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psychology

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AP EDITION

psychology
fourth edition

Saundra K. Ciccarelli
Gulf Coast State College

J. Noland White
Georgia College

BostonColumbusIndianapolisNew YorkSan FranciscoUpper Saddle River


AmsterdamCape TownDubaiLondonMadridMilanMunichParis
MontralTorontoDelhiMexico CitySo PauloSydney
Hong KongSeoulSingaporeTaipeiTokyo

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ISBN-13: 978-0-13-385501-2 High School Binding


ISBN-10: 0-13-385501-5 High School Binding

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brief contents
psychology

in action Secrets for Surviving AP Psychology: How to Improve Your
GradesPIA-2


1 
The Science of Psychology2
2 The Biological Perspective52
3 Sensation and Perception98
4 Consciousness142
5 Learning180
6 Memory224
7 Cognition: thinking, intelligence, and language264
8 Development Across the Life Span308
9 Motivation and Emotion354
10 Stress and Health392
11 Social Psychology426
12 Theories of Personality474
13 Psychological Disorders510
14 Psychological Therapies546
appendix Applied Psychology and Psychology
CareersA-1

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contents
Prefacexii
Correlation Guide to AP Psychology
Topicsxvi
About the Authors PIA-1

psychology in action
secrets for surviving AP Psychology:
how to improve your gradesPIA-2
Study Skills PIA-3
Study Methods: Different Strokes for Different Folks PIA-3
When and Where Do You Fit in Time to Study? PIA-4

Psychology: The Scientific Methodology 20


The Five Steps of the Scientific Method 20
Descriptive Methods 22
Correlations: Finding Relationships 27
The Experiment 29

issues in psychology: Stereotypes, Athletes, and C


ollege
Test Performance 32
statistics in psychology 33
Descriptive Statistics 34

Ethics of Psychological Research 42


The Guidelines for Doing Research With People 43
Animal Research 44

Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Thinking Critically


About Critical Thinking 46
Chapter Summary49Test Yourself: Preparing for the AP Exam51

Mastering the Course Content PIA-5


Reading Textbooks: Textbooks Are Not Meatloaf PIA-5
Getting the Most Out of Lectures PIA-8

Demonstrating Your Knowledge: Tests and Papers PIA-10


Studying for Exams: Cramming is Not an Option PIA-10
Writing Papers: Planning Makes Perfect PIA-13

Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Strategies for Improving


Your Memory PIA-16
psychology in action summary PIA-18
Test Yourself: Preparing for the AP Exam PIA-18

the science of psychology2


What Is Psychology? 4
Psychologys Goals 4

Psychology Then: The History of Psychology 6


In the Beginning: Wundt, Introspection, and the Laboratory 6
Titchener and Structuralism in America 7
William James and Functionalism 7

issues in psychology: Psychologys African American


Roots8
Gestalt Psychology: The Whole Is Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts 9
Sigmund Freuds Theory of Psychoanalysis (Birth of the
Psychodynamic Approach) 10
Pavlov, Watson, and the Dawn of Behaviorism 11

Psychology Now: Modern Perspectives 13


Psychodynamic Perspective 14
Behavioral Perspective 14
Humanistic Perspective 14
Cognitive Perspective 14
Sociocultural Perspective 15
Biological Perspective 15
Biopsychosocial Perspective 16
Evolutionary Perspective 16

Psychological Professionals and Areas of Specialization 17

the biological perspective52


Neurons and Nerves: Building the Network 54
Structure of the Neuron: The Nervous Systems Building Block 54
Generating the Message Within the Neuron: The Neural Impulse 56
Sending the Message to Other Cells: The Synapse 59
Neurotransmitters: Messengers of the Network 60
Cleaning Up the Synapse: Reuptake and Enzymes 61

An Overview of the Nervous System 64


The Central Nervous System: The Central Processing Unit 64

psychology in the news: Fact or Fiction: Focus on the


Brain, but Check Your Sources! 66
The Peripheral Nervous System: Nerves on the Edge 68

Distant Connections: The Endocrine Glands 71


The Pituitary: Master of the Hormonal Universe 72
The Pineal Gland 73
The Thyroid Gland 73
Pancreas73
The Gonads 73
The Adrenal Glands 73

Looking Inside the Living Brain 75


Lesioning Studies 75
Brain Stimulation 75
Mapping Structure 76
Mapping Function 77

From the Bottom Up: The Structures of the Brain 79


The Hindbrain 80
Structures Under the Cortex: The Limbic System 82
The Cortex 85
The Association Areas of the Cortex 88

classic studies in psychology: Through the Looking


GlassSpatial Neglect 89
The Cerebral Hemispheres: Are You in Your Right Mind? 90

vi

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CONTENTSvii

Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Paying Attention to


Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 93
Chapter Summary95Test Yourself: Preparing for the AP Exam97

sensation and perception98


The ABCs of Sensation 100
What Is Sensation? 100
Sensory Thresholds 100
Habituation and Sensory Adaptation 102

The Science of Seeing 104


Perceptual Properties of Light: Catching the Waves 104
The Structure of the Eye 104
How the Eye Works 107
Perception of Color 108

The Hearing Sense: Can You Hear Me Now? 112


Perception of Sound: Good Vibrations 112
The Structure of the Ear: Follow the Vibes 113
Perceiving Pitch 114
Types of Hearing Impairments 115

Chemical Senses: It Tastes Good and Smells Even Better 117


Gustation: How We Taste the World 118
The Sense of Scents: Olfaction 120

Somesthetic Senses: What the Body Knows 121


Perception of Touch, Pressure, Temperature, and Pain 121
Pain: Gate-Control Theory 122
The Kinesthetic Sense 123
The Vestibular Sense 124

The ABCs of Perception 126


The Role of Attention 126
The Constancies: Size, Shape, and Brightness 126
The Gestalt Principles 127
Depth Perception 128

classic studies in psychology: The Visual Cliff 129


Perceptual Illusions 132
Other Factors That Influence Perception 135

Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Thinking Critically


about ESP 138
Chapter Summary139Test Yourself: Preparing for the AP Exam140

consciousness142
What Is Consciousness? 144

Sleep145
The Biology of Sleep 146
The Stages of Sleep 150
Sleep Disorders 154

psychology in the news: Murder While


Sleepwalking155
Dreams158
Freuds Interpretation: Dreams as Wish Fulfillment 159
The Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis 159
What Do People Dream About? 161

The Effects of Hypnosis 162


Steps in Hypnotic Induction 162
Fact or Myth: What Can Hypnosis Really Do? 163
Theories of Hypnosis 164

The Influence of Psychoactive Drugs 166


Dependence166
Stimulants: Up, Up, and Away 168
Down in the Valley: Depressants 170
Hallucinogens: Higher and Higher 173

Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Thinking Critically


About Ghosts, Aliens, and Other Things That Go Bump in the
Night177
Chapter Summary177Test Yourself: Preparing for the AP Exam179

learning180
Definition of Learning 182
It Makes Your Mouth Water: Classical Conditioning 182
Pavlov and the Salivating Dogs 183
Elements of Classical Conditioning 183
Putting It All Together: Pavlovs Canine Classic, or Tick Tock
Tick Tock 184
Conditioned Emotional Responses: Rats! 189
Biological Influences on Conditioning 190
Why Does Classical Conditioning Work? 191

Whats in It for Me? Operant Conditioning 192


Frustrating Cats: Thorndikes Puzzle Box and the Law
of Effect 192
B. F. Skinner: The Behaviorists Behaviorist 193
The Concept of Reinforcement 193
Schedules of Reinforcement: Why the One-Armed Bandit is so
Seductive 196
The Role of Punishment in Operant Conditioning 200

issues in psychology: The Link Between Spanking and


ggression in Young Children 204
A
Stimulus Control: Slow Down, Its the Cops 205
Shaping and Other Concepts in Operant
Conditioning205

Altered States of Consciousness 144

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viiiCONTENTS
classic studies in psychology: Biological Constraints on
Operant Conditioning 206
Using Operant Conditioning: Behavior Modification 207

Cognitive Learning Theory 211


Tolmans Maze-Running Rats: Latent Learning 211
Khlers Smart Chimp: Insight Learning 213
Seligmans Depressed Dogs: Learned Helplessness 213

Observational Learning 215


Bandura and the Bobo Doll 215
The Four Elements of Observational Learning 216

Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Can You Really Toilet


Train Your Cat? 218
Chapter Summary220Test Yourself: Preparing for the AP Exam222

cognition: thinking, intelligence, and


language264
How People Think 266
Mental Imagery 266
Concepts and Prototypes 268
Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Strategies 270
Problems with Problem Solving and Decision Making 274
Creativity275

Intelligence278
Definition278
Theories of Intelligence 278
Measuring Intelligence 280

psychology in the news: Neuropsychology Sheds Light on


Head Injuries 286

memory224

Extremes of Intelligence 289

What Is Memory? 226

classic studies in psychology: Termans


Termites292

Three Processes of Memory 226


Models of Memory 226

The Information-Processing Model: Three Memory


Systems228
Sensory Memory: Why Do People Do Double Takes? 228
Short-Term Memory 231
Long-Term Memory 234

Getting It Out: Retrieval of Long-Term Memories 241

The Nature/Nurture Controversy Regarding Intelligence 294

Language298
The Levels of Language Analysis 298
The Relationship Between Language and Thought 299

Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Mental and Physical


Exercises Combine for Better Cognitive Health 303
Chapter Summary305Test Yourself: Preparing for the AP Exam306

Retrieval Cues 241


Recall and Recognition 242

classic studies in psychology: Elizabeth Loftus and


Eyewitnesses245
Automatic Encoding: Flashbulb Memories 246

The Reconstructive Nature of Long-Term Memory Retrieval:


How Reliable Are Memories? 247
Constructive Processing of Memories 248
Memory Retrieval Problems 248

