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Chapter 13

Semi-Variogram Analysis
In this Chapter

Introduction
The Semi-Variogram
Preparing Linear Semi-Variograms
Preparing 3-D Semi-Variograms

Introduction
Gemcom for Windows is a workspace system designed specifically
for spatially related data. Therefore, it is important to provide
facilities for the statistical analysis of data based on the spatial
relationship between the data values. Geostatistics is the name
commonly given to this type of statistical analysis, where an
assumption is made that sample or data values are affected both by
their location and their relationship with the surrounding data.
Variables that follow this behaviour are known as regionalized
variables and the study of them is called geostatistics.
The main application of geostatistics has been for estimating ore
reserves. It is now being used more and more in other fields, such
as in environmental assessments, where predictions and
estimations need to be made from spatial data.
Geostatistics normally is performed in two stages:

Analyse the spatial relationships between values. The main tool


for this analysis is the semi-variogram. Semi-variograms are

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one of the statistical analysis tools provided in Gemcom for


Windows.

Use the results of the analyses to predict values in areas with


no data. This is called interpolation. Gemcom for Windows
provides some general interpolation tools for estimating values
using grids. For more information on interpolation, see
Chapter 19: Gridding and Contouring.

The Semi-Variogram
Geostatistics uses most of the standard tools of statisticians to
analyse the relationships between samples. Such tools include
means, standard deviations, the variance, and presenting these
results as a function of distance and direction.
The semi-variogram is a graph that shows the variability between
pairs of samples against the distance between them in a specific
direction. The graph's horizontal axis shows the separation distance
between pairs of samples, while the graph's vertical axis shows the
variance of the differences in values for specific separation
distances. Generally, sample pairs are grouped together into ranges
of distance separation, as samples usually are never regular
distances apart. These ranges of distances are called the lag
distances. For convenience, the vertical axis usually shows half the
variance value, hence the term semi-variogram (see the formula
below).
When the graph is derived from sample data, it is called an
experimental semi-variogram. When the semi-variogram is derived
solely from theoretical data, it is called a model semi-variogram.
Calculating, displaying and modelling the semi-variograms is a
three- stage process:
1. Calculation. The experimental semi-variogram is calculated
from the workspace. This can be done in two ways: along
traverses or drillholes; or in any three-dimensional direction.

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Figure 13-1: A typical semi-variogram


2. Display. The experimental semi-variogram is displayed as a
graph using QuickGraf, Gemcom's graph display and plotting
utility.
3. Modelling. The model semi-variogram is fitted to the
experimental semi-variogram using an interactive process. This
is also done using QuickGraf.
The parameters that you specify during the modelling stage can
then be used during the kriging process to control the interpolation
of values into areas with no data.

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Calculation
The general formula for calculating a semi-variogram for a set of n
samples spaced h distance apart is as follows:
2 Gamma( h ) =

1
2
[ g( x ) g ( x + h )]
n

where
Gamma(h)
g(x) - g(x+h)
h
n

is the semi-variance
is the difference between the values of the sample
pairs
is the distance between the sample pairs
is the number of samples

The semi-variogram is computed for as many sets of h as


appropriate to the data, and the results are plotted on a graph.

Model Semi-Variograms
The model semi-variogram is the ideal shape for the curve
illustrating the theoretical relationship between sample pairs as
the distance between them increases. The curve begins at or near
the origin, as samples that have coincidental locations should be
the same and thus have no variance. The semi-variance should
increase to the right, as the distance between the samples
increases. The curve will gradually flatten and the semi-variance
value will become constant. At this separation, there is no longer
any relationship between sample pairs and they can be considered
independent of each other. The distance at which this happens is
called the range of influence, and the variance at this point is called
the sill.
This ideal semi-variogram is called a spherical model. In practice,
the curve may start with a small variance (as there are generally
variances between two samples taken at the same location, often
caused by sampling techniques). This is termed the nugget effect

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Figure 13-2: Ideal model semi-variogram


and can be present in all semi-variograms. Also, more than one sill
value can be present, in which case the model semi-variogram has a
nested structure.
In addition to the spherical model, there are several other types of
model semi-variograms that can occur:

Exponential model
Linear model
Logarithmic model
Gaussian model
Nugget effect model

For detailed information on these models, see Models in


Chapter 23: QuickGraf.

