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LEED

Green Associate Study Guide

We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors...we borrow it from our children

A Study Resource for


Green Building and LEED Core Concepts
and the LEED Green Associate Exam Process

studio 4

SUSTAINABLEIDEALS

LEED
Green Associate Study Guide
2009 Edition
revised: 15 April, 2010

NOTICE
DISCLAIMER
THIS STUDY GUIDE IS PROVIDED BY Studio4, LLC ON AN AS IS BASIS. Studio4, LLC MAKES
NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED AS TO THE
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OF ANY KIND ARISING FROM THE USE OF THESE MATERIALS INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, AND CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES.
The materials herein are intended to be used as supplemental study materials for preparation of
the LEED Green Associate examination. This study guide should be considered as a supplement
to the study materials as recommended by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) and the
Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI). Studio4, LLC makes no guarantees for passing the
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SUSTAINABLEIDEALS

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| Chapter 1

LEED Green Associate Study Guide


2010 Studio4, LLC All Rights Reserved

Table of Contents
Notice
Disclaimer
Copyright

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CHAPTER | 1
Introductory conversations into sustainable design and construction and the
associated benefits of the roles of the LEED AP and LEED rating sysems

Introduction

About this Study Guide 


Why Bother with LEED Certification?
LEED vs Green
Integrated Design Process

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CHAPTER | 2
An analysis between conventional construction techniques versus green building
strategies and the environmental impacts associated with each

Green Building

The Argument for Building Green


The Sustainable Parts of Green Design
Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Cost
The Integrated Design Approach
The Integrated Process
The Building Program
Credit Interactions
Harvard University Office of Sustainability Green Building Resource
Green Building Costs
Green Building Benefits
Hard Costs
Soft Costs
Life Cycle Costs
Economic Benefits
Health and Community Benefits
Environmental Benefits
ENERGY STAR
Final Thoughts
Terminology to know
Thoughts to keep

Green Associate Study Guide


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CHAPTER | 3
A review of the U.S. Green Building Council, Green Building Certification
Institute, LEED and the processes required for, and associated with, LEED
certification

U.S. Green Building Council

Introduction 
USGBCs Mission
U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) 
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) 
The Triple Bottom Line
Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI)
LEED Green Building Rating Systems
LEED Rating Systems: Project Types and Sustainable Categories
LEED Rating Systems: Summary Overview and Use Guidance
Multiple Certifications
LEED Reference Guides
Rating System Structure
Prerequisite and Credit Structure
LEED 2009
Credit Harmonization
Credit Weightings
Carbon Overlay
Regionalization
Credit Interpretation Request (CIRs)
Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs)
Registration and Certification Process
GBCI
LEED Online
Credit Scorecard
Credit Forms and Calculators
Charrette 
Project Administrator
LEED AP
LEED Certification
Certification Process: General
Certification Process: Overview
Certification Process: Detailed
LEED for Homes
LEED Accreditation
USGBC Portfolio Program
LEED Technical Advisory Group (TAG)

Green Associate Study Guide


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Table of Contents
USGBC/GBCI Logo Policies
Final Thoughts
Terminology to know
Thoughts to keep
Studio4 Office Project: the Program Narrative

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CHAPTER | 4
The sustainable goals of the Sustainable Sites category address the following
areas: site selection; transportation related emission reduction; stormwater
management; heat island reduction; light pollution reduction; protection of
existing habitats and ecosystems

Sustainable Sites (SS)

Credit Matrix
Site Related Boundaries
Building Footprint
Development Footprint
Property Boundary
Project Boundary
LEED Project Boundary
Introduction
Transportation
Site Selection
Site Design and Management
Low Impact Development (LID)
Stormwater Management
Heat Island Effect
Light Pollution Reduction
Development Density and Community Connectivity
Full Time Equivalents (FTEs)
Codes & Referenced Standards
Final Thoughts
Terminology to know
Thoughts to keep
Studio4 Office Project: Sustainable Sites

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CHAPTER | 5
The sustainable goals of the Water Efficiency category address the following
areas: Indoor potable water reduction; outdoor potable water reduction; water
efficiency as a teaching tool

Water Efficiency (WE)

Credit Matrix
Introduction
Water Type Definitions

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Table of Contents
Indoor Potable Water Use Reduction
Outdoor Potable Water Use Reduction
Additional Benefits of Potable Water Use Reduction
Water Efficiency as a Teaching Tool
Water Efficient Strategies
Codes & Referenced Standards
Final Thoughts
Terminology to know
Thoughts to keep
Studio4 Office Project: Water Efficiency

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CHAPTER | 6
The sustainable goals of the Energy and Atmosphere category address the
following areas: reducing energy demand; increasing energy efficiency; building and
building systems commissioning; managing refrigerants; renewable energy; ongoing
energy performance

Energy and Atmosphere (EA)

Credit Matrix
Introduction
Energy Demand
Energy Efficiency
Energy Simulation
Renewable Energy
Ongoing Energy Performance
Building Commissioning
Monitoring and Verification
Managing Refrigerants to Eliminate CFCs
Codes & Referenced Standards
Final Thoughts
Terminology to know
Thoughts to keep
Studio4 Office Project: Energy and Atmosphere

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CHAPTER | 7
The sustainable goals of the Materials and Resources category address the following
areas: sustainable construction and materials selection; waste management

Materials and Resources (MR)

Credit Matrix
Introduction
Sustainable Materials
Construction Waste Reduction
Source Reduction

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Table of Contents
Reuse and Recycling
Waste Management
Calculating Material Costs
Materials and Resources Credit Metrics
Sustainable Material Selection Strategies
Storage and Collection of Recyclables
Building Reuse: Maintain Existing Walls, Floors and Roof
Building Reuse: Maintain Interior Nonstructural Elements
Materials Reuse
Recycled Content
Regional Materials
Rapidly Renewable Materials
Consider purchasing third party certification sustainable products
Life Cycle Impacts
Codes & Referenced Standards
Final Thoughts
Terminology to know
Thoughts to keep
Studio4 Office Project: Materials and Resources

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CHAPTER | 8
The sustainable goals of the Indoor Environmental Quality category address the
following areas: indoor air quality; thermal comfort, lighting and acoustics

Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)

Credit Matrix
Introduction
Ventilation Improvement
Air Contaminant Management
Material Selection Decisions
Occupant Control of Systems
Daylight and Views
Core & Shell (CS)
Schools
Codes & Referenced Standards
Final Thoughts
Terminology to know
Thoughts to keep
Studio4 Office Project: Indoor Environmental Quality

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CHAPTER | 9
The Innovation in Design credit category awards bonus points for projects
that use new and innovative technologies and strategies to improve a buildings
performance and for including a LEED Accredited Professional on the team

Innovation in Design (ID)

Credit Matrix
Introduction
ID Credit 1: Innovation in Design
Innovation in Design (Innovative Performance)
Exemplary Performance
Rating System ID Points
ID Credit 1: Innovation in Design
Path 1: Innovation in Design (Innovative Performance)
Path 2: Exemplary Performance
ID Credit 2: LEED Accredited Professional
ID Credit 3: The School as a Teaching Tool
Studio4 Office Project: Innovation in Design

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CHAPTER | 10
USGBC has identified environmental concerns that are important for every
region of the country and offers bonus points for credits that address those
regional priorities

Regional Priority (RP)

Credit Matrix
Regional Priority Credits
Studio4 Office Project: Regional Priority
Studio4 Office Project: Certification Summary

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CHAPTER | 11
The LEED Green Associate accreditation is for professionals who want to
demonstrate green building expertise in non-technical fields of practice denoting
basic knowledge of green design, construction, and operations

LEED Green Associate Exam

LEED Green Associate Exam


Study Materials
4 Steps for Exam Preparation
Getting Started
Examination Eligibility Requirements
Applying for the Exam
Registration and Scheduling
LEED Green Associate Application and Exam Fees

Green Associate Study Guide


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Testing Rules & Regulations
One Month Before Your Exam
One Week Before Your Exam
The Day of Your Exam
Examination Format
Miscellaneous
Passing the Exam
Failing the Exam
Certificates
Exam Specifications
LEED Credentialing
5 Things Every Candidate Should Know

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CHAPTER | 12
A directory of the seven primary areas of study recommended for preparation of
the Green Associate examination

The Seven Domains

1. Synergistic Opportunities and LEED Application Process


2. Project Site Factors
3. Water Management
4. Project Systems and Energy Impacts
5. Acquisition, Installation, and Management of Project Materials
6. Stakeholder Involvement in Innovation
7. Project Surroundings and Public Outreach

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CHAPTER | 13
Acronyms, abbreviations and definitions that may be unfamiliar or have specific
meanings in the context of sustainability and green building

Acronyms & Glossary of Terms


Acronyms & Abbreviations
Glossary of Terms

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CHAPTER | 14
Green resource links, charts, processes, fees, credit interactions, referenced
standards and miscellaneous support information

Appendix

Green Resources
Websites
Publications
Blogs

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Table of Contents
USGBC & GBCI Organizational Chart
Six Steps to Certification
Project Certification Fees
LEED Rating Systems & Reference Guides
LEED Rating Systems Reference Guides
Project Checklist Sample
Credit Form Sample
Commissioning Process
Commissioning Authority
Tasks and Responsibilities
Referenced Standards
Credit Interactions

Green Associate Study Guide


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ersonal involvement with sustainable ideals


is a noble cause, regardless the philosophical
differences we may have with regard to the issues at
hand and how these issues are best addressed. Being
committed to our sustainable goals in a responsible
manner can deliver a process of educated dialog
that will help safeguard the environment for this
generation and beyond.

CHAPTER | 1

Introduction

About this Study Guide


Commentaries: the Value of LEED
Why Bother with LEED Certification
LEED vs Green
Integrated Design Process
Green Trend Forecasting

SUSTAINABLEIDEALS

Introduction
About this Study Guide
This is a third party study guide and is recommended to be used as a supplement to USGBC and
GBCI materials. It would be nearly impossible for any third party study material to accurately and
completely convey the complete message USGBC promotes relative to green and sustainable
knowledge. As such, those who plan to take any LEED exam are encouraged to purchase
and download materials as recommended by USGBC. Much of this study guide is focused on
information and strategies contained within the Green Associate Candidate Handbook, the
Green Building and Core Concepts Guide and the 2009 LEED Reference Guide for Green Building
Design and Construction, intertwined, however, with many years of design and construction
experience. USGBC has made a commitment to see that the LEED processes and information
highways are frequently updated to meet ever changing demands. Therefore, it becomes
exceedingly important to be connected in order to remain current. Throughout this guide,
including the first page of the Appendix, are links to USGBC and GBCI web sites as well as links
to additional green resource sites. To the extent possible, this study guide uses a bullet format
to frame the intended messages. Throughout this study guide you will see two terms repeated
over and over and over - Integrated design and synergies. These are the two most important
aspects to understanding what makes a sustainable project successful.
To assist in understanding green building and LEEDs relationship with sustainability, a LEED
project has been developed that progressively builds at the end of each sustainable category
chapter. The intent of creating a project from site selection to credit selection is to present a
broad overview of the integrated design approach for achieving credits in order to produce a cost
effective, high performance building. The intent of this project is to relate the sustainable items
discussed in the chapter to a more detailed review of sustainable credits and their requirements
and the process of how they are implemented. The content is beyond that required for the Green
Associate exam and need not be studied in great detail, but read as a source to understand
how LEED is used as a tool for the development of green projects. The Studio4 Office Project
is introduced at the conclusion of the USGBC chapter and continues at the conclusion of each
sustainable category chapter.
Passing the LEED Green Associate exam, Part 1, is also a requirement when continuing forward
toward a Tier II LEED AP with Specialty exam, Part 2.

Commentaries: the Value of LEED


There should be no argument that we must become more educated in our understanding of how
we can make a difference contributing both individually and collectively to the conservation of
our natural resources, while providing more efficient and healthier places to live, work and play.
The following four pages are commentaries in support of the value LEED provides in establishing
benchmarks for achieving sustainable goals through the design and construction of our built
environments.

SUSTAINABLEIDEALS

| Chapter 1

LEED Green Associate Study Guide


2010 Studio4, LLC All Rights Reserved

Introduction
Why Bother with LEED Certification?
Part one: Intrinsic Benefits
Building owners often question the additional time and expense involved with registering a building
for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED (Registered)) certification through the United
States Green Building Council (USGBC), versus just simply including green features in a project. There
are several reasons why owners choose to have their buildings certified through the various LEED Rating
Systems. Some building owners feel that environmentally, it is the right thing to do. Others make the
decision to pursue LEED due to requirements of their own governing body. Still other building owners
pursue a financial incentive offered through their local government or parent organization. Essentially,
there are three general reasons why building owners should seek Certification: commitment, legitimacy,
and marketability.
Commitment. By registering your project with the USGBC you are committing to design and construct
your building to the standards and requirements outlined by the LEED Rating System. Your design
team and your buildings contractor are then committed to integrating those design features to ensure
that your building is more durable, healthy and more energy efficient. Through the rigors of budget,
programming, or other project challenges, these green features will remain because you and your
team decided to produce a building that merits LEED Certification and national recognition for its
sustainability.
Legitimacy. In the face of widespread green washing (i.e.: the attempt by businesses or individuals
to mislead consumers as to the environmental practices of a company or the environmental benefits
of a product or service), LEED Certification tells your peers, clients and customers, that your buildings
sustainable features have been verified by a third party to promote energy conservation, to ensure a
healthier indoor environment and to reduce its impact on the environment. LEED is a consensus-based
system, meaning one that was commented and voted upon by the USGBCs diverse membership. It
ensures that your project team didnt just invent the green requirements on your own or design your
project to some arbitrary definition of sustainability. Instead, thousands of professionals (there are over
100,000 LEED Accredited Professionals within the USGBC) collaborated, discussed and agreed upon
these requirements.
Marketability. A LEED Certified headquarters, branch office, retail location, or elementary school is a strong
marketing tool to show the community that your organization is committed to something greater than
itself. It demonstrates that you were willing to make the extra effort to not only include those features,
but also to have them confirmed - better yet Certified - by a nationally and internationally recognized
leader in the field. The LEED Rating System is a tool that can help create a space that will enhance your
employees, clients, or students everyday environment while reducing operating and maintenance
costs as well as decreasing its impact on the environment. LEED Certification demonstrates how it was
accomplished.

Michael Senger, LEED AP, is a Mechanical Engineer with Heapy Engineering. Involved in over 100 LEED projects
and with +50 LEED Accredited Professional on staff, Heapy Engineering is one of the leading sustainable design
firms in the country. Michael is also a Board Member of the Cincinnati Regional Chapter of the USGBC.
SUSTAINABLEIDEALS
LEED Green Associate Study Guide
2010 Studio4, LLC All Rights Reserved

Chapter 1 |

Introduction
LEED vs Green
Three years ago, my team of graduate engineering students was presenting the energy, environmental,
and economic analysis for the construction of a net-zero energy building. The client patiently listened,
asked questions, and then dictated a verdict... we had the financial green light. Years of analysis, research,
and calculations had paid off.
Next, we assembled a professional design team to take the project from concept to concrete. The house
would have it all: net-zero energy use, a sustainable project site, low water use, and sustainable materials.
The idea of LEED certification was brought up and immediately dismissed by the team. Why would our
building need such a stamp of approval when we knew just how good the design was? No one knew just
how wrong we were. Throughout the various stages of design, our student team lamented as the green
features were removed. Once completed, the building would retain its net-zero energy status, but had
lost all other important green features.
My current projects are larger and more expensive than that small house. But, the values of the lessons
learned during my final years as a graduate student are greater than any that I have learned. I have come
to realize the true value of the LEED rating system as a necessity to truly attain sustainable (green)
design.
During my career, I have seen project teams make 70% of the design decisions while spending just
the first 1% of the design budget. Thus, it becomes a daunting task to retroactively set project goals ...
specifically sustainability goals. The less prominent the goal, the more likely the feature necessary to
attain that goal will fall by the wayside or be value-engineered from the project.
The LEED Rating System is a tool that a design team uses in order to insure that a projects green features
are properly designed, constructed, and accounted for. Human error pervades the construction process.
Examples of such errors include ordering the wrong product, calculation mistakes, or forgetting a step
in a process. The LEED process, by no means ensures a perfect building. However, many portions of
the LEED process act to significantly decrease such errors. One of the most prominent examples is the
Commissioning process, which is a service that all owners will benefit from, regardless of project scope,
size, or cost.
Once the entire project has been completed, the owner asks, What insures that I now own and operate
a green building? If the project has achieved LEED Certification, the team can be certain of their answer.
The entire project team knows which goals have been successfully achieved, how much energy and
water the building should save, and what type of indoor environment has been created for the building
occupants.
A holistic perspective is necessary to grasp the true impact of a third-party rating system such as
LEED. The LEED Rating system has two major components. First, LEED promotes general sustainability
oriented features such as bike racks and daylighting. Second, LEED is a group of best-practice codes
and standards compiled to influence the construction industry. When projects pursue LEED Certification,
the market is driven to provide goods and services that attain the standards that have been chosen.
Each LEED-Certified project strengthens the green building movement, pushes for products that are less
impactful on people and the environment, and enables property owners to truly know just how green
their building is.

Greg Raffio, LEED AP, is with Heapy Engineering


SUSTAINABLEIDEALS

| Chapter 1

LEED Green Associate Study Guide


2010 Studio4, LLC All Rights Reserved

Introduction
Integrated Design Process
The built and natural environments are inextricably and vitally linked. To create a high performance /
sustainable facility, a collaborative design approach is essential for a successful outcome. The Integrated
Design Process fosters knowledge-sharing among significant stakeholders during the development of a
holistic design and leads to increased project value.
These stakeholders should be comprised of the owner group, key users, facilities directors, programmers,
real estate managers, architects, commissioning agents, civil engineers, planners, mechanical engineers,
interior designers, structural engineers, construction managers, electrical engineers, plumbing designers,
landscape architects, and / or key specialty consultants. The General Contractor and / or the Construction
Manager should also be included in this process to encourage the sharing of cost, scheduling and
construction knowledge. This will also familiarize the contractor with the construction intent resulting in
a more accurate bid and more efficient construction period.
During the traditional approach, design and construction professionals work somewhat independently
on their respective area of expertise. One of two things can happen when consultants are added to the
design process midstream. The new team member shares expertise that changes the project late in the
process, requiring more time, effort and money to back track; or more commonly, the team decides
not to pursue the new approach. In either case, the project and the owner suffer a consequence. Value
Engineering during design and construction becomes the norm, which leads to value loss.
The Integrated Design Process deviates from this traditional approach as it leverages the collective
expertise as early as the pre-design phase, where the highest potentials and greatest values are realized.
Value engineering tends to generate project cuts, which successfully lessen the construction costs, but
usually lessen the true value. The Integrated Design Process is vital to a successful work process, which
can lessen the damages of value engineering.
By bringing all the stakeholders to the design process early, intensive analysis and in-depth investigations
can discover complementary and innovative project goals and design strategies when change costs less.
This Integrated Design Team establishes project goals together while engaging in a productive exchange
of ideas. The team understands, applies and tests these goals throughout the design process.
Stakeholders share their knowledge in multi-day charrette (brainstorming) formats; trade-offs and
connections are recognized. Problems are reframed and better solutions are generated by creating an
innovative and collaborative environment where each opinion matters. The entire team establishes and
meets the project goals, objectives and major solutions. These charrettes frequently become rather lively
and informal without jurisdiction. They are investigatory by nature, thoughtfully critiqued and leverage
the expertise and resources of the team. Connections are made that typically are not immediately
understood, such as how paint color impacts the mechanical load or how building orientation affects
human productivity. Sometimes the most effective solutions have the lowest construction cost
implications and might be undiscovered in a traditional design process.
By utilizing the Integrated Design Process, deep curiosity, thorough analysis and strategic, technical
problem solving prevail, leading to a more comprehensive, cost effective and sustainable facility.