What Were We Talking About? Forgetting 251


Ebbinghaus and the Forgetting Curve 252
Encoding Failure 253
Memory Trace Decay Theory 253
Interference Theory 254

Neuroscience of Memory 255


Neural Activity, Structure, and Proteins in Memory
Formation255
The Hippocampus and Memory 255
When Memory Fails: Organic Amnesia 256

Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Health and


Memory260
Chapter Summary261Test Yourself: Preparing for the AP Exam263

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development across the life span308


Issues in Studying Human Development 310
Research Designs 310
Nature Versus Nurture 310

The Basic Building Blocks of Development 312


Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA 312
Dominant and Recessive Genes 312
Genetic and Chromosome Problems 313

Prenatal Development 316


Fertilization, the Zygote, and Twinning 316

psychology in the news: Abby and Brittany Hensel,


Together for Life 317
The Germinal Period 317
The Embryonic Period 318
The Fetal Period: Grow, Baby, Grow 319

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CONTENTSix

Infancy and Childhood Development 320


Physical Development 321
Baby, Can You See Me? Baby, Can You Hear Me?
Sensory Development 321
Cognitive Development 323

issues in psychology: The Facts and Myths About


Immunizations329
Psychosocial Development 331

classic studies in psychology: Harlow and Contact


Comfort 334
Adolescence337
Physical Development 338
Sexual Development and Identity 338
Cognitive Development 339
Gender Differences 340
Psychosocial Development 341

Adulthood343
Physical Development: Use It or Lose It 343
Cognitive Development 344
Psychosocial Development 345
Theories of Physical and Psychological Aging 348
Stages of Death and Dying 348

Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Cross-Cultural Views on


Death350
Chapter Summary351Test Yourself: Preparing for the AP Exam353

motivation and emotion354


Approaches to Understanding Motivation 356
Instincts and the Evolutionary Approach 357
Approaches Based on Needs and Drives 357
Arousal Approaches 361
Incentive Approaches 363
Humanistic Approaches 363

What, Hungry Again? Why People Eat 367


Physiological Components of Hunger 367
Social Components of Hunger 369
Maladaptive Eating Problems 370

psychology in the news: Cartoon Characters Influence


Childrens Food and Taste Preferences 371
Emotion375
The Three Elements of Emotion 376
Theories of Emotion 380

classic studies in psychology: The Angry/Happy


Man384
Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: When Motivation Is Not
Enough388
Chapter Summary389Test Yourself: Preparing for the AP Exam390

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stress and health392


Stress and Stressors 394
Definition of Stress 394
What Are Stressors? 394
Environmental Stressors: Lifes Ups and Downs 395
Psychological Stressors: What, Me Worry? 399

Physiological Factors: Stress and Health 404


The General Adaptation Syndrome 404
Immune System and Stress 404

issues in psychology: Health Psychology and Stress 408


The Influence of Cognition and Personality on Stress 409
Social Factors in Stress: People Who Need People 415

Coping With Stress 418


Coping Strategies 419
How Culture Affects Coping 421
How Religion Affects Coping 421

Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Becoming More


Optimistic 423
Chapter Summary424Test Yourself: Preparing for the AP Exam425

11

social psychology426
Social Influence: Conformity, Group Behavior, Compliance, and
Obedience428
Conformity428
Group Behavior 431
Compliance432

psychology in the news: Anatomy of a Cult 434


Obedience435

Social Cognition: Attitudes, Impression Formation, and


Attribution 439
Attitudes439
Attitude Change: The Art of Persuasion 441
Cognitive Dissonance: When Attitudes and Behavior
Clash442
Impression Formation 445
Attribution447

Social Interaction: Prejudice and Discrimination 450


Defining Prejudice and Discrimination 450
How People Learn Prejudice 451

classic studies in psychology: Brown Eyes, Blue


Eyes452
Overcoming Prejudice 453

Liking and Loving: Interpersonal Attraction 456


The Rules of Attraction 456

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xCONTENTS
psychology in the news: Facing FacebookThe Social
Nature of Online Networking 457
Love is a TriangleRobert Sternbergs Triangular Theory of
Love458

Aggression and Prosocial Behavior 461


Aggression461
Prosocial Behavior 464

Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Peeking Inside


the Social Brain 468
Chapter Summary470Test Yourself: Preparing for the AP Exam472

Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Biological Bases of the


Big Five 505
Chapter Summary507Test Yourself: Preparing for the AP Exam508

13

psychological disorders510
What Is Abnormality? 512

12

theories of personality474
Theories of Personality 476
The Man and the Couch: Sigmund Freud and the Origins of the
Psychodynamic Perspective 477
The Unconscious Mind 478
Freuds Divisions of the Personality 478
Stages of Personality Development 480
The Neo-Freudians 482
Current Thoughts on Freud and the Psychodynamic
Perspective 483

The Behaviorist and Social Cognitive View of Personality 486


Banduras Reciprocal Determinism and Self-Efficacy 487
Rotters Social Learning Theory: Expectancies 487
Current Thoughts on the Behaviorist and Social Cognitive
Views488

The Third Force: Humanism and Personality 488


Carl Rogers and Self-Concept 489
Current Thoughts on the Humanistic View of Personality 490

Trait Theories: Who Are You? 492


Allport492
Cattell and the 16PF 492
The Big Five: OCEAN, or the Five-Factor Model of
Personality493
Current Thoughts on the Trait Perspective 494

The Biology of Personality: Behavioral Genetics 495


Twin Studies 496
Adoption Studies 496
Current Findings 497

classic studies in psychology: Geert Hofstedes Four


Dimensions of Cultural Personality 497
Assessment of Personality 499
Interviews500
Projective Tests 500
Behavioral Assessments 501
Personality Inventories 502

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A Very Brief History of Psychological Disorders 512


What Is Abnormal? 513
Models of Abnormality 515

psychology in the news: A Look at Abnormality in Various


Cultures517
Diagnosing and Classifying Disorders 518
Disorders in the DSM-5518
How Common are Psychological Disorders? 519
The Pros and Cons of Labels 519

Disorders of Anxiety, Trauma, and Stress: What,


Me Worry? 522
Phobic Disorders: When Fears Get Out of Hand 522
Panic Disorder 523
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 524
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 524
Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
(PTSD)525
Causes of Anxiety, Trauma, and Stress Disorders 526

Disorders of Mood: The Effect of Affect 527


Major Depressive Disorder 527
Bipolar Disorders 528
Causes of Disordered Mood 529

Dissociative Disorders: Altered Identities 532


Dissociative Amnesia and Fugue: Who Am I and How Did I Get
Here?532
Dissociative Identity Disorder: How Many Am I? 532
Causes of Dissociative Disorders 533

psychology in the news: Was Sybil a True Multiple


Personality? 534
Schizophrenia: Altered Reality 536
Symptoms536
Causes Of Schizophrenia 537

Personality Disorders: Im Okay, Its Everyone Else


Whos Weird 539
Antisocial Personality Disorder 539
Borderline Personality Disorder 540
Causes of Personality Disorders 540

Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Taking the Worry


Out of Exams 542
Chapter Summary543Test Yourself: Preparing for the AP Exam545

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CONTENTSxi

14

psychological therapies546
Treatment of Psychological Disorders: Past to Present 548
Early Treatment of the Mentally Ill 548
Current Treatments: Two Kinds of Therapy 548

Psychotherapy Begins 549


Psychoanalysis550
Evaluation of Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Approaches 550
Interpersonal Psychotherapy 551

Humanistic Therapy: To Err Is Human 551


Tell Me More: Rogerss Person-Centered Therapy 552
Gestalt Therapy 553
Evaluation of the Humanistic Therapies 554

Behavior Therapies: Learning Ones Way to Better Behavior 556


Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning 557
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning 558
Evaluation of Behavior Therapies 560

Cognitive Therapies: Thinking Is Believing 560


Becks Cognitive Therapy 560
Ellis and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) 561
Evaluation of Cognitive and CognitiveBehavioral Therapies 562

Does Psychotherapy Really Work? 565


Studies of Effectiveness 566
Characteristics of Effective Therapy 566

psychology in the news: Mental Health on Campus 568


Cultural, Ethnic, and Gender Concerns in Psychotherapy 568
Cybertherapy: Therapy in the Computer Age 570

Biomedical Therapies 571


Psychopharmacology571
Electroconvulsive Therapy 574
Psychosurgery575
Emerging Techniques 576

Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Virtual Reality


Therapies 578
Chapter Summary580Test Yourself: Preparing for the AP Exam582

appendix: Applied Psychology and Psychology Careers A-1


Answer Key AK-1
GlossaryG-1
ReferencesR-1
CreditsC-1
Name Index NI-1
Subject Index SI-1