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Experimental Semi-Variograms
Experimental semi-variograms can be made from any workspace
that contains information about the location of the sample values.
This includes the point workspace, the traverse workspace, the
drillhole workspace and the polygon workspace.
Semi-variograms are calculated for specific geological or structural
directions, such as along dip, down plunge, along strike,
perpendicular to strike, along drillholes, etc. The direction that you
want to use will govern the type of semi-variogram you select.
You can produce two types of semi-variograms from the
workspaces. The type of semi-variogram you select depends on the
way you want to determine the distance and directional
relationship between the samples. They are:

Linear semi-variograms. This type of semi-variogram can


only be calculated directly from traverse or drillhole
workspaces. The only relationship between the sample pairs
that is considered is along the trace of the traverse or drillhole.

3-D semi-variograms. This type of semi-variogram is


calculated from data that has been extracted from a workspace
into an extraction file. The semi-variogram is calculated along a
three dimensional vector defined by an azimuth and a dip
angle, within defined tolerances. You can calculate 3-D semivariograms for up to twelve different directions at a time.

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Modelling Experimental Semi-Variograms


You can use QuickGraf to fit model semi-variograms to the
experimental semi-variograms. The modelling process is an
interactive process that allows you to fit a number of different types
of semi-variogram models to the experimental semi-variogram.
You can fit semi-variogram models to experimental semivariograms using any combination of the following three methods:

Defining the model type. You must select the type for each of
the models that you want from the list of available model types.

Defining the number of semi-variogram models. You can


nest up to three type of models together.

Defining the model parameters. You can do this using a


combination of data entry screens and mouse positioning,
depending on the type of semi-variogram models.

For complete information on the model types that are available as


well as on the procedures for modelling semi-variograms, see
Models in Chapter 23: QuickGraf.

Preparing Linear Semi-Variograms


Linear semi-variograms are calculated either along the line of a
traverse or along the trace of a drillhole. The data for linear semivariograms is taken directly from either a traverse or drillhole
workspace. The sample values and locations are obtained directly from
tables in the workspace according to selection criteria that you can
define. Sample locations are determined from values either in FROM
and TO fields or in DISTANCE fields. The relationship between sample
pairs is determined directly from their sequential position along each
traverse or drillhole, regardless of the drillhole direction or orientation.

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Figure 13-3: Calculation of linear semi-variograms


You can use the Linear Semi-Variogram command to define
linear semi-variogram profiles and produce linear semi-variograms
based on the data in a traverse or drillhole workspace.
The semi-variogram calculation produces a log file that contains a
list of the records used for the calculation identified by the contents
of the ID field that you defined. In addition, it also produces two
files used by QuickGraf to plot the semi-variogram:

This file contains the tabulation of the semivariogram table.

DDHVAR.DAT.

DDHVAR.GRF.

This file contains the statistics summary of the


data set used for the semi-variogram calculation.

Both of these files are text files and are located in the
GCDBaa\GRAPHS subdirectory.

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Linear Semi-Variogram Profiles


Before you can view the semi-variogram table or prepare semivariogram plots you must have at least one linear semi-variogram
profile defined. Follow this procedure to create a new profile:
1. Select Workspace } Analysis } Linear Semi-Variogram. The Linear
Semi-Variogram dialog box will appear.
2. Click Add. Enter a name for the linear semi-variogram profile
and click OK.
3. The Linear Semi-Variograms dialog box appears. This dialog
box consists of four parts, represented by four tabs, which allow
you to specify which data is to be used to prepare the semivariogram and to apply a variety of selection criteria,
transformations and normalization options to that data:

Data
Location
Selections
Parameters

4. Enter the required parameters for each of these tabs. These


parameters are outlined in detail in the sections below.
5. Once all the desired parameters have been entered, click OK.
The Select Records to Process dialog box will appear. Select
the desired option as outlined in Chapter 4 of the Gemcom for
Windows User Manual, Volume I (Core).
Gemcom for Windows will perform the semi-variogram analysis,
and the tabulated results will appear in the Linear Semi-Variogram
table (see Viewing the Linear Semi-Variogram Table on
page 2306). If you are not satisfied with the results, you can click
the Parameters button at the bottom of the table to redisplay the
profile creation dialog box and alter your parameters as desired.

