

point. In this case expressions (2.11) will be written as follows:

V x f 1 ( x, y, z) ;

V y f 2 ( x, y, z) ;

Vz f 3 ( x, y, z) ;

p f 4 (x, y, z) ;

f 5 ( x, y, z)

(2.12)

For steady motion the field of considered values is stationary, and local

derivatives are equal to zero:

V x V y Vz

0;

t

t

t

p

0;

t

0 etc.

t

But total derivatives of these values differ from zero, as in general case

the velocity, pressure and density change with transition from point to point.

Only in the special case, when we consider the uniform rectilinear motion of

an incompressible homogeneous fluid, we have

d

dV x dV y dVz

0.

0 and

dt

dt

dt

dt

2.2. Streamline. Fluid tube. Flow filament

The Euler's method feature is the concept of streamlines.

Let's consider an arbitrary point A

in space filled with fluid in arbitrary

r

moment of time t (fig. 2.2). Let V A is

the vector of velocity at point A . Let us

put aside a small line segment from the

r

point A in the direction of vector V A

r

and mark point B . VB is the vector of

velocity in the point B . Having put aside

a small line segment

from point B along

r

the vector VB we'll receive point C at

Fig. 2.2. Drawing of streamline

the end of the line segment. Continuing

such drawing further we shall receive in

the aggregate some polyline ABCDE . Increasing number of line segments

20

and considering length of each segment as infinitesimal we shall receive a

smooth curve instead of a polyline, which will be one of streamlines.

The streamline is a totality of fluid particles, which velocity vectors are

tangent to it at given point of time.

The fluid particle draws a trajectory during its movement. Streamlines

do not coincide with trajectories during the unsteady movement and they are

identical, when the movement is steady. It is necessary to note, that it is

possible to draw only one streamline through each point of the space filled

with moving fluid at the fixed moment of time.

The trajectory of a particle fixes changing position of the same particle

eventually, and the streamline specifies a velocity direction of various

particles at the same moment of time. Trajectories can intersect. Streamlines

neither intersect themselves, nor any another, as the velocity vector would

have two various directions in the cross point at given time, that is physically

impossible. Exception is only so-called flow special points, where the value of

velocity equals zero or is theoretically infinite.

The set of streamlines gives a picture of flow at present time that is an

instant photograph of flow velocity directions. A number of such pictures for

various moments of time represent the geometrical flow image

corresponding to the Eulers method.

Hence,

it

has

been

established, that velocity vectors

are tangent to the streamline at

each moment of time. Therefore if

we should take any point A on the

curve, and an elementary line

segment dl located close to it with

projections dx , dy , dz (fig. 2.3) on

corresponding axes, then the

velocity vector and the direction of

this line segment in the given point

would coincide, or in other words

they would be parallel.

parallelism condition of streamline and vector of velocity in the given point

r r

V , dl 0 .

(2.13)

21

i,

j, k

V x , V y , Vz 0 ,

dx , dy, dz

deploying the first line of determinant we shall obtain

i

V y , Vz

dy, dz

Vx , V y

Vz , V x

k

0,

dz , dx

dx , dy

V y dz Vz dy 0 ,

Vz dx V x dz 0 ,

V x dy V y dx 0 .

dx

dy

dz

.

V x ( x, y, z, t) V y ( x, y, z, t) Vz ( x, y, z, t)

(2.14)

Thus, the problem of streamline determination by the given field of

velocities is reduced to integrating the system of differential equations.

Let's introduce the concepts of the fluid tube. For this purpose we shall

draw some closed contour within fluid (fig. 2.4), which is not a streamline,

and draw streamlines through each point of the contour. A set of these

streamlines forms a surface, which is named fluid tube. Fluid flowing inside

the fluid tube is called as flow filament.

It is necessary to note, that fluid tube

formed by streamlines in stationary motion,

does not change with respect to time and is

similar to impermeable tube in which the

fluid flows as in a tunnel with solid walls,

which limit its contents. The fluid does not

flow out from the fluid tube through lateral

surface and is not added to it as in all

points of flow filament actual velocity is

directed along the streamline.

cross section can be assumed as equal to each other and to local velocities.

Elementary flow filament is a visual kinematic representation, which

22

significantly facilitates studying fluid motion, and it is put in the basis of socalled jet model of fluid flow.

According to this model, entered in aerohydrodynamics even in a period

of its scientific formation, the space filled with moving fluid is considered as a

set of many elementary flow filaments. The set of elementary flow filaments,

which flow through the area large enough, forms a fluid flow. Today the flow

filament model is one of the basic fluid models.

2.3. Continuity equation

The continuity equation expresses a law of mass conservation as

applied to a moving fluid, which approves an invariance mass of fluid volume

with respect to time ( dm dt 0 ).

Let's assume that moving fluid completely fills entire space or its fixed

area, i.e. that voids or gaps are absent. This requirement is called as

continuity condition.

Let's consider some fixed closed surface of an arbitrary shape limiting

volume W through which a compressible fluid flows (fig. 2.5). Let's

determine the fluid mass flowing through the given surface per unit of time.