Group Therapies: Not Just for the Shy 562


Types of Group Therapies 563
Evaluation of Group Therapy 563

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preface
Dear Reader,
Teachers and students alike experience frustration when students are unprepared for
class. One of our goals in writing this text was to focus on motivating students to
learn. We wrote in a style that draws students into an ongoing dialogue and introduces them to psychologyits history, its breadth, its mysteries, and its
applications. In this AP Edition, we provide some exciting new tools to
help students prepare for and succeed on the AP Psychology Exam, including a correlation to the College Boards AP Psychology topics and
learning objectives, along with quizzes and chapter tests with questions formatted like those students will experience on the AP Exam.
We also want to see students inspired to use the study materials
that accompany their text. Students want to do well; they are motivated
when goals are clearly laid out, and when they know that content will be on
the test. By creating an integrated learning and assessment package, we encourage
students to focus on the learning objectives presented, and assist teachers in continually assessing students progress in mastering these objectives. This integrated format
enables students to understand the content, and teachers to track progress and address
the specific needs of their classes.
We are deeply indebted to the hundreds of reviewers who have taken the time to
give insightful feedback and suggestions for this project, especially the numerous AP
Psychology teachers who have helped us shape this AP Edition.
Sincerely,
Sandy Ciccarelli
Noland White

xii

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prefacexiii

for advanced placement


psychology

ur goals with this new AP Edition were to create the most useful tool possible to introduce AP students to the study of psychology and to prepare
them for s uccess on the Advanced Placement (AP) Psychology Exam.
Response from students and teachers using the fourth edition has been
very g ratifyingparticularly the f eedback from s tudents who are r eading
our text and are excited by this introduction to the fascinating field of psychology. For this AP Edition, we have retained the approach of the fourth edition, and we have made specific changes and additions to tailor the text to AP
Psychology classes. We have paid special attention to the presentation, adjusting it
throughout to be more relevant, appropriate, and clear and understandable for high
school AP students. In addition, we have created specific tools to help AP students
prepare for the AP Psychology Exam.
Correlation to the College Boards AP Topics and Learning Objectives
In the AP Psychology Course Description booklet (AP Central on the AP Psychology
homepage), the College Board provides a list of 14 topics, or major content areas, that
are covered on the AP Psychology Exam. Each topic is accompanied by several learning
objectives that AP students should be able to meet in order to succeed on the AP Exam.
This new AP Edition addresses each of the topics and learning objectives described in
xvi
PrefACe
the AP Psychology Course Description. With AP students in mind, this text utilizes several organizational features that readily identify the specific content areas that correlate
with the key AP Psychology topics and learning objectives. These features include:

Correlation Guide to
AP Psychology Topics
AP PSYCHOLOGY TOPICS AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Ciccarelli/Whites Psychology, AP Edition, 4e

I. History and Approaches

Chapters 1 & 14, Appendix

1. Recognize how philosophical and physiological perspectives shaped the development of


psychological thought.

p. 6

2. Describe and compare different theoretical approaches in explaining behavior:


structuralism, functionalism, and behaviorism in the early years;
Gestalt, psychoanalytic/psychodynamic, and humanism emerging later;
evolutionary, biological, cognitive, and biopsychosocial as more contemporary approaches.

pp. 617

3. Recognize the strengths and limitations of applying theories to explain behavior.

pp. 56, A-2

4. Distinguish the different domains of psychology (e.g., biological, clinical, cognitive, counseling,
developmental, educational, experimental, human factors, industrialorganizational, personality,
psychometric, social).

pp. 1718, A-2, A-5A-6, A-9A-10

5. Identify major historical figures in psychology (e.g., Mary Whiton Calkins, Charles Darwin, Dorothea
Dix, Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, William James, Ivan Pavlov, Jean Piaget, Carl Rogers,
B. F. Skinner, Margaret Floy Washburn, John B. Watson, Wilhelm Wundt).

pp. 614, 299, 548

II. Research Methods

Chapter 1

1. Differentiate types of research (e.g., experiments, correlational studies, survey research, naturalistic
observations, case studies) with regard to purpose, strengths, and weaknesses.

pp. 2233

2. Describe how research design drives the reasonable conclusions that can be drawn (e.g.,
experiments are useful for determining cause and effect; the use of experimental controls reduces
alternative explanations).

pp. 2733

3. Identify independent, dependent, confounding, and control variables in experimental designs.

pp. 2931

4. Distinguish between random assignment of participants to conditions in experiments and random


selection of participants, primarily in correlational studies and surveys.

pp. 3031

5. Predict the validity of behavioral explanations based on the quality of research design
(e.g., confounding variables limit confidence in research conclusions).

pp. 3132

6. Distinguish the purposes of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

pp. 2228, 3442

7. Apply basic descriptive statistical concepts, including interpreting and constructing graphs and
calculating simple descriptive statistics (e.g., measures of central tendency, standard deviation).

pp. 3438

8. Discuss the value of reliance on operational definitions and measurement in behavioral research.

p. 29

9. Identify how ethical issues inform and constrain research practices.

pp. 4244

10. Describe how ethical and legal guidelines (e.g., those provided by the American Psychological
Association, federal regulations, local institutional review boards) protect research participants and
promote sound ethical practice.

pp. 4344

III. Biological Bases of Behavior

Chapters 1, 2, & 11

1. Identify basic processes and systems in the biological bases of behavior, including parts of the
neuron and the process of transmission of a signal between neurons.

pp. 5462

2. Discuss the influence of drugs on neurotransmitters (e.g., reuptake mechanisms, agonists,


antagonists).

pp. 6062

3. Discuss the effect of the endocrine system on behavior.

pp. 7173

4. Describe the nervous system and its subdivisions and functions:

pp. 6465, 6771, 7992

A01_CICC5012_04_SE_FM.indd
13
central and peripheral nervous systems;

Comprehensive AP
Correlation Guide
On pages xvi-xix you will find
a comprehensive correlation
guide that provides the page
reference indicating where
this text addresses each of
the 14AP Psychology topics
and the associated learning
objectives.

2/14/14 3:51 PM

mapping structure

2.5

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2.10
(like
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of attention). Some stud
Built-In Preparation and Practice for the
AP Psychology
Examtests
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with2009;
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et al.,
2.4
the hindbrain
limbic
system
like those
on the AP Exam: multiple-choice questions with five-answer
choices and
hippocampus
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MRI,
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free-response questions. This text provides
numerous use
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to test their understanding and to practice and develop good test-taking skills.
From the Bottom Up: The Structures of the BrainMuch of the research over the past
2.5
for ADHD, such as attention problems,
PRACTiCE quiz: PREPARING FOR THE AP EXAM
imaging (Nigg, 2010). More recent resea
Directions: Read each of the questions or incomplete sentences below. Then choose the response that best answers the question
or completes the sentence.
actually normal in individuals with ADH
If
you
were to develop a rare condition in which signals
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think critically and apply
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findings
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damage
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five-answer format used on the AP Exam. brain.
a. hippocampus
amygdala
brain structure would most likely result in death if
have
highlightedd.e. the
likelihood of more
2.8 3. Which
b.
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c. cerebellum
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b. Cerebellum
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electroencephalogram
xivpreface (EEG)

ANSWERS ON PAGE AK-1.

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2.12
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Questions for further discussion

1. How might a psychology professional h


aging techniques and brain areas assoc
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the biological perspective 97


prefacexv

test

YOURSElF: PREPARiNG FOR THE AP EXAm

Practice on MyPsychLab

ANSWERS ON PAGE AK-1.

Ready for your test? More quizzes and a customized study plan. www.mypsychlab.com

PART I: MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS


Directions for Part I: Read each of the questions or incomplete sentences below. Then choose the response that best answers the question or
completes the sentence.
1. In which sequence does a neural impulse travel through a neuron?
a. Dendrite, soma, axon
d. Soma, axon, dendrite
b. Dendrite, axon, soma
e. Axon, soma, dendrite
c. Soma, dendrite, axon
2. What happens when a cells action potential has ended?
a. Negative sodium ions enter the cell.
b. Positive potassium ions enter the cell.
c. Activated dendrites stimulate the cell.
d. The cell returns to its resting potential.
e. The cell is ready to receive another neural impulse.
3. Beta blockers serve as a(n) _________ by blocking the effects of
neurotransmitters that stimulate the heart.
a. agonist
d. synaptic vesicle
b. inhibitory synapse
e. reuptake
c. antagonist
4. Heather is having trouble controlling stress, and her doctor
determines that she is not producing enough cortisol. Which
endocrine gland is not functioning properly?
a. Pituitary
d. Gonads
b. Thyroid
e. Adrenal
c. Pancreas
5. Alex, who is 2 months old, is having his picture taken. The photographer tries to sit him up, but Alex keeps sinking down. Alex cannot
sit upright yet because his __________ is not yet fully developed.
d. cerebellum
a. medulla
e. thalamus
b. pons
c. reticular formation

6. Voluntary muscles are controlled by the __________ nervous


system.
a. somatic
d. parasympathetic
b. autonomic
e. central
c. sympathetic
7. Which of the following techniques for imaging the brain uses
radioactive glucose to measure brain activity?
a. EEG
d. PET
b. CT
e. fMRI
c. MRI
8. Recognizing the face of someone you run into at the mall is a
__________ hemisphere(s); being able to retrieve that persons
name from memory is a function of the __________ hemisphere(s).
Test Yourself: Preparing for the AP Exam
a. left; right
c. left; left
b. right;A
leftsample test is found
d. at
left
and
right;
left and
right
the
end
of every
chapter.
c. right;The
right chapter test contains multiple-choice ques-

9. Linda is recovering
damage to her brain.
Her main
symptom
tions andfrom
a free-response
question,
both
styled
is a speech
problem;
instead
of
saying,
I
am
going
to
P.T.
after AP Exam format. Answers to all(physical
practherapy) at nine oclock, she says, I PT non ocot. Lindas
tice quizzes and end-of-chapter tests are in the
problem is __________
Answer
back ofaphasia
the book. The
a. spatial
neglect Key found in
c. the
Wernickes
Answer Key also includes
criteria
for a successful
b. split-brain
d. Brocas
aphasia
c. visualfree-response
agnosia
essay. Use of proper psychological

terminology
required
in sometimes
your answer.
10. Damaged
nerve fibers inisthe
body can
repair
themselves because they are coated with __________, which forms
a protective tunnel around the nerve fibers.
a. glia
c. neurilemma
b. soma
d. axon
c. myelin

PART II: FREE-RESPONSE QUESTION


Directions for Part II: Read the essay question that follows. Then,
respond to the question in a clear, concise essay. Do not simply list
facts. Instead, present a thorough argument based on your critical
consideration of the topic. Use of proper psychological terminology is
necessary.
Briefly describe how someone might use each of the lobes of the cortex
listed below while riding a bicycle. For each lobe, include a general
description of the function it performs and an example of how that
function relates to riding a bicycle:
a. Occipital lobe
b. Temporal lobe
c. Frontal lobe
d. Parietal lobe