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Figure 13-4: Linear Semi-Variograms dialog box (Data tab)

Data
This tab brings up a dialog box containing the following parameters
which determine the table and fields to be used in performing the
semi-variogram calculation.

Description. Enter a brief description for the profile, if


desired.

Table to be Used. Select the name of the table which contains


the data you wish to use to create the linear semi-variogram.

Field to be Used. Select the name of the field which contains


the data you wish to use to create the linear semi-variogram.

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You can calculate linear semi-variograms on fields with


numeric data types (real, double or angle).

Cross-Reference Table. Select the table which contains the


field(s) you wish to use as a cross-reference for selecting data.
This is an optional parameter. For more information on crossreferencing, see Chapter 7: Extracting Data.

Reference Position. Select one of the following options to


determine the reference position for the data:

Use FROM. Select this option to use the location parameter in


the FROM field as your reference position.

Use MIDDLE. Select this option to use the mid-point between


the FROM and TO fields as your reference position.

Use TO. Select this option to use the location parameter in


the TO field as your reference position.

Location
You can use the parameters in this tab to define the physical area
from which data for the calculation is to be taken. Enter the lower
and upper bounds for the northing, easting and elevation
coordinates to create a bounding box in space.
The lower and upper default values for all coordinates of
-99999999.000 and 99999999.000 respectively have the effect of
creating a bounding box so large that all records in the workspace
are selected.

Selections
The parameters you enter in the Selections tab will determine
which records from the physical bounding box you specified in the
Location tab will be used for the calculations. You can specify lower
and upper bounds or matching strings for fields from up to three
tables: the Header table, the table to be used (if different from the
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Figure 13-5: Linear Semi-Variograms dialog box (Selections tab)


Header table), and the cross-reference table (if selected, and if
different from the Header table).
Enter the following parameters as necessary for each field you wish
to use to limit the selection criteria:
Field. Select the name of the field you wish to use to limit record
selection.
Axis. If the field you selected is a coordinate field, select the axis
(X, Y or Z) for which to enter lower and upper bounds.
Lower Bound and Upper Bound. If the field you selected is a
numeric field, enter a lower and upper bound for the data to be
selected.

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Matching String. If the field you selected is a character field,


enter a string to define which data is selected. You can use the
wildcard characters * and ? in your string.

Parameters
This tab brings up a dialog box containing additional parameters
necessary for the creation of the semi-variogram analysis.
Enter the following parameters:

ID Field Name from Header Table. Select the name of the


field from the Header table which is used as the primary key in
the workspace. For a discussion of primary keys, see
Workspace Structure in Chapter 3: The Gemcom for Windows
Workspace.

Directional Filtering: Enter upper and lower bounds for the


average dip and azimuth angles if desired.

Semi-Variogram Parameters. These are the parameters used


to determine the way all of the semi-variograms are calculated.

Threshold Pairs. This is the minimum number of sample


pairs in a single lag distance that will produce a reliable
point on the semi-variogram. Numbers of sample pairs that
are less than this threshold will be indicated on the semivariogram with a different symbol.

Lag Distance. This is the size of each class (range of


distance) used for the semi-variogram calculation. For
example, if the lag distance is 10 feet, then each point on the
semi-variogram will be calculated for sample pairs falling
between 0 and 10 feet apart, 10 and 20 feet apart, 20 and 30
feet apart, etc. A semi-variogram has 30 equally spaced lag
distances.

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Figure 13-6: Semi-Variograms dialog box (Parameters tab)

Starting Offset. This is the starting point of the first lag


distance. For example, if this is set to 50 feet and the lag
distance is set for 10 feet, then the semi-variogram will be
calculated for distance ranges of 50 to 60 feet, 70 to 80 feet,
80 to 90 feet, etc.

Number of Class. This is the total number of the ranges of


distance used for the semi-variogram calculations. The
number of class multiplied by the lag distance equals the
range of influence.