Chad Edwards, RA, LEED AP, is an Associate at Emersion Design and serves on the USGBC Cincinnati Regional
Chapter Board of Directors.
SUSTAINABLEIDEALS
LEED Green Associate Study Guide
2010 Studio4, LLC All Rights Reserved

Chapter 1 |

Annually, buildings account for 39% of the total


energy used and 72% of the electricity consumed in
the U.S. Each day 5 billion gallons of potable water
are used to flush toilets. Green building practices
can substantially reduce negative environmental
impacts through high performance, market leading
design, construction and operations practices.
Green operations and management reduces
operating costs and increases workers productivity
by improving indoor air quality.

CHAPTER | 2
Green Building

The Argument for Building Green


The Sustainable Parts of Green Design
Life Cycle Assessment & Life Cycle Cost
The Integrated Design
The Integrated Process
The Building Program
Credit Interactions
Harvard University
Green Building Costs
Green Building Benefits
ENERGY STAR
Final Thoughts

SUSTAINABLEIDEALS

Green Building
The Argument for Building Green
When working on a LEED project, there are many decisions that will need to be made which
transcend conventional wisdom with respect to our thinking, designing and developing the actual
built product. Understanding the basic tenets of green building is paramount to progressing a
successful sustainable project. Conventional building methods should be generally regarded as
unfriendly assaults on the environment, our natural resources and our quality of life.
The design, construction and operation of conventional buildings:
Pre design
Lack of project team communication and coordination
Lack of sustainable support for site selection and building orientation/location
Lack of focus as a responsible member of the community
Poor stewardship of site during development
Loss of topsoil
Disregard for existing habitat and ecosystems
Lack of coordinated construction parking and material delivery storage areas
Project design
Excessive carbon dioxide emissions
Excessive use of energy and electricity
Excessive use of potable water
Excessive burden on our raw material resources
Poor indoor environmental quality
Construction practices
Poor waste management
Lack of sufficient building moisture protection
As such, conventional buildings account for:
14% of potable water consumption
30% of waste output
38% of carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions
40% of raw material use
39% of energy use
72% of electrical consumption
By definition, sustainability is the ability of the current generation to meet its own needs without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. With the projected population
and construction growth, coupled with the vast amount of resources that our buildings consume,
we are going to have to get a lot smarter about how we build.
SUSTAINABLEIDEALS
LEED Green Associate Study Guide
2010 Studio4, LLC All Rights Reserved

Chapter 2 |

Green Building
Through a coordinated team effort and intelligent, educated design decisions, the goal of
sustainable design, or green design, is to create high performance buildings that reduces
life cycle costs, reduces environmental impacts related to infrastructure, increases employee
productivity and increases the efficiency of building operations. Federal, state and local
governments are adopting more sustainable building practices. Government agencies, utility
companies and manufacturers increasingly offer financial incentives to developers and owners
to enhance the environmental performance of their buildings.
A GSA survey of 12 green buildings revealed the following savings and Improvements:
13% reduced maintenance costs
26% reduced energy usage
27% increased levels of occupant satisfaction
33% reduced carbon dioxide emissions
Additionally
sustainable green buildings successfully addresses the aforementioned concerns related to
conventional design and construction practices
As LEED continues to grow in acceptance and projects get on board for certification,
building codes are being rewritten to incorporate more sustainable mandates

The Sustainable Parts of Green Design


USGBC defines green building as the integrated effort of transforming the way built environments
are designed, constructed and operated and encourages involvement from early planning to
beyond the end of a structures life. Incorporating a holistic, or whole building, approach to the
design and construction, green building produces high performance by focusing on sustainable
categories as defined by LEED. With an integrated and holistic approach, the interaction, or
synergies and trade-offs, between construction strategies is managed to maximize performance
results. LEED channels green design through five sustainable categories as determined by the
environmental issues being addressed.
The five sustainable categories of LEED (except LEED for Homes and LEED for Neighborhood
Development) plus the two categories for ID and RP:
Sustainable Sites (SS)
Water Efficiency (WE)
Energy and Atmosphere (EA)
Materials and Resources (MR)
Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
Innovation in Design (ID)
Regional Priority (RP)

SUSTAINABLEIDEALS

| Chapter 2

LEED Green Associate Study Guide


2010 Studio4, LLC All Rights Reserved

Green Building
Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Cost
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a cradle-to-grave analysis that examines the building along with its
materials and components. From their extraction, manufacture and transport, to their use, reuse,
recycling and assumed disposal, the process of life cycle assessment minimizes the negative
impacts on people and the environment. LCA is essential to sustainable design!
Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis assesses the total cost of ownership, taking into account all costs
related to design and construction, ownership, operations and the eventual disposal of a building
and its parts. By definition, sustainable design requires an analysis of a building over its entire life
and life cycle cost analysis identifies which high performance building systems will save money
over the life of the building. For example: Product A may cost less and have a life expectancy of
5 years whereas Product B may cost a little more but have a life expectancy of 15 years, making
Product B a better choice due to it having a better life cycle cost.
Life Cycle Costs include:
Initial project design and construction costs - cradle
Building operating costs
Building maintenance, repair and replacement costs
Building salvage value at the end its life - grave
Value Engineering (VE ), when considering sustainability, can be defined as a ratio of function to
cost, with the goal of improving performance, quality and life cycle cost. Conventionally however,
value engineering is used as a cost cutting exercise, often late in the process, when costs need to
be cut from the budget, for whatever reason. When components are VEd out of the project late,
the project and the owner suffer a consequence. Value engineering tends to generate project
cuts, which successfully lessen the construction costs, but usually lessen the true value. However,
when using an integrated design process, considering value engineering with the life cycle cost
of a building will reflect the efficiency of a building long after it is built and occupied.

The Integrated Design Approach


Any design process should begin by establishing parameters that define the goals of a project.
These parameters are then transformed into rough visual representations, referred to as schematic
designs. Schematic designs then become the theme that is used as the base for developing the
final design/engineering that is eventually incorporated into the construction documents.
Architects, engineers, contractors and other stake holders traditionally work separately of each
other, with minimal coordination and communication between the team members. This type of
segregated design and limited communication restricts integration and subsequent synergistic
opportunities, often leading to under or over designed systems.
In an integrated design approach, all stakeholders are brought into the project at the onset to
discuss the project goals and requirements. At several checkpoints during the design process,
reviews are conducted to verify that the owners requirements and goals are being met.
Integrated design allows the stakeholders and design team to coordinate the design process so
that each member is aware of all decisions made. This is critical as most decisions made relative
to one discipline will have an affect on other disciplines. For instance, if the owner decides to
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Green Building
omit day lighting controls, this decision will most likely cause a change to the buildings heat
gain, requiring additional cooling capacity while also increasing the electrical loads and energy
consumption. Integrated and holistic design and understanding synergies are essential to
meeting the sustainable goals of a green building. All interested parties must be gathered early,
communicate often and coordinate their efforts collectively to ensure success.

The Integrated Process


The success of the integrated design process is dependant upon the makeup of the project team
and its early integration into the project. For a typical sustainable project, the team members
and their responsibilities would include:
Project Owner: defines the parameters of the project and often participates in the selection
of the project team
LEED AP: optional member of the Project Team but can play an essential role in ensuring a
successful sustainable project
Design Team:
Architect: design of the building and often coordinates the Design Team
Civil Engineer: design of the site development plan and related strategies such as storm
water management; often, civil engineering firms have Landscape Architects on staff
Mechanical/Electrical/Plumbing (MEP) Engineers: design of the buildings mechanical
systems such as HVAC, Plumbing, Electrical and Lighting, system controls
General Contractor/Contractor: construction related activities
Commissioning Authority: oversees the commissioning process to ensure compliance
with the construction documents
Facilities/Maintenance Staff: oversees and maintains the building after occupancy and
should be a participant in the integrated design process
Building Occupants: users of the building
Another important process is the development of a timeline for design and construction phase
activities:
Predesign: Information gathering and establishing goals (charrette)
Design:
Schematic Design (SD): prepare design options to establish project layout and scope
Design Development (DD): refinement of preliminary spaces and begin design of the
buildings energy systems
Construction Documents (CD): completed detailed documents ready for permitting
Bidding: CDs sent for bids and subsequent award of contracts to prepare for construction
Construction: the processes involved with construction from beginning until occupancy
Substantial Completion: construction has been completed and could be occupied
Final Completion: all construction activities completed
Certificate of Occupancy: legal authorization by local building officials that project
conforms to applicable codes
Occupancy: buildings can only be legally occupied after the Certificate of Occupancy has
been issued.
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The Building Program
The Project Teams building program should include: the physical constraints of the project;
general room by room description; the projects environmental vision and goals and its design
criteria and priorities; criteria for energy efficiency, indoor air quality, materials selection, waste
and demolition recycling as well as other green requirements; consideration of the local cultural
and climatic factors including ease of pedestrian and mass transit access; budget; schedule

Credit Interactions
One of the most critical aspects of a successful green project strategy is to understand the
credit interactions, or synergies, that may develop when a credit is being considered. It would
be difficult, at best, to recognize all the behind-the-scenes interactions taking place without
developing an integrated project team. How one credit impacts other areas can have both
positive, synergies, and negative, trade-offs, implications. A good project team will consider the
fact that every decision they make will have, to some degree, an impact somewhere along the
chain. Recognizing the importance of understanding synergies and trade-offs is just simply
being a responsible professional.
An argument can be made that every action has an opposite and equal reaction. Certainly,
every action has some degree of reaction and the importance here is, first, to recognizing these
reactions and, second, analyzing the overall impact to the project as a whole. One of the simpler
examples to use would be the issues related with cool roofs. Obviously a cool roof with a lighter
color will be of great value in a hot environment such as Florida. The roof would reflect much of
the suns energy - allowing the building to be cooler - requiring less cooling - reducing the size of
required HVAC equipment - resulting in less energy consumption. Great! This is what were striving
for. Now take that cool roof to the upper limits of Michigan. The absolute same reactions but
NOT what we want in a colder climate. Cooler buildings equate to increased heating - requiring
additional energy. This example, obviously, plays to the extreme side of the issues, but what
about that cool roof somewhere in the middle of the country in a more moderate climate zone.
Some decisions will be, as they say, no brainers. However, many will require a careful analysis into
the pros and cons. This is why an integrated project team is important.
The Appendix has several charts listing all credits and their potential for interacting with other
credits. Reviewing these credit interactions and understanding just the basics of synergies and
trade-offs is important to understanding green LEED.

Harvard University Office of Sustainability Green Building Resource


The Harvard University Office of Sustainability Green Building Resource website is a treasure
cove of information about sustainability. From Green Building Guidelines, the Integrated Design
Approach, Implementation Tools, Credit-by-Credit LEED Roadmap, Energy Modeling, Life Cycle
Costing, Case Studies and more, few sources offer or share more than Harvard does with their
LEED projects.
The Integrated Design Approach is so critical to the success of sustainable projects that Harvard
offers the Integrated Design Checklist, Integrated Design 101 (10 page summary analysis) and
Roadmap for the Integrated Design Process (114 page Summary Guide and Reference Manual).
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The following, taken from Harvards website, is a partial checklist of salient items relative to the
Integrated Design Approach and is well worth promoting in this guide.
If it is important, ask for it: Include integrated design, sustainability, occupant education &
LEED goals in RFP language, interview questions, and Owners Project Requirements.
Evaluate program needs: Work with building occupants and project team to assess an actual
building program with space needs, and consider opportunities to share resources through
adjacencies and providing communal amenities. By better understanding actual program
needs, team members are more likely to work towards a common goal and create a successful
project.
Establish measures for success: Set measurable sustainability targets for energy, water,
daylight, etc. and require reporting on progress towards goals as part of all design submissions.
For successful designs, consider financial incentives such as passing on tax credits or sharing
energy savings or coming in under GMP.
Take advantage of available expertise: Include design charrettes in Concept and Schematic
Design that include representatives from all major stakeholders including members of the
owners team, design team, construction team, and possibly vendors team. See HGCI sample
agendas.
Ask why: Question decisions made during building design and construction that were done
based on rules of thumb or business as usual. Project teams should be prepared to look to
alternatives to common strategies and develop solutions appropriate for their specific project.
Each project is unique and technologies are constantly changing, so very few decisions should
be taken for granted.
Model alternative building systems: Include energy modeling in Concept, Schematic, &
Design Development with multiple parametric runs to evaluate major design decisions.
Design for operations and maintenance: Identify & include operations representative in
charrettes, design meetings, and construction meetings. Provide comprehensive preventive
maintenance plan and ensure effective training of operations and maintenance staff.
Commission throughout project: Engage a commissioning agent in Schematic Design and
include thorough verification of building performance and plans for continuous commissioning
throughout buildings life.
Consider life cycle costs: Identify Life Cycle Costing requirements early in design prior to
selecting systems and require LCC results before making major design decisions. Utilize life
cycle costs when evaluating systems rather than strictly first costs.
Consider alternative funding mechanisms: Make project team aware of local utility rebates,
state and federal grant programs, power purchasing agreements and performance contracts
and take advantage of these programs as appropriate. If the team is made aware of these
opportunities early in the design process, they are more likely to suggest strategies to pursue
these monies.

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Green Building
Meter and verify performance: Identify measurement and verification requirements for the
project and include operations staff and controls vendor in design process.
Utilize lessons learned: Provide project team with access to and training for the High
Performance Building Resource. Throughout the project, collect and share documentation
including energy model files, LCC results, evaluation of consultants and contractors, and success
stories.

Green Building Costs


The general belief that green buildings add costs to new construction projects is often
misunderstood. With a basic LEED certified building, it is possible to design and construct green
buildings at little or no additional cost. Although some studies show as little as a 2% cost increase
for green building projects, the cost differential rises commensurate with the level of certification
being sought. The more greenness a project seeks, the higher the resultant project costs.
Numerous options are available to eliminate or minimize extra costs for green buildings. In many
regions, state, local and utility company incentives are available to cover costs associated with
green design services or reducing the cost of specific energy efficiency and renewable energy
technologies and products. Importantly, by incorporating a holistic design approach that takes
advantage of the interaction of building systems by optimizing systems, other systems can
shrink or be eliminated, offsetting the optimization costs. Also, some LEED credits may address
strategies already written into local codes.
In every type of construction project, regardless if they are conventional or sustainable, there are
2 basic types of costs related to the project: the projects hard costs and soft costs. With LEED,
a third cost element, life cycle costs, are used for the purposes of factoring into the analysis the
true value of a building over its lifetime.
Hard Costs: costs for expenditures related to the actual construction phases of the project such
as sitework, concrete, masonry, roofing, interior finishes such as carpet and painting, mechanical
systems, etc. In general, these are the costs paid to the general contractor, subcontractors or
material suppliers for direct construction related activities and materials.
Soft Costs: typically costs for services outside the realm of what is done on the construction
site. Including, but not limited to, architectural and engineering fees, permit fees, legal and real
estate fees, interest paid for the cost of doing the project, insurance, closing costs, etc.
Life Cycle Costs: cradle to grave costs that go beyond the initial construction costs to include
operation and maintenance of the building after occupancy, demolition costs and reuse value
at the end of the buildings life.

Green Building Benefits


Green buildings save energy, use less water, generate less waste and provide higher levels
of indoor quality and comfort over conventional design and construction practices. Studies
conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found that Americans spend, on
average, 90% of their time indoors where pollutant levels can be 2 to 100 times higher than
outdoor levels. Green buildings provide higher levels of occupant satisfaction with regards to air
quality and lighting, where studies indicate significant gains with occupant productivity.
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Economic Benefits



Reduce operating costs


Enhance asset value and profits
Improve employee satisfaction and productivity
Optimize life cycle economic performance

Health and Community Benefits





Improve air, thermal and acoustic environments


Enhance occupant comfort and health
Minimize strain on local infrastructure
Contribute to overall quality of life

Environmental Benefits



Enhance and protect ecosystems and biodiversity


Improve air and water quality
Reduce solid waste
Conserve natural resources

ENERGY STAR
From the EPA ENERGY STAR website:
What is the difference between LEED and ENERGY STAR?
ENERGY STAR is a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) program that focuses on improving
energy performance in buildings as a method of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. ENERGY
STAR is a technical assistance and recognition program that offers owners and managers of all
buildings access to free tools and resources to help them evaluate their energy performance
and reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Organizations are encouraged to begin
by benchmarking the performance of their buildings using ENERGY STARs Portfolio Manager
online energy tracking tool. For certain types of buildings that perform in the top 25% compared
to their peers nationwide, the ENERGY STAR label is available as an indicator of superior energy
performance. Buildings carrying the ENERGY STAR label consume on average about 35% less
energy than their non-ENERGY STAR counterparts.
LEED is a building certification process that looks at various aspects of green building and
awards recognition to buildings that meet certain standards. Users of the LEED process earn
credits in several categories associated with green buildings. These differ by the type of LEED
certification, but generally include: sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy & atmosphere,
materials & resources, indoor environmental quality, and innovation. While each category may
have required prerequisites that must be met, for the bulk of the credits required for certification
users can choose in which categories they wish to focus based on their own priorities.
ENERGY STAR also provides labeling for home appliances, electronics, cooling and heating
equipment and for homes as an indication that the item has met certain energy efficiencies.
EPA ENERGY STAR website:
http://energystar.custhelp.com/cgi-bin/energystar.cfg/php/enduser/std_adp.php?p_faqid=4908
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Final Thoughts

Terminology to know
Refer to Acronyms and Glossary of Terms chapter





Hard Costs
Integrated Design Team
Life Cycle Assessment
Life Cycle Costs
Soft Costs
Sustainability

Thoughts to keep
Conventional buildings account for:





14% of potable water consumption


30% of waste output
38% of carbon dioxide emissions
39% of energy use
40% of raw material use
72% of electrical consumption

Energy usage in commercial buildings (EPA, September 2008):











1% office equipment
3% personal computers
3% cooking
6% refrigeration
7% ventilation
7% cooling
8% water heating
9% other
20% lighting
38% space heating

Green building performance:


13% lower maintenance costs
26% less energy usage
27% higher levels of occupant satisfaction
33% lower carbon dioxide emissions
Green Building Benefits:
Economic
Health & Community
Environmental
Green buildings cost approximately 2% more than conventional buildings
Americans spend 90% of their time indoors where pollutant levels are higher than outdoor
levels
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A holistic approach considers the analysis of the sum of a buildings parts as opposed to the
separation of these parts
The integrated design/build approach binds the individual members of the team into one
homogenous entity that collaborates as one unit
ENERGY STAR can be used to compare performance of multiple buildings
Life Cycle Assessment = LCA = Environment and People
Life Cycle Cost = LCC = Economics
Design/Construction process:
Predesign
Design:
Schematic Design (SD)
Development Design (DD)
Construction Documents (CD)
Bid
Construct
Occupy
The five categories of LEED (except LEED for Homes and LEED for ND):
Sustainable Sites (SS)
Water Efficiency (WE)
Energy and Atmosphere (EA)
Materials and Resources (MR)
Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
Innovation in Design (ID)
Regional Priority (RP)

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he U.S. Green Building Council promotes


sustainability in how the buildings of today are
designed, built and operated through an integrated
and holistic approach. USGBC developed the
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
(LEED) Rating Systems and Greenbuild. LEED is a
comprehensive system of five interrelated standards
covering all aspects of the development and
construction process. Greenbuild is a green building
conference that promotes the green building
industry, including environmentally responsible
materials, sustainable architecture, techniques and
public policy.