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xvipreface

correlation guide to
AP Psychology topics
AP PSYCHOLOGY TOPICS AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Ciccarelli/Whites Psychology, AP Edition, 4e

I. History and Approaches

Chapters 1 & 14, Appendix

1.Recognize how philosophical and physiological perspectives shaped the development of


psychological thought.

p. 6

2. Describe and compare different theoretical approaches in explaining behavior:


structuralism, functionalism, and behaviorism in the early years;
Gestalt, psychoanalytic/psychodynamic, and humanism emerging later;
evolutionary, biological, cognitive, and biopsychosocial as more contemporary approaches.

pp. 617

3. Recognize the strengths and limitations of applying theories to explain behavior.

pp. 56, A-2

4.Distinguish the different domains of psychology (e.g., biological, clinical, cognitive, counseling,
developmental, educational, experimental, human factors, industrialorganizational, personality,
psychometric, social).

pp. 1718, A-2, A-5A-6, A-9A-10

5.Identify major historical figures in psychology (e.g., Mary Whiton Calkins, Charles Darwin, Dorothea
Dix, Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, William James, Ivan Pavlov, Jean Piaget, Carl Rogers,
B. F. Skinner, Margaret Floy Washburn, John B. Watson, Wilhelm Wundt).

pp. 614, 299, 548

II. Research Methods

Chapter 1

1.Differentiate types of research (e.g., experiments, correlational studies, survey research, naturalistic
observations, case studies) with regard to purpose, strengths, and weaknesses.

pp. 2233

2.Describe how research design drives the reasonable conclusions that can be drawn (e.g.,
experiments are useful for determining cause and effect; the use of experimental controls reduces
alternative explanations).

pp. 2733

3.Identify independent, dependent, confounding, and control variables in experimental d


esigns.

pp. 2931

4.Distinguish between random assignment of participants to conditions in experiments and random


selection of participants, primarily in correlational studies and surveys.

pp. 3031

5.Predict the validity of behavioral explanations based on the quality of research design
(e.g., confounding variables limit confidence in research conclusions).

pp. 3132

6. Distinguish the purposes of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

pp. 2228, 3442

7.Apply basic descriptive statistical concepts, including interpreting and constructing graphs and
calculating simple descriptive statistics (e.g., measures of central tendency, standard deviation).

pp. 3438

8.Discuss the value of reliance on operational definitions and measurement in behavioral research.

p. 29

9.Identify how ethical issues inform and constrain research practices.

pp. 4244

10.Describe how ethical and legal guidelines (e.g., those provided by the American Psychological
Association, federal regulations, local institutional review boards) protect research participants and
promote sound ethical practice.

pp. 4344

III. Biological Bases of Behavior

Chapters 1, 2, & 11

1.Identify basic processes and systems in the biological bases of behavior, including parts of the
neuron and the process of transmission of a signal between neurons.

pp. 5462

2.Discuss the influence of drugs on neurotransmitters (e.g., reuptake mechanisms, agonists,


antagonists).

pp. 6062

3. Discuss the effect of the endocrine system on behavior.

pp. 7173

4. Describe the nervous system and its subdivisions and functions:


central and peripheral nervous systems;
major brain regions, lobes, and cortical areas;
brain lateralization and hemispheric specialization.

pp. 6465, 6771, 7992

5. Discuss the role of neuroplasticity in traumatic brain injury.

pp. 6768

6.Recount historic and contemporary research strategies and technologies that support research
(e.g., case studies, split-brain research, imaging techniques).

pp. 7579, 8994

7.Discuss psychologys abiding interest in how heredity, environment, and evolution work together to
shape behavior.

pp. 16, 94, 461

8.Predict how traits and behavior can be selected for their adaptive value.

p. 16

9.Identify key contributors (e.g., Paul Broca, Charles Darwin, Michael Gazzaniga, Roger Sperry, Carl
Wernicke).

pp. 16, 75, 8892

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prefacexvii

AP PSYCHOLOGY TOPICS AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Ciccarelli/Whites Psychology, AP Edition, 4e

IV. Sensation and Perception

Chapter 3

1.Discuss basic principles of sensory transduction, including absolute threshold, difference threshold,
signal detection, and sensory adaptation.

pp. 100103

2.Describe sensory processes (e.g., hearing, vision, touch, taste, smell, vestibular, kinesthesis, pain),
including the specific nature of energy transduction, relevant anatomical structures, and specialized
pathways in the brain for each of the senses.

pp. 104124

3.Explain common sensory disorders (e.g., visual and hearing impairments).

pp. 110111, 115116, 122

4.Describe general principles of organizing and integrating sensation to promote stable awareness of
the external world (e.g., Gestalt principles, depth perception).

pp. 127137

5.Discuss how experience and culture can influence perceptual processes (e.g., perceptual set, context
effects).

pp. 134137

6.Explain the role of top-down processing in producing vulnerability to illusion.

p. 136

7.Discuss the role of attention in behavior.

p. 126

8.Challenge common beliefs in parapsychological phenomena.

p. 138

9.Identify the major historical figures in sensation and perception (e.g., Gustav Fechner, David Hubel,
Ernst Weber, Torsten Wiesel).

pp. 100101, 133

V. States of Consciousness

Chapter 4

1.Describe various states of consciousness and their impact on behavior.

pp. 144149, 154155, 162175

2.Discuss aspects of sleep and dreaming:


stages and characteristics of the sleep cycle;
theories of sleep and dreaming;
symptoms and treatments of sleep disorders.

pp. 145161

3.Describe historic and contemporary uses of hypnosis (e.g., pain control, psychotherapy).

pp. 162165

4.Explain hypnotic phenomena (e.g., suggestibility, dissociation).

pp. 163165

5.Identify the major psychoactive drug categories (e.g., depressants, stimulants) and classify specific
drugs, including their psychological and physiological effects.

pp. 166175

6.Discuss drug dependence, addiction, tolerance, and withdrawal.

pp. 166175

7.Identify the major figures in consciousness research (e.g., William James, Sigmund Freud, Ernest
Hilgard).

pp. 144, 158159, 164

VI. Learning

Chapter 5

1.Distinguish general differences between principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning,


and observational learning (e.g., contingencies).

pp. 182209, 215217

2.Describe basic classical conditioning phenomena, such as acquisition, extinction, spontaneous


recovery, generalization, discrimination, and higher-order learning.

pp. 183187

3.Predict the effects of operant conditioning (e.g., positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement,
punishment).

pp. 192205

4.Predict how practice, schedules of reinforcement, and motivation will influence quality of learning.

pp. 192200

5.Interpret graphs that exhibit the results of learning experiments.

pp. 187, 193, 198, 213

6.Provide examples of how biological constraints create learning predispositions.

pp. 206207

7.Describe the essential characteristics of insight learning, latent learning, and social learning.

pp. 209, 211212

8.Apply learning principles to explain emotional learning, taste aversion, superstitious behavior, and
learned helplessness.

pp. 189191, 194195, 213215

9.Suggest how behavior modification, biofeedback, coping strategies, and self-control can be used to
address behavioral problems.

pp. 207209

10.Identify key contributors in the psychology of learning (e.g., Albert Bandura, John Garcia, Ivan
Pavlov, Robert Rescorla, B. F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, Edward Tolman, John B. Watson).

pp. 183187, 189194, 211217

VII. Cognition

Chapters 6 & 7

1.Compare and contrast various cognitive processes:


effortful versus automatic processing;
deep versus shallow processing;
focused versus divided attention.

pp. 226227, 236, 246

2.Describe and differentiate psychological and physiological systems of memory (e.g., short-term
memory, procedural memory).

pp. 228239

3.Outline the principles that underlie effective encoding, storage, and construction of memories.

pp. 226, 228250

4.Describe strategies for memory improvement.

pp. 235236, 241244, 260261

5.Synthesize how biological, cognitive, and cultural factors converge to facilitate acquisition,
development, and use of language.

pp. 298302, 328

6.Identify problem-solving strategies as well as factors that influence their effectiveness.

pp. 270277

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xviiipreface

AP PSYCHOLOGY TOPICS AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Ciccarelli/Whites Psychology, AP Edition, 4e

7.List the characteristics of creative thought and creative thinkers.

pp. 275277

8.Identify key contributors in cognitive psychology (e.g., Noam Chomsky, Hermann Ebbinghaus,
Wolfgang Khler, Elizabeth Loftus, George A. Miller).

pp. 232233, 245246, 248249, 252253, 272, 298, 300

VIII. Motivation and Emotion

Chapters 8, 9, & 10

1.Identify and apply basic motivational concepts to understand the behavior of humans and other
animals (e.g., instincts, incentives, intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation).

pp. 356357, 363

2.Discuss the biological underpinnings of motivation, including needs, drives, and homeostasis.

pp. 357358

3.Compare and contrast motivational theories (e.g., drive reduction theory, arousal theory, general
adaptation theory), including the strengths and weaknesses of each.

pp. 357366, 404

4.Describe classic research findings in specific motivation systems (e.g., eating, sex, social).

pp. 367374, 415417

5.Discuss theories of stress and the effects of stress on psychological and physical well-being.

p. 404418

6.Compare and contrast major theories of emotion (e.g., JamesLange, CannonBard, Schachter
two-factor theory).

pp. 380386

7.Describe how cultural influences shape emotional expression, including variations in body language.

pp. 379380

8.Identify key contributors in the psychology of motivation and emotion (e.g., William James, Alfred
Kinsey, Abraham Maslow, Stanley Schachter, Hans Selye).

pp. 338, 363365, 381383, 404

IX. Developmental Psychology

Chapters 7 & 8

1.Discuss the interaction of nature and nurture (including cultural variations) in the determination of
behavior.