Let's consider the fluid mass

flowing out from the volume W as

positive and the fluid mass that flowing

in as negative. The fluid mass equals to

product Vn dS shall flow through the

surface element dS per unit time,

where Vn is the projection of velocity

r

vector V to perpendicular drawn to

surface element dS .

equation

All the fluid mass flowing through surface S per unit time can be

determined by the following integral

m

VndS .

S

(2.15)

23

On the other hand, this fluid mass can be obtained as change of mass

in volume W per unit time:

m

dW

dW ,

(2.16)

t dW

t

Hence,

Vn dS

dW .

t

where

(2.17)

r

V

dS

div(

V

)dW ,

n

of equation (2.17)

we receive

or

r

div( V )dW

dW

t

r

t div( V ) dW 0 .

(2.18)

Provided that the written equation (2.18) is valid for any arbitrary

volume W , the integrand should be equal to zero

r

div( V ) 0 ,

(2.19)

t

which is the continuity equation in the differential form for unsteady motion of

compressible fluid.

In the detailed form the continuity equation (2.19) looks like:

( V x ) ( V y ) ( Vz )

0.

t

x

y

z

(2.20)

The equation (2.20) can also be written in the other form. Taking into

account, that

( V x )

Vx

Vx

;

x

x

x

( V y )

Vy

Vy

;

y

y

y

24

( Vz )

V

Vz z ,

z

z

z

we shall obtain:

V x V y Vz

Vx V y

Vz

0,

t x

y

z

or

1 d V x V y Vz

0,

dt

x

y

z

The vectorial form of the last expression looks like

r

1 d

div(V ) 0 .

dt

(2.21)

(2.22)

follows:

0 , const )

for steady-state motion of compressible fluid (

t

r

(2.23)

div( V ) 0

or

( Vx ) ( V y ) ( Vz )

0;

x

y

z

fluid ( const )

r

div( V ) 0

or

Vx V y Vz

0.

x

y

z

(2.24)

(2.25)

(2.26)

requirement of conservation of mass demands the volumetric deformation

rate of incompressible fluid to be equal to zero when fluid moves.

2.4. Flow consumption equation

To solve many practical aerohydrodynamics problems it is necessary

to have the continuity equation in the form, which would settle the connection

between velocity and the flow filament cross-sectional area. Such equation is

the flow consumption equation, representing the law of conservation of mass

as well as the continuity equation.

25

The flow consumption is the quantity of fluid running through actual

flow cross-section or flow filament section per unit time. The flow

consumption can be measured in units of volume, weight or mass.

Accordingly three types of the flow consumption are distinguished:

volumetric, weight and mass.

For elementary flow filament (fig. 2.6,) the velocity distribution is

accepted to be considered as uniform then the volumetric flow consumption

is dQ VdS ; the weight flow consumption dG gVdS ; and the mass flow

consumption dM VdS .

For the finite size flow, where the

velocity within the actual cross-section is

variable (Fig. 2.6,b), expressions for

three types of flow consumption will look

like:

b

Fig. 2.6. elementary flow filament;

b finite size flow

Q VdS ;

S

G gVdS ;

S

M VdS .

S

be entered:

Vmean

Q

.

S

(2.27)

26

Let's receive the equation of flow consumption. The fluid mass running

through arbitrary surface S and limiting volume W (fig. 2.7) can be

determined by the integral (2.15). For steady-state motion we also have the

mass

flowing out. Let's apply the obtained result to elementary flow filament.

Starting from the said above m m1 mlat m2 0 . Fluid mass

mlat 0 , because Vn 0 on lateral surface of the fluid tube (from property of

streamline). Having written the values for m1 and m 2 , we shall receive

1 V1 dS 2 V2 dS 0 ,

S1

S2

1 V1 S1 2 V2 S 2 const .

(2.28)

for elementary flow filament

elementary flow filament of the compressible fluid. For incompressible fluid (

const ) so

V1 S1 V2 S 2 const .

(2.29)

For the finite size channel (fig. 2.8), it is possible to write:

m m1 mlet m 2 0 , mlat 0 (as Vn 0 ), then the

consumption through cross-sections 1 1 and 2 2 will be equal to

flow

1 V1 dS 2 V2 dS 0 .

S1

S2

1V1m S1 2V2m S 2 .

(2.30)

27

Expression (2.30) represents the flow consumption equation for

moving compressible fluid within the finite size channel.

For incompressible fluid the flow consumption equation is

V1m S1 V2m S 2 .

(2.31)

for the finite size channel

aerohydrodynamics problems; it gives simple dependence between the

velocity and flow filament sectional area. The equation (2.29) shows, that for

incompressible fluid when fluid tube becomes narrower (thickening

streamlines) velocity increases, and with expanding fluid tube (streamlines

divergence) velocity decreases.

In the event of compressible fluid volume-flow persistence may not

have place. Under certain conditions fluid flow consumption through two

cross-sections of the flow filament may differ due to density change between

them, but thus the law of mass conservation is not been broken.

According to flow consumption equations the fluid tubes should be

closed or end on fluid boundaries as at S 0 we get V ; the infinite

velocity does not exist in nature.

2.5. Motion of fluid particle. Angular velocity

In a kinematics of a solid body it is proved, that it general case motion

of a solid body can be separated into its constituent parts: translation and

rotation around some axis called instantaneous rotation axis.