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Introduction
USGBC, LEED and GBCI
LEED Green Building Rating Systems
Harmonization, Weightings & Carbon Overlay
CIRs & MPRs
Registration and Certification Process
Prerequisite and Credit Structure
Submittal Review
LEED for Homes
LEED Accredidation
USGBC Portfolio Program
LEED Technical Advisory Group
USGBC/GBCI Logo Policies
Final Thoughts
Studio4 Project: the Program Narrative

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Introduction
Sustainability in this country, and many other countries throughout the world, is benchmarked
by Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). LEED defines both the accredited
professionals who work in the sustainable field and the degree of sustainability of certified
constructed projects. As such, there are two parts to the LEED environment.
One part is the accreditation of professionals who possess knowledge in the field of sustainability.
There are three levels, or tiers, of accreditation based on the degree of green knowledge. Tier I
is the LEED Green Associate who demonstrates a basic knowledge and skill in practicing green
design, construction and development. Tier II is the LEED Accredited Professional with Specialty
for those who have an extraordinary depth of knowledge in green building practices and
specialization in a specific field. These professionals are designated as LEED AP +, where the +
marker indicates the designation for the area of specialization, such as LEED AP (BD&C), whereas
BD&C indicates Building Design and Construction. The top level is Tier III and is reserved for the
LEED AP Fellow, is currently under development and will distinguish an elite class of leading
professionals.
Although there is currently no requirement for having a LEED Accredited Professional affiliated
with a project seeking certification, it cannot be overstated the value of a LEED AP in a responsible
position on the project to help safeguard and direct the efforts to achieve project certification.
The second part of LEED is the certification of sustainable projects as defined by the various
LEED rating systems. Certification is awarded based on the degree of sustainability for the
rating system of the project team. LEED covers a broad spectrum of building types and has
pilot programs for the development of additional rating systems. The LEED New Construction
and Major Renovations rating system defines certain types of newly constructed projects and
includes major renovations. LEED for Homes is specific for residential projects, LEED Schools
covers schools meeting certain criteria, and so on. For each rating system, there are various levels
of certification awarded as determined by the amount of green credit points achieved.
A third component to this process is the Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI). GBCI
performs two basic functions. The first is the development and administration of the accreditation
examinations for people seeking to become a LEED Accredited Professional. The second
responsibility of GBCI is managing the LEED project certification process in its entirety.
USGBC: Develops LEED Green Building Rating Systems; Provides and develops LEED based
eduction and research projects
GBCI: Provides third party LEED professional credentials; Provides third party LEED project
certification
NOTE: Understanding the processes required to obtain LEED accreditation and certification are critical
to advancing sustainability because these processes form the structural foundation for all that ensures
successful environmental stewardship. As such, some content in this chapter was taken directly from
the USGBC and GBCI websites and put together in an effort to develop a cohesive, linear description
and progression of the processes. Links to USGBC/GCBI websites are provided for access to relative
content. It is imperative that these websites be reviewed for complete and current information.
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USGBCs Mission

To transform the way buildings and communities are designed, built and operated, enabling an
environmentally and socially responsible, healthy and prosperous environment that improves the
quality of life

U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)

The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization formed in 1993
whose members represent companies and organizations across the industry and include building
owners and users, real estate developers, facility managers, architects, designers, engineers,
general contractors, subcontractors, product and building system manufacturers, government
agencies, nonprofits. USGBC:
Committee based; Member driven; Consensus focused
Provides tools and expertise; Builds community; Provides forums for industry dialog;
Educates the industry and the public; Stewards market transformation.

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)

LEED is an acronym for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design and was formed by
USGBC as a third party certification program to provide definitions to, and measurements
of, green buildings. LEED promotes a holistic, whole building approach to sustainability by
recognizing performance in location and planning, sustainable site development, water savings,
energy efficiency, materials selection, indoor environmental quality, innovative strategies and
regional priority issues.

The Triple Bottom Line

Nearly every LEED sustainable strategy should be analyzed by how it measures to LEEDs adoption
of the Triple Bottom Line. The triple bottom line, with regards to sustainability, establishes a
measurement to recognize performance in three areas:
Economic Prosperity: impact on a corporations bottom line
Social Responsibility: impact of a persons happiness, health and productivity
Environmental Stewardship: impact on air, water, land and global climate
Another way to look at TBL: People, Planet, Profit

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Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI)
The Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI) was established in 2008 with the support of
the U.S. Green Building Council to independently administer credentialing programs related to
green building practices.
GBCI manages all aspects of the LEED Professional Accreditation program, including examination.
GBCI also oversees the development and implementation of a credential maintenance program
(CMP) for LEED APs.
USGBC handles the development of the LEED Rating Systems while GBCI administers all LEED
project certification.

LEED Green Building Rating Systems

LEED Rating Systems: Project Types and Sustainable Categories


The LEED Rating System is a versatile tool for design and construction professionals that evaluates
green buildings and neighborhoods and applies to new and existing institutional, commercial
and residential buildings.
LEED Rating Systems:
LEED for New Construction and Major Renovations (NC)
LEED for Core & Shell (CS)
LEED for Commercial Interiors (CI)
LEED for Schools
LEED for Healthcare
LEED for Retail
LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance (EB O&M)
LEED for Homes
LEED for Neighborhood Development (ND)
Green building categories within each rating system:
Sustainable Sites (SS)
Water Efficiency (WE)
Energy and Atmosphere (EA)
Materials and Resources (MR)
Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
Innovation in Design (ID); Innovation in Operation (IO)
Regional Priority (RP)
Additionally, the following categories are specific to the rating system noted:
Location and Linkages (LL): LEED for Homes
Awareness and Education (AE): LEED for Homes
Smart Location and Linkages: LEED for Neighborhood Development (ND)
Neighborhood Pattern and Design: LEED for Neighborhood Development (ND)
Green Infrastructure and Buildings: LEED for Neighborhood Development (ND)
Refer USGBC for current information and free download copies of all LEED Rating Systems:
http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=222
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LEED Rating Systems: Summary Overview and Use Guidance
LEED for New Construction and Major Renovations (NC)
New Buildings and Major Renovations
New Buildings
Offices, institutional buildings (libraries, museums, churches, etc.), hotels, and
residential buildings of 4 or more habitable stories
Major Renovations
Major HVAC replacement or modifications
Building core (major mechanical systems) & shell (building envelope and structural)
renovation
Owner must occupy greater than 50% of leasable space
LEED for Core & Shell (CS)
Developer controls core (major mechanical systems) & shell (building envelope and
structural) but not leasable tenant spaces
Commercial office buildings, medical office buildings, retail centers, warehouses,
institutional buildings and laboratory facilities
Developer has no control over the design and construction of the tenant build-out
Due to uncertainties associated with speculative Core & Shell projects, LEED CS offers
guidance and procedures such as default occupancy counts, C&S Project Scope, etc.
Owner must occupy 50% or less of leasable area
LEED for Commercial Interiors (CI)
Tenant spaces primarily in office, retail, and institutional buildings
Tenant spaces that do not occupy the entire building
Supplements LEED Core & Shell projects
LEED for Schools
Must be used for the construction or major renovation of an academic building on K12
school grounds
Other projects on a school campus may qualify under 2 or more LEED rating system
project scopes
Nonacademic buildings on a school campus, such as administrative offices, dormitories
or maintenance facilities are eligible for either LEED for New Construction or LEED for
Schools
Projects involving postsecondary academic buildings or prekindergarten buildings may
also choose to use either LEED for New Construction or LEED for Schools
LEED for Healthcare
Developed to meet the unique needs of the health care market
Inpatient care facilities, licensed outpatient care facilities, and licensed long term care
facilities, medical offices, assisted living facilities and medical education & research
centers.
Addresses increased sensitivity to chemicals and pollutants, traveling distances from
parking facilities, access to natural spaces and other environmental issues
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LEED for Retail
Recognizes the unique nature of the retail environment and addresses the different types of
spaces that retailers need for their distinctive product lines
LEED for Retail: New Construction allows for the whole building certification of free
standing retail buildings
LEED for Retail: Commercial Interiors permits tenants to certify their tenant build-out and
finish without responsibility of the building envelope
Existing freestanding retailers can use LEED for Existing Buildings: O&M
LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance (EB O&M)
For the ongoing operations and maintenance of existing commercial and institutional
buildings and residential buildings of 4 or more habitable stories
Solves building problems and improves building performance; maintain and improve
this performance over time
Reduces cost streams associated with building operations, reduces environmental
impacts, creates healthier and more productive employee workspaces
Encourages owners and operators of existing buildings to implement sustainable
practices and reduce the environmental impacts of their building over their functional
life cycles
Certifies the operations and maintenance of the building and creates a plan for ensuring
high performance over time
Institutionalizes a process of reporting, inspection and review over the lifespan of the
building
Applies to only single, whole buildings; if more than one building is on the same property,
each must certify; individual tenant spaces are not eligible
LEED for Homes
Promotes the design and construction of single family and small multifamily homes
Must be 3 stories or less. 4 stories and above may use LEED NC or the LEED for Homes
Mulit-Rise Pilot rating systems
Must provide permanent provisions for living, sleeping, cooking/eating and bathroom.
LEED for Neighborhood Development (ND)
The first national standard for neighborhood design and mixed use communities
Certifies development performance with regards to smart growth, urbanism and green
buildings
Regulates land use planning of an entire neighborhood: buildings, infrastructure, street
design and open space
Promotes development in areas of existing infrastructure and alternative transportation
Designed for new development, but applicable to redevelopment of existing areas
As with all LEED rating systems, LEED ND promotes the protection and enhancement of
the environment, health and quality of life
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Multiple Certifications
Certain building types can achieve multiple rating systems:
Buildings certified under the NC, CS or Schools may also be certified under EB O&M
Buildings certified under CS may also be certified under CI
LEED Neighborhood Development may earn additional points for construction or retrofit
of certified buildings which are part of the development
LEED Reference Guides
LEED 2009 Reference Guides include detailed information on the process for achieving LEED
certification, detailed credit and prerequisite information, resources and standards for the
LEED 2009 rating systems and all other requirements as outlined in the Prerequisite and Credit
Structure section of this chapter. Refer to the Appendix for details of LEED Reference Guides and
their respective LEED Rating Systems
Rating System Structure
The LEED Green Building Rating Systems are comprised of categories, each of which contains
prerequisite and credit green building strategies.
Prerequisites: Each sustainable category in a LEED rating system contains one or more prerequisite
requirements. Although structured much the same as credits, prerequisites differ from credits in
that achievement of each and every prerequisite within the rating system is mandatory for project
certification. Failure to meet any prerequisite will render a project ineligible for certification.
Additionally, prerequisites earn no points.
Credits: Each sustainable category in a LEED rating system contains numerous credits that
represent sustainable elements that collectively create a particular category. Credits are nonmandatory and are selected for a variety of reasons as deemed by the Project Team. However,
in addition to the mandated prerequisites, certification requires achievement of a minimum
number of credit points. Each credit is associated with a specific number of points and projects
must be awarded a minimum number of points to achieve a particular level of certification, such
as Certified, Silver, Gold or Platinum.
All LEED Rating Systems, except LEED for Homes, have 100 base points plus 6 Innovation in
Design points and 4 Regional Priority bonus points, for a total of 110 points. LEED for Homes is
based on a 125 point scale plus 11 Innovation in Design points. Projects, except LEED for Homes,
achieve certification if they earn points according to the following levels:
Certified: 40 - 49 points
Silver: 50 - 59 points
Gold: 60 - 79 points
Platinum: 80+ points

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Prerequisite and Credit Structure
Every LEED prerequisite and credit will have one or more requirements that must be met in order
to be in compliance. The first section of every prerequisite or credit summarizes the Intent, or
goals, of the credit and the Requirements, or methods, strategies and/or standards required to
achieve compliance for that prerequisite or credit. The content structure of all LEED prerequisites
and credits is as follows:
Intents:
Describes the sustainability goal
Requirements
Describes the path, or paths, that must be met for prerequisite or credit compliance.
The remainder of each prerequisite/credit section contains the following 13 components:
1. Benefits and Issues to Consider
Describes the environmental damage that is being mitigated and economic considerations
offered by the prerequisite or credit
2. Related Credits
Other credits that may be affected through synergies or tradeoffs
3. Summary of Referenced Standards
Standards, such as ASHRAE, ASTM and EPA that may be used as a requirement to achieve
prerequisite or credit compliance
For some prerequisites and credits, LEED will allow federal, state and or local laws or
codes to over rule if they are more strict.
Not all prerequisites and credits require a referenced standard
4. Implementation
Methods and strategies that can be used to achieve prerequisite or credit compliance
5. Timeline and Team
Team members involved with achieving prerequisite or credit compliance, when this
task should occur and if the prerequisite/credit can be a design or construction phase
submittal
6. Calculations
Lists formulas and calculations, if required, to achieve prerequisite or credit compliance
7. Documentation Guidance
This important section lists and explains what documents are required to be uploaded
to LEED Online demonstrating compliance and the declarant responsible for signing off
on the prerequisite or credit
8. Examples
Some prerequisites and credits have examples to demonstrate how compliance can be
achieved

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9. Exemplary Performance
Many credits can earn additional points for exceeding the minimum credit performance.
No prerequisites offer Exemplary Performance points
10. Regional Variations
LEED recognizes regional differences by offering bonus points based on the zipcode
identification of environmentally important credits
11. Operations and Maintenance Considerations
Methods and strategies for operational and maintenance procedures
12. Resources
Websites and print media that can offer additional relevant information beneficial to
achieving prerequisite or credit compliance
13. Definitions
Definitions for terminology specific to that prerequisite or credit

LEED 2009
In response to creating credit unity across the various LEED 2009 rating systems and addressing
the growing concerns related to threats upon the environment, USGBC has reorganized and
advanced LEED 2009 rating systems.
Credit Harmonization
Credits and prerequisites from all LEED 2009 commercial and institutional rating systems have
been consolidated and aligned, allowing credits and prerequisites to be consistent across all
LEED 2009 rating systems.
Refer USGBC for detailed and current Credit Harmonization information:
http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1971#harmonization
Credit Weightings
LEED 2009 credits are assigned point values based on their ability to impact various environmental
and human health issues. With revised credit weightings, LEED awards more points for strategies
that will have greater positive impacts on energy efficiency and CO2 reductions. Each credit is
evaluated against numerous environmental impact categories. As a result, LEED 2009 operates
on a 100-point scale.
Refer USGBC for detailed and current Credit Weighting information:
http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1971#weightings
Carbon Overlay
Carbon overlay addresses global warming by establishing the projects carbon footprint. A
buildings carbon footprint is the total greenhouse gas emissions associated with its construction
and operation. LEED 2009 credits are prioritized by their ability to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions. As such, each credit is scored by how it compares to a baseline building.

