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- ABC of Mining
- Mining Productivity
- Confidence Intervals
- Chapters 8 & 12 -- Sampling Distributions
- Coke Data Analysis
- AASHTO TP62-07
- Chapter 10
- Statistical Analysis of Salmonella (1)
- Unit Test - Statistics
- Mean
- 1-12 Basic Statistics I[1]
- Note on the Bias in the Estimation of the Serial Correlation Coefficient of AR(1) Processes
- One Plus 2nd Sem Syllabus 0
- Maximizations for Ch7 (1)
- Test of Hypothesis Concerning the Population Mean
- Diametri e Conversioni
- Lecture 12-14-2
- Exploratory Data Analysis
- 2379.PDF
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Chapter 13

Semi-Variogram Analysis

In this Chapter

Introduction

The Semi-Variogram

Preparing Linear Semi-Variograms

Preparing 3-D Semi-Variograms

Introduction

Gemcom for Windows is a workspace system designed specifically

for spatially related data. Therefore, it is important to provide

facilities for the statistical analysis of data based on the spatial

relationship between the data values. Geostatistics is the name

commonly given to this type of statistical analysis, where an

assumption is made that sample or data values are affected both by

their location and their relationship with the surrounding data.

Variables that follow this behaviour are known as regionalized

variables and the study of them is called geostatistics.

The main application of geostatistics has been for estimating ore

reserves. It is now being used more and more in other fields, such

as in environmental assessments, where predictions and

estimations need to be made from spatial data.

Geostatistics normally is performed in two stages:

for this analysis is the semi-variogram. Semi-variograms are

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Windows.

no data. This is called interpolation. Gemcom for Windows

provides some general interpolation tools for estimating values

using grids. For more information on interpolation, see

Chapter 19: Gridding and Contouring.

The Semi-Variogram

Geostatistics uses most of the standard tools of statisticians to

analyse the relationships between samples. Such tools include

means, standard deviations, the variance, and presenting these

results as a function of distance and direction.

The semi-variogram is a graph that shows the variability between

pairs of samples against the distance between them in a specific

direction. The graph's horizontal axis shows the separation distance

between pairs of samples, while the graph's vertical axis shows the

variance of the differences in values for specific separation

distances. Generally, sample pairs are grouped together into ranges

of distance separation, as samples usually are never regular

distances apart. These ranges of distances are called the lag

distances. For convenience, the vertical axis usually shows half the

variance value, hence the term semi-variogram (see the formula

below).

When the graph is derived from sample data, it is called an

experimental semi-variogram. When the semi-variogram is derived

solely from theoretical data, it is called a model semi-variogram.

Calculating, displaying and modelling the semi-variograms is a

three- stage process:

1. Calculation. The experimental semi-variogram is calculated

from the workspace. This can be done in two ways: along

traverses or drillholes; or in any three-dimensional direction.

Page 2293

2. Display. The experimental semi-variogram is displayed as a

graph using QuickGraf, Gemcom's graph display and plotting

utility.

3. Modelling. The model semi-variogram is fitted to the

experimental semi-variogram using an interactive process. This

is also done using QuickGraf.

The parameters that you specify during the modelling stage can

then be used during the kriging process to control the interpolation

of values into areas with no data.

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Calculation

The general formula for calculating a semi-variogram for a set of n

samples spaced h distance apart is as follows:

2 Gamma( h ) =

1

2

[ g( x ) g ( x + h )]

n

where

Gamma(h)

g(x) - g(x+h)

h

n

is the semi-variance

is the difference between the values of the sample

pairs

is the distance between the sample pairs

is the number of samples

appropriate to the data, and the results are plotted on a graph.

Model Semi-Variograms

The model semi-variogram is the ideal shape for the curve

illustrating the theoretical relationship between sample pairs as

the distance between them increases. The curve begins at or near

the origin, as samples that have coincidental locations should be

the same and thus have no variance. The semi-variance should

increase to the right, as the distance between the samples

increases. The curve will gradually flatten and the semi-variance

value will become constant. At this separation, there is no longer

any relationship between sample pairs and they can be considered

independent of each other. The distance at which this happens is

called the range of influence, and the variance at this point is called

the sill.