28

Motion of fluid particle is much more complex. When moving fluid

particle can change ones shape it can distort, in this case resulting motion

of fluid particle will comprise three motion types: translation, rotation and

deformation.

parallelepiped

r vortex motion. It is accepted

to designate angular velocity of rotation as . This value is vectorial, so it is

possible to separate it to three components ( x , y , z ) parallel the

corresponding coordinate axes.

Apparently, absolute value of full angular velocity can be determined in

the known way:

x2 y2 z2 .

Let's express angular velocity x , y , z by means of linear

velocities V x , V y , Vz . For this purpose we shall consider motion of the

elementary fluid parallelepiped with edges dx , dy and dz (fig. 2.9) during

rather small period of time dt .

29

Let's consider at first the face of parallelepiped parallel to coordinate

plane x0 y (fig. 2.10). Let the point a

of this edge at some instant time

moment t has the traveling velocity

equal to V x along the x axis, and

along the y axis - equal to V y ; then

the point b distanced from point a on

dy along the y axis will have velocity

directed along the axis x , equal to:

movement in the general case

V x V x

V x

dy .

y

At the same time the point c distanced from the point a on value equal

to dx along y axis has the velocity

V y

V y V y

dx .

x

Due to velocity difference V x V x in infinitesimal period dt the point b

will move along the x axis the following distance relatively to point a

bb

V x

dy dt ,

y

and for the same period the point c due to difference of velocitys V y V y will

move along the y axis with respect to the point a on distance

cc

V y

dx dt .

x

For the same time line segment ab will rotate on infinitesimal angle

d 1

bb V x

dt ,

dy

y

(2.32)

30

and line segment ac will rotate, accordingly, on angle

cc V y

(2.33)

dt .

dx

x

If parallelepiped was not deformated and if it would rotate about the

edge dz , line segments ab and ac would rotate in the same direction on the

same angle d (fig. 2.11). On the contrary, if they would not rotate and the

element would be distorted only so line segments ab and ac would rotate on

the same angle d , either towards each other, or in the opposite directions

(fig. 2.12).

d 2

parallelepiped edge

parallelepiped edge

edge dz on angle d due to rotation of the element and additionally turn on

opposed angles d due to parallelepiped-to-lozenge deformation and finally

take the positions ab and ac . In that case we shall have using fig. 2.13

d 1 d d , d 2 d d ,

and

31

d

1

d 2 d 1 .

2

angles of face rotation

determined using the following relation:

d 1 d 2 d 1

,

dt 2 dt

dt

That is resulting in the following form with the help of equations (2.32)

and (2.33):

1 V y V x

z

.

2 x

y

Considering motion of edges of similar parallelepiped, which faces are

parallel to planes x0z and y0z we shall receive expressions for all

components of angular velocity:

1 Vz V y

x

2 y

z

1 V x Vz

y

,

2 z

x

1 V y V x

z

.

2 x

y

(2.34)

angular velocity by elementary differentiation if components of linear velocity

are known as functions of coordinates.

32

Angular velocity of rotation can be written in the vectorial form as

r 1

r 1

rotV ,

(2.35)

2

2

where is a vortex of velocity.

It should be note that both translational and rotational motions and

deformation of fluid element occur simultaneously, irrespective of each other.

The particular case when fluid particles do not revolve around the

instantaneous axis is named as vortex-free or potential (the meaning of the

latter will be explained in subsection 2.7).

2.6. Fluid vortex-type flow

In aerohydrodynamics the significant place is allocated to the theory of

vortex-type flow flow where vortex of velocity is not equal to zero.

As it is known, movement of a fluid particle can be divided into three

components: translation, rotation and deformation movement. Rotation of a

fluid around some instant axis is defined by the vortex of velocity. The vortex

of velocity represents a vector of the double instant angular velocity

r

(2.36)

2 .

If the considered part of fluid is totally whirling, it is possible to speak

about the vortex field: the vector representing angular velocity of fluid particle

located at this place at present time can be drawn for each point in space.

2.6.1. Vortex line. Vortex tube. Vortex core

As streamlines give the concept

about field of velocities, vortex lines give

analogous concept of vortex field.

33

Vortex line is such line within flow where the vector of angular velocity

r

or vector of vortex of velocity is directed along tangent to this line in its

each point (fig. 2.14). Vortex lines can change their form and position in

space with time. Vortex lines, similarly to streamlines, cannot intersect in the

flow: only one vortex line may be drawn through each point of vortex flow.

It follows from definition of vortex line:

r r

, dr 0 ,

(2.37)

r

where r is a radius-vector, determining position of points located on vortex

line with respect to some center.

The differential equations of vortex lines can be written down as follows

by analogy to the differential equations of streamlines

dx

dy

dz

.

(2.38)

x ( x, y, z, t) y ( x, y, z, t) z ( x, y, z, t)

After substituting the expressions for components of angular velocity

into these equations (2.34) we shall receive the system of independent

differential equations, integration of which gives equations of vortex lines in

the final form.

Generally vortex lines and streamlines do not coincide and can

intersect. It is necessary to note, that the streamline can be ideally drawn in

any fluid flow, and the vortex line can not always and everywhere be drawn.

For example in case of potential flow the angular-velocity vector is equal to

zero in all points and vortex lines in such flow do not exist.