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Regionalization
LEED 2009 has created the Regional Priority category that acknowledges the fact environmental
priorities may differ between different geographical regions in the U.S. For a projects location,
as determined by its zip code, 6 existing LEED credits have been prioritized because they address
environmental issues within that specific zip code. Although the project may be able to qualify
for more than 4 of the 6 Regional Priority credits available, the project team can choose only 4
credits for which they prefer the points to apply.
Refer USGBC for detailed and current Regional Priority information:
http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1971

Credit Interpretation Request (CIRs)


Occasionally during the process of analyzing prerequisite or credit compliance requirements,
the Project Team may encounter instances where they are unclear whether their strategy for
achieving the credit is appropriate. The Project Credit Interpretation Request (CIR) and ruling
process is designed to allow Project Teams to obtain technical and administrative guidance on
how LEED requirements, including Minimum Program Requirements, Prerequisites, and Credits,
pertain to their projects.
In summary:
CIRs can be submitted any time after project registration
CIRs must be submitted via LEED Online
CIRs are restricted to no more than one prerequisite or credit per submittal
CIRs should not be formatted in letter form, contain more than 600 words or 4000 characters
and cannot be submitted with attachments (plans, photos, etc.)
CIR language cannot be revised any time during the CIR process
CIR rulings do not guarantee MPR/Prerequisite/Credit compliance or achievement
*CIR rulings submitted pre-LEED 2009 Rating System are precedent setting
*CIR rulings submitted after June 26, 2009 for all rating systems including pre-LEED 2009 and
current versions, will be project specific
*CIR database created for pre-LEED 2009 rating systems may not be used with LEED 2009 rating
systems
Only USGBC Company Members, LEED Registered Project Team Members and USGBC
Workshop Attendees have access to review CIRs
CIR fees are $220 for each application
* These directives are new to 2009 and were listed on the GBCI website as late as April 10, 2010
but can no longer be located. Currently, there is disagreement whether they remain applicable.
Refer GBCI for detailed and current/updated CIR information:
http://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=1510

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Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs)
Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) are a set of 7 mandatory requirements that the project
must comply with, similar to prerequisites, in order to achieve certification. MPRs serve three
goals:
Provide clear guidance to the customer
Protect the integrity of the LEED program
Reduce complications that may occur during the LEED Certification process
MPRs are rating system specific and projects must comply with each applicable MPR for the
specific rating system it is seeking:
1. Must comply with environmental laws
Adhere to all applicable federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations
2. Be a complete or permanent building or space
A complete or permanent building or space on land that already exists
3. Use a reasonable site boundary
The LEED project boundary must include all contiguous land that is associated with the
LEED project building. Gerrymandering of the LEED project boundary is prohibited
4. Comply with minimum floor area requirements
New Construction, Core & Shell, Schools, Existing Buildings: O&M
Minimum Gross Floor Area: 1,000 square feet
Commercial Interiors
Minimum Gross Floor Area: 250 square feet
5. Comply with minimum occupancy rates
New Construction, Core & Shell, Commercial Interiors, Schools
Must have at least one Full Time Equivalent occupant
Existing Buildings: O&M
Must have at least one Full Time Equivalent occupant
All building systems must be operating 12 continuous months before certifying
6. Commit to sharing whole building energy and water usage data
Must share energy and water usage data with the USGBC and GBCI for a period of five
years
7. Comply with a minimum building area to site area ratio
The gross floor area of the LEED project building must be no less than 2% of the gross
land area within the LEED project boundary
The 7 areas listed above represent a general outline of the MPR requirements and address only
the core issue relative to the MPR. Each rating system may have specific requirements which
must be met.
Refer GBCI for detailed and updated MPR requirements:
http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=2102
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Registration and Certification Process
GBCI
The Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI) manages the review and verification process for
projects seeking certification under the LEED Green Building Rating System.
Refer GBCI for updated Registration and Certification information:
http://www.gbci.org/main-nav/building-certification/leed-certification.aspx
LEED Online
LEED Online is the control center where project teams manage the LEED Registration and
Certification process and is available only to registered projects. Using LEED Online you can:
Manage project details
Complete documentation requirements
Upload supporting files
Submit applications for review
Receive reviewer feedback
Earn LEED certification
Credit Scorecard
(aka LEED Credit Checklist)
The LEED Credit Scorecard is a form used by the Project Team that lists all of the prerequisites
and credits of the rating system being pursued:
Should be initiated by the Project Team early during the charrette process
Allows the Project Team members the ability to assess and track attempted credits
Lists all prerequisites and credits for each category with columns for the Project Team to
mark as Yes, ? (maybe), or No
A sample Scorecard (v2.2) is available for review in the Appendix.
Credit Forms and Calculators
(aka LEED Credit Templates, Letter Templates or Submittal Templates)
Mandatory to the certification process are the Adobe interactive PDF LEED Credit Forms that
can be accessed only by the Project Administrator and invited Project Team members via LEED
Online. Credit Forms are used to upload documentation required to verify prerequisite and
credit compliance. Each Credit Form will list the requirements for achievement as well as the
documentation required for submittal and must be signed by the declarant. For credits that
require calculations, calculators are built in to indicate if the credit requirements have been met.
In part, Credit Forms:
Streamlines the preparation of LEED applications
Allows the Project Administrator to assign Project Team member responsibility
Provides automatic calculation for compliance verification when required data is entered
by a Project Team member
A sample v2.2 Submittal Template is available for review in the Appendix.
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Charrette
A LEED Charrette is a forum where those who can influence project decisions meet and begin
planning the project. As a gathering of all key stakeholders in the LEED certification process, a
charrette facilitates agreement on project goals. By soliciting ideas, issues, and concerns early in
the project process, it saves time and money and gives an early sense of collective enthusiasm
with realistic goals and directions.
Project Administrator
The GBCI assigns the role of Project Administrator to the person who initially registers the project
via LEED Online. This person is the main contact with the GBCI via LEED Online. Although it is
advisable to select the Project Administrator during the charrette, this person can be replaced
after registration. The roles of a Project Administrator include:
Provides project information when registering via LEED Online
Invites Team Members for access to LEED Online
Assigns credit responsibility to Team Members
LEED AP
Provides project coordination between all Project Team disciplines
Knows the responsibilities and status of each Team Member
Manages and reviews Project Team documentation prior to uploading to Credit Forms
Knows which credits each member of the Project Team is responsible for
Understands the entire certification process
Coordinates codes and standards
Must play a principle role in the project to be eligible for an Innovation in Design credit

LEED Certification
Individuals are Accredited and become LEED Accredited Professionals by successfully testing at
the level of accreditation sought.
Buildings are Certified: A registered building is in the process of implementing LEED. A certified
building is a completed project that has been awarded certification. LEED Certified is a project
that has been certified to the base level: Certified.
Certified
Silver
Gold
Platinum
Companies or products are neither accredited nor certified
Organizations can obtain membership to USGBC national organization
Individuals can become members of USGBC regional chapters
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Certification Process: General
LEED certification is provided by an independent third-party to verify that a building project
meets all requirements for the level of certification being sought. Certification for any project
requires satisfying all Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs), prerequisites and a minimum number
of credits. Each LEED 2009 rating system corresponds with a LEED reference guide that is the
standard document for detailing the applicable prerequisites and credits as defined by the rating
system structure.
Important to a clearer path to certification, the project should implement an integrated design
approach to evaluate and define the projects goals and certification level most appropriate
for the project. Project teams can utilize resources, such as the project checklist, to identify
individual credits and strategies that are readily achievable within the rating system. The project
team should first determine if all prerequisites can be achieved.
Timeline and Project Design Phases
Predesign
Information gathering and establishing goals (charrette)
Schematic Design
Examines design options and establishes an agreed upon layout and scope of work
Design Development
Begins the process of refining the schematic design and developing first design of the
projects energy systems
Construction Documents
Schematic design developed into detailed drawings so that construction can take place
Construction
Construction documents (CDs) completed and necessary local authority approvals
received to begin construction
Substantial Completion
Construction is nearly completed and the client could occupy the space, providing local
authorities permit occupancy prior to receipt of Certificate of Occupancy
Final Completion
All construction per the construction documents has been completed
Certificate of Occupancy
Official notice by building authorities having jurisdiction that the project conforms to
applicable building and safety codes

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Certification Process: Overview
For all LEED Ratings Systems

except LEED for Homes and LEED for Neighborhood Development:
Step 1: Planning
Step 2: Registration
Step 3: Documentation
Step 4: Certification
LEED for Homes and LEED for Neighborhood Development

follow different Rating Systems and Certification Processes:
LEED for Homes:
Step 1: Early Planning
Step 2: Design
Step 3: Build
Step 4: Verification and certification
Step 5: Reflection on achievements
LEED for Neighborhood Development:
Stage 1: Review prior to completion of entitlement (permitting) process
Stage 2: Certification of an approved development plan
Stage 3: Review of a completed neighborhood development

Certification Process: Detailed


except LEED for Homes & LEED for Neighborhood Development

Step 1: Planning (Charrette)


The first action toward any LEED project should be establishing a collective forum, or the charrette.
The stakeholders comprising the charrette should document the project goals, prepare a draft
of the LEED Credit Scorecard and select the Project Administrator.
Step 2: Registration
The LEED process begins with registration. The Project Administrator submits the registration
form and registration fee. Registration information required:
Account login information: name, address, company, title, e-mail address, password
Project type: select rating system type, USGBC member status, amount due
General project information: project title, project address, is project confidential
Primary contact information: name, address, organization, e-mail address
Project Owner information: name, organization, e-mail address

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Project details: owner type, project scope, site conditions, occupant type, owner occupied,
gross square footage, project budget, current project phase, project type
Payment information
Registration provides:
Point of contact between GBCI and project
Access to LEED Online tools
Access to LEED Credit Forms (Credit Templates)
Ensures maximum potential for achieving certification, if done early in the design process
Registration fees (11 January 2010):
USGBC members: $900
Non-Members: $1,200
GBCI offers free registration for LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance for
projects certified under LEED for New Construction, LEED for Schools, and LEED for Core & Shell
prior to January 1, 2011.
Step 3: Application Submittal
For detailed and updated submittal/review process information per rating system refer to GBCI:
http://www.gbci.org/main-nav/building-certification/certification-guide.aspx
After project registration, the Project Administrator and Project Team should prepare the required
information for prerequisite and credit submittal. Only the LEED Project Administrator is eligible
to submit an application for review. To initiate the review process, a complete application must
be submitted via LEED Online. Requirements for a complete application vary according to the
review path, but will always include payment of the appropriate certification review fee.
Prior to certification, all project teams are required to submit completed documentation
requirements for all prerequisites and at least the minimum number of credits required to
achieve certification, as well as completed general project information forms. It is advisable to
seek a few additional credits just for safety in the event some credits are denied.
There are multiple application review paths. LEED Online automatically determines which review
paths are available for a given application based on both the LEED Rating System under which
the project is registered and the level of completeness of the application.
Application requirements vary for each LEED Rating System and review path:
LEED for New Construction
Split Design & Construction Application
Combined Design & Construction Application
LEED for Schools
Split Design & Construction Application
Combined Design & Construction Application
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LEED for Core and Shell
Split Design & Construction Application
Combined Design & Construction Application
Precertification Application
LEED for Commercial Interiors
Split Design & Construction Application
Combined Design & Construction Application
LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations and Maintenance
O&M Application
O&M Recertification Application
The Split Design & Construction Review timeline is available to projects registered for certification
under any LEED Design & Construction Rating System. An application for Split Design &
Construction Review is submitted in up to four (4) parts, with requirements as follows:
The Design Review enables project teams to assess the likelihood of achievement for some
or all design phase credits and/or prerequisites, prior to substantial project completion
All remaining requirements are then submitted with the Construction Application
Split Design & Construction Review:
Prepare design related credit documentation and submit prior to substantial project
completion. Each prerequisite and credit states if submittal can be done during the
design phase of the project.
Prepare construction related credit documentation and submit after the design phase
review. Each prerequisite and credit states if submittal must be a construction phase
submittal. Certification fee is split and paid at the time of each phase submittal.
Combined Design & Construction Review:
Prepare and submit required documentation for all required prerequisites and credits
being pursued upon project completion. Certification fee is paid at the time of
submittal.
Certification Fees:
In addition to the project registration fees, certification fees are required, based on the
rating system the project is certifying under and the size of the building. There is also a
fee variance for USGBC membership.
Submittal Review Status
There are typically two reviews conducted: A Preliminary Review and response and a Final
Review and response. If the project team disagrees with any ruling, they have the option to
request an Appeal Review. During the review process, the GBCI responds to each prerequisite or
credit submittal with one of the following:
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Anticipated: Only during a split Design Phase Review will the GBCI issue an anticipated
response. This does not guarantee credit acceptance, only that the GBCI believes the
credit does meet the requirements at this stage of the project
Pending: GBCI requires additional information
Awarded: Only during the final GBCI review will GBCI issue this response that the credit
has met the requirements and points are earned
Denied: The prerequisite/credit has not met the requirements
Step 4: Certification
After the application has been completed and all fees received and processed, GBCI will perform
a final review and formally rule on the application. The project is awarded the certification level
based on the number of credits achieved.
If the Project Team decides to formally file an appeal, GBCI will issue a LEED review within
25 business days. If a final denied ruling is issued, the project is closed and can never be
reopened.
Award: Only after the Project Team accepts the final ruling is the project awarded certification
with a formal letter of certification
For complete and updated registration and important details regarding the application submittal
and application review process per rating system, refer to GBCI:
http://www.gbci.org/main-nav/building-certification/leed-certification.aspx#
Registration Documentation
Certain documents are required when registering or submitting a project for certification:
Project Narrative describing background of the project, details of the building use, location
and surrounding area of the building and any additional attributes of the project
Project photographs or rendering
Building elevation
Building floor plans
Gross square footage of the building, building occupant counts (FTE) and boundary
descriptions. All these figures must be used consistently across applicable credits
Establishing USGBC website User Profile
1. Go to USGBC website www.usgbc.org
2. Click on Sign In along the top bar
3. If you do not have a User Profile, click on hyperlink Create a Site User Account
4. Enter personal information
5. Under Organization, enter your company
6. Enter Corporate ID for your company (if USGBC member)
7. Click Submit Your Registration at the bottom of the form and you will receive a password
to accompany your e-mail address when gaining access to member only sections of the
site
Once your User Profile is set up, team members can access LEED Online projects
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LEED Online Access
1. http://www.gbci.org/main-nav/building-certification/leed-online/about-leed-online.aspx
2. Enter e-mail address and password in Log in Now box
3. Select project to access and click Enter
Must have a registered project to gain access
LEED Online Components
My Project Page
My Projects
Active Projects
Saved Projects
Register
Rating Project Selector
Download Scorecard
Project Dashboard (aka Home Page)







Overview
Scorecard
Timeline
Team Administrator
Registration Details
Clarification
Messages
CIR

Credit Forms
Everything is done via electronic format
LEED Online form required for every prerequisite and all credits being attempted with
access available for registered projects
Includes signature block for person responsible for credit
Includes space for narratives
Can attach numerous types, formats and examples of documentation
Six Steps to Certification: Review Summary
Step 1: Determine appropriateness of LEED
Form a charrette and gather information to determine if, and at what level, is LEED
appropriate
Step 2: Registration via LEED OnLine
http://www.gbci.org/main-nav/building-certification/leed-online/about-leed-online.aspx

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Step 3: Prepare Application
Assign team members and prepare all documents required for prerequisites and
credits being sought (minimum number of credits are required for Certification)
Step 4: Submit Application via LEED OnLine
Upload Credit Forms with all required documentation
Step 5: Application Review
Upon receipt of a completed submittal application, a formal review will be initiated
Step 6: Certification
Certification is the final step in the LEED Review Process. Once the final review is
complete, the project team can either accept or appeal the final decision. If accepted,
LEED Certified Projects::
Will receive a formal certificate of recognition
Will receive information on how to order plaques, certificates, photo submissions
and marketing
May be included in an online directory and US Dept. of Energy High Performance
Buidlings Database

LEED for Homes


Overview of LEED for Homes
The LEED for Homes process is substantially different than the other systems in both the format
and makeup of the rating system and its certification process. To begin, the structure of the
sustainable categories is different and contains 8 sections:
Innovation & Design (ID)
Location and Linkages (LL)
Sustainable Sites (SS
Water Efficiency (WE)
Energy and Atmosphere (EA)
Materials and Resources (MR)
Indoor Environmental Quality (EQ)
Awareness and Education (AE)
LEED for Homes has four levels of certification and point structures as follows:
Certified: 45 - 59 points
Silver: 60 - 74 points
Gold: 75 - 89 points
Platinum: 90 - 136 points

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How to Participate in LEED for Homes
Any project seeking LEED for Homes certification must work through a LEED for Homes Provider.
LEED for Homes Providers are under contract to USGBC to provide third party verification for the
LEED for Homes program. Another faction of this process are Green Raters, who are subordinate
to Providers. A Green Rater is part of the LEED for Homes Provider team and performs field
inspections and performance testing.
LEED for Homes Provider program:




Project registration
Directs Green Raters
Certifies LEED homes
Verifies integrity of the certification
Works with USGBC and local USGBC chapters

Five Steps to Participate


There are five basic steps for participating in LEED for Homes:




Contact a LEED for Homes Provider


Develop the project team
Build the home
Certify the project
Market and sell the LEED home

Special Features of the Rating System


The LEED for Homes rating system includes the following:
Innovation & Design Process: this category was brought up front in the LEED for Homes rating
system due to the importance of design in LEED for Homes. Integrated Design Process and
Durability Planning are vital parts of the design process
Integrated Design Process credit (ID1): requires the builder to participate in a builder orientation
program
Durability Planning prerequisite (ID2): addresses durability

LEED Accreditation
Individuals are Accredited and become LEED Accredited Professionals by successfully testing at
the level of accreditation sought:
LEED Green Associate
LEED Accredited Professionals with Specialities
LEED AP Building Design & Construction (BD&C)
LEED AP Interior Design & Construction (ID&C)
LEED AP Operations & Maintenance (O&M)
LEED AP Homes
LEED AP Neighborhood Development (ND)
LEED Fellow
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Accreditation is available at three (3) tier levels:
Tier I: LEED Green Associate (demonstrates knowledge and skill in practicing green design,
construction and development)
Must agree to the Disciplinary and Exam Appeals Policy and Credential Maintenance
Requirements (CMP)
Must document involvement in support of a LEED project, be employed in a sustainable
field of work or be engaged in a green education program
Must agree to an application audit
LEED Green Associates must complete 15 hours of continuing education (CE) every two
years
Tier II: LEED Accredited Professional [BD&C] [ID&C] [O&M] [Homes] [ND] (extraordinary
depth of knowledge in green building practices and specialization in a specific field)
If taking a Part 2 specialty exam separately, must have passed part 1, the Green Associate
Exam
If taking both the Green Associate Exam and any one of the specialty exams at the same
time. If failing any one of the two exams, will be required to retake only the failed exam.
Must agree to the Disciplinary and Exam Appeals Policy and Credential Maintenance
Requirements (CMP)
Must have documented experience in a LEED registered projected within three (3) years
of the application submittal date
Must agree to an application audit
LEED APs with specialty must complete 30 hours of continuing education (CE) every two
years
Tier III: LEED Fellow (TBD)
Tier III is currently under development
Will distinguish an elite class of sustainable professionals
Will contribute to the continuous performance with regards to policies and knowledge
Credential Maintenance
The Credential Maintenance Program (CMP) is a mandated program for everyone one taking a
LEED 2009 exam and directs a LEED Professionals continuing professional development. This
program is optional for legacy LEED APs who earned their credentials prior to the implementation
of the 2009 system.
Refer GBCI for full details and CMP current information:
http://www.gbci.org/main-nav/professional-credentials/CMP/about-cmp.aspx

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Importance of LEED Credentials
Individual Benefits
Credibility to employer or client
Listed on GBCI website
Receive Certificate
Involved in the LEED certification process
Employer Benefits
Eligible for projects requiring a LEED AP
Strengthens LEED qualifications
Knowledge of the LEED certification process
Industry Benefits:
Higher knowledge of LEED
Transformation of the built environment
Ethics of the LEED Professional
Mandatory Disciplinary Policy Principles
Must be truthful, forthcoming and cooperative in dealing with GBCI
Be in continuous compliance with GBCI rules
Respect GBCI intellectual property rights
Abide by laws related to the profession and to general public health and safety
Conduct professional work in a competent and objective manner

USGBC Portfolio Program


The USGBC Portfolio Program is a pilot program designed for owners who want to integrate
LEED into their standard building practices. The pilot program is available for new, existing and
volume certification.
Refer USGBC for additional Portfolio details:
http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1729

LEED Technical Advisory Group (TAG)


The LEED Technical Advisory Group is a committee of industry experts who assist in interpreting
credits and developing technical improvements to the LEED Green Building rating System.
Refer Foundations of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, Environmental Rating
System, A Tool for Market Transformation:
http://www.gbci.org/Libraries/Credential_Exam_References/Foundations-of-the-Leadershipin-Energy-and-Environmental-Design-Environmental-Rating-System-A-Tool-for-MarketTransformation.sflb.ashx

USGBC/GBCI Logo Policies


USGBC has very specific and stringent guidelines for using their logos, trademarks and registration
symbols.
Refer USGBC for updated logo guideline information:
http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1835
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The Appendix
The Appendix at the rear of this study guide contains documents and charts that offer additional
or more detailed information regarding the topics presented in this chapter.