This ideal semi-variogram is called a spherical model. In practice,

the curve may start with a small variance (as there are generally

variances between two samples taken at the same location, often

caused by sampling techniques). This is termed the nugget effect

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and can be present in all semi-variograms. Also, more than one sill

value can be present, in which case the model semi-variogram has a

nested structure.

In addition to the spherical model, there are several other types of

model semi-variograms that can occur:

Exponential model

Linear model

Logarithmic model

Gaussian model

Nugget effect model

Chapter 23: QuickGraf.

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Experimental Semi-Variograms

Experimental semi-variograms can be made from any workspace

that contains information about the location of the sample values.

This includes the point workspace, the traverse workspace, the

drillhole workspace and the polygon workspace.

Semi-variograms are calculated for specific geological or structural

directions, such as along dip, down plunge, along strike,

perpendicular to strike, along drillholes, etc. The direction that you

want to use will govern the type of semi-variogram you select.

You can produce two types of semi-variograms from the

workspaces. The type of semi-variogram you select depends on the

way you want to determine the distance and directional

relationship between the samples. They are:

only be calculated directly from traverse or drillhole

workspaces. The only relationship between the sample pairs

that is considered is along the trace of the traverse or drillhole.

calculated from data that has been extracted from a workspace

into an extraction file. The semi-variogram is calculated along a

three dimensional vector defined by an azimuth and a dip

angle, within defined tolerances. You can calculate 3-D semivariograms for up to twelve different directions at a time.

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You can use QuickGraf to fit model semi-variograms to the

experimental semi-variograms. The modelling process is an

interactive process that allows you to fit a number of different types

of semi-variogram models to the experimental semi-variogram.

You can fit semi-variogram models to experimental semivariograms using any combination of the following three methods:

Defining the model type. You must select the type for each of

the models that you want from the list of available model types.

nest up to three type of models together.

combination of data entry screens and mouse positioning,

depending on the type of semi-variogram models.

well as on the procedures for modelling semi-variograms, see

Models in Chapter 23: QuickGraf.

Linear semi-variograms are calculated either along the line of a

traverse or along the trace of a drillhole. The data for linear semivariograms is taken directly from either a traverse or drillhole

workspace. The sample values and locations are obtained directly from

tables in the workspace according to selection criteria that you can

define. Sample locations are determined from values either in FROM

and TO fields or in DISTANCE fields. The relationship between sample

pairs is determined directly from their sequential position along each

traverse or drillhole, regardless of the drillhole direction or orientation.

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You can use the Linear Semi-Variogram command to define

linear semi-variogram profiles and produce linear semi-variograms

based on the data in a traverse or drillhole workspace.

The semi-variogram calculation produces a log file that contains a

list of the records used for the calculation identified by the contents

of the ID field that you defined. In addition, it also produces two

files used by QuickGraf to plot the semi-variogram:

DDHVAR.DAT.

DDHVAR.GRF.

data set used for the semi-variogram calculation.

Both of these files are text files and are located in the

GCDBaa\GRAPHS subdirectory.

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Before you can view the semi-variogram table or prepare semivariogram plots you must have at least one linear semi-variogram

profile defined. Follow this procedure to create a new profile:

1. Select Workspace } Analysis } Linear Semi-Variogram. The Linear

Semi-Variogram dialog box will appear.

2. Click Add. Enter a name for the linear semi-variogram profile

and click OK.

3. The Linear Semi-Variograms dialog box appears. This dialog

box consists of four parts, represented by four tabs, which allow

you to specify which data is to be used to prepare the semivariogram and to apply a variety of selection criteria,

transformations and normalization options to that data:

Data

Location

Selections

Parameters

parameters are outlined in detail in the sections below.

5. Once all the desired parameters have been entered, click OK.

The Select Records to Process dialog box will appear. Select

the desired option as outlined in Chapter 4 of the Gemcom for

Windows User Manual, Volume I (Core).