At constant flow vortex lines do not vary with time, similarly to

streamlines. If vortex lines and streamlines coincide, vectors of linear and

angular velocities coincide. Such fluid flow is called helical flow. The

equation of helical lines obtained from a requirement of vector parallelism of

linear and angular velocity vectors has the following form:

V x V y Vz

.

x y z

34

If we should draw vortex lines

through each point of some line L ,

which is not being a vortex line; their

combination would form a vortex

surface. If the line L is a closed loop

the vortex surface turns into a vortex

tube (fig. 2.15). The vortex tube together

with rotating fluid enclosed within forms

a vortex core. Thin vortex core is

sometimes called a vortex trunk (vortex

line).

Let's consider a thin vortex line (fig. 2.16) and split it by plane ,

perpendicular to filament axis.

Strength or vortex line consumption is determined by velocity vortex

flow through the area of filament section d normal to vortex vector

dI d

or by doubled flow of vortex velocity:

r

dI 2 d .

(2.39)

plane S , making the arbitrary angle

with the plane of normal section .

Then the area of inclined section dS

will be concerned with the area of

normal section by the equation:

of equation of vortex filament

consumption

d dS cos .

r

r

Let n be the normal to the area dS , and n cos is the angular rate

component normal to this area.

35

Taking into account two latest equations we shall write down the

expression (2.39) in more general form:

r r

dI 2( ,n )dS ,

(2.40)

r

where n is the unit vector normal to surface dS .

Strength of vortex line or its consumption can serve as a standard

measure of fluid vorticity happening within the vortex filament. Consumption

of a vortex core is:

r

r r

I ( ,n )dS 2 ( ,n )dS .

(2.41)

r

Values of angular-velocity vector and sectional area may vary

along the given vortex core, however vortex core consumption along its

whole length remains constant. This is a content of the first Helmholtz

theorem.

This theorem is only of kinematic type and is valid for any continuum

provided that the field of velocities is a continuous function of coordinates.

We shall prove this theorem using Zhukovsky method. Starting from

equations (2.34), we shall write partial derivatives with respect to coordinates

x , y and z for angular velocity

2

x 1 2Vz V y

,

x

2 yx zx

y 1 2V x 2Vz

,

y

2 zy xy

2

z 1 V y 2V x

.

z

2 xz yz

x y z

0

x

y

z

or

r

div( ) 0 .

(2.42)

(2.43)

36

Last equation is similar to the continuity equation (2.25) if we should

r

assume that incompressible fluid moves within the vortex tube with

vector

r

. Thus, the equation (2.42) is the continuity equation for vector .

By analogy with the flow consumption equation (2.29) for vortex

filament for which angular rate may be considered as constant value over

the section, it is possible to write down

I 2 1 1 2 2 2 co n s t .

(2.44)

For all cross-sections of vortex line strength I is a constant value,

therefore at reduction of cross-sectional area angular rate will increase

and on the contrary. If I 0 at 0 angular rate 0 that is physically

impossible. Thus, the vortex line can not be needle point at its end in a fluid,

it only can lean against its solid boundaries, or on a free surface or to swing

in a ring.

2.6.4. Velocity circulation

Both theoretical and applied aerodynamics widely use a concept of

velocity circulation designated as .

Let's draw an arbitrary closed

contour L within moving fluid flow and

take any element dl belonging to this

contour (fig. 2.17). We shall mark the

velocity in ther middle of element dl

(point M ) as V , and the angle between

r

vector V and tangent to the contour as

. Let's consider the product VS dl

determination

r r

d VS dl V cos(V ,dl )dl V cos dl ,

this is called an elementary velocity circulation.

Lets take the curvilinear integral along the arc AB :

V cos(V , dl )dl .

AB

(2.45)

37

This expression is termed as a velocity circulation along arc AB .

Circulation is usually calculated along the whole closed loop L

V cos(V , dl ) dl V cos dl VS dl

L

(2.46)

enclosed by contour L remains to the left during integration.

Expression (2.46) for circulation can be written in another form. The

velocity vector projection on the direction of tangent to the contour in its any

point will be equal to the sum of projections of vector components on the

same direction, i.e.

VS V x cos( x ,l ) V y cos( y,l ) Vz cos( z ,l ) ,

where l is tangent direction.

For such substitution elementary circulation d VS dl will be written

down as

d V x dl cos( x ,l ) V y dl cos( y ,l ) Vz dl cos( z ,l ) .

Taking into account, that

dl cos( x ,l ) dx , dl cos( y ,l ) dy , dl cos( z ,l ) dz ,

we shall receive the following expressions:

d V x dx V y dy Vz dz ,

(2.47)

V x dx V y dy Vz dz .

(2.48)

However, as we shall see further, the velocity circulation is very important

value in aerohydrodynamics. It is related to the vortex consumption and

strength; as N.E. Zhukovsky had proved, the value of wing lift directly

depends on the velocity circulation value.

38

2.6.5. Relation of elementary circulation with vortex strength.

Stocks theorem

Lets draw in the fluid flow infinitely

small closed contour in the form of rightangled triangle which legs are parallel to

coordinate axes 0 x and 0 y and

determine velocity circulation over this

contour. We shall be passing around the

triangle contour in the counter-clockwise

direction, having taken it as a positive

direction of tangent to the contour. We

shall suppose, that velocities dx , dy and

dl at the infinitely small sides of triangle

vary by the linear law and applied to the

middle of the sides.