Final Thoughts
Terminology to know
Refer to Acronyms and Glossary of Terms chapter
LEED Green Building Rating System
LEED Prerequisite
LEED Credit
LEED Intent
LEED Technical Advisory Group
LEED Credit Interpretation Request (CIR)
LEED Minimum Program Requirements (MPR)
Thoughts to keep
USGBC controls LEED and Education/Research programs
GBCI controls project certification and LEED professional credentialing
Each LEED rating system (except LEED Homes) is comprised of Minimum Program Requirements,
Prerequisites and Credits
Each LEED rating system requires a minimum of 40 points for certification
LEED Online:
Project Administrator registers project
Only invited Project Team members can access LEED Online
Depository for all submittals and required documents
Submittal process (LEED NC, Schools, CS, CI):
Split submittal:
Design
Construction
Combined submittal:
Both Design & Construction credits submitted together
Project Certification:
Register project
Prepare application
Submit application
Application review
Certification
LEED for Homes Rating System:
Leed for Homes Provider
Green Rater
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Studio4 Office Project: the Program Narrative
The Project Location
This project will be located in a suburb north of Cincinnati, OH on property that was recently
purchased for the development of a 24,000 sf spec building in a rapidly expanding community.
The site contains 3.5 acres and is positioned inside a rezoned HT-1 (high tech light industrial)
corridor and runs perpendicular and central to a high density retail corridor with integrated
residential communities, just west of I-71. The adjacent property to the immediate south and
west is the 1.5 million square foot Proctor and Gamble global health care headquarters.

Aerial Vicinity Locator

Birdseye View (looking south)

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The Project Program Narrative: Predesign
This property was required to be rezoned from residential to HT-1, where restrictions were
placed on the future development of this site. All properties along this corridor will be rezoned
HT-1 with the intent to limit use to high tech, professional and light industrial use, with no retail
or residential permitted.
Since this will be a spec development and there will be but one occupant initially, the owner/
developer Studio4, and occupying less than 25% of the total floor area, the project will be best
suited to register under the LEED for Core & Shell (CS) rating system. If the owner/developer
occupied more than 50% of the total building area, the LEED for New Construction (NC) rating
system would be appropriate.
Quickly, the project encountered the first instance where local jurisdictions govern in a way
that can be contradictory, at times, to sustainable design. The original design program required
one 2 story 24,000 sf building. However, in keeping with the surrounding architecture, a height
limitation of 1 story was mandated, with an unusual provision that two 12,000 sf buildings would
be allowed.
The initial Project Team (stakeholders) has been assembled to include the owner/developer,
occupant and LEED AP Studio4, Design Team members (architectural/civil/structural/MEP
engineers, landscape architect and certain material suppliers). Additionally, it has been the
experience of Studio4 that including local building and code officials, along with utility
representatives, is a win-win situation for all parties concerned. If there are issues encountered
related to codes, regulations and utilities, these people will generally join the team in finding
viable solutions. The Project Administrator has been selected, Studio4, and the Project Checklist
is being reviewed to determine, first, if the project can achieve each of the required prerequisites,
the Minimum Project Requirements and then a summary analysis of probable and potential
credits that should be pursued.
As with many sites located in more densely populated areas, land restrictions such as preconfigured and limited area sites, extremely high land costs and zoning allow for little, if any,
adjustments to the building orientation.
During the pre-design charrette where project goals are established, it is agreed that the
circumstances presented by P&G as a neighbor would work to the projects advantage. As
witnessed by the aerial photos, the property immediately to the south and west will remain
protected from future development by P&G and will continue to afford opportunities for views
to natural habitat and daylight. Imposed restrictions for stormwater management may require
negotiations to permit implementation of strategies being considered such as the use of
graywater, rain gardens, downspout disconnects and pervious pavements as well as others that
currently may not be permitted by utility companies, communities or state and local laws.
The Design Team has reviewed current federal, state and local codes and regulations that may
impact the design of this project and has prepared the following program:
The project program will focus on developing this project with efficiency of time and
cost, while achieving some level of green certification. Given the opportunity to split
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the buildings will permit a more simple path if the project is scheduled as a two phase
development. LEED does allow a property boundary split if done in a reasonable and
justifiable method. However, splitting the site into two parcels will require close attention
to setbacks and other related zoning requirements as local zoning ordinances will consider
these as two distinct properties. A zoning variance was applied for and approved for a
revision to the side yard setback distances.
The initial building construction and envelope design will be a single story 12,000 sf
building, concrete slab on grade, conventional wood or metal stud framing, masonry
veneer, trussed and shingled roof and high performance glazing.
A preliminary budget was provided by the owner and will be the target in determining
which credits to pursue in the final analysis. A life cycle analysis will be provided by the
Design Team that will illustrate to the owner the potential payback associated with the
certification level being sought.
The Design Team will study the process from design and engineering to material selections
and coordinate a schedule that considers the associated length of time involved. Materials,
such as regional or FSC, will be investigated as they can present delivery and scheduling
issues. Also important are credits like Enhanced Commissioning and Measurement &
Verification that can extend the length of time to receive certification.
The core & shell interiors will include only a demising wall to define the initial tenant and
common area toilet facilities that will serve all tenants.
Owners Project Requirements (OPR)
Studio4 is an architectural and graphic design studio; creator/owner of a sustainable
website; provider of sustainable educational study materials and classes
A space requirement of 3,000 sf would be sufficient to fulfil present and future needs
Initial 4 FTEs and potential to expand to 8 FTEs; a potential of 15 transient occupants
General office; 2 private offices; 1 design studio; 1 classroom for 15 people; 1 break
room; 1 utility room
This concludes the pre-design stage where the Owners Project Requirements (OPR) have been
collected, codes and regulations reviewed, a cursory credit analysis conducted and basic design
goals established. The next stage will entail registering the project via LEED Online and begin
the schematic design process to achieve the Basis of Design (BOD) documents.
The next project section is located at the conclusion of the Sustainable Sites chapter.
Although this project offers more information than that required for the Green Associate exam, use it
only as a snapshot for understanding credit achievement and increasing your knowledge about the
interaction between credits that is critical to achieving a high performance building. A few calculations
are presented to illustrate how the credit can be achieved and for all credits, the submittal phase and
relative team members are listed.

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he selection and development of a buildings site


provide the most fundamental foundation for
sustainable building practices. The sustainable goals
of the LEED Sustainable Sites category address the
following areas: site selection; transportation related
emission reduction; stormwater management;
heat island reduction; light pollution reduction;
protection of existing habitats and ecosystems

CHAPTER | 4
Sustainable Sites (SS)

Credit Matrix
Site Related Boundaries
Introduction
Transportation
Site Selection
Site Design and Management
Stormwater Management
Heat Island Effect
Light Pollution Reduction
Urban Redevelopment
Development Density
Community Connectivity
Public Transportation Access
Full Time Equivalents
Codes & Referenced Standards
Final Thoughts
Studio4 Project: Sustainable Sites

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Sustainable Sites
Credit Matrix
Prereq
Credit
SSp1
SSp2
SSc1
SSc2
SSc3
SSc4.1
SSc4.2
SSc4.3
SSc4.4
SSc5.1
SSc5.2
SSc6.1
SSc6.2
SSc7.1
SSc7.2
SSc8
SSc9
SSc9
SSc10

NC
Title
SUSTAINABLE SITES (SS)
Construction Activity Pollution Prevention
Environmental Site Assessment
Site Selection
Development Density and Community Connectivity
Brownfield Redevelopment
Alternative Transportation - Public Transportation Access
Alternative Transportation - Bicycle Storage and Changing Rooms
Alternative Transportation - Low-Emitting and Fuel-Efficient Vehicles
Alternative Transportation - Parking Capacity
Site Development - Protect or Restore Habitat
Site Development - Maximize Open Space
Stormwater Design - Quantity Control
Stormwater Design - Quality Control
Heat Island Effect - Nonroof
Heat Island Effect - Roof
Light Pollution Reduction
Tenant Design and Construction Guidelines
Site Master Plan
Joint Use of Facilities

26
Reqd
NA
1
5
1
6
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
NA
NA
NA

Schools
Points
24
Reqd
Reqd
1
4
1
4
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
NA
1
1

CS
28
Reqd
NA
1
5
1
6
2
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
NA
NA

Site Related Boundaries


building footprint: area of the building
structure that is defined by the perimeter of
the building plan. Pavement, landscaping
and other nonbuilding facilities are not
included in the building footprint
development footprint: the area of
the site impacted by the project, which
includes parking, landscaping, roads and
other facilities in addition to the building
property boundary: the total area within
the legal boundaries of the site
project boundary: the platted property
line of the project. For projects developed
on properties with multiple buildings, such
as a campuses or industrial complexes,
a reasonable property boundary, as
required for the project construction and
local code, is permitted
LEED (project) boundary: the portion of the project site submitted for LEED certification
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Introduction
One of the first and most critical decisions for the project team to make is that of site selection, as
the location of a site and the site itself can determine how the project impacts the environment.
In addition to the sustainable impacts to the project itself, the location of the project can affect
local and regional ecosystems, both positively and negatively.
Sustainable sites address:
Protection of greenfields and other sensitive site types
Transportation related environmental concerns
Stormwater management
Heat island effects
Light pollution
Existing habitat and ecosystems

Transportation
Often, when a company decides to relocate to a new area,
employees are surveyed to determine where they live, the
distance they currently travel, the distance they would travel
to the new location, their preferences, etc. In the majority of
instances, travel time and distance is the most important issue
to employees. Sustainable sites can reduce the social, economic
and environmental impacts caused by the increased demands
on building related transportation. It is easy to understand the
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
importance of sustainable sites when you consider how the
location of the site can increase the length and frequency of vehicle
trips. Or when transportation accounts for 32% of the nations greenhouse gas emissions and
vehicle technology, transportation fuels and land use all contribute to the emission of greenhouse
gases. In 2006, 76% of the commuters in the U.S. ages 16 and older drove to work alone, 5% used
public transportation and 11% carpooled. Sustainable site selection should consider locating
near residential areas, installing bicycle racks and changing rooms, preferred parking, encourage
the use of alternative fuel vehicles and provide access to mass transit. Promoting mass transit
reduces the energy required for transportation and the space needed for parking lots, gas
stations and related support facilities.

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Sustainable Sites
Transportation strategies:
Access to mass transit networks
Commuter rail, light rail or subway system; public, campus
or private bus lines usable by building occupants
Shuttle service from project location to transit lines
Limit parking
Limit parking spaces and encourage employees to consider
alternative transportation options to reduce pollution
and land development impacts from automobile use

Mass Transit

Size parking not to exceed existing minimum local code


requirements
Shared parking facilities with other buildings
Alternatives to single occupant vehicles
Limit Parking

Encourage car pooling and van pooling


Designated car pooling and van pooling parking spaces
Provide reserved parking spaces
conveniently located near building entrances
for building occupants who carpool
to work
Promote Low-Emission & Fuel-Efficient Vehicles (FEV)
On-site fueling stations

Car/Van Pooling

Provide FEV vehicles or offer incentives for employee FEV


ownership
For Schools, investigate tradeoffs for alternative fuel
vehicles
Offer incentives
Develop an alternative commuting incentive programs

Alternative Fuel Vehicles

Rideshare programs that offer fee based options


Support alternative transportation
Promote alternatives or incentives to singleoccupancy vehicle commuting
Provide secured spaces and changing rooms for
bicycle use
Reduced parking rates for carpooling or alternative
fuel vehicles
Assist employees with parking fees for public parking

Alternative Transportation
& Incentive Programs

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Sustainable Sites
Site Selection
The selection of the projects site is one of the most important decisions that can contribute
to the success of the projects sustainability. The sustainable site will allow for proper building
orientation, as well as reduce associated environmental impacts. Redevelopment of brownfield
sites can improve the quality of the environment. Selecting previously developed sites can
reduce the burden on greenfield sites, farmlands or encroaching on wetlands and water bodies
that compromise existing habitat and ecosystems. Developing a master plan for the project
and site can protect the environment beyond the initial construction phase in consideration of
future expansions. Projects applying for LEED Commercial Interiors should investigate occupying
existing LEED certified buildings such as LEED for New Construction or LEED for Core and Shell.
Site selection strategies:
Increase development density
Create a smaller footprint
Maximize the floor area ratio or square footage per acre by stacking floors, instead of
spreading out the building footprint, in order to maximize open spaces and protect the
habitat
Locate the project in densely populated communities
Average density of project and surrounding community should be 60,000 sf/acre min.
Redevelopment
Previously developed sites
Protects undeveloped land and is often served by existing infrastructure such as roads,
utilities and community services
Restore a brownfield site
Improves and protects the environment
Saves undeveloped land
Incentives often offered by owner or government agencies
Consider tradeoffs such as costs for environmental assessments
and remediation, time required to investigate and remediate and
potential liabilities to owner
Protect the habitat
Select sites that do not include sensitive site elements and land types such as:
Prime farmland as defined by the U.S. Department
of Agriculture (USDA)
Less than 5 feet above areas defined by FEMA as
being in the 100 year flood plain
Land that is habitat for threatened or endangered
species
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Sustainable Sites
Within 100 feet of wetlands as defined by Code of
Federal Regulations (CFR)
Within 50 feet of a body of water as regulated by the
Clean Water Act (CWA)
Public parklands
Urban development
Urban areas often have infrastructures in place, such as mass transit and community
services, that provide for more sustainable sites through community connectivity and
also by reducing demands on our natural resources.
Mass transit: unobstructed walking distance within 1/2 mile of commuter rail, light rail
or subway system OR unobstructed walking distance
within 1/4 mile of one or more bus stops for two or
more public, campus or private bus lines usable by
building occupants
Community connectivity: must be on a previously
developed site AND within 1/2 mile of a residential
neighborhood with an average density of 10 units/acre
AND within 1/2 mile of ten basic community services
such as: bank, convenience store, place of worship, fire station, post office, restaurants (2
permitted), etc. and has pedestrian access between the building and services

Site Design and Management

Sustainable site design includes the design, installation and maintenance of areas such as
landscaping and hardscapes. Green practices minimize the use of irrigation, fertilizers and
pesticides and employs strategies to reduce soil erosion and sedimentation. The use of native
plants reduces the burden on water resources due to reduced irrigation requirements and
reduces the need for fertilizers and pesticides. Reducing the amount of hardscapes can increase
the area of open space and the use of reflective materials for pavement, walks and roofs can
reduce heat island effects.
Site design strategies:
Create and implement an Erosion and Sedimentation Control Plan (ESC) to reduce
construction pollution. The plan must comply with the requirements of the 2003 EPA
General Construction Permit or local codes, whichever is more strict. The EPA General
Construction Permit outlines the provisions necessary to comply
with Phase I and Phase II of the National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES) program.
Prevents loss of soil during construction by stormwater runoff
and wind
Prevents sedimentation of storm sewer and receiving streams
Prevents pollution of the air with dust and particulate matter
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Strategies that can be used to control erosion due to construction activities are:
Mulching
Erosion control blankets
Straw bales
Berms
Silt fence

Mulch

Control Blankets

Straw Bales

Silt Fencing

Reduce site disturbance caused by building


Reduce the footprint of the building to increase the amount of open space
Protect and restore existing habitat
Efficient hardscapes
Minimize the amount of hard surfaces such as parking lots, walkways, patios, etc
Design new or replace existing hard surfaces with permeable (pervious) surfaces
Reduced area of hardscapes also reduces the amount of exterior lighting required
Minimize water usage
Use native or adaptive landscaping that reduces, or eliminates, the need for irrigation
Use water efficient irrigation systems
Use nonpotable water for flushing toilets and urinals
Use of reflective materials
Design hard surfaces, including roofs, with high SRI materials to minimize heat island
impacts
Sustainable management plan
Consideration of the type of chemicals and other products used for cleaning exterior
surfaces
Consideration of the type of chemicals and other products used for snow and ice
removal
Develop an integrated pest management program

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Sustainable Sites
Low Impact Development (LID)
Precipitation, in the forms of rainfall and snow, onto impervious surfaces such as parking lots,
sidewalks and streets does not filtrate back into the earth and aquifer, but rather washes the
surfaces and sends the contaminants eventually to our waterways. This is known as nonpoint
source pollution.
Low Impact Development addresses how stormwater enters a site, is temporarily stored and how
the stormwater eventually exits the site. At its core, LID minimizes impervious surfaces, protects
soils from compaction and erosion, promotes native vegetation and manages stormwater at its
source.
As with any sustainable strategy, all aspects of synergies and tradeoffs must be considered,
particularly with LEED for Neighborhood Development projects. Managing stormwater may be
less practical, for instance, when considering street grids that promote walking. Streets can cause
interruption to the overall stormwater management plan by disrupting the preferred release of
stormwater.