Data Transformation. Enter the following parameters to


specify how any data transformation will be performed:

Section II: Workspaces

Transformation. Select one of the three following options


from the list provided:

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None. This option provides no data transformation,


resulting in a semi-variogram with normally
distributed data.
Log. This option is the three-parameter log-normal
transformation, which can be applied to log normally
distributed data. The transformation will cause the
natural log of the values to be normally distributed.
The three parameter log normal transformation is
expressed by the following formula:
Vn = Log (Vo * F + C)
where
Vn
Vo
F
C

=
=
=
=

new value
old value
multiplication factor
constant

Indicator. Selecting this option allows you to apply


an indicator transformation to the data to create an
indicator semi-variogram. The indicator
transformation allows you to replace data values
with an indicator value of 1 (if the data value is
greater than or equal to the indicator cut-off value)
or an indicator value of 0 (if the data value is less
than the indicator cut-off value). Indicator semivariograms are then calculated using the indicator
value instead of the data value.

Additive Constant. This constant is used to perform a


three-parameter log-normal transformation. You can
transform your data values by entering a constant that will
be added to every data value. The default is 0.

Multiplication Factor. This factor is used to perform a


three-parameter log-normal transformation. You can
transform your data selection by entering a multiplication
factor. This is a factor by which every data value is

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multiplied. If you have a range of data that is extremely


flat, you might want to accentuate any differences by
choosing a multiplication factor of 2, for example, to double
all the data values (and therefore the differences between
them). The default is set to 1.0.

Indicator Cut-Off. This only applies to the sample values


when the Indicator Transformation option is selected. Each
semi-variogram will have its own indicator cut-off value.

Viewing the Linear Semi-Variogram Table


To view the results of the linear semi-variogram calculation in a
table format, follow this procedure:
1. Select Workspace } Analysis } Linear Semi-Variogram. The Linear
Semi-Variogram profiles dialog box will appear (see Figure
13-7).
2. Add a linear semi-variogram profile using the above procedure.
or
Select an existing profile and click View.
3. The Linear Semi-Variogram data table will appear. This
dialog box is divided into three main areas delimited by boxes:

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Variogram Parameters
Statistics
Display Options

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Figure 13-7: The Linear Semi-Variogram table dialog box

Variogram Parameters
The variogram parameter area, the untitled area at the top of the
dialog box, contains the following information pertaining to the
data set (population) used to create the semi-variogram.

Lower Azimuth and Upper Azimuth.


Lower Dip and Upper Dip.
Total pairs used.

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Statistics
The semi-variogram Statistics table contains the following
information about each lag distance (interval):

From. The starting distance of the lag interval.

To. The ending distance of the lag interval.

Pairs. The number of sample pairs in the lag interval.

Drift. The general increase or decrease of sample values in the


direction of the semi-variogram as the lag distance increases.
The general formula for the drift is:
Drift =

Cumlative Difference
Number of Samples

Gamma (h). This is the semi-variance value. This value can be


calculated and displayed using one of four options. The option
used is determined by the setting in the Display options area in
the lower left-hand corner of the dialog box.

Local mean. The mean of all of the sample values in the lag
interval.

Distance. The average distance between all of the sample pairs


in the lag interval. This value will lie between the lag distance
from and the lag distance to.

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Display (Normalization)
The effect of regional variations of values (for example, some areas
having many high values and other areas having many low values) can
cause distortions to the experimental semi-variograms. Normalization
of the semi-variogram will help to minimize these effects.
The Display area, in the bottom left-hand corner of the dialog box,
contains a list of normalization options which will determine how
the Gamma (h) value in the Statistics area will be displayed. You
can select from among the following four options:

Local Mean Square. If you select this option, each sample value
will be divided by the mean square of all values in the lag interval
before the variance between the samples pairs is calculated.

No Normalization. Selecting this option will display the semivariance value with no normalization.

Population Mean-Square. If you select this option, each


sample value will be divided by the mean square of all the
values in the data set before the variance between the samples
pairs is calculated.

Population Variance. Selecting this option displays the semivariance of the sample pairs divided by the variance of all the
samples in the data set.