Fig. 2.18. Explanation how to develop

velocity circulation of the contour of

elementary triangle

d V x dx (V y sin V x cos )dl V y dy .

It is seen from fig. 2.18.

dl sin dy and dl cos dx ,

therefore

d V x dx V y dy V x dx V y dy (V y V y )dy (V x V x )dx .

Taking into account that

V y V y

V x dy 1

V y dx

, V x V x

, dxdy dS ,

y 2 2

x 2

d

1 V y V x

dx dy 2 z dS .

2 x

y

(2.49)

2 z dS 2 n dS dI ,

where dI is a strength of vortex filaments crossing area dS .

(2.50)

39

Comparing equations (2.49) and (2.50), we can finally write down

d 2 n dS dI .

(2.51)

the form of right-angled triangle, is equal to the strength of vortex filaments

dI , enclosed by the triangle contour.

Obtained result can be easily generalized for an arbitrary infinitely

small triangle abc (Fig. 2.19,a). Such triangle always can be split on two

right-angled triangles 1 and 2 by dotted line cd , and we can apply equation

(2.51) to each of them, i.e.

d 1 dI 1 , d 2 dI 2 ,

or

d d 1 d 2 dI 1 dI 2 dI ,

(2.52)

dI is strength of vortex filament enclosed by the contour of given triangle.

Equation (2.52) follows from fig. 2.19,a, but when summing circulations

d 1 and d 2 over contours of right-angled triangles 1 and 2 , the circulation

along the cd is taken twice, but with the opposite signs, so it is cancelled.

The circulation over sides of the given triangle is not cancelled and equals to

d in sum.

So, as it follows from the latter equation, for any infinitely small triangle

d dI ,

i.e. equation (2.51) is true.

Moreover, it is true for any infinitely small tetragon abcd (fig. 2.19,b),

as it can always be divided into two triangles by dotted line ac , for each

triangle we can apply equation (2.52). When summing circulations over both

triangles like in the former case, we can see that the circulation over internal

dotted line will be taken twice, but with the opposite sings and while

summation it will be cancelled. But the circulation over the sides of the given

tetragon will not be cancelled and it will be equal to strength of vortexes that

intersect area of tetragon. Hence, for infinitely small tetragon we obtain

equation (2.51).

Let's consider the general case. Examine arbitrary closed contour L in

fluid flow with continuous surface S located within the fluid flow and leans

against it (fig.2.19,c). On surface S let's draw a grid formed by two families

of intersecting lines, which divide the surface into a number of areas, each of

them will be bounded by its own closed contour Si .

40

that the circulation will be taken twice over every line drawn on the surface

S , but with opposite signs and under summation these circulations for all

internal lines will be mutually cancelled. But circulations over sections of

given contour L would not be cancelled. As these circulations for all

sections of contour L are taken in the same direction as shown on

fig. 2.19,c, the sum of circulations over all internal contours will be equal to

the circulation of velocity over given contour, i.e.

i ,

i

For the extreme case, when every internal area becomes infinitely

small and each bounding contour is a triangle or tetragon, which are infinitely

small, equation (2.51) for any closed contour L will have the final form

V S dl 2 n dS 1 .

L

(2.53)

In the same manner one can show that this relation is true for nonplanar contour L and part of surface S , but only if the contour is simply and

part of surface does not go beyond boundaries of the fluid. So finally Stocks

theorem can be formulated in the following way: the velocity circulation over

any arbitrary contour equals to the vortex vector flow through the surface

leaning against this contour and not going beyond the fluid bounds, or

equals to the sum of strength of vortex filaments intersecting the surface.

Conclusion following from the Stocks theorem is: if we should draw a

closed contour on the surface of vortex tube, enclosing vortex tube the

circulation over such closed contour will be equal to vortex tube strength; if

we should draw a contour on its surface that does not enclose a vortex tube,

the circulation over this contour will be equal to zero.

This theorem is kinematic one and can be applied to any continuous

system if the movement of this system is continuous.

41

2.6.6. The generalization of circulation theorem

When proving this theorem some certain assumptions were made,

such as:

velocity of flow and the first derivatives of velocity components with

respect to coordinates are continuous functions;

velocities vary under a linear law along every side of infinitely small

right-angled triangle;

surface S leaning against the contour L is continuous and is entirely

located within fluid.

Accepted assumptions do not always take place, lets determine how

we can use this theorem for such cases.

Lets show, that requirement of continuity of velocity derivatives is not

essential. Assume, that on some line l1 belonging to the surface S

(fig. 2.20), the first derivative of velocity components undergo rupture, in the

way that when transferring from one side of this line to another side they

suddenly change their value, but keep continuously along this line.

42

Then we always can draw a grid of

lines on the surface S , so that one of

lines could coincide with line l1 .

Fig. 2.20.

Fig. 2.21.

internal areas, but derivatives are continuous along the line itself and

theorem proving is truly expressed by the formula (2.53).