Stormwater Management
Developments can reduce the natural permeability
of a site, which increases the quantity and reduces
the quality of stormwater runoff downstream to
waterways such as streams, rivers and lakes. The
replacement of permeable areas with impervious
surfaces reduces the quality due to the contaminates
carried by the runoff water, which becomes harmful to
aquatic life and recreational opportunities in receiving
waters. This also causes downstream erosion in our
waterways due to increased runoff rates. Stormwater
Permeable (pervious) pavement
management involves strategies that reduce or control
the amount of increased stormwater created by the project. Pollution caused by soil erosion
during site development, increased amounts of impervious surfaces, landscaping fertilizers
and the cleansing of impervious pavements by rainwater contribute to the sedimentation and
degradation of our waterways. A Stormwater Management Plan (SWP) may include the collection
and reuse of stormwater to reduce the amount of potable water required for irrigation and
flushing of toilets. Stormwater management is often regulated by state or local codes to address
regional preferences. In certain parts of the U.S., management is generally encouraged in efforts
to reduce the impact on waterways and in communities with combined sanitary and storm
sewer systems. However, in other parts of the U.S., stormwater is committed to downstream use
for livestock, crops and municipal water supplies.
Strategy considerations for controlling and reducing the quantity and improving the quality of
stormwater runoff:
Quantity control
Design project site to maintain natural stormwater flows, promoting infiltration
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Minimize impervious areas by using alternative surfaces such as pervious pavements,
open grid pavers and vegetated roofs
Pervious pavements: For hardscapes such as parking, drives, walks and other similar
surfaces, use pervious materials that will allow stormwater to penetrate through the
surface to the soils below to reduce the quantity of the stormwater runoff. Also, the
quality of stormwater that goes back into the soils and possibly to the aquifers is filtrated
and improved
Grid pavers: consider the use of open grid pavers that allow the stormwater to filtrate the
open spaces created by the grid pattern to reduce the quantity of stormwater runoff
Vegetated roofs (aka green roofs): There are many synergies associated with vegetated
roofs in addition to reducing the amount of stormwater runoff. The quality of retained
stormwater is improved, the roof is better insulated which improves heat gain/loss,
reducing the amount of HVAC required and the subsequent energy consumption and
vegetated roofs increase the amount of open green space, providing an environment for
insects, birds and other habitat
Control Stormwater: Redirect the flow and rate
Design retention and detention ponds, rain gardens, bioswales, vegetated strips or
similar structures to retain or hold and slow the rate of stormwater runoff
Harvest Rainwater: Collect and reuse
Capture rainwater for reuse in such areas as irrigation, flushing toilets and urinals, and
custodial
Quality control
Most all of the strategies used for controlling the quantity of stormwater runoff can
also be implemented for improving the quality of stormwater runoff by utilizing Best
Management Practices (BMPs). BMPs are methods that have been proven to be effective
and are therefore accepted measures for meeting the requirement.
Pervious pavement and open grid pavers allow a certain amount of water to penetrate
the material and infiltrate to the soils below, filtering contaminants from the stormwater
Structural techniques such as vegetated roofs and non-structural techniques such as rain
gardens, bioswales and vegetated strips offer a natural filtration of the stormwater

Green Roofs

Retention and Detention Ponds

Rain Gardens

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Sustainable Sites
Heat Island Effect
A heat island is an urban area which is significantly
warmer than its surrounding rural areas. The main cause
of the urban heat island is simply the modification of the
land surface by urban development. Heat islands can be
caused by buildings blocking surface heat from radiating
into the relatively cold night sky, the lack of sufficient wind,
changes in the thermal properties of surface materials
and a lack of evapotranspiration in urban areas. Materials
commonly used in urban areas, such as concrete and
asphalt, have significantly different properties that
store and release heat than surrounding rural areas.
These temperature differentials are generally greater
at night than during the day. Heat island effects are
also major contributors to smog in urban areas. LEED
defines heat islands as temperatures 2 to 10 degrees
greater than those of surrounding urban areas. LEED
addresses heat island elements related to roofs and
nonroof components.
Pavement and roofing materials can be huge contributors to heat islands
due to their thermal properties, acting as heat sinks that collect and store
heat. Conventional paving and roofing materials that are darker in color
exacerbate this problem by absorbing more of the suns energy.
Emissivity is the ability of a material to emit heat by radiation, solar
reflectance (albedo) is the measure of a materials ability to reflect sunlight
and Solar Reflectance Ratio (SRI) is the measure of a materials ability to
reject solar heat. The ideal relationship is lower emissivity and higher albedo and SRI. Pavement
and roofing materials that exhibit these qualities are often referred to as cool pavements and
cool roofs.
Solar Reflectance is the fraction of the solar energy that is reflected by a surface, such as a
roof or pavement, expressed as a number between zero and one. The higher the value, the
better the roof reflects solar energy. For example, a white reflective coating or membrane
has a reflectance value of 0.85 (reflects 85% of solar energy hitting it and absorbs the
remaining 15%), while asphalt has a value of 0.09 (reflects 9%).
Emittance is the amount of absorbed heat that is radiated from a surface, expressed as a
number between zero and one. The higher the value, the better the surface radiates heat.
Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) indicates the ability of a surface to reject solar heat, and is the
combined value of reflectivity and emittance. It is defined so that a standard black is zero
(reflectance 0.05, emittance 0.90) and a standard white is 100 (reflectance 0.80, emittance
0.90). Because of the way SRI is defined, very hot materials can have slightly negative SRI
values, and very cool materials can have SRI values exceeding 100.
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Green roofs are becoming popular in the U.S. in larger metropolitan areas, such as Chicago.
In addition to assisting stormwater management by reducing quantity of flow and increasing
quality of release, green roofs reduce the buildings energy consumption, provides vegetated
open space and refuge for habitat. Green roofs also reduce the heat island effect of absorbing
the suns energy by providing natural vegetation and soils which also contributes to the cooling
effects of evapotranspiration, the release of water from plants into the atmosphere. Green roofs
are a great sustainable strategy for a project.
Strategy considerations for reducing heat island effects on the microclimate and human and
wildlife habitat:
Nonroofs
Reduce area of hardscapes including roads, parking lots/parking structures, walks or
courtyards
Shading: combination of any of the following strategies for 50% of the total hardscape
area
Shade from existing tree canopy or, for new trees, within 5 years of installation
Shade from structures covered by solar panels that produce renewable energy
Shade from architectural features that have a SRI of at least 29
Cool pavements: Use hardscape materials with a SRI of at least 29
Open grid pavement systems which are at least 50% pervious
Place a minimum of 50% of parking spaces under cover
Roofs used to shade or cover parking must have a SRI of at least 29
Roofs
Cool Roofs: Use roofing materials for 75% of the roof surface with controlled SRI values
78 SRI for low sloped roofs less than or equal to 2:12 slope
29 SRI for steep sloped roofs greater than 2:12 slope
Green Roofs: Install a vegetated roof that covers at least 50% of the roof area
Install high albedo (SRI) cool roof and vegetated roof surfaces that, in combination, meet
the following:
(area of roof meeting minimum SRI / 0.75) + (area of vegetated roof/0.5) = Total Roof
Area

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Sustainable Sites
Light Pollution Reduction
Outdoor lighting is important for safety, lighting passages between buildings and sidewalks,
parking lots and roadways. However, poorly designed exterior lighting can add to nighttime
light pollution which can interfere with nocturnal ecology, reduce observation of night skies
(aka Sky Glow), cause roadway glare and jeopardize relationships with neighbors by creating
light trespass.
Properly designed lighting systems can promote an appreciation for a place at night. Careful
selection of fixture types and wattage and controlling the lighting during off hours or curfew
times can avoid light pollution, maintain safety and enhance the public image of a company.
The intent of light pollution reduction is to:
Minimize light trespass from the building and site
Reduce sky glow to increase night sky access
Improve nighttime visibility through glare reduction
Reduce development impact on nocturnal environments

Satellite image of earth at night

Reduce exterior lighting for nonessential use

Interior
Utilize indirect interior lighting or automated non-emergency lighting shutoff controls
Shut off non-emergency lighting:
Reduce power to all non-emergency lighting with a direct line of sight to building
envelope openings, such as windows and doors, with shutoff controls during off hours
or curfew times
Automatic shielding:
Provide automatic shielding or permanent obstructions, for all non-emergency
lighting with a direct line of sight to building envelope openings, such as windows
and doors

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Exterior
Design site lighting with computer model
Use computer modeling for proper selection and location of fixture types
Accurate control of illumination levels, particularly important for maintaining
required lighting densities per ASHRAE 90.1 and light trespass at the project
property lines
Only light areas required for safety and comfort
Shut off or reduce lighting levels for non-essential lighting such as building facade
and landscaping lighting
Use full cutoff light fixtures, low angle spot lights and low reflectance surfaces
Full cutoff light fixtures prevent wasteful uplighting above a horizontal plane,
reduces glare and helps prevent light trespass
Low angle spot lights help reduce glare, lighting unnecessary surfaces and
wasting energy lighting the sky
Low reflectance surfaces reduces light reflectance and trespass
Classify project lighting zone and comply accordingly with the requirements of
IESNA RP-33
LZ1 - Dark (park and rural settings)
LZ2 - Low (residential areas and neighborhood business districts)
LZ3 - Medium (commercial/industrial and high density residential)
LZ4 - High (major city centers and entertainment districts)
School sports fields are excluded from requirements, but must have automatic
shutoffs

Development Density and Community Connectivity


In order to achieve credit for urban redevelopment, 2 options are available to the project:
Development Density and Community Connectivity.
Development Density
The requirements to meet this credit option are to construct or renovate a building
on a previously developed site and in a community with a minimum density of
60,000 sf. The density calculation is based on a 2 story building and considers
the building and the surrounding community. The first calculation required is to
determine the development density for the project by dividing the total square
footage of the building by the total site area in acres. This must be a minimum of
60,000 sf / acre.
Development Density (sf/acre) = Gross Building Area (sf) / Site Area (acres)

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The second calculation is used to determine the density radius. Convert the site area
from acres to sf (multiply the # of acres x 43,560 sf/ac) and then multiply this number by
the square root of 3.
Density Radius (sf) = 3 x square root [Site Area (acres) x 43,560 (sf/acre)]

OR

The third calculation adds the sum of all buildings within the density radius. Add the
square footage and property acres of all buildings within the density radius and dividing
the total square footage by the total acres. The average density of all properties inside
this radius must be 60,000 sf or greater. Exclude undeveloped public areas such as parks
and water bodies and public roads and right-of-way areas.
Average Property Density within Density Boundary = sum Square Footage / sum Site
Area

Community Connectivity
Community Connectivity also requires
the construction or renovation of a
building on a previously develop site.
The intent of this option is to connect
the project to an existing infrastructure
by requiring the site to be within
1/2 mile of a residential zone with an
average density of 10 units per acres,
within 1/2 mile of at least 10 basic
services and must have unobstructed
pedestrian access between the
building and the services.. No service
type can be counted more that once in
the calculations other than restaurants,
where 2 are permitted.

Project location relative to 10 community services


within 1/2 mile walking distance from the building

Alternative Transportation - Public Transportation Access

Another area important to a successful urban redevelopment project is the proximity of the
project to mass transportation infrastructures usually found in densely populated urban areas.
The requirements for achieving this credit relate to the availability and proximity of rail stations
and bus stops. As with Development Density and Community Connectivity, there are 2 options
available to the project.
Rail Station
The project must be located within 1/2 mile walking distance of an existing, planned and
funded commuter rail, light rail or subway station
OR
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Bus Stops
The project must be within 1/4 mile
walking distance of 1 or more stops for
2 or more public, campus or private bus
lines usable by building occupants

Bus stops within a 1/4 mile radius


with walking path from the building

Full Time Equivalents (FTEs)


full time equivalent (FTE): a regular building occupant who spends 40 hours per week in the
project building. Part time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per
week divided by 40. Multiple shifts are included for credits that require annual calculations, as
with annual potable water consumption and wastewater generation.
full time equivalent building occupants: a measure equal to the total number of hours all
building occupants spend in the building during the peak 8 hour occupancy period divided by
8 hours
There are two pieces of information required when registering a project with LEED Online that
are used across several credits. Therefore, LEED boundary information and Full Time Equivalent
data must be consistent when applied to each applicable credit.
The project boundary is used for storm water calculations, open space requirements and light
trespass as well as providing data for other credits. The first instance when FTEs are required is
in the Sustainable Sites category to determine the required quantities for SS credit 4.2: Bicycle
Storage and Changing Rooms.
Full Time Equivalents identify the total number of building occupants of the following occupancy
types:



Full time staff


Part time staff
Peak Transients (students, volunteers, visitors, customers, etc.)
Residents
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For full time and part time staff, the FTE occupants are based on an 8 hour occupancy period.
An 8 hour full time occupant has an FTE value of 1.0 and a part time occupants FTE is the hours
they work per day divided by 8. In buildings with multiple shifts, only the shift with the highest
volume is used. FTE calculations for each shift must be used consistently for all LEED credits.
Transient occupants and total shifts worked are particularly important in the Water Efficiency
category when determining annual wastewater and potable water calculations. Annual
calculations are determined by the total consumption or load during a 24 hour period for the
total number of days worked annually. For instance, if there are three shifts and the FTE quantities
of the shifts are 150, 100 and 50 FTEs, for most credits the highest shift with 150 FTE would be
used. However, when total annual calculations are required, the consumption or load during a
24 hour period would be that created by the combined shifts of 150, 100 and 50 - or 300 FTEs.

Codes & Referenced Standards


Refer to the Appendix for a complete listing of Referenced Standards by Credit with a description
of the intent of the standard
The Sustainable Sites category contains many standards for implementing credit strategies
regulating site disturbance, stormwater management, open space, light pollution. Important
standards to become familiar with:
2003 EPA Construction General Permit: NPDES stormwater regulations for site construction
activity
ASTM E1527-05 Phase I Environmental Assessment & ASTM E1903-97 Phase II Environmental
Site Assessment
U.S. Department of Agriculture, United States Code of Federal Regulations Title 7, Volume 6,
Parts 400 to 699, Section 657.5: Standard that defines prime farmland
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Definition of 100 Year Flood: The flood
elevation that has a 1% chance of being reached or exceeded each year
Endangered Species List (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, List of Threatened and Endangered
Species): Addresses threatened and endangered wildlife and plants
National Marine Fisheries Services, List of Endangered Marine Species: In addition to this
federal list, state agencies provide state specific lists
United States Code of Federal Regulations, 40 CFR, Parts 230 -233, and Part 22, Definition
of Wetlands: Addresses wetlands and discharges of dredge or filled material into water
regulated by states
U.S. EPA, Definition of Brownfields
ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low Rise
Residential Lighting, Section 9 (without amendments): Establishes exterior lighting power
densities (LPD) for buildings
Various ASTM standards regarding Heat Island Effect

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Final Thoughts
Terminology to know
Refer to Acronyms and Glossary of Terms chapter
Albedo
Alternative Fuel Vehicles
Biodiversity
Biomass
Bioswale
Brownfield
Building Density
Building Footprint
Community Connectivity
Development Density
Emissivity
Floodplain
Floor-to-Area Ratio
Footcandle
Full Time Equivalent (FTE)
Heat Island Effect
Imperviousness
Native and Adapted Plants
Perviousness
Prime Farmland
Rain Garden
Site Disturbance
Solar Reflectance Index (SRI)
Stormwater Runoff
Street Grid Density
Transient Occupants
Transportation Demand Management
Wetland Vegetation
Xeriscaping

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Thoughts to keep
The location of the site is of paramount importance to immediate and long term environmental
impacts. LEED sustainable sites promotes responsible and practical site design strategies relative
to local and regional communities and ecosystems in four areas:
Transportation
Site Selection
Site Design and Management
Stormwater Management
Transportation
The Triple Bottom Line:
Economic Prosperity: Reducing vehicle travel saves operation and maintenance costs
for the vehicle owner and reduces the burden of construction and maintenance of
highways
Social Responsibility: Reducing vehicle emissions also increases the quality of the air;
strategies such as mass transportation and bicycles promotes exercise
Environmental Stewardship: The obvious here is the reduction of vehicle emissions
Strategies:
Locate site in an area that has mass transit
Limit parking
Encourage carpooling
Promote alternative fuel vehicles
Offer incentives
Support alternative transportation
Site Selection
The Triple Bottom Line:
Economic Prosperity: Site location can have a direct affect on vehicle miles traveled
(vmt) saving both fossil fuels and infrastructure; can contribute to the economy of
local communities; proper site selection allows for placement and orientation of the
building to reduce energy costs providing daylighting and natural ventilation
Social Responsibility: Sites should allow for sensitivity to strategies that promote the
restoration or protection of the natural habitat
Environmental Stewardship: Strategies such as daylighting and natural ventilation
reduces energy use; redevelopment saves greenfield sites
Strategies:
Increase development density
Reduce development footprint to increase vegetated and pervious open space
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Locate project in densely populated communities to reduce sprawl
Redevelopment
Build on previously developed sites
Restore a brownfield site
Protect the habitat
Select sites that do not include sensitive site elements
Urban development
Site Design and Management
The Triple Bottom Line:
Economic Prosperity: Strategies that incorporate native landscaping will conserve both
water and energy and require less maintenance
Social Responsibility: Reducing light pollution shows a concern for community and
safety; creating and increasing the natural habitat serves the project as well as adjoining
properties
Environmental Stewardship: Incorporating proper hardscape/roofing materials with
proper landscape design will reduce the heat island effect
Strategies:
Create an Erosion and Sedimentation Control Plan to reduce construction pollution
Reduce site disturbance caused by building footprint
Efficient hardscapes
Minimize water usage
Use of reflective materials
Sustainable management plan
Stormwater Management
The Triple Bottom Line:
Economic Prosperity: A proper stormwater management plan implemented at the
beginning of the project reduces damage to the site which later must be corrected;
retention ponds, rain gardens, wetlands and other aesthetic strategies can increase
the property value
Social Responsibility: Stormwater management strategies such as retention ponds, rain
gardens and wetlands promote biodiversity of native habitat; effective in reducing
damages to adjoining properties
Environmental Stewardship: Managing stormwater reduces flooding and sedimentation
of downstream land and waterways; stormwater can be used for irrigation and inside
for flushing toilets thereby saving potable water
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Strategies:
Quantity control
Reduce building footprint
Reduce impervious pavement materials
Use pervious pavement materials, vegetated roofs, rain gardens, bioswales,
retention and detention ponds to hold and/or slow the rate of stormwater runoff
Quality control
Reduce building footprint
Reduce impervious pavement materials
Use pervious pavement materials, vegetated roofs, rain gardens, bioswales,
retention and detention ponds to hold and/or slow the rate of stormwater runoff
Nonpoint source pollution is one of the greatest threats to stormwater quality and
can be caused by oil leaks from vehicles, fertilizers and other contaminants washed
across impervious surfaces during a rain.
Miscellaneous
Alternative Fuel Vehicles:
Electric; hydrogen; natural gas; ethanol, biofuel
Eligible vehicles:
Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEV) as defined by the California Air Resources Board
(CARB)
Green Score 40 or greater listed by the American Council for an Energy Efficient
Economy (ACEEE)
Brownfields:
EPA defines brownfields as real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse
of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous
substance, pollutant or contaminate.
If found to be contaminated, but remediated, the land can be reused
Schools are not permitted to be built on land that was previously used as a landfill
Heat island properties:
Understand the key elements: albedo, solar reflectance, solar reflectance index,
emittance

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Studio4 Office Project: Sustainable Sites
LEED Online Registration
Aside from the standard issue of questions about the Project Administrator, Project Owner and
general project details, there are two pieces of information LEED Online requires from the Project
Administrator that will serve as a standard of accounting across several credits that uses the
same information and, therefore must be used consistently throughout the certification process.
One is project boundary information and the other is the FTE count.
The project boundary for this project, as well as most sites with a single building, will simply
be the legal property description that is generally shown on a survey drawing that defines the
metes and bounds. Also, the civil engineers drawings will indicate the property lines as well as
defining the scope of the project relative to work outside the building proper.