Gemcom for Windows will perform the semi-variogram analysis,

and the tabulated results will appear in the Linear Semi-Variogram

table (see Viewing the Linear Semi-Variogram Table on

page 2306). If you are not satisfied with the results, you can click

the Parameters button at the bottom of the table to redisplay the

profile creation dialog box and alter your parameters as desired.

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Data

This tab brings up a dialog box containing the following parameters

which determine the table and fields to be used in performing the

semi-variogram calculation.

desired.

the data you wish to use to create the linear semi-variogram.

the data you wish to use to create the linear semi-variogram.

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numeric data types (real, double or angle).

field(s) you wish to use as a cross-reference for selecting data.

This is an optional parameter. For more information on crossreferencing, see Chapter 7: Extracting Data.

determine the reference position for the data:

the FROM field as your reference position.

the FROM and TO fields as your reference position.

the TO field as your reference position.

Location

You can use the parameters in this tab to define the physical area

from which data for the calculation is to be taken. Enter the lower

and upper bounds for the northing, easting and elevation

coordinates to create a bounding box in space.

The lower and upper default values for all coordinates of

-99999999.000 and 99999999.000 respectively have the effect of

creating a bounding box so large that all records in the workspace

are selected.

Selections

The parameters you enter in the Selections tab will determine

which records from the physical bounding box you specified in the

Location tab will be used for the calculations. You can specify lower

and upper bounds or matching strings for fields from up to three

tables: the Header table, the table to be used (if different from the

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Page 2302

Header table), and the cross-reference table (if selected, and if

different from the Header table).

Enter the following parameters as necessary for each field you wish

to use to limit the selection criteria:

Field. Select the name of the field you wish to use to limit record

selection.

Axis. If the field you selected is a coordinate field, select the axis

(X, Y or Z) for which to enter lower and upper bounds.

Lower Bound and Upper Bound. If the field you selected is a

numeric field, enter a lower and upper bound for the data to be

selected.

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enter a string to define which data is selected. You can use the

wildcard characters * and ? in your string.

Parameters

This tab brings up a dialog box containing additional parameters

necessary for the creation of the semi-variogram analysis.

Enter the following parameters:

field from the Header table which is used as the primary key in

the workspace. For a discussion of primary keys, see

Workspace Structure in Chapter 3: The Gemcom for Windows

Workspace.

average dip and azimuth angles if desired.

to determine the way all of the semi-variograms are calculated.

pairs in a single lag distance that will produce a reliable

point on the semi-variogram. Numbers of sample pairs that

are less than this threshold will be indicated on the semivariogram with a different symbol.

distance) used for the semi-variogram calculation. For

example, if the lag distance is 10 feet, then each point on the

semi-variogram will be calculated for sample pairs falling

between 0 and 10 feet apart, 10 and 20 feet apart, 20 and 30

feet apart, etc. A semi-variogram has 30 equally spaced lag

distances.

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distance. For example, if this is set to 50 feet and the lag

distance is set for 10 feet, then the semi-variogram will be

calculated for distance ranges of 50 to 60 feet, 70 to 80 feet,

80 to 90 feet, etc.

distance used for the semi-variogram calculations. The

number of class multiplied by the lag distance equals the

range of influence.

specify how any data transformation will be performed:

from the list provided:

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resulting in a semi-variogram with normally

distributed data.

Log. This option is the three-parameter log-normal

transformation, which can be applied to log normally

distributed data. The transformation will cause the

natural log of the values to be normally distributed.

The three parameter log normal transformation is

expressed by the following formula:

Vn = Log (Vo * F + C)

where

Vn

Vo

F

C

=

=

=

=

new value

old value

multiplication factor

constant

an indicator transformation to the data to create an

indicator semi-variogram. The indicator

transformation allows you to replace data values

with an indicator value of 1 (if the data value is

greater than or equal to the indicator cut-off value)

or an indicator value of 0 (if the data value is less

than the indicator cut-off value). Indicator semivariograms are then calculated using the indicator

value instead of the data value.

three-parameter log-normal transformation. You can

transform your data values by entering a constant that will

be added to every data value. The default is 0.

three-parameter log-normal transformation. You can

transform your data selection by entering a multiplication

factor. This is a factor by which every data value is

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flat, you might want to accentuate any differences by

choosing a multiplication factor of 2, for example, to double

all the data values (and therefore the differences between

them). The default is set to 1.0.

when the Indicator Transformation option is selected. Each

semi-variogram will have its own indicator cut-off value.