We would come to another result when assuming that on some line l1

velocities undergo rupture when transferring from one side of the line to

another and is surface S has ruptures (fig. 2.21). For example, surface S is

leaning against the given contour l from its face and has a cut inside,

bounded by contour l1 . In that case formula (2.53) can not be applied

directly. But it can be used in the following way. Lets join outer contour l

with internal contour l1 by means of two lines ad and bc which are very

close to each other (fig. 2.21). As a result we shall obtain the combined

closed contour abcda leaning against continuous surface S , for which we

can use formula (2.53)

abcda 2

ndS ,

S

43

where abcda is a velocity circulation along the compound contour abcda .

As it follows from fig. 2.21,

abcda ab bc cd da .

Bringing together lines ad and bc , we shall obtain in the limit:

bc cd 0 ,

since circulations bc and cd are taken along the same line but in different

directions.

Further, for considered limit case we shall also obtain

ab , cd 1 ,

where is a velocity circulation over the contour l ; 1 is a circulation over

contour l1 . For these substitutions we shall obtain for circulation abcda

abcda 1 2

ndS ,

S

and

1 2

ndS .

(2.54)

of ruptured surface S leaning against outer contour l and internal contour l1

.

Lets consider a case when line

AB is located on the surface S , on

which velocities undergo rupture when

transferring from one side of it to

another (fig. 2.22).

. 2.22.

44

In this case we shall encircle the line AB with closed contour l1 and

designate a part of surface S as S1 , enclosed within contour l1 . So we can

apply formula (2.54) to the surface equals to difference between S S1 i.e.

1 2

S S1

n dS

Now we shall pull together the contour l1 to the line AB in such a way

that in the limit its sides would coincide with opposite sides of line AB . Then

the surface S1 will be equal to zero and we shall come to formula (2.54),

where 1 mean velocity circulation on velocity rupture line AB , calculated

over its two sides, shaping together one closed contour l1 .

As velocity circulation is determined only by velocities tangent to

contour, so circulation 1 could differ from zero only if there is a rupture of

tangent velocities on the line AB . If tangent velocities are continuous,

circulation 1 will be equal to zero and we again return to formula (2.53).

If surface S has more than one cuts bounded by internal contours li

with circulation i , then generalized formula will be written down similar to

formula (2.54) as follows:

i 2 ndS .

n

(2.55)

2.7. Foundations of potential flow theory

2.7.1. Concept of potential flow

Fluid flow where vortex velocity equals to zero is called irrotational or

potential fluid motion, i.e. flow free of local rotations of fluid particles.

It should be noted that in real fluids formation of vortex motions is

observed permanently. The reason is a number of facts, including existence

of fluid internal friction. Despite this fact the potential motion scheme gives

us picture very close to real in many cases, important for solving practical

problems.

So, assuming that flow is vortex-free, lets consider main features of

potential motion.

45

Basing on definition of fluid potential flow ( x y z 0 ) we shall

obtain for ratios (2.34)

1 Vz V y

x

0,

2 y

z

1 V x Vz

y

0,

2 z

x

1 V y V x

z

0.

2 x

y

(2.56)

r

rot(V ) 0 .

(2.57)

Vz V y

,

y

z

V x Vz

,

z

x

V y V x

.

x

y

(2.58)

known, equations (2.58) are required and sufficient conditions that this

differential trinomial would be a total differential of function (x, y, z) , which

is continuous function including its partial derivatives up to the second-order,

i.e.

V x dx V y dy Vz dz d (x, y, z) .

The function (x, y, z) is called velocity potential and has great

importance in aerohydrodynamics. Lets disclose its total differential

V x dx V y dy Vz dz

dx

dy

dz .

x

y

z

shall receive

46

,

x

Vy

,

y

Vz

,

z

Vx

(2.59)

velocity potential with respect to corresponding coordinate. This important

potential property is kept for arbitrary direction l also. Lets consider in fluid

point M located

on arbitrary curve (fig. 2.23). Let velocity in the point M is

r

equal to V . Draw the tangent to the curve in the point M . As we consider

potential flow, there is velocity potential so we can write

dx dy dz

, x ) dx cos(V

, y ) dz cos(V

,z ) dz .

V cos(V

l x dl y dl z dl

dl

dl

dl

Since

dx

dy

dz

cos( l , x ) ,

cos( l , y ) ,

cos( l ,z ) ,

dl

dl

dl

so finally we shall obtain

,l ) V ,

V cos(V

(2.60)

l

dl

i.e. velocity projection onto arbitrary direction is equal to derivative of velocity

potential along this direction. In particular case in polar coordinates on plane

we shall have

Vr

,

r

(2.61)

1

Vs

,

r

r

where Vr , Vs are projections of velocity vector V of point M onto direction of

polar radius-vector r and onto direction that is perpendicular to polar radiusvector (fig. 2.24).

47

property of velocity potential

polar coordinate system.

aerodynamics, since in this case three unknown values V x , V y and Vz can

be expressed using partial derivatives of one unknown function velocity

potential (x, y, z) according to equations (2.59).

Surface defined by equation

(x, y, z) const

(2.62)

has constant value on such surface. Line drawn on equipotential surface will

be called an equipotential line respectively.

dl

any direction l tangent to equipotential surface direction.

r

It follows that velocity vectors V are perpendicular to equipotential

r

surface. Streamlines are also perpendicular to it as velocity vectors V are

tangent to streamlines.