Project Boundaries
Another area that needs to be checked by the Project Team is an analysis of the Minimum
Program Requirements (MPR). This project meets the mandatory requirements, however, one
calculation does need to be made to ensure that the minimum building area to site area ratio is
in compliance. This requires that the gross floor area of the LEED project building must be no
less than 2% of the gross land area within the LEED project boundary. The site area is 3.5 acres
and the gross floor area is 12,000 sf. Therefore:
(3.5 acres x 43,560 sf/acre) x 0.02 = 152,460 x 0.02 = 3,049.2 sf minimum required
Although the project was zoned for two buildings with the agreement that there would be an
eventual lot split, for the sake of expediency, the split will occur after the completion of the
project and certification approved. Also needed to consider is the fact that this is a speculative
project and Phase II may never be developed.
FTE requirements refer to occupant loads, and occupant loads have different meanings
depending on the requirements being met. In the case of zoning, occupant loads deal with life
safety issues and addresses areas such as the minimum width of egress corridors and number of
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required emergency exit doors based on the building use group. LEED, on the other hand, views
occupants from a different perspective, allowing two options for determining occupant counts,
or FTEs. If the actual FTE is not known, LEED provides a matrix based on the type of occupancy
use. For general office use such as this project, this would be 1 FTE per 250 sf of the gross square
footage. Therefore:
12,000 sf / 250 = 48 FTEs

Schematic Design
The Civil Engineer has taken the data collected during the initial charrette and prepared a
preliminary schematic site development plan where the owner, architect, engineers, landscape
architect, contractor and other stakeholders can review and discuss in more detail the strategies
to achieve the credits being sought. They will also determine what synergies are apparent and
perhaps uncover hidden issues in the form of adverse tradeoffs that may affect their credit
selections.

Conceptual Site Development Plan

Sustainable Sites Category


Sustainable Sites deal with issues outside of the building, including portions of the building
exterior, the land that is being developed, and the surrounding community. Choosing a
buildings site and managing that site during construction are important considerations for
the sustainability of any project. The Sustainable Sites category discourages development on
previously undeveloped land; minimizes a buildings impact on ecosystems and waterways;
encourages regionally appropriate landscaping; rewards smart transportation choices; controls
stormwater runoff; and reduces erosion, light pollution, heat island effect and construction
related pollution.
SSp1 Construction Activity Pollution Prevention: This prerequisite requires the creation and
implementation of an erosion sediment control (ESC) plan, in accordance with the 2003
EPA Construction General Permit or local standards if more strict, to prevent loss of soil,
sedimentation and air pollution during the course of construction. Soil erosion on building
sites is a major source of sediment pollution in waterways and the runoff of sediment
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carries pollutants and excessive nutrients that enter the water systems at concentrated
levels. Many communities require strict adherence to EPA regulations or local ordinances
concerning both the protection of the site and the effects of site disturbance downstream.
Additionally, a mandated requirement for this site is that of monitoring the effectiveness
of control measures after storms that have delivered a set amount of rainfall within a given
period. Construction submittal: civil engineer, landscape architect, contractor
SSc1 Site Selection: This is an easy credit to achieve given the fact that this site fits perfectly
with the goals of sustainable sites. This site: does not infringe on any of the sensitive or
protected site elements such as wetlands, flood plains, endangered species, farmland, etc.;
is a previously developed site, thereby preserving greenfields; and is situated in a location
with a substantial amount of community connectivity. Design submittal: owner, civil
engineer, environmental engineer, ecologist
SSc2 Development Density and Community Connectivity: The intent of the Development
Density option is to drive development towards high density neighborhoods that have a
60,000 sf/acre density ratio. However, in the past this has been a difficult task to achieve.
Recently, LEED added the Community Connectivity option to this credit in a successful
effort to make it a much easier path to compliance. With regards to Development Density,
a precedent had been established through a legacy CIR for a project of comparable size
to this project, but located in an area where the average density was over 125,000 sf per
acre. This avenue could possibly have been pursued, but is unnecessary at this point.
There is the intent of the Project Team not to apply for CIRs in an effort to expedite the
project. Community Connectivity is virtually at the projects doorstep. There is available the
required 10 community services and high density residential units (10 units/acre) within a
1/2 mile radius with sidewalks that provide a direct and unobstructed link. This will meet
the requirements of the Community Connectivity option of the credit. Each of the 10
basic services have to be identified and the information uploaded via LEED Online. Design
submittal: owner, developer, design team

Community Connectivity (10 basic services and high density residential within 1/2 mile)
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SSc3 Brownfield Redevelopment: Brownfields have the potential to be renewed with proper
remediation that removes possible hazardous materials from the sites soil and groundwater
that may be present. Redevelopment on brownfields prevents development on undeveloped
greenfields that may serve as a habitat for wildlife and brownfields are usually located
in areas having existing infrastructure necessary for the new development. Reclaiming a
potentially contaminated site can provide economic support to the surrounding area and
initialize further development. Unfortunately, with regards to this credit, a condition of sale
required the previous owners to demolish and remove the existing buildings and accessory
structures. The age of those buildings revealed asbestos siding on the main structure.
Asbestos has previously been permitted by the EPA as an environmentally hazardous
material sufficient to classify a site as a Brownfield. This project would most likely have
qualified as a brownfield. Design submittal: owner, civil engineer, environmental engineer,
ecologist, EPA
SSc4 Alternative Transportation: There are 4 sub-credits within SSc4, and the project will
pursue SSc4.3 Alternative Transportation - Low Emitting and Fuel Efficient Vehicles and
SSc4.4 Alternative Transportation - Parking Capacity.
SSc4.1 Alternative Transportation - Public Transportation Access: The use of public
transportation decreases air pollution in urban areas and reduces the building footprint by
requiring only a minimum of parking space. Choosing a site close to public transportation
gives building occupants the option to use public transportation to and from work. There
is no public transportation available to this project. Design submittal: owner, architect,
design team
SSc4.2 Alternative Transportation - Bicycle Storage and Changing Rooms: Select a site that
provides convenient biking paths, safe bike storage, and close shower facilities to building
occupants where the showering facilities must be within 200 yards of the entrance to
the building. Design submittal: architect, civil engineer, landscape architect, plumbing
engineer
SSc4.3 Alternative Transportation - Low Emitting and Fuel Efficient Vehicles: This credit
allows achievement by reserving 5% of the total parking capacity for the use of low
emitting and fuel efficient vehicles. 5% x 60 spaces = 3 spaces to be reserved close to the
building entrance for these types of vehicles. Design submittal: owner, architect, design
team
SSc4.4 Alternative Transportation - Parking Capacity: Option 1 permits no more parking
capacity than that required by code. Local zoning regulations for this type of use requires
1 parking space per 200 sf of gross building area. Therefore, 12,000 sf/200 = 60 parking
spaces. Phase I of this project has the 60 spaces as required. Design submittal: owner,
architect, design team
SSc5 Site Development and SSc6 Stormwater Design
Sustainable Sites credits SSc5 and SSc6, with their 2 sub-credits each, afford the project many
synergetic opportunities throughout the sustainable categories and allows many of the same
strategies for credit compliance. Most projects governed by local, state and federal regulations
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require some degree of stormwater control and landscaping/open space requirements.
Implementing strategies for a path to compliance for one credit can be used successfully for
strategies related to other credits. Constructed wetlands, for instance, dont have to be large in
size, yet can serve to control the quantity and quality of stormwater, stormwater reuse for irrigation
and toilet flushing, graywater reuse and reducing heat island effects while providing a natural
and much needed refuse for local habitat. Rain gardens, vegetated swales and strips, bioswales,
detention/retention areas, wetlands and similar strategies can singularly, or collectively, be used
to achieve most, if not all, of the credit opportunities offered.
SSc5 - Site Development credits are important for the enhancement of the natural elements
of the project site such as native plants and trees, soils, and watersheds. On greenfield sites, a
key strategy to credit achievement is to minimize the building footprint as much as possible.
Utilize strategies such as sharing facilities, and stacking the parking with the building and during
construction, create construction boundaries that minimize land disturbance. Open space is
beneficial in urban environments to wildlife whose habitats are rapidly disappearing. Smaller
development footprints and more greenspace helps with the urban heat island effect and
provides for better stormwater retention. The goal of SSSc6 - Stormwater Design is to decrease the
amount of stormwater runoff that leaves the site. The options depend on the pre-development
conditions on the site. If it is a greenfield, prevent an increase in stormwater runoff on site after
development. If the site has existing impervious surfaces, decrease the amount of stormwater that
exits the site by 25% after development. Where SS Credit 6.1 is about the quantity of stormwater
that leaves the site, SS Credit 6.2 is about the quality of the water that leaves the site. To meet the
requirements of the credit, create and implement a stormwater management plan (SWMP) that
is designed to capture and treat runoff from 90% of the average annual rainfall. Also, the best
management practices (BMPs) used to treat runoff must remove 80% of the average annual post
development total suspended solids (TSS) load.
With the design of any project, a well qualified Project Team will understand how to best
maximize the strategies and synergies available in the Sustainable Sites category.

Constructed wetland, habitat,


rain garden, vegetated strip
and pervious pavements
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SSc5.1 Site Development - Protect or Restore Habitat: This credit addresses two site
conditions, Case 1 as applied to greenfield sites and Case 2 for
previously developed areas or graded sites. This is an important
credit to pursue because of the synergies involved and, in the sites
current configuration, an easy credit to achieve. Option 2 requires
protecting or restoring the greater of 50% of the site (excluding
building footprint) or 20% of the site (including building footprint)
with native or adaptive vegetation. Considering the fact that a lot
split is not planned during Phase I, combined with the extensive
landscape requirements of the local zoning ordinance, there is sufficient land available to
meet the requirements of this credit. The landscape architect will coordinate with the civil
engineer on this credit to design and engineer rain gardens, vegetated swales, constructed
wetlands and other strategies that can contribute to many Sustainable Site and Water
Efficiency credits. Construction submittal: civil engineer, landscape architect, environmental
engineer, ecologist, local professional
SSc5.2 Site Development - Maximize Open Space: This credit has three cases that address
existing local zoning ordinance provisions regarding open
space requirements. Open space is the property area minus the
development footprint and must be vegetated and pervious.
This project falls under the case where there is local zoning but
without any requirement for open space. Although the local
ordinance has no provision for a percentage of open space, it does
include an extensive and aggressive landscaping policy requiring
all unpaved and undeveloped portions of the site be vegetated.
This is an instance where local codes are more stringent than
those requirements necessary to comply with the credit. On this
site, all property lines, right of ways, interior pavement islands, mandated spaces between
sidewalks and buildings will be landscaped with plants, shrubs and trees and landscaped
berms constructed to protect visibility from adjacent residential properties. Since c5.1 & c5.2
go hand-in-hand with each other, the civil engineer and landscape architect will coordinate
the design and construction documents. Design submittal: civil engineer, landscape
architect, environmental engineer, ecologist, local professional
SSc6.1 Stormwater Design - Quantity Control: The intent of this credit is to limit disruption of
natural water hydrology by reducing impervious cover, increasing
on-site infiltration, reducing or eliminating pollution from
stormwater runoff, and eliminating contaminants. On building
sites where the existing imperviousness is greater than 50%, this
credit requires reducing the quantity of stormwater runoff by
25%. On building sites where the existing imperviousness is less
than 50%, the requirement specifies that the post-development
discharge rate and quantity from the site shall not exceed the pre-development rate and
quantity. This site had no improvements, as there are no existing impervious surfaces and
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requires either 1) a stormwater management plan that prevents the post-development peak
discharge rate and quantity from exceeding the predevelopment peak discharge rate and
quantity for the 1 and 2 year 24 hour design storms OR 2) implementation of a stormwater
management plan that protects receiving stream channels from excessive erosion and
the stormwater management plan must include stream channel protection and quantity
control strategies. This credit is actually mandated by local zoning regulations that require
stormwater to be held and released for the purpose of downstream protection. Design
submittal: civil engineer, landscape architect
SSc6.2 Stormwater Design - Quality Control: The intent of this credit is to limit the disruption
of natural stormwater and clean the stormwater that becomes
contaminated as it passes through the site. To do this, the project
must implement a stormwater management plan that reduces
the amount of impervious cover, promotes infiltration and then
captures and treats the remaining stormwater runoff for 90% of
the average annual rainfall. For this credit, LEED promotes Best
Practice Methods (BMPs) as long as they remove 80% of the
post-development Total Suspended Solids (TSS). This credit is
achievable through the implementation of strategies and techniques provided by credits
SSc5.1, SSc5.2 and SSc6.1. The wetland area, rain gardens and vegetated swales will hold
and retain stormwater, allowing some passage through the structures into the subgrade
for filtration. The remaining stormwater that does eventually pass through to the public
storm sewer, or waterways, will have been cleansed by the vegetation while being held. In
calculating the amount of stormwater to treat, climatic data is used for the specific region
where the project is located. There are 3 distinct climates in the U.S. that influence the
amount of annual rainfall. Humid watersheds that receive at least 40 of annual rainfall,
semiarid watersheds which receive between 20-40 per year and arid watersheds that
will receive less than 20 of annual rainfall. Treating 90% of the annual rainfall is equal to
the following: 1 for humid watersheds, 0.75 for semiarid watersheds and 0.50 for arid
watersheds. Design submittal: owner, architect, civil engineer, landscape architect
SSc7.1 Heat Island Effect - Nonroof: This credit requires shade (within 5 years of occupancy),
materials with a Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of at least 29, and/
or open-grid pavement for at least 50% of the sites non-roof
impervious surfaces such as roads, sidewalks, courtyards, and
parking lots. A second option requires placing a minimum of
50% of parking spaces underground or under a deck, a roof, or
a building. Any roof used to shade or cover parking must also
have a SRI of at least 29. This credit will be achieved by using
concrete for the parking lot, which accounts for more than 50%
of the hardscaped areas. Ordinary concrete has an SRI value
range between 38 and 52. Construction submittal: architect, civil
engineer, landscape architect

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SSc7.2 Heat Island Effect - Roof: In general, there are 2 configurations used for conventional
roof designs - flat roofs and sloped roofs. This shingled roof will
have a slope of 6:12. LEED considers a steep sloped roof as one
having a slope greater than 2:12 and requiring an SRI index of 29
or higher. Low sloped roofs have a slope of 2:12 or less and require
an SRI index of 78 or higher. LEED allows vegetated roofs, high SRI
roofs and roofs that use a combination of the two and provides
formulas for the amount of area of each material to use in order
to comply with the credit. For the roof on this project, 75% of the
roof surface must be covered with a shingle that has a minimum
SRI value of 29. Fortunately, there are many colors available to
select from the manufacturers of cool shingles. Design submittal: architect, civil engineer,
landscape architect, mechanical engineer
SSc8 Light Pollution Reduction: Reducing light pollution relative to the site requires
regulating the light sources inside and outside of the building.
On the interior, all non-emergency light must be regulated when
trespassing beyond translucent surfaces (windows) between the
hours of 11:00 p.m. and 5:00 a.m. This can be accomplished by
installing automatic devices with manual overrides that will turn off
the interior lights during this time period. Addressing the exterior
light pollution requires a determination of the proper lighting zone and using shielded
light fixtures where there exists the potential for these fixtures to produce glare, trespass,
etc. There are two possible candidates to consider for the lighting zone - LZ2 Low and LZ3
Medium. If using the more strict LZ2, the footcandle (fc) level at the property (boundary)
line can be no greater than 0.10 fc horizontal and vertical. However, this is another instance
where local codes and ordinances are more stringent than the requirements to achieve the
credit. The local zoning ordinance mandates 0.00 fc at the property line. Although argued
for some time as being impractical and nearly impossible to achieve, the 0.00 fc ordinance
is still in effect. Design submittal: architect, civil engineer, electrical engineer, landscape
architect, lighting designer
SSc9 Tenant Design and Construction Guidelines: This credit is specifically targeted to
C&S projects and requires the publication of an illustrated document written to educate
tenants about implementing sustainable design and construction features in their tenant
improvement build-out and how to use LEED for Commercial Interiors. Design submittal:
owner, architect, design team

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Sustainable Sites
Schematic Site Development Plan

Design Site Development Plan


The civil engineer has taken the preliminary site development sketch and coordinated with the
landscape architect to prepare a refined Site Development Plan for distribution to the team to
review. This design and subsequent review comments will be used to begin the final site related
construction documents. The sustainable elements incorporated into this plan include:
Pervious sidewalk pavement
SRI 29 concrete parking and drive pavement
SRI 29 roofing materials
Vegetated swales to collect, hold, filter and release stormwater runoff
Rain gardens between vegetated swale and parking lot, between building and sidewalk
and in 2 parking islands
Landscaped berm along east property line
Native and/or adaptive landscaping
Wetland for stormwater, habitat and potential reservoir for stormwater reuse
In summary, the credits being pursued in the Sustainable Sites category have come at little
additional cost to the project budget. Often referred to as the low hanging fruit, many of these
credits are either mandated by local codes and ordinances or were available due to the location
and existing condition of the site. Also, the sanitary and storm sewer authority that services
several cities and surrounding counties has initiated an aggressive campaign to expedite the
study and implementation of sustainable and green practices. As such, they will make available
funding on this project the cost for the rain gardens and constructed wetlands for inclusion
into their pilot program. An agreement to allow the Metropolitan Sewer District to monitor
performance is required.

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Sustainable Sites
Project Checklist Analysis

Not bad! 19 probable points out of 28 available with only 40 required for LEED certification. What
does this mean? We are halfway to certification and the cost so far for being green has been
minimal.
The next session will begin at the end of the Water Efficiency chapter.
Please note, the Project Checklist is a tool that allows the Project Team to check off the credits
during the charrette they believe to be achievable and also check those credits the project will
not pursue. For the purposes of this exercise, the checklist is being used as an analysis of the
project credit standing as it progresses through the categories.