pp. 310311

2.Explain the process of conception and gestation, including factors that influence successful fetal
development (e.g., nutrition, illness, substance abuse).

pp. 316319

3.Discuss maturation of motor skills.

pp. 321323

4.Describe the influence of temperament and other social factors on attachment and appropriate
socialization.

pp. 331337

5.Explain the maturation of cognitive abilities (e.g., Piagets stages, information processing).

pp. 323327

6.Compare and contrast models of moral development (e.g., Kohlberg, Gilligan).

pp. 339340

7.Discuss maturational challenges in adolescence, including related family conflicts.

pp. 337342

8.Explain how parenting styles influence development.

pp. 341342, 345346

9.Characterize the development of decisions related to intimacy as people mature.

pp. 345

10.Predict the physical and cognitive changes that emerge as people age, including steps that can be
taken to maximize function.

pp. 344345, 348

11.Describe how sex and gender influence socialization and other aspects of development.

pp. 340341

12.Identify key contributors in developmental psychology (e.g., Mary Ainsworth, Albert Bandura, Diana
Baumrind, Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud, Carol Gilligan, Harry Harlow, Lawrence Kohlberg, Konrad
Lorenz, Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky).

pp. 300, 323328 332, 334336, 339340, 345

X. Personality

Chapter 12

1.Compare and contrast the major theories and approaches to explaining personality
(e.g., psychoanalytic, humanist, cognitive, trait, social cognition, behavioral).

pp. 476499

2.Describe and compare research methods (e.g., case studies and surveys) that psychologists use to
investigate personality.

pp. 499504

3.Identify frequently used assessment strategies (e.g., the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
[MMPI], the Thematic Apperception Test [TAT]), and evaluate relative test quality based on reliability
and validity of the instruments.

pp. 500504

4.Speculate how cultural context can facilitate or constrain personality development, especially as it
relates to self-concept (e.g., collectivistic versus individualistic cultures).

pp. 497499, 504

5.Identify key contributors to personality theory (e.g., Alfred Adler, Albert Bandura, Paul Costa and
Robert McCrae, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers).

pp. 477484, 487490, 493494

XI. Testing and Individual Differences

Chapters 1 & 7

1.Define intelligence and list characteristics of how psychologists measure intelligence:


abstract versus verbal measures;
speed of processing.

pp. 278286

2.Discuss how culture influences the definition of intelligence.

pp. 269, 276, 284285

3.Compare and contrast historic and contemporary theories of intelligence (e.g., Charles Spearman,
Howard Gardner, Robert Sternberg).

pp. 278280

4.Explain how psychologists design tests, including standardization strategies and other techniques to
establish reliability and validity.

pp. 282286

5.Interpret the meaning of scores in terms of the normal curve.

pp. 35 37, 40, 283

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prefacexix

AP PSYCHOLOGY TOPICS AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Ciccarelli/Whites Psychology, AP Edition, 4e

6.Describe relevant labels related to intelligence testing (e.g., gifted, cognitively disabled).

pp. 289293

7.Debate the appropriate testing practices, particularly in relation to culture-fair test uses.

pp. 285, 296

8.Identify key contributors in intelligence research and testing (e.g., Alfred Binet, Francis Galton,
Howard Gardner, Charles Spearman, Robert Sternberg, Louis Terman, David Wechsler).

pp. 278282, 291293

XII. Abnormal Behavior

Chapters 13 & 14, Appendix

1.Describe contemporary and historical conceptions of what constitutes psychological disorders.

pp. 512514

2.Recognize the use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) published by
the American Psychiatric Association as the primary reference for making diagnostic judgments.

pp. 518519

3.Discuss the major diagnostic categories, including anxiety and somatoform disorders, mood
disorders, schizophrenia, organic disturbance, personality disorders, and dissociative disorders, and
their corresponding symptoms.

pp. 522540

4.Evaluate the strengths and limitations of various approaches to explaining psychological disorders:
medical model, psychoanalytic, humanistic, cognitive, biological, and sociocultural.

pp. 515517, 549562

5.Identify the positive and negative consequences of diagnostic labels (e.g., the Rosenhan study).

pp. 519520

6.Discuss the intersection between psychology and the legal system (e.g., confidentiality, insanity
defense).

p. 514, A-8

XIII. Treatment of Abnormal Behavior

Chapter 14

1.Describe the central characteristics of psychotherapeutic intervention.

pp. 548549

2.Describe major treatment orientations used in therapy (e.g., behavioral, cognitive, humanistic) and
how those orientations influence therapeutic planning.

pp. 549562

3.Compare and contrast different treatment formats (e.g., individual, group).

pp. 562564

4.Summarize effectiveness of specific treatments used to address specific problems.

pp. 551, 557558, 565567, 570577

5.Discuss how cultural and ethnic context influence choice and success of treatment (e.g., factors that
lead to premature termination of treatment).

pp. 568570

6.Describe prevention strategies that build resilience and promote competence.

pp. 553554, 568

7.Identify major figures in psychological treatment (e.g., Aaron Beck, Albert Ellis, Sigmund Freud, Mary
Cover Jones, Carl Rogers, B. F. Skinner, Joseph Wolpe).

pp. 549550, 552553, 556, 557, 560562, 569

XIV. Social Psychology

Chapters 1 & 11

1.Apply attribution theory to explain motives (e.g., fundamental attribution error, self-serving bias).

pp. 447449

2.Describe the structure and function of different kinds of group behavior (e.g., deindividuation, group
polarization).

pp. 431432

3.Explain how individuals respond to expectations of others, including groupthink, conformity, and
obedience to authority.

pp. 428437

4.Discuss attitudes and how they change (e.g., central route to persuasion).

pp. 439442

5.Predict the impact of the presence of others on individual behavior (e.g., bystander effect, social
facilitation).

pp. 432, 465467

6.Describe processes that contribute to differential treatment of group members (e.g., in-group/
out-group dynamics, ethnocentrism, prejudice).

pp. 450455

7.Articulate the impact of social and cultural categories (e.g., gender, race, ethnicity) on self-concept
and relations with others.

pp. 15, 335, 452453

8.Anticipate the impact of behavior on a self-fulfilling prophecy.

pp. 453

9.Describe the variables that contribute to altruism, aggression, and attraction.

pp. 456467

10.Discuss attitude formation and change, including persuasion strategies and cognitive dissonance.

pp. 441444

11.Identify important figures in social psychology (e.g., Solomon Asch, Leon Festinger, Stanley
Milgram, Philip Zimbardo).

pp. 428430, 435437, 443, 462463

Upon publication, this text was correlated to The College Boards AP Psychology
Course Description effective Fall 2013. We continually monitor The College
Boards AP Psychology Course Description for updates to exam topics.
For the most current AP Psychology Exam Topic correlation for this textbook,
visit PearsonSchool.com/AdvancedCorrelations

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xxpreface

learner-centered approach
Curiosity and Dialogue

Our goal is to awaken students curiosity and energize their desire to learn by having them read and
engage with the material. We are delighted with the feedback from students and teachers who have
used our text and who tell us this approach is working, and we are pleased to extend that experience
in a new eText format with this edition. The new eText format helps content come alive and makes
students active participants in their learning.

learning

Chapter opening Student Voice videos

Yoshikos first-grade teacher started a reading contest. For every book read, a child would get a gold
star on the reading chart, and at the end of one month the child with the most stars would get a prize.

Chapters now open with videos in which psychology


students share personal stories about how the chapter
theme directly applies to their lives.

Yoshiko went to the library and checked out several books each week. At the end of the month, Yoshiko
had the most gold stars and got to stand in front of her classmates to receive her prize. Would it be
candy? A toy? She was so excited! Imagine her surprise and mild disappointment when the big prize
turned out to be another book! Disappointing prize aside, Yoshikos teacher had made use of a key
technique of learning called reinforcement. Reinforcement is anything that when following a response,
increases the likelihood that the response will occur again. The reinforcers of gold stars and a prize
caused Yoshikos reading to increase.

Success Center

How have you used reinforcement to modify your own behavior or the
behavior of others?

At the start of each chapter students can access


Dynamic Study Modules and study tip videos. The
Dynamic Study Modules use confidence metrics to
identify what students do and dont know and deliver
question and explanation sets based on individual
knowledge needs. Students can study on the go by
downloading the Dynamic Study Modules mobile app on
their iPhone or Android device.
Seven Videos, based on the Psychology in Action
introductory chapter, provide practical advice on study
methods, time management, reading the text, taking
notes during lectures, preparing for exams, paper writing,
and tips for improving memory.

CC
Watch the
MyPsychLab.com
Watch
theVideo
Videoaton
MyPsychLab.com

180

Success Center
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Study on MyPsychLab
Dynamic Study Modules

Watch the Video on MyPsychLab


Video 1: Study Methods
Video 2: Managing Time
Video 3: Reading the Text
Video 4: Lecture Notes
Video 5: Exam Prep
Video 6: Paper Writing
Video 7: Improve Memory

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prefacexxi

Embedded Interactive Content

Interactive content has been fully incorporated into all aspects


of the text, allowing students a more direct way to access and
engage with the material
212

Watch Videos of topics as they are


explained. Interactive Figures walk
students through some of the more
complex processes in psychology.

CHAPTER 5

Figure 5.9 a typical Maze

5.1

5.2

This is an example of a maze


such as the one used in Tolmans
experiments in latent learning.
A rat is placed in the start box. The
trial is over when the rat gets to the
end box.