To view the results of the linear semi-variogram calculation in a

table format, follow this procedure:

1. Select Workspace } Analysis } Linear Semi-Variogram. The Linear

Semi-Variogram profiles dialog box will appear (see Figure

13-7).

2. Add a linear semi-variogram profile using the above procedure.

or

Select an existing profile and click View.

3. The Linear Semi-Variogram data table will appear. This

dialog box is divided into three main areas delimited by boxes:

Variogram Parameters

Statistics

Display Options

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Variogram Parameters

The variogram parameter area, the untitled area at the top of the

dialog box, contains the following information pertaining to the

data set (population) used to create the semi-variogram.

Lower Dip and Upper Dip.

Total pairs used.

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Statistics

The semi-variogram Statistics table contains the following

information about each lag distance (interval):

direction of the semi-variogram as the lag distance increases.

The general formula for the drift is:

Drift =

Cumlative Difference

Number of Samples

calculated and displayed using one of four options. The option

used is determined by the setting in the Display options area in

the lower left-hand corner of the dialog box.

Local mean. The mean of all of the sample values in the lag

interval.

in the lag interval. This value will lie between the lag distance

from and the lag distance to.

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Display (Normalization)

The effect of regional variations of values (for example, some areas

having many high values and other areas having many low values) can

cause distortions to the experimental semi-variograms. Normalization

of the semi-variogram will help to minimize these effects.

The Display area, in the bottom left-hand corner of the dialog box,

contains a list of normalization options which will determine how

the Gamma (h) value in the Statistics area will be displayed. You

can select from among the following four options:

Local Mean Square. If you select this option, each sample value

will be divided by the mean square of all values in the lag interval

before the variance between the samples pairs is calculated.

No Normalization. Selecting this option will display the semivariance value with no normalization.

sample value will be divided by the mean square of all the

values in the data set before the variance between the samples

pairs is calculated.

Population Variance. Selecting this option displays the semivariance of the sample pairs divided by the variance of all the

samples in the data set.

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You can now use the Report button located in the lower right-hand

corner of the dialog box to print out the semi-variogram table that

you have created and are currently viewing on-screen.

To print the table, follow this procedure:

1. Click Report in the Linear Semi-Variogram dialog box.

2. Select the report destination (file, printer or screen) from the

Select Report Destination dialog box (see Chapter 4: Dialog

boxes, Volume I: Core).

3. The report will be generated. Regardless of which display option

you were using to display the Gamma (h) value on-screen when

you clicked on Report, all four variations of that value will

appear in the report.

Format

When you perform a linear semi-variogram calculation, you can

also view the graphical representation of your data on-screen in the

QuickGraf utility by clicking the Graph button located in the lower

right-hand corner of the Linear Semi-Variogram dialog box.

You can also use QuickGraf to create various semi-variogram

models to which you can fit your data. For more details about

working with this utility, see Chapter 23: QuickGraf.

Preparing 3D Semi-Variograms

Three-dimensional semi-variograms are calculated from point data

along lines with given azimuths and dip angles. The sample values

and locations are obtained directly from data that has been

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information on preparing extraction files, see Chapter 10: The

Extraction File.) Sample locations are obtained from the northing,

easting and elevation coordinates of each point in the extraction

file. Values are obtained from either of the elevation, the real value,

or the integer value in the extraction file.

Up to twelve directional semi-variograms can be calculated

simultaneously for specified directions. You can impose further

filtering on the values in the extraction file when you compute the

semi-variogram, and you can impose elevation limits for each of the

directional semi-variograms independently.

The 3D semi-variogram calculation produces two files that are used

by QuickGraf to plot the semi-variogram:

data set used for the semi-variogram calculation.

Both files are text files and are located in the GCDBaa\GRAPHS

subdirectory.