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Printing the Linear Semi-Variogram Table


You can now use the Report button located in the lower right-hand
corner of the dialog box to print out the semi-variogram table that
you have created and are currently viewing on-screen.
To print the table, follow this procedure:
1. Click Report in the Linear Semi-Variogram dialog box.
2. Select the report destination (file, printer or screen) from the
Select Report Destination dialog box (see Chapter 4: Dialog
boxes, Volume I: Core).
3. The report will be generated. Regardless of which display option
you were using to display the Gamma (h) value on-screen when
you clicked on Report, all four variations of that value will
appear in the report.

Viewing the Linear Semi-Variogram in Graphical


Format
When you perform a linear semi-variogram calculation, you can
also view the graphical representation of your data on-screen in the
QuickGraf utility by clicking the Graph button located in the lower
right-hand corner of the Linear Semi-Variogram dialog box.
You can also use QuickGraf to create various semi-variogram
models to which you can fit your data. For more details about
working with this utility, see Chapter 23: QuickGraf.

Preparing 3D Semi-Variograms
Three-dimensional semi-variograms are calculated from point data
along lines with given azimuths and dip angles. The sample values
and locations are obtained directly from data that has been

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extracted from workspaces and is in extraction files. (For


information on preparing extraction files, see Chapter 10: The
Extraction File.) Sample locations are obtained from the northing,
easting and elevation coordinates of each point in the extraction
file. Values are obtained from either of the elevation, the real value,
or the integer value in the extraction file.

Figure 13-8: Calculation of 3-D semi-variograms


Up to twelve directional semi-variograms can be calculated
simultaneously for specified directions. You can impose further
filtering on the values in the extraction file when you compute the
semi-variogram, and you can impose elevation limits for each of the
directional semi-variograms independently.
The 3D semi-variogram calculation produces two files that are used
by QuickGraf to plot the semi-variogram:

3DVAR.GRF. This file contains the semi-variogram table.

3DVAR DAT. This file contains the statistics summary of the


data set used for the semi-variogram calculation.

Both files are text files and are located in the GCDBaa\GRAPHS
subdirectory.
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3D Semi-Variogram Profiles
In order to calculate a 3D semi-variogram analysis, you must first
define a 3D semi-variogram profile. Note that in order to create a
profile, you must have created at least one extraction file. For more
information on extraction files, see Chapter 10: Extracting Data.
To create a new profile, follow these steps:
1. Select Workspace } Analysis } 3D Semi-Variogram from Extraction
File. This will bring up the 3D Semi-Variogram Profiles list.
2. Click Add. Type in a name for your profile and click OK.
3. In the file name dialog box that appears, select the extraction
file which contains the data you wish to use to create your 3D
semi-variograms. Click Open.
4. Gemcom for Windows will read the extraction file, displaying its
progress in a status window. Click OK when the process is
completed to close the status window.
5. The 3D Semi-Variogram Parameters dialog box will come
up. This dialog box will display the name and description of the
extraction file, as well as the following information about the
values within the extraction file:

# Values. This is the total number of values (records) in the


extraction file.

# Values <= 0. This is the number of values that are less


than or equal to zero.

Minimum Value and Maximum Value. These are the


minimum and maximum values of the data in the extraction
file.

In addition, you will enter the following parameters, which


determine the way all the semi-variograms are calculated:

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Figure 13-9: 3D Semi-Variogram Parameters dialog box

Variable to be used. Select the numeric variable in the


extraction file that will be used for the sample values. You
can use the real value, the integer value, or any of the
coordinate values.

Semi-Variogram parameters. Enter the following


parameters:

Threshold pairs. This is the minimum number of


sample pairs within a single lag distance that will
produce a reliable point on the semi-variogram.
Intervals that contain fewer sample pairs than this
threshold will be indicated on the semi-variogram with a
different symbol.

Lag distance. Enter the size of each interval (range of


distance) used for the semi-variogram calculation. For
example, if the lag distance is 10 feet, then each point on
the semi-variogram will be calculated for sample pairs
falling between 0 and 10 feet apart, 10 and 20 feet apart,

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20 and 30 feet apart, etc. A semi-variogram has 30


equally spaced lag distances.