One-way door
Curtain

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6
Start
box

5.7

End
box

5.8

Reinforce connections across


topics with Interactive
Concept Maps.

certain number of trials, whereas the second and third groups seemed to wander aimlessly
around the maze until accidentally finding their way out.
On the 10th day, however, something happened that would be difficult to explain
using only Skinners basic principles. The second group of rats, upon receiving the reinforcement for the first time, should have then taken as long as the first group to solve the
maze. Instead, they began to solve the maze almost immediately (see Figure 5.10).
Tolman concluded that the rats in the second group, while wandering around in the
first 9 days of the experiment, had indeed learned where all the blind alleys, wrong turns,
and correct paths were and stored this knowledge away as a kind of mental map, or cognitive map of the physical layout of the maze. The rats in the second group had learned
and stored that learning away mentally but had not demonstrated this learning because
there was no reason to do so. The cognitive map had remained hidden, or latent, until the
rats had a reason to demonstrate their knowledge by getting to the food. Tolman called
this latent learning. The idea that learning could happen without reinforcement, and
then later affect behavior, was not something traditional operant conditioning could explain. To see a real-life example of latent learning, participate in the experiment Learning.

5.9

5.10

5.11

5.12

5.13

cognition: thinking, intelligence, and language

7.6

Simulation

Simulate
experiments
right from the
narrative.

7.7

Explore the Concept at MyPsychLab

7.8

7.1

CONCEPT MAP

Learning

criteria

In this experiment, you will be asked to


memorize a series of words presented
to you one at a time. Twenty words will
be flashed on the screen for a very short
time and will be separated briefly by
a blank screen. After the last word is
flashed on the screen, you will be asked
some questions to test your recall.

7.2

IQ . 130 (2 SD above mean)


IQ . 140 are called geniuses

giftedness
characteristics

typically grow up to be well-adjusted adults EXCEPT


when pushed to achieve at younger and younger ages
extreme geniuses may experience social
and behavioral adjustment issues as children

7.3

7.4

IQ , 70 (2 SD below mean)
criteria

Go to the Experiment

individual differences
IQ tests can be used
to identify individuals
who differ significantly
from those of
average intelligence

Simulate the Experiment, Learning, on MyPsychLab

adaptive skills significantly below age-appropriate level


onset of deficits must occur during childhood or adolescence

intellectual
disability/
intellectual
developmental
disorder

classifications

environmental

identical twins
reared together
show a correlation
of .86 between
their IQs

poverty

emotional
intelligence

7.7

fetal alcohol syndrome


fragile X syndrome

nature vs. nurture

7.6

toxins such as lead or mercury


Down syndrome

biological
2/13/14 2:16 PM

7.5

range from mild to profound, depending on severity


of deficits or level of support required

causal factors

Intelligence
M05_CICC5012_04_SE_C05.indd 212

297

7.8

awareness of and ability to manage ones own emotions,


self-motivation, empathy, and social skills
may be related to traditional intelligence but data is still being collected

correlation is not 1.00, so environment also has to play a part

heritability estimates apply within groups of people, not between groups,


not to individuals, and only in a general sense

7.9

7.10

current heritability estimate is about .50

7.11
PRACTiCE

Take Practice Quizzes as you read.

ANSWERS ON PAGE AK-2.

Directions: Read each of the questions or incomplete sentences below. Then choose the response that best answers the question
or completes the sentence.
3. Elizabeth was tested while in grade school and was found
1. Jared is 35 years old, but his cognitive abilities have never
to have an IQ of 134. Elizabeths intelligence level can be
gone beyond the level of a second-grade child. At what level
labeled as _______________________.
of developmental delay would Jared be classified?
a. average
a. Mild
b. somewhat above normal
b. Moderate
c. moderate
c. Severe
d. genius
d. Profound
e. gifted
e. Adaptive
2. A male with a defective chromosome leading to severe
protein deficiency and poor brain development probably
suffers from _______________________.
a. Down syndrome
b. fetal alcohol syndrome
c. hydrocephaly
d. fragile X syndrome
e. familial retardation

M07_CICC5012_04_SE_C07.indd 297

A01_CICC5012_04_SE_FM.indd 21

quiz: PREPARING FOR THE AP EXAM

4. Which of the following statements about Termans


Termites is not true?
a. The successful men earned more money.
b. The successful men were more likely to be divorced.
c. The unsuccessful men were less healthy.
d. The unsuccessful men held jobs of lower prestige.
e. The successful men had a consistent sense of self.

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xxiipreface

teaching and learning package


Integration and Feedback

It is increasingly true today that as valuable as a good textbook is, it is still only one
element of a comprehensive learning package. The teaching and learning package that
accompanies Psychology, AP Edition, 4e, is the most comprehensive and integrated on
the market. We have made every effort to provide high-quality instructor resources that
will save you preparation time and will enhance the time you spend in the classroom.

MyPsychLab
324

8.1

8.2

MyPsychLab is an online homework, tutorial, and assessment program that truly


engages students in learning. It helps students better prepare for class, quizzes, and
examsresulting in better performance in the courseand provides educators with
table 8.3
a dynamic set of tools for gauging individual and class progress. MyPsychLab comes
Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development
from Pearson, your partner in providing the best digital learning experience.
CHAPTER 8

Stage

age

cOgnItIVe DeVeLOPment

12 years old to

People at this stage can use abstract reasoning about hypothetical events or situations,

BirthDynamic
to 2 years old Study
Children explore
the world Not
using their
sensesstudent
and ability tolearns
move. They
develop
objectway and at the
NEW!
Modules
every
the
same
permanence and the understanding that concepts and mental images represent objects,
people,
and events.
same rate. And now,
thanks
to advances in adaptive learning technology, you no lonPreoperational ger have
2 to 7 years
old
Young
and referStudy
to objectsModules
and events within
words
or
to teach
as
if children
they can
do.mentally
Therepresent
Dynamic
MyPsychLab
conpictures and they can pretend. However, they cant conserve, logically reason, or
simultaneously
consider many characteristics
of an object.
tinuously assess student
performance
and activity
in real time, and, using data and
Concrete Operations
7 to 12 years
old
Children
at this stage
able to conserve,
reverse their
thinking,
and classify
in
analytics,
personalize
content
to are
reinforce
concepts
that
target
eachobjects
students
strengths
terms of their many characteristics. They can also think logically and understand analogies
but
only
about
concrete
events.
and weaknesses.
Sensorimotor

8.3

8.4

8.5

Formal Operations

8.6

8.7

8.8

8.9

8.10

8.11

8.12

adulthood
about logical possibilities, use abstract analogies, and systematically examine and
Writing
Space think
Better
writers make great learnerswho
test hypotheses. Not everyone can eventually reason in all these ways.
perform better in their courses. To help you develop and assess conceptobservations
mastery ofand
critical thinking through writing, we
infants and children, most especially his own three children. Piaget made
created the Writing
Space in toMyPsychLab.
Its
a children
singlethink
place
significant contributions
the understanding of
how
about the world
around
them;
his theory
shifted the
commonly held view
that childrens
thinking was that
to create, track,
and
grade
writing
assignments,
provide
writing
of little adults toward recognition that it was actually quite different from adult thinking.
resources, and
exchange
meaningful,
personalized
feedback
Piaget
believed that
children form mental
concepts or schemes
as theywith
experience new situations
and
events.
For
example,
if
Sandy
points
to
a
picture
of
apple and tells her child,
students, quickly and easily, including auto-scoring foranpractice
thats an apple, the child forms a scheme for apple that looks something like that picture.
writing prompts.
Plus,
Writing
Space
has
integrated
to of schemes
Piaget also
believed
that children
first try
to understand
new access
things in terms
alreadyleader
possess, in
a process
called assimilation.
The child might see an orange and say
Turnitin, thethey
global
plagiarism
prevention.

apple because both objects are round. When corrected, the child might alter the scheme

for Video
apple to include
round
and red. The
process of altering or and
adjusting
old schemes to fit
MyPsychLab
Series.
Current,
comprehensive,
cutnew information and experiences is accommodation (Piaget, 1952, 1962, 1983).
ting edge, the sixPiaget
video
forthere
every
chapter
five minutes each)
alsosegments
proposed that
are four
distinct (approximately
stages of cognitive development
that from
occur from
to adolescence,
as shown
in the video
Basics:
take the viewer
theinfancy
research
laboratory
to inside
the The
brain
toHow
outThinking
on the street for
Develops: Piagets Stages and in Table 8.3 (Piaget, 1952, 1962, 1983).
real-world applications.

CC

Watch the Video, The Basics: How Thinking Develops : Piagets Stages, at MyPsychLab

To learn more about MyPsychLab visit mypsychlab.com.


M08_CICC5012_04_SE_C08.indd 324

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prefacexxiii

Preview and Adoption Access


Upon textbook purchase, students and teachers are granted access to MyPsychLab
with Pearson eText. High school teachers can obtain preview or adoption access for
MyPsychLab in one of the following ways:
Preview Access
T
 eachers can request preview access by visiting PearsonSchool.com/Access_Request.
Select Initial Access then using Option 2, select your discipline and title from the
drop-down menu and complete the online form. Preview Access information will
be sent to the teacher via e-mail.
Adoption Access
With the purchase of a textbook program that offers a media resource,
aPearson Adoption Access Card, with student and teacher codes and a
completeInstructors Manual, will be delivered with your textbook purchase.
(ISBN 978-0-13-354087-1).
Ask your sales representative for an Adoption Access Code Card/Instructor
Manual package (ISBN 978-0-13-354087-1)
OR
V
 isit PearsonSchool.com/Access_Request. Select Initial Access then using Option 3,
select your discipline and title from the drop-down menu and complete the online
form. Access information will be sent to the teacher via e-mail.
Students, ask your teacher for access.