Due to condition (2.62) derivative

vortex-free flow. For example, velocity circulation over any closed contour l

connecting two arbitrary points A and B can be expressed in a form of

curvilinear integral

B

(V x dx V y dy Vz dz ) .

A

(2.59) in the latter equation we shall obtain

48

B

dx

dy

dz d B A .

x

y

z A

A

B

(2.63)

does not depend on contour shape and is equal to difference between

velocity potential in the initial point and velocity potential in the final point of

contour. If contour is closed velocity potential is simple coordinate function

and circulation becomes equal to zero.

It should be noted that velocity potential could be both single- and

multiple-valued coordinate function.

2.7.2. Multiple-valued velocity potential

Such parameters as pressure, density, and velocity components in

steady motion must be single-valued coordinate functions by their physical

implication. Velocity potential is an auxiliary function and it can be both

single-valued and multiple-valued coordinate function. Lets determine in

what cases velocity potential will be single-valued and in what cases it will be

multiple-valued.

Potential flow domain is called simply connected if any closed curve

drawn within it can be pulled together into a point by means of continuous

deformation without rupture and do not spread over boundaries of potential

domain.

Otherwise domain is called multiply connected. For example potential

flow, which contains a vortex filament with strength I is two connected

domain (fig. 2.25).

In this case contour l enclosing vortex filament cannot be pulled

together in a point without rupture and without spreading over bounds of

potential domain.

49

Lets

show

that

velocities

potential is a single-valued only in

simply connected domain.

fig. 2.25) and determine velocity circulation over this segment passing from

point A to B in direction shown by arrows. We shall denote velocity

potential value as 0 in point A and as 1 in point B . Then as it follows

from formula (2.63)

AB 1 0 .

Pulling together points A and B in direction shown by arrow until they

become complete coincident we shall obtain the following equation on the

base of circulation theorem

AB I .

Due to this substitution we shall obtain value of velocity potential 1 in

point B from the later equation.

1 0 .

We can see that if vortex filament is present of in flow velocity potential

has two different values 0 and 1 in the same point (point B coincides with

point A ), differing one from another on value .

Lets assume obtained value 1 is the initial value of velocity potential

in point A and make full round over contour l directing to point B . Then

according to the later equation new velocity potential value in point B will be

equal to

2 1 0 2 .

50

If we continue this process further we shall come to conclusion that

velocity potential in the same point of multiply connected domain can have a

number of different values:

n 0 n ,

(2.64)

If flow is free of vortexes ( 0 ), then potential flow will be simply

connected. In this case n 0 and velocity potential will be single-valued

coordinate function.

We should come to the same result if any bodies in spite of one or

several vortex filaments would be placed in potential flow, for example a

wing creating vortex circulation 0 (not equal to zero) over its closed

contour. In this case potential flow is not simply connected and velocity

potential will be multiple-valued.

Any multiply connected domain can be artificially transformed into

simply connected by drawing additional boundary surfaces in flow that

eliminate foreign inclusions (vortexes, bodies) from considered domain.

2.7.3. Continuity equation for potential fluid motion in

Cartesian coordinate system.

It was proved in subsection 2.3 that continuity equation in general form

can be written in the following way

1 d Vx V y V z

0.

dt

x

y

z

(2.59), we shall have

1 d 2 2 2

0.

dt x 2 y 2 z 2

(2.65)

For incompressible fluid i.e. const continuity equation will have the

following form

2 2 2

0.

x2 y2 z2

Obtained

this equation

incompressible

coordinates x ,

(2.66)

is called harmonic function. So, for potential flow of

fluid velocity potential will be harmonic function of

y, z.

51

Laplace's equation (2.66) is a linear differential equation expressed in

second order partial derivatives. Now methods to solve this equation are well

known. Own velocity potential corresponds to each specific potential fluid

flow. As there is infinite number of fluid flows so equation (2.66) has infinite

number of solutions. Boundary conditions are introduced into practice to

obtain the solution of Laplace's equation that corresponds to body of given

shape and desired condition on external boundaries of fluid flow.

Supposing, that solid body which surface is given by function f(x, y, z)

is streamed by fluid flow with velocity parallel to axis 0 x on infinity ( r )

and equals to V . In this case it is necessary that the following boundary

condition would work: when r velocities have the following values

V x V , V y Vz 0 .

For inseparable streaming we have the second boundary condition:

normal velocity component equals to zero Vn 0 on body surface.

For plane potential motion continuity equation for incompressible fluid

(Laplace's equation) will take the following form

2 2

0.

2

2

x

y

(2.67)

define potential flow of incompressible fluid.

2.7.4. Continuity equation for potential motion of

incompressible fluid in polar coordinate system

Lets consider plane potential flow of incompressible fluid. Pick out an

infinite small area abcd bounded by two infinitely close polar radiuses and

two infinitely close circles with radiuses r and r dr (fig. 2.26). Lets try to

calculate masses of fluid inflowing through edges ab and ad and flowing out

through edges dc and bc . We shall consider mass of fluid flowing out as

positive and mass of fluid flowing in as negative.

Fluid mass that flows in through edge ad in a unit time is

mad Vr r d ,

through edge ab is

mab Vs dr .