Starting offset. Enter the starting point for the first


lag distance. For example, if this is set to 50 feet and the
lag distance is set to 10 feet, then the semi-variogram
will be calculated for distance ranges of 50 to 60 feet, 70
to 80 feet, 80 to 90 feet, etc.

Number of classes. Enter the total number of intervals


(ranges of distance) to be used for the semi-variogram
calculations. The number of classes multiplied by the lag
distance equals the range of influence.

Data transformation. Enter the following parameters to


determine the type of data transformation to be performed.

Transformation. Select one of the three following


options from the list provided:
None. This option provides no data
transformation, resulting in a semivariogram with normally distributed data.
Log. This option is the three-parameter lognormal transformation, which can be applied
to log normally distributed data. The
transformation will cause the natural log of
the values to be normally distributed.
The three parameter log normal
transformation is expressed by this formula:
Vn = Log (Vo * F + C)
where
Vn
Vo
F
C

Section II: Workspaces

=
=
=
=

new value
old value
multiplication factor
constant

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Indicator. Selecting this option allows you


to apply an indicator transformation to the
data to create an indicator semi-variogram.
The indicator transformation allows you to
replace data values with an indicator value of
1 (if the data value is greater than or equal to
the indicator cut-off value) or an indicator
value of 0 (if the data value is less than the
indicator cut-off value). Indicator semivariograms are then calculated using the
indicator value instead of the data value.
If you selected the Log Normal data transformation, you
will also have to enter the following parameters:
Additive Constant. You can transform your
data values by entering a constant that will be
added to every data value. The default is 0.
Multiplication Factor. You can transform
your data selection by entering a factor by
which every data value is multiplied. If you
have a range of data that is extremely flat,
you might want to accentuate any differences
by choosing a multiplication factor of 2, for
example, to double all the data values (and
therefore the differences between them). The
default is set to 1.0.
6. Once you have entered the required semi-variogram
parameters, click OK. The 3D Semi-Variogram Definitions
dialog box will appear. In this dialog box, you will define a set of
parameters for each of up to twelve individual directional semivariograms.
7. In order to be able to enter the parameters for a particular
variogram, you must select the variogram number and ensure
that the variogram is enabled by verifying that the Enable box
has a checkmark in it. If you do not see a checkmark, click the
checkbox to enable the variogram.

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Figure 13-10: 3D Semi-Variogram Definitions dialog box


8. You are now able to enter the following parameters for the
chosen variogram:

Azimuth. Enter the direction, in degrees clockwise from


north, along which the semi-variogram will be calculated.

Dip. Enter the direction, in degrees from the horizontal,


that defines the dip of the semi-variogram. Negative angles
indicate a dip downwards from the horizontal, and positive
angles indicate a dip upwards from the horizontal.

Spread Angle. As it is often unlikely that the directional


vectors between each sample pair will exactly coincide with
the directional vector of the semi-variogram, you must
define a spread angle or tolerance that will allow for these
deviations. The tolerance is applied equally to the azimuth
and dip angles, and defines a conical search. A spread angle
of 45 degrees would provide a total tolerance of 90 degrees.

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N
Azimuth of
semi-variogram

Elevation (Z)

Conical search

Tolerance angle

Dip of
semi-variogram

Figure 13-11: Semi-Variogram directional tolerance

Lower elevation. This defines the lowest elevation value


for a point in the extraction file that will be used to
calculate the semi-variogram. Any points with elevations
lower than this value will not be used.

Upper elevation. This defines the highest elevation value


for a point in the extraction file that will be used to
calculate the semi-variogram. Any points with elevations
greater than this value will not be used.

Lower cut-off. This defines the smallest sample value in


the extraction file that will be used. Values less than this
will not be used.

Upper cut-off. This defines the largest sample value in the


extraction file that will be used. Values greater than this
will not be used.

Indicator cut-off. This only applies to the sample values


when the Indicator Transformation option is selected. Each
semi-variogram will have its own indicator cut-off value.

Half Width. This defines the width of the local corridor


window within which the sample pair must fall.

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Figure 13-12: 3D Semi-Variogram dialog box

Half Height. The defines the height of the local corridor


window within which the sample pair must fall.