A01_CICC5012_04_SE_FM.indd 23

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xxivpreface

presentation and teaching resources


AP Teachers Resource DVD: This DVD offers all the major teachers resources in
one place. The DVD contains the Teachers Resource Manual, Test Bank, TestGen,
highly visual Interactive PowerPoint slides, and more traditional secondary PowerPoint Slides.
Interactive PowerPoint Slides bring the Ciccarelli/White
design into the classroom, drawing students into the lecture and
providing appealing interactive activities, visuals, and videos.
The slides are built around the texts learning objectives and
offer many direct links to interactive exercises, simulations, and
activities.
Standard Lecture PowerPoint Slides have lecture notes, photos,
and figures.
Classroom Response System (CRS) PowerPoint Slides allow
you to integrate clicker technology into your classroom.
Teachers Resource Manual offers detailed Chapter Lecture Outlines, chapter
summaries, learning objectives, activities, exercises, assignments, handouts, and
demonstrations for in-class use, as well as useful guidelines for integrating the
many Pearson media resources into your classroom. With specific resources for
teaching AP Psychology, this resource saves prep work and helps instructors maximize their classroom time.
The AP Test Bank was revised extensively, and contains multiple-choice questions with five answer choices and free response questions to prepare students for
the AP Exam. The AP Test Bank includes a Total Assessment Guide that lists
all of the test items in an easy-to-reference grid. The Total Assessment Guide
organizes all test items by learning objective and question type (factual, conceptual, or applied). Rationales for each correct answer and the key distractor in the
multiple-choice questions help instructors evaluate questions and provide more
feedback to students.
The AP Test Bank comes with TestGen, a powerful assessment generation
program that helps teachers easily create and print quizzes and exams. Teachers can readily access existing questions and edit, create, and store using a simple
interface. Data on each question provides information regarding difficulty level
and page number. In addition, each question maps to the texts major section and
learning objective.
Instructors Resource Center Access: Most of the teacher supplements and resources
for this text are also available electronically to qualified adopters on the Instructor Resource Center (IRC). Upon adoption or to preview, please go to www.pearsonschool.
com/access_request and select Instructor Resource Center. You will be required to
complete a brief one-time registration subject to verification of educator status. Upon
verification, access information and instructions will be sent to you via e-mail. Once
logged into the IRC, enter 978-0-13-385501-2 in the Search our Catalog box to
locate resources.

A01_CICC5012_04_SE_FM.indd 24

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prefacexxv

student
resources
Available for purchase
Ensure Student Success on the AP Exam:
Pearson Test Prep Series for AP Psychology by William Elmhorst (Marshfield High School)
includes a chapter summary and AP Exam style practice exams structured around the chapter
learning objectives. An innovative Study Hints section helps students with the most difficult to
understand concepts from every chapter. Available for purchase.

A01_CICC5012_04_SE_FM.indd 25

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xxvipreface

learning outcomes and assessment


Goals and Standards

In recent years many psychology departments have been focusing on core competencies
and how methods of assessment can better enhance students learning. In response, the
American Psychological Association (APA) established recommended goals for the
undergraduate psychology major beginning in 2008 with a set of ten goals, and revised
again in 2013 with a new set of five goals. Specific learning outcomes were established
for each of the goals and suggestions were made on how best to tie assessment practices
to these goals. In writing this text, we have used the APA goals and assessment
recommendations as guidelines for structuring content and integrating the teaching and
homework materials. For details on the APA learning goals and assessment guidelines,
please see www.apa.org/.
learning objectives
Based on APA recommendations, each chapter is structured around detailed learning
objectives. All of the instructor and student resources are also organized around
these objectives, making the text and resources a fully integrated system of study. The
flexibility of these resources allows instructors to choose which learning objectives are
important in their courses as well as which content they want their students to focus on.
Why study learning?
If we had not been able to learn, we would have died out as a species long ago. Learning is
the process that allows us to adapt to the changing conditions of the world around us. We
can alter our actions until we find the behavior that leads us to survival and rewards, and we
can eliminate actions that have been unsuccessful in the past. Without learning, there would
be no buildings, no agriculture, no lifesaving medicines, and no human civilization.

learning objectives
5.1

What does the term learning really mean?

5.8

What are some of the problems with using


punishment?

5.2

How was classical conditioning first studied, and


what are the important elements and characteristics of classical conditioning?

5.9

How do operant stimuli control behavior, and


what are some other concepts that can enhance
or limit operant conditioning?

5.3

What is a conditioned emotional response, and


how do cognitive psychologists explain classical
conditioning?

5.10

What is behavior modification, and how can


behavioral techniques be used to modify involuntary biological responses?

5.4

How does operant conditioning occur, and


what were the contributions of Thorndike and
Skinner?

5.11

How do latent learning, insight, and learned


helplessness relate to cognitive learning theory?

5.5

What are the important concepts in operant


conditioning?

5.12

What is observational learning, and what are


the four elements of modeling?

5.6

What are the schedules of reinforcement?

5.13

What is a real-world example of the use of


conditioning?

5.7

What is punishment and how does it differ from


reinforcement?

181

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prefacexxvii

APAUNDERGRADUATELEARNINGGOALSANDOUTCOMES

Knowledge Base in Psychology


Students should demonstrate fundamental knowledge and comprehension of the major concepts, theoretical perspectives, historical trends,
and empirical findings to discuss how psychological principles apply to behavioral phenomena. Foundation students should demonstrate
breadth in their knowledge and applications of psychological ideas to simple problems; baccalaureate students should show depth in their
knowledge and application of psychological concepts and frameworks to problems of greater complexity.

1.1Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.


1.2Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains.
1.3Describe applications that employ discipline-based problem solving.

Intro: PIA.1
Ch 1: 1.11.5
Ch 2: 2.12.11 and Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Paying Attention to
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Ch 3: 3.13.11
Ch 4: 4.14.10
Ch 5: 5.15.7, 5.95.12
Ch 6: 6.16.13 and Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Health and Memory
Ch 7: 7.1, 7.3, 7.4, 7.67.9
Ch 8: 8.28.5, 8.78.12
Ch 9: 9.19.11
Ch 10: 10.110.9 and Issues in Psychology: Health Psychology and Stress
Ch 11: 11.111.13
Ch 12: 12.112.7, 12.9 and Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Biological
Basis of the Big Five
Ch 13: 13.113.8
Ch 14: 14.114.10
Major concepts are reinforced with learning tools: Writing Space, Experiment
Simulations, MyPsychLab Video Series, Operation ARA, Visual Brain, and instructors teaching and assessment package.

Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking


The skills in this domain involve the development of scientific reasoning and problem solving, including effective research methods. Foundation students should learn basic skills and concepts in interpreting behavior, studying research, and applying research design principles to
drawing conclusions about behavior; baccalaureate students should focus on theory use as well as designing and executing research plans.

2.1Use scientific reasoning to interpret psychological phenomena.


2.2Demonstrate psychology information literacy.
2.3Engage in innovative and integrative thinking and problem-solving.
2.4Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.
2.5Incorporate sociocultural factors in scientific inquiry.

A01_CICC5012_04_SE_FM.indd 27

Ciccarelli/White, 4e Content

Ch 1: 1.61.17, 1.19
Ch 2: 2.6, 2.12 and Psychology in the News: Fact or Fiction: Focus on the Brain,
but Check your Sources; Classic Studies in Psychology: Through the Looking
GlassSpatial Neglect; Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Paying Attention
to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Ch 3: Classic Studies in Psychology: The Visual Cliff and Applying Psychology to
Everyday Life: Thinking Critically About ESP
Ch 4: 4.10 and Psychology in the News: Murder While Sleepwalking; Applying
Psychology to Everyday Life: Thinking Critically About Ghosts, Aliens, and Other
Things That Go Bump in the Night
Ch 5: 5.13 and Classic Studies in Psychology: Biological Constraints of Operant
Conditioning
Ch 6: Classic Studies in Psychology: Elizabeth Loftus and Eyewitnesses and
Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Health and Memory
Ch 7: 7.27.5 and Classic Studies in Psychology: Termans Termites
Ch 8: 8.1, 8.6, 8.11 and Psychology in the News: Abby and Brittany Hensel,
Together for Life; Classic Studies in Psychology: Harlow and Contact Comfort
Ch 9: Psychology in the News: Cartoon Characters Influence Childrens Food
and Taste Preferences; Classic Studies in Psychology: The Angry/Happy Man
Ch 11: Psychology in the News: Anatomy of a Cult; Classic Studies in Psychology: Brown Eyes, Blue Eyes; Psychology in the News: Facing FacebookThe
Social Nature of Online Networking
Ch 12: 12.8 and Classic Studies in Psychology: Geert Hofstedes Four Dimensions of Cultural Personality
Ch 13: Current Issues in Psychology: A Look at Abnormality in Various Cultures
and Current Issues in Psychology: Was Sybil a True Multiple Personality?
Scientific methods are reinforced with learning tools: Writing Space, Experiment
Simulations, MyPsychLab Video Series, Operation ARA, Visual Brain, and instructors teaching and assessment package.

2/14/14 3:51 PM

xxviiipreface
APAUNDERGRADUATELEARNINGGOALSANDOUTCOMES

Ethical and Social Responsibility


The skills in this domain involve the development of ethically and socially responsible behaviors for professional and personal settings. Foundation students should become familiar with the formal regulations that
govern professional ethics in psychology and begin to embrace the values that will contribute to positive
outcomes in work settings and in society. Baccalaureate students should have more direct opportunities to
demonstrate adherence to professional values that will help them optimize their contributions.

3.1Apply ethical standards to psychological science and practice.


3.2Build and enhance interpersonal relationships.
3.3Adopt values that build community at local, national, and global levels.

Ch 1: 1.18
Ch 5: 5.8 and Issues in Psychology: The Link Between Spanking and Aggression
in Young Children
Ch 7: 7.10 and Psychology in the News: Neuropsychology Sheds Light on Head
Injuries
Ch 8: 8.12 and Issues in Psychology: The Facts and Myths About Immunizations
Ch 9: 9.59.6
Ch 10: 10.8
Ch 11: 11.811.9
Ethics and values are reinforced with learning tools: Writing Space, Experiment
Simulations, MyPsychLab Video Series, Operation ARA, Visual Brain, and instructors teaching and assessment package.