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3D Semi-Variogram Profiles

In order to calculate a 3D semi-variogram analysis, you must first

define a 3D semi-variogram profile. Note that in order to create a

profile, you must have created at least one extraction file. For more

information on extraction files, see Chapter 10: Extracting Data.

To create a new profile, follow these steps:

1. Select Workspace } Analysis } 3D Semi-Variogram from Extraction

File. This will bring up the 3D Semi-Variogram Profiles list.

2. Click Add. Type in a name for your profile and click OK.

3. In the file name dialog box that appears, select the extraction

file which contains the data you wish to use to create your 3D

semi-variograms. Click Open.

4. Gemcom for Windows will read the extraction file, displaying its

progress in a status window. Click OK when the process is

completed to close the status window.

5. The 3D Semi-Variogram Parameters dialog box will come

up. This dialog box will display the name and description of the

extraction file, as well as the following information about the

values within the extraction file:

extraction file.

than or equal to zero.

minimum and maximum values of the data in the extraction

file.

determine the way all the semi-variograms are calculated:

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extraction file that will be used for the sample values. You

can use the real value, the integer value, or any of the

coordinate values.

parameters:

sample pairs within a single lag distance that will

produce a reliable point on the semi-variogram.

Intervals that contain fewer sample pairs than this

threshold will be indicated on the semi-variogram with a

different symbol.

distance) used for the semi-variogram calculation. For

example, if the lag distance is 10 feet, then each point on

the semi-variogram will be calculated for sample pairs

falling between 0 and 10 feet apart, 10 and 20 feet apart,

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Page 2314

equally spaced lag distances.

lag distance. For example, if this is set to 50 feet and the

lag distance is set to 10 feet, then the semi-variogram

will be calculated for distance ranges of 50 to 60 feet, 70

to 80 feet, 80 to 90 feet, etc.

(ranges of distance) to be used for the semi-variogram

calculations. The number of classes multiplied by the lag

distance equals the range of influence.

determine the type of data transformation to be performed.

options from the list provided:

None. This option provides no data

transformation, resulting in a semivariogram with normally distributed data.

Log. This option is the three-parameter lognormal transformation, which can be applied

to log normally distributed data. The

transformation will cause the natural log of

the values to be normally distributed.

The three parameter log normal

transformation is expressed by this formula:

Vn = Log (Vo * F + C)

where

Vn

Vo

F

C

=

=

=

=

new value

old value

multiplication factor

constant

Page 2315

to apply an indicator transformation to the

data to create an indicator semi-variogram.

The indicator transformation allows you to

replace data values with an indicator value of

1 (if the data value is greater than or equal to

the indicator cut-off value) or an indicator

value of 0 (if the data value is less than the

indicator cut-off value). Indicator semivariograms are then calculated using the

indicator value instead of the data value.

If you selected the Log Normal data transformation, you

will also have to enter the following parameters:

Additive Constant. You can transform your

data values by entering a constant that will be

added to every data value. The default is 0.

Multiplication Factor. You can transform

your data selection by entering a factor by

which every data value is multiplied. If you

have a range of data that is extremely flat,

you might want to accentuate any differences

by choosing a multiplication factor of 2, for

example, to double all the data values (and

therefore the differences between them). The

default is set to 1.0.

6. Once you have entered the required semi-variogram

parameters, click OK. The 3D Semi-Variogram Definitions

dialog box will appear. In this dialog box, you will define a set of

parameters for each of up to twelve individual directional semivariograms.

7. In order to be able to enter the parameters for a particular

variogram, you must select the variogram number and ensure

that the variogram is enabled by verifying that the Enable box

has a checkmark in it. If you do not see a checkmark, click the

checkbox to enable the variogram.

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Page 2316

8. You are now able to enter the following parameters for the

chosen variogram:

north, along which the semi-variogram will be calculated.

that defines the dip of the semi-variogram. Negative angles

indicate a dip downwards from the horizontal, and positive

angles indicate a dip upwards from the horizontal.

vectors between each sample pair will exactly coincide with

the directional vector of the semi-variogram, you must

define a spread angle or tolerance that will allow for these

deviations. The tolerance is applied equally to the azimuth

and dip angles, and defines a conical search. A spread angle

of 45 degrees would provide a total tolerance of 90 degrees.