Fluid mass that flows out through edge bc in a unit time is

52

mbc Vr r d

( Vr r d )dr ,

r

equation in polar coordinate system

through edge dc is

mdc Vs dr

( Vs dr )d .

condition of incompressible fluid

mab mad mbc mdc 0

Making summation of fluid flowed in and flowed out

Vr r d Vs dr Vr r d ( Vr r d )dr Vs dr

( Vs dr )d 0

r

we shall have

( Vr r d )dr

( Vs dr )d 0 .

r

(r

)

r r

1

(

)0.

r

Making differentiation and dividing through by r finally we shall have

2

1

1 2

0.

r 2 r r r 2 2

(2.68)

53

2.7.5. Stream (Flow) function

In aerodynamics the so called stream function has great importance

in analysis of streams. Lets clear up its meaning for potential plane-parallel

steady motion of incompressible fluid.

Plane-parallel flow is called flow where fluid particles moving parallel to

fixed plane, and at the same time gas-dynamic variables have equal values

in corresponding points of all planes that are parallel to it.

Differential equation of streamlines (2.14) has following form for planeparallel fluid motion

dx dy

Vx V y

or

V x dy V y dx 0 .

(2.69)

coordinates x and y making integration we can obtain equation that

connects coordinates x and y with arbitrary constant. To each value of

arbitrary constant will be correspond definite line of fluid flow. Differential

binomial in the left part of equation (2.69) is total differential of function

(x, y) .

Continuity equation (2.26) for considering case can be written in

following way

Vx ( V y )

.

x

y

(2.70)

function

,

y

Vy

x

Vx

(2.71)

2

2

.

x y x y

Then substituting values V x and V y from (2.71) to (2.69) we shall have

54

dy

dx d 0 ,

y

x

from which by integration we shall find equation of streamlines

(x, y) C ,

(2.72)

Equation (2.72) is an equation of streamlines family. Giving different

values to constant C we shall obtain different flow lines that belong to this

family. Function is called stream (flow) function.

Comparing of formulas (2.59) and (2.71) leads to important ratios

x y

Vy

,

y

x

Vx

(2.73)

Following ration between functions and can be established by

multiplying from formulas (2.73):

0

x x y y

As it known from mathematics this

ratio is condition of perpendicular

curves (x, y) C and (x, y) C

(fig. 2.27). So, families of flow lines and

equipotential

lines

are

mutually

orthogonal in potential plane steady

fluid flow. Flow function for potential

fluid flow and as velocity potential ,

corresponds to Laplace's equation.

Actually using condition of potentiality

(2.56)

Fig. 2.27. Family of equipotential lines

and streamlines

V y

x

V x

0

y

55

and ratios (2.71) we obtain Laplace's equation

2 2

0.

(2.74)

x2 y2

If consider flow function as velocity potential so, according to

Coushy-Rimans condition (2.73) velocity potential of initial fluid flow will

become flow function i.e. equipotential lines of initial flow will become flow

lines in new flow. Velocity vectors of particles in new flow will turn on angle

2

Thus, functions and can be permuted. Two fluid flows described

by these functions are called conjugated.

It should be noted that flow

function exists under plane-parallel fluid

flow independently of if fluid flow is

vortex or potential, as only continuity of

fluid flow was supposed under flow

function determination.

meaning of streamlines

surface with single altitude leaning against contour that connects points A

and B in space filled by plane potential fluid flow (fig. 2.28). Volumetric fluid

consumption through surface element which has contour element dl in its

base, is equal to

dQ Vn dl V x cos( x ,n ) V y cos( y ,n ) dl

where

cos( x ,n )

dy

dx

, cos( y,n )

,

dl

dl

56

minus sign before c os( y ,n ) had been taken because while moving along

segment dl from point B to point A dx 0 .

Substituting velocities V x and V y by their expressions according to

(2.71) we shall obtain

dy dx

dl d ,

y

dl

x

dl

dQ Vn dl

following form

B

Q AB dQ d B A ,

A

(2.75)

contour between two streamlines does not depend on contour form end is

equal to difference of flow lines values in endpoints.

From it follows if points A and B coincide fluid consumption is equal

to zero ( Q 0 )for single valued flow function . If curve AB is flow line

section, fluid consumption through it will be also equal to zero (as along flow

line const ). If under full bypassing over closed contour flow function does

not come to its initial value it means that flow function is multiple valued

and fluid consumption Q will be differ from zero. It can take place if advance

or retract of fluid is carried out inside of fluid, i.e. there are so called sources

or drains inside contour. From formula (2.75) and fig. 2.28 follows that fluid

volume flowing between two arbitrary flow lines in a unit time is constant

value, numerically equal to constants value difference that correspond to

these flow lines.

2.6.7. Complex potential

As it was shown, the basic functions characterizing the properties of

potential plane motion, (i.e. stream function x, y and velocity potential

x, y ), are interconnected by the equations

x

y

y

x

condition that the complex combination of these 2functions of 2 actual

variables, i.e. x, y i x, y , is a complex variable function z x iy . Lets put

this function through w :

57

w z i

(2.76)

complex potential or flow characteristic function.

Lets consider the derivative from complex potential w z i with

respect to complex variable z x iy . The expression for derivative will take

the form

dw

i

dz

x

x

y

y

(2.77)

(5.73), well obtain:

dw

V x iV y .

dz

(2.78)

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