Communication
Students should demonstrate competence in written, oral, and interpersonal communication skills. Foundation students should be able to write a cogent scientific argument, present information using a scientific approach, engage in discussion of psychological concepts, explain the ideas of others, and express their own
ideas with clarity. Baccalaureate students should produce a research study or other psychological project,
explain scientific results, and present information to a professional audience. They should also develop flexible interpersonal approaches that optimize information exchange and relationship development.

4.1Demonstrate effective writing in multiple formats.


4.2Exhibit effective presentation skills in multiple formats.
4.3Interact effectively with others.

Ciccarelli/White, 4e Content

Intro: PIA.6
Ch 7: 7.10
Ch 8: 8.7, 8.9, 8.12 and Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Cross-Cultural
Views on Death
Ch 10: 10.2, 10.6, 10.8
Ch 11: 11.211.3, 11.5, 11.811.9, 11.11 and Psychology in the News: Facing
FacebookThe Social Nature of Online Networking
Communication skills are reinforced with learning tools: Writing Space, Experiment Simulations, MyPsychLab Video Series, Operation ARA, Visual Brain, and
instructors teaching and assessment package.

Professional Development
The skills in this domain refer to abilities that sharpen student readiness for post-baccalaureate employment,
graduate school, or professional school. The emphasis in the domain involves application of psychology-specific content and skills, effective self-reflection, project management skills, teamwork skills, and career preparation. These skills can be developed and refined both in traditional academic settings and extracurricular
involvement. In addition, career professionals can be enlisted to support occupational planning and pursuit.
5.1Apply psychological content and skills to professional work.

5.2Exhibit self-efficacy and self-regulation.


5.3Refine project management skills.
5.4Enhance teamwork capacity.
5.5Develop meaningful professional direction for life after graduation.

A01_CICC5012_04_SE_FM.indd 28

Intro: PIA.1PIA.7
Ch 1: 1.5, 1.19
Ch 4: 4.6
Ch 7: Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Mental and Physical Exercises
Combine for Better Cognitive Health
Ch 9: 9.1, 9.39.4, 9.11 and Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: When
Motivation Is Not Enough
Ch 10: 10.610.9 and Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Becoming More
Optimistic
Ch 11: 11.111.3, 11.811.9
Ch 13: 13.9
Ch 14: Psychology in the News: Mental Health on Campus
Appendix: Applied Psychology and Psychology Careers
Professional development opportunities are reinforced with learning tools:
Writing Space, Experiment Simulations, MyPsychLab Video Series, Operation
ARA, Visual Brain, and instructors teaching and assessment package.

2/14/14 3:51 PM

prefacexxix

development story
Insight and Collaboration
The creation of the Ciccarelli/White Psychology and the components for the various
editions is the result of the most extensive development investment in a textbook
that this discipline has ever experienced. Over 1,000 educators and students have
participated. Over 250 manuscript reviewers provided invaluable feedback. Expert
reviewers contributed to decisions regarding text organization and content coverage
as well as pedagogical innovation. Student reviewers were involved in evaluating the
clarity of the writing style and the value of the in-text learning tools and assessment
featuresyou will see many of these student reviewers in the photos included with
the student voice questions in the text.
For the AP Edition, 4e, we are particularly grateful to reviewers Rachel Rosenbaum
(Kingsborough Community College) and Mary Spilis (AP Psychology Consultant;
Sylvania Public Schools, retired).
We are grateful to all who provided feedback on changes for the AP Edition, 4e,
including:
Jeanne Blakeslee, St. Pauls School for Girls
Alan Feldman, Glen Rock High School
Mike Hamilton, Hopkinton High School
Kent Korek, Germantown High School
Larry Stombaugh, Career Center/Winston-Salem Forsyth Schools

A01_CICC5012_04_SE_FM.indd 29

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xxxpreface

acknowledgments
I have to thank my husband, Joe Ciccarelli, for his love and
support while I spent many long hours writing this textbook.
My children, Al and Liz, also put up with my odd working
hours and frequent trips and deserve my thanks as well.
There are so many people to thank for their support!
Erin Mitchell, Amber Mackey, Dickson Musslewhite, Yolanda
de Rooy, Sarah Henrich, Sharon Geary, Judy Casillo, Linda
Behrens, Sherry Lewis, Barbara Mack, and Lindsay Bethoney
of the editorial team supported and advised methank you all
so much. Ben Ferrini and Brittani Hall got us excellent photos, thanks! Special thanks to Brandy Dawson and Kelly May
for a fantastic marketing campaign.
The design is the collaborative work of Aptara, Blair
Brown, John Christiana, Kathryn Foot, and Mike Molloy.
The great student videos were the efforts of Debbie
Coniglio, Stephanie Ruland, Joshua Paul J ohnson,
and Paul Saulinemarvelous work. Thanks
also to Laura Chadwick, Haydee Hidalgo, and
Peggy Davis for their permissions work, and
Brian Hyland, Tom Scalzo, and Lisa Dotson for
their work on MyPsychLab. A big, heartfelt thank
you to Crystal McCarthy and Kate Cebik, supplement
managers, and my supplement authors Rocky Buckley, Alisa
Diop, John Gambon, Don Lucas, Holly Schofield, Jason
Spiegelman, Jason Warnick, Fred Whitford, and Tomas Yufik.
You are fantastic!
We are grateful to all of the instructors and students who
have contributed to the development of this text and package
over the last four editions. Please see www.pearsonhighered.
com/ciccarelli4einfo for a complete list of those who have reviewed content, participated in focus groups, evaluated learning tools, appeared in videos, and offered their feedback and
assistance in numerous other ways. We thank you.
Special thanks to Julie Swasey, our new development
editor, who fits us like a glove and made the whole process of
editing this edition so much easier. We love you, Julie!
And, of course, I cant forget Noland White, my coauthor, pal, and Grand High Expert. His expertise in neuropsychology and clinical psychology is a valuable resource, and his
revisions of half of the chapters and all of the chapter maps
have once again made this edition a real standout. Thank you
from the bottom of my heart, buddy!
Sandy Ciccarelli
Gulf Coast State College
Panama City, Florida
sandy243@comcast.net

A01_CICC5012_04_SE_FM.indd 30

I would like to personally thank:


My wife and best friend, Leah, and our wonderful children,
S ierra, Alexis, and Landon, thank you for your love and
patience. I would not be able to do any of this without you;
My lead author and collaborator, Sandy Ciccarelli, for
making all of this possibleand for your friendship, support,
assistance, advice, and continuing to be the most amazing
mentor and writing partner I could ever hope to work with!
My students, for your inspiration, encouragement, and
for all of the things you continue to teach me;
The student and faculty users and reviewers of this text,
for your support and ever-helpful comments and suggestions;
My friends and colleagues in the Department of
Psychological Science at Georgia College, for your encouragement, frequent discussions, and feedback, with special thanks
to Lee Gillis, John Lindsay, Walt Isaac, and Greg Jarvie for
your individual input and support along the way;
Julie Swasey and Erin Mitchell, for your guidance, creativity, collaboration, and for being so awesome!
Jessica Mosher and Leah Jewell, for being there in the
beginning and for all that you have done;
Amber Mackey, Stephen Frail, Amber Chow, Brandy
Dawson, Craig Campanella, Nicole Kunzmann, Paul Deluca,
Beth Stoner, and all of the other Pearson and associated staff,
for your contributions and for continuing to make this such a
great experience!
Noland White
Georgia College
Milledgeville, Georgia
noland.white@gcsu.edu

2/14/14 3:51 PM

prefacexxxi

about the authors


Saundra K. Ciccarelli is a Profes-

sor Emeritus of Psychology at Gulf Coast State College in Panama City, Florida. She received her Ph.D.
in Developmental Psychology from George Peabody
College of Vanderbilt University, N
ashville, Tennessee.
She is a member of the American Psychological
Association and the Association for Psychological
Science. Originally interested in a career as a researcher
in the development of language and intelligence in
developmentally delayed children and adolescents,
Dr. Ciccarelli had publications in the American Journal
of Mental Deficiency while still at Peabody. However,
she discovered a love of teaching early on in her
career. This led her to the position at Gulf Coast State
College, where she taught Introductory P
sychology
and Human Development for over 30 years. Her
s tudents loved her enthusiasm for the field of
psychology and the many anecdotes and examples
she used to bring psychology to life for them. Before
w riting this text, Dr. Ciccarelli authored numerous
ancillary materials for several introductory psychology
and human development texts.

A01_CICC5012_04_SE_FM.indd 31

J. Noland White is an Associate Professor

of Psychology at Georgia College, Georgias Public


Liberal Arts University, located in Milledgeville. He
received both his B.S. and M.S. in Psychology from
Georgia College and joined the faculty there in 2001
after receiving his Ph.D. in Counseling Psychology
from the University of Tennessee. He is a licensed
psychologist and has worked primarily with adolescents and adults, in a variety of clinical and community settings. On campus, he teaches Introductory
Psychology, Psychology of Adjustment, Behavioral
Neuroscience, Advanced Behavioral Neuroscience,
Senior Seminar, and a section of
Advanced Research Methods
focusing on psychophysiology. He has an active lab and,
with his students, is investigating the
psychophysiological characteristics and neuropsychological performance of adults with and
without ADHD. Outside of the lab, Dr.White
is engaged in collaborative research examining the effectiveness of incorporating various technologies in and out of the college
classroom to facilitate student learning. He
also serves as a mentor for other faculty
wanting to expand their use of technology
with their classes. In April 2008 he was a
recipient of the Georgia College Excellence
in Teaching Award.

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