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N

Azimuth of

semi-variogram

Elevation (Z)

Conical search

Tolerance angle

Dip of

semi-variogram

for a point in the extraction file that will be used to

calculate the semi-variogram. Any points with elevations

lower than this value will not be used.

for a point in the extraction file that will be used to

calculate the semi-variogram. Any points with elevations

greater than this value will not be used.

the extraction file that will be used. Values less than this

will not be used.

extraction file that will be used. Values greater than this

will not be used.

when the Indicator Transformation option is selected. Each

semi-variogram will have its own indicator cut-off value.

window within which the sample pair must fall.

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Page 2318

window within which the sample pair must fall.

9. Repeat Steps 7 and 8 for any of the remaining twelve semivariograms you wish to use. When you have defined all desired

semi-variograms, click OK. Gemcom for Windows will perform

the semi-variogram calculations and bring up the 3D SemiVariogram table.

The semi-variogram calculation produces a tabulation of the semivariogram (see Figure 13-12). This table contains information about

each lag distance for each of the directions calculated. To view the

calculations for a particular semi-variogram, select the desired

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of the dialog box.

The rest of this dialog box is divided into three main areas

delimited by boxes:

Variogram Parameters

Variogram Statistics

Display Options

Variogram Parameters

The variogram parameter area, at the top of the dialog box,

displays the following parameters for the particular semivariogram calculation currently selected:

Azimuth

Dip

Spread Angle

Lower Elevation and Upper Elevation

Total pairs used

Statistics

The Semi-variogram Statistics table contains the following

information about each lag distance (interval) for the currently

selected directional semi-variogram:

common for all directional semi-variograms defined using the

current data set.

common for all directional semi-variograms defined using the

current data set.

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Page 2320

direction of the semi-variogram as the lag distance increases.

The general formula for the drift is:

Drift =

Cumlative Difference

Number of Samples

calculated and displayed using one of four options. The option

used is determined by the setting in the Display options area in

the lower left-hand corner of the dialog box.

Local mean. The mean of all of the sample values in the lag

interval.

in the lag interval. This value will lie between the lag distance

from and the lag distance to.

The effect of regional variations of values (for example, some areas

having many high values and other areas having many low values)

can cause distortions to the experimental semi-variograms.

Normalization of the semi-variogram will help to minimize these

effects.

The Display Options area, in the bottom left-hand corner of the

dialog box, contains a list of normalization options which will

determine how the Gamma (h) value in the Statistics area will be

displayed. You can select from among the following four options:

value will be divided by the mean square of all values in the lag

interval before the variance between the samples pairs is

calculated.

No Normalization. Selecting this option will display the semivariance value with no normalization.

Page 2321

sample value will be divided by the mean square of all the

values in the data set before the variance between the samples

pairs is calculated.

Population Variance. Selecting this option displays the semivariance of the sample pairs divided by the variance of all the

samples in the data set.

You can now use the Report button located in the lower right-hand

corner of the dialog box to print out the semi-variogram table that you

have created and are currently viewing on-screen.

To print the table, follow this procedure:

1. Click Report in the 3D Semi-Variogram dialog box.

2. Select the report destination (file, printer or screen) from the

Select Report Destination dialog box (see Chapter 4: Dialog

boxes, Volume I: Core).

3. The report will be generated. The data for all enabled directional

semi-variograms will be included in the report, as will all four

variations of the Gamma (h) value.

When you perform a linear semi-variogram calculation, you can

also view the graphical representation of your data on-screen in the

QuickGraf utility by clicking the Graph button located in the lower

right-hand corner of the 3D Semi-Variogram dialog box.

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Select one of the two available options:

create a graph plotting all defined semi-variograms.

create a graph plotting only the semi-variogram currently

displayed in the 3D semi-variogram table (as selected from the

Semi-Variogram pull-down list at the top of the 3D SemiVariogram dialog boxsee Figure 13-12).

For more details about working with this utility, see Chapter 13:

QuickGraf.

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