9. Repeat Steps 7 and 8 for any of the remaining twelve semivariograms you wish to use. When you have defined all desired
semi-variograms, click OK. Gemcom for Windows will perform
the semi-variogram calculations and bring up the 3D SemiVariogram table.

The 3D Semi-Variogram Table


The semi-variogram calculation produces a tabulation of the semivariogram (see Figure 13-12). This table contains information about
each lag distance for each of the directions calculated. To view the
calculations for a particular semi-variogram, select the desired

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semi-variogram number from the Semi-Variogram list at the top


of the dialog box.
The rest of this dialog box is divided into three main areas
delimited by boxes:

Variogram Parameters
Variogram Statistics
Display Options

Variogram Parameters
The variogram parameter area, at the top of the dialog box,
displays the following parameters for the particular semivariogram calculation currently selected:

Azimuth
Dip
Spread Angle
Lower Elevation and Upper Elevation
Total pairs used

Statistics
The Semi-variogram Statistics table contains the following
information about each lag distance (interval) for the currently
selected directional semi-variogram:

From. This is the starting distance of the lag interval, and is


common for all directional semi-variograms defined using the
current data set.

To. This is the ending distance of the lag interval, and is


common for all directional semi-variograms defined using the
current data set.

Pairs. The number of sample pairs in the lag interval.

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Drift. The general increase or decrease of sample values in the


direction of the semi-variogram as the lag distance increases.
The general formula for the drift is:
Drift =

Cumlative Difference
Number of Samples

Gamma (h). This is the semi-variance value. This value can be


calculated and displayed using one of four options. The option
used is determined by the setting in the Display options area in
the lower left-hand corner of the dialog box.

Local mean. The mean of all of the sample values in the lag
interval.

Distance. The average distance between all of the sample pairs


in the lag interval. This value will lie between the lag distance
from and the lag distance to.

Display Options (Normalization)


The effect of regional variations of values (for example, some areas
having many high values and other areas having many low values)
can cause distortions to the experimental semi-variograms.
Normalization of the semi-variogram will help to minimize these
effects.
The Display Options area, in the bottom left-hand corner of the
dialog box, contains a list of normalization options which will
determine how the Gamma (h) value in the Statistics area will be
displayed. You can select from among the following four options:

Local Mean Square. If you select this option, each sample


value will be divided by the mean square of all values in the lag
interval before the variance between the samples pairs is
calculated.

No Normalization. Selecting this option will display the semivariance value with no normalization.

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Population Mean-Square. If you select this option, each


sample value will be divided by the mean square of all the
values in the data set before the variance between the samples
pairs is calculated.

Population Variance. Selecting this option displays the semivariance of the sample pairs divided by the variance of all the
samples in the data set.

Printing the 3D Semi-Variogram Table


You can now use the Report button located in the lower right-hand
corner of the dialog box to print out the semi-variogram table that you
have created and are currently viewing on-screen.
To print the table, follow this procedure:
1. Click Report in the 3D Semi-Variogram dialog box.
2. Select the report destination (file, printer or screen) from the
Select Report Destination dialog box (see Chapter 4: Dialog
boxes, Volume I: Core).
3. The report will be generated. The data for all enabled directional
semi-variograms will be included in the report, as will all four
variations of the Gamma (h) value.

Viewing the 3D Semi-Variogram in Graphical Format


When you perform a linear semi-variogram calculation, you can
also view the graphical representation of your data on-screen in the
QuickGraf utility by clicking the Graph button located in the lower
right-hand corner of the 3D Semi-Variogram dialog box.

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Clicking Graph will bring up the following dialog box:

Figure 13-13: 3D Semi-Variogram Display Parameters dialog box


Select one of the two available options:

Output all Semi-Variogram Columns. This option will


create a graph plotting all defined semi-variograms.

Output current Semi-Variogram Columns. This option will


create a graph plotting only the semi-variogram currently
displayed in the 3D semi-variogram table (as selected from the
Semi-Variogram pull-down list at the top of the 3D SemiVariogram dialog boxsee Figure 13-12).

For more details about working with this utility, see Chapter 13:
QuickGraf.

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