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ater is finite and the Earths most precious


resource. The sustainable goals of the Water
Efficiency category address the following areas:
Indoor potable water reduction; outdoor potable
water reduction; water efficiency as a teaching
tool

CHAPTER | 5
Water Efficiency (WE)
Credit Matrix
Introduction
Water Type Definitions
Indoor Potable Water Use Reduction
Outdoor Potable Water Use Reduction
Additional Benefits of Potable Water Reduction
Water Efficient Strategies
Water Efficiency as a Teaching Tool
Codes & Referenced Standards
Final Thoughts
Studio4 Project: Water Efficiency

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Water Efficiency
Credit Matrix
Prereq
Credit
WEp1
WEc1
WEc2
WEc3
WEc4

NC
Title
WATER EFFICIENCY (WE)
Water Use Reduction
Water Efficient Landscaping
Innovative Wastewater Technologies
Water Use Reduction
Process Water Use Reduction

10
Reqd
*2-4
2
*2-4
NA

Schools
Points
11
Reqd
*2-4
2
*2-4
1

CS
10
Reqd
*2-4
2
*2-4
NA

Introduction
Water is a finite and precious resource. A recent international poll determined that clean water
shortages top the worlds most urgent issues. As the demand for development increases, the
burden on our limited water resources also increases, making it increasingly important for
corporations and individuals to understand the dire ramifications associated with neglecting
this impending crisis.
Another important concern is the direct correlation between the water we use and the resultant
wastewater that is generated. The continued increase in the use of public potable water also
creates an increase in the amount of wastewater being generated, thereby threatening the
capabilities of our wastewater treatment facilities. The vast majority of the water we use is
treated and discharged into our waterways. In turn, treatment facilities that are being taxed run
the danger of releasing untreated wastewater into our waterways. The use of water can also be
directly related to energy consumption. Considering many water conservation measures can be
done at no cost or at a rapid payback, it just seems prudent to make water efficiency a priority.

Water Type Definitions


potable water: water that meets or exceeds EPAs drinking water quality standards and is
approved for human consumption by the state or local authorities having jurisdiction
graywater: domestic wastewater composed of wash water from kitchen, bathroom and laundry
sinks, tubs and washers; the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC) defines graywater as untreated
household wastewater that has not come in contact with toilet waste; the International
Plumbing Code (IPC) defines graywater as wastewater discharged from lavatories, bathtubs,
showers, clothes washers and laundry sinks; some states will allow kitchen sinks to be included
with graywater
blackwater: wastewater from toilets and urinals; definitions vary where wastewater from
kitchen sinks, showers and bathtubs are considered as blackwater under some jurisdictions
wastewater: the spent or used water from a home, farm, community or industry that contains
dissolved or suspended matter
stormwater: runoff water resulting from precipitation that flows over surfaces and usually to
storm sewers or waterways

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Water Efficiency
Indoor Potable Water Use Reduction
Reducing indoor potable water consumption can be achieved by using nonpotable water sources
and installing water efficient fixtures. Water treatment and reuse of stormwater and graywater
for toilet flushing and custodial purposes can be alternative options to potable water. Another
alternative option in some areas is reclaimed water available through local municipalities.

Outdoor Potable Water Use Reduction


Landscape irrigation, the primary user of outdoor water consumption, accounts for a substantial
percentage of our daily water consumption. The use of native plants provides a landscape that
will require minimal supplemental water while providing additional environmental benefits such
as attracting native wildlife, requiring less fertilizers and pesticides which in turn reduces water
quality degradation.

Additional Benefits of Potable Water Use Reduction


With the projected shortage of fresh water in this country, concerns for human health become
more real as reservoirs and groundwater aquifers become depleted. As this occurs, lower water
levels can concentrate natural contaminants. However, two of the most often overlooked, but
more important, aspects of increased water efficiency are the reduction of energy consumption
and energy related pollution. Water that must be treated, heated, cooled and distributed requires
energy.

Water Efficiency as a Teaching Tool


LEED promotes water efficiency education in our school systems. Children can study biological
systems, nutrient cycles, habitats and our impact on natural resources.

Water Efficient Strategies


Strategies implementing water efficiency can be categorized into three primary areas of usage:
Indoor Water
Water closets, urinals, lavatories, showers, sinks
Outdoor Water
Landscape irrigation
Process Water
Building equipment such as cooling towers, boilers, chillers, certain business operations
such as dishwashers and washing machines. Process water is not addressed by all LEED
ratings systems.
Plumbing fixtures are categorized as either flush or flow fixtures. Flush fixtures are toilets
and urinals and are rated in gallons per flush (GPF). Flow fixtures are primarily faucets such as
lavatories, sinks and showerheads and are rated in gallons per minute (GPM). Standard plumbing
fixtures used today are regulated by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct).

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Water Efficiency
gallons per flush (gpf): measurement of water used by flush fixtures (water closets and urinals).
Per EPAct 1992, baseline rates for water closets is 1.6 gpf and urinals is 1.0 gpf
gallons per minute (gpm): measurement of water used by flow fixtures (faucets, showerheads,
aerators, sprinkler heads)
Blackwater generating fixtures and fittings for both conventional and High Efficiency Toilets
(HET):








Conventional toilets: 1.6 gpf


HET single flush: 1.28 GPF
HET single flush pressure assist: 1.0
HET dual flush (full flush): 1.6 gpf
HET dual flush (low flush): 1.1 gpf
HET foam flush: 0.05 gpf
Nonwater toilets: 0.0 gpf
Conventional urinals: 1.0 gpf
Nonwater urinals: 0.0 gpf

Low Flow Toilet

Composting (nonwater) Toilet

Dual Flush Toilet

Residential fixtures, faucets and appliances





Conventional toilets: 1.6 gpf


Conventional lavatory (bathroom) faucets: 2.2 gpm
Conventional kitchen faucets: 2.2 gpm
Conventional showerheads: 2.5 gpm

When considering toilets account for 25% of our daily water consumption and a waterless urinal
in a shopping mall saves 40,000 gallons of water annually, the benefits of installing efficient
plumbing fixtures becomes readily apparent.
Conserving water for irrigation can be less costly when coordinating strategies with stormwater
management such as capturing, filtering and holding rainwater.

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Water Efficiency
Process water, typically, is used by industries for purposes such as fabrication, processing,
washing and cooling, and is obtained from a public supply or through self supplied sources.
Examples of equipment using process water are cooling towers, boilers and chillers installed for
heating and cooling air for building operations. Process water also includes washing machines
and dishwashers used in businesses. Water efficiency concerns related to process water can be
addressed by installing submeters to determine where the major users of process water.
Strategy considerations for indoor water use reduction:
Install water efficient plumbing fixtures
Use low flow fixtures: lavatories, sinks, showerheads
Use low flow flush type fixtures: dual flush toilets, waterless toilets and urinals, composting
toilets
Dual flush water closets use a full flush for solid waste and a half flush for liquid waste
Waterless urinals all use basically the same science of passing urine through a liquid
seal. There are two varieties of waterless urinal: cartridge based and non cartridge
based units
WaterSense fixtures:
WaterSense is an EPA sponsored partnership program that promotes water efficiency
for water-efficient products, programs, and practices. WaterSense helps consumers
identify water efficient products and programs that meet WaterSense water efficiency
and performance criteria. HET waterclosets are available with the WaterSense label
Use nonpotable water
Captured rainwater, graywater or municipally claimed wastewater for flush type fixtures
Install submeters
Meter indoor water systems to monitor consumption and locate leaks
Strategy considerations for outdoor water use reduction:
Install locally adaptive landscaping
Native or adaptive landscaping reduces or eliminates irrigation demands by using
indigenous plants that have acclimated to the climate characteristics of the region
Xeriscaping
Xeriscaping is a landscape concept that considers the whole of the landscaping design in
an effort to produce landscaping that requires little or no Irrigation
The concept includes an analysis of existing soil conditions and the use, if needed, of
water efficient irrigation systems, native or adaptive planting, mulch and maintenance
considerations
Zoned landscaping
Zone planting regions according to the irrigation requirements of each type of plant
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Water Efficiency
Mulching
Mulch retains moisture which provides water to the plants root system and helps prevent
evaporation of the plants water
Turf grass
Reduce or eliminate turf grasses that require large amounts of water
Use non potable water for irrigation
Captured rainwater, graywater or municipally claimed wastewater for irrigation
Efficient irrigation systems
Drip and bubbler irrigation systems are the most efficient by providing more water to the
root systems and less surface water to the leaves for evaporation or runoff
Weather based controllers use weather and soil conditions to determine irrigation
requirements
Properly schedule irrigation times for appropriate times and quantities
Install submeters
Meter irrigation systems to monitor consumption and locate leaks
Maintenance
Develop a maintenance program that establishes procedures for cutting, caring for and
routine maintenance of lawn and landscaping
Strategy considerations for indoor process water use reduction:
Use non potable water
Captured rainwater, graywater of municipally claimed wastewater for building processes
such as water chillers
Install submeters
Meter process water systems to monitor consumption and locate leaks

Codes & Referenced Standards


Refer to the Appendix for a complete listing of Referenced Standards by Credit with a description
of the intent of the standard
The Water Efficiency category references three standards:
The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992 and 2005 (2005 is date statute became law)
Uniform Plumbing Code 206, Section 402.0, Water Conserving Fixtures and Fittings:
UPC defines water conserving fixtures and fittings for water closets, urinals and metered
faucets
International Plumbing Code 2006, Section 604, Design of Building Water Distribution
System: Defines maximum flow rates and consumption for plumbing fixtures and
fittings, including public and private lavatories, showerheads, sink faucets, urinals and
water closets
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Water Efficiency
Final Thoughts
Terminology to know
Refer to Acronyms and Glossary of Terms chapter
Adaptive and Native Plants
Baseline versus Design
Blackwater
Composting Toilet
Drip Irrigation
Full Time Equivalent (FTE)
Gallons per Flush (GPF)
Gallons per Minute (GPM)
Graywater
Harvested Rainwater
Invasive Plants
Irrigation Efficiency
Nonpotable Water
Potable Water
Rainwater Harvesting
Stormwater
Wastewater
Wetland Vegetation
Thoughts to keep
Our demand for fresh water is reducing our supplies at an alarming rate and the drop in fresh
water levels will cause many areas of the country to run short within a few years. Many water
conservation strategies are no cost or provide a rapid payback. However, other strategies, such
as biological wastewater treatment systems and graywater plumbing systems often require
more substantial investments. LEED addresses water conservation in three areas:
Indoor Water Use
Outdoor Water Use
Process Water Use
The Triple Bottom Line:

Water efficiency addresses one environmental issue and that is water conservation.
The Triple Bottom Line applies consistently with all use types.

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Water Efficiency
Economic Prosperity: Reducing large amounts of water reduces maintenance and life
cycle costs for building operations; reduction in consumers costs for additional supply
and treatment facilities; reduced water usage also conserves energy.
Social Responsibility: Conserving water is our obligation to future generations.
Environmental Stewardship: Using less water has a profound affect on our infrastructure
as it relates to water supply and sanitary sewer treatment facilities.
Indoor Water Use
Strategies:
Install water efficient plumbing fixtures
Use nonpotable water
Install submeters
Outdoor water use
Strategies:
Install locally native and adaptive landscaping
Xeriscaping
Mulching
No turf grass
Use nonpotable water
Efficient irrigation systems
Install submeters
Process water use
Strategies:
Use non potable water
Install submeters
Miscellaneous
Strategy Pros and Cons:
Although some water saving strategies may save water, consideration should be
given to detect strategies implemented that may consume more energy. Wastewater
treatment, for example, may increase energy consumption through the use of
pumping systems. Remember also that any device using electricity must go through
the commissioning process.
Water savings are calculated by calculating the percentage reduction from the baseline
case to the design case
Process Water:
Process water is not addressed by all LEED ratings systems
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Water Efficiency
Studio4 Office Project: Water Efficiency
Water Efficiency Category
Water Efficiency addresses the use of potable water at the site and the discharge of wastewater
from the site. Reducing these will help limit the amounts of freshwater drawn from our water
bodies and aquifers, and then treated for distribution and use, which strain our freshwater
supplies and our water infrastructure. It also serves to reduce the wastewater volumes discharged
to these receiving bodies.
WEp1 Water Use Reduction: This prerequisite requires a potable water use reduction of 20%
from regulated flush and flow fixtures - fixtures as regulated by a standard such as EPAct - and
excludes water used for irrigation and process equipment. A baseline needs to be established
and compared to the design case in order to determine the amount of reduction. A quick outline
of how this is done:
Determine the FTE load for all occupants, including transient occupants (students, visitors
and retail customers)
We determined earlier that the default FTE load was 48 for the use type, and for this use
type, the default transient load = 0 FTE
Unless known otherwise, LEED establishes an equal split between men and women, 24
men and 24 women
Determine the fixture usage
These calculations deal with occupant usage and not number of fixtures, as the number
of fixtures is irrelevant. If you have 10 FTEs, the total daily usage will remain the same
whether there are 2 fixtures or 200 fixtures.
Women, by default, are calculated at 3 uses per day for toilets and 3 uses per day for
lavatories
Men, by default, are calculated at 3 uses per day also, but 1 use for toilets, 2 uses for
urinals and 3 uses for lavatories
Determine the baseline case for the total annual potable water consumption
Since we are looking for annual consumption, this calculation includes the total FTE
count for all shifts during a 24 hour period x the number of days worked per year, using
the default EPAct figures for flush and flow fixtures. These include only toilets, urinals,
lavatory faucets, showers, kitchen sink faucets and pre-rinse spray valves. Per EPAct,
a toilet uses 1.6 gpf, a urinal 1.0 gpf and a lavatory faucet 2.2 gpm at a duration of 15
seconds (15 sec = 0.25 min). We will assume 5 days per week x 50 weeks per year = 250
days worked per year.
24 women x 3 = 72 toilet uses per day; 24 women x 3 = 72 lavatory uses per day
24 men x 1 = 24 toilet uses per day; 24 men x 2 = 48 urinal uses per day; 24 men x 3 = 72
lavatory uses per day

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Water Efficiency
72 + 24 = 96 toilet uses per day total men & women
48 urinal uses per day total men
72 + 72 = 144 lavatory uses per day total men & women
Toilets = 96 uses x 1.6 gal = 153.6 gals per day
Urinals = 48 uses x 1.0 gal = 48.0 gals per day
Lavatories = 144 x (2.2 gpm x 0.25 min) = 144 x 0.55 = 79.2 gals per day
153.6 + 48.0 + 79.2 = 280.8 gals per day total potable water use
280.8 gal/day x 250 days/year worked = 70,200 gals baseline total annual potable water
Determine the design case for the total annual potable water consumption
Same exercise, only substitute the EPAct flush and flow rates
with the flush and flow rates for water efficient fixtures. Well
use the following: 1.0 gpf HET toilets; 0.0 gpf waterless urinals
and 1.5 gpm for lavatory faucets
Toilets = 96 uses x 1.0 gal =96.0 gals per day
Urinals = 48 uses x 0.0 gals = 0 gals per day
Lavatories = 144 uses x (1.5 gpm x 0.25) = 144 x 0.375 = 54.0
gals per day
96.0 + 0 + 54.0 = 150.0 gals per day total potable water use
150.0 gal/day x 250 days/year worked = 37,500 gals design total annual potable water
Determine the percentage annual potable water volume savings
1 - (37,500 design case/70,200 baseline case) = 1 - 0.5342 = 0.4658 or 47% annual potable
water volume savings per year
This is a huge savings in the respect it not only meets the prerequisite by changing out
standard fixtures with water efficient fixtures, it eliminates the need to reuse stormwater
to achieve the task. Furthermore, this is such a large annual savings, it sets the stage nicely
for the remaining Water Efficiency credits. 47% qualifies for Exemplary Performance.
Design submittal: owner, architect, engineers
WEc1 Water Efficient Landscaping: Approximately 30% of the 26 billion
gallons of water consumed daily goes into outdoor use, primarily
landscaping. The goals of WEc1 is to reduce potable water consumption
for irrigation by 50% or use no potable water for irrigation.
Since we have developed our landscaping in and around rain gardens,
vegetated swales and the wetland area, we will pursue Option 2 and install
no irrigation simply by planting indigenous plants that require little or no
irrigation and take advantage of the stormwater we are directing toward
the rain gardens, vegetated swales and wetland areas. Using this option,
LEED will allow temporary irrigation for a period of 12 months. Although
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Water Efficiency
located in a moderate climate, well install a temporary irrigation system using the potable
water supply. If we were to reuse stormwater, we would likely need to install pumps and other
equipment. If this were done, this equipment would have to be included in EAp1 Fundamental
Commissioning of the Building Energy Systems. Design submittal: owner, landscape architect,
civil engineer, plumbing engineer
WEc2 Innovative Wastewater Technologies: This credit requires a 50% reduction of potable
water used for building sewage (blackwater) conveyance produced by flush fixtures. This can
be accomplished by using water conserving fixtures, stormwater reuse, recycled graywater
or by treating 50% of the wastewater on-site to tertiary standards. Treating wastewater is not
universally permitted throughout the U.S. and if it is locally permitted, can be an expensive
strategy to implement. Therefore we will consider the first option and see how water conserving
fixture compliance for WEp1 helps to achieve this credit.

NO

Yes

Yes

Most of the work has been done considering the calculations are identical to WEp1, except
the flow fixtures are removed from the equation because we are only considering wastewater.
Therefore:
Determine the baseline case
153.6 gals per day for toilets + 48.0 gals per day for urinals = 201.6 gals wastewater
generated per day x 250 days/year worked = 50,400 gals wastewater generated per year
Determine the design case
96.0 gals per day for HET toilets + 0.0 gals per day for waterless urinals = 96.0 gals wastewater
generated per day x 250 days/year worked = 24,000 gals wastewater generated per year
Determine the percentage of annual wastewater volume savings
1 - (24,000 design case/50,400 baseline case) = 1 - 0.4762 = 0.5238 or 52% annual
wastewater volume savings
The project has just collected 2 more points. Design submittal: owner, architect, engineers
WEc3 Water Use Reduction: An extension of WEp1, this credit awards points for achieving savings
above the prerequisite 20%. We dont need to incorporate additional strategies so the work has
already been done. All we need to do now is see how many points were entitled to pick up.
Points based on % annual potable water volume savings
30% savings = 2 points
35% savings = 3 points
40% savings = 4 points
At 47% savings, weve picked up 4 points. Design submittal: owner, architect, engineers
WEc4: Process Water Use Reduction - N/A
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Water Efficiency
Project Checklist Analysis

In the Water Efficiency category, a total of 10 points are available for credits applicable to this
project and we have collected all 10 through the use of water conserving fixtures and smart
landscaping strategies.
Before we go any further, a review of our credit status shows we have done exceedingly well and at
a minimal cost. If we take the 29 points and add the IDc2 credit point for having a LEED AP on the
project we have 30 points - 75% of that needed for certification.
This gives us the opportunity to continue through the remainder of the project with the intent to cherry
pick the most easily obtainable and least expensive credits. At the end of the process, we can see how
much, or how little, it costs to obtain LEED certification. However, we will run through the credits to
show how compliance could have been achieved if we had decided to do so.
The project needs 10 more points plus a few additional added as a safety factor. Its never known for
certain how the credits will be interpreted during the submittal review process.
The next session will begin at the end of the Energy and Atmosphere chapter.

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ccording to the U.S. Department of Energy,


buildings account for 39% of the energy
and 72% of the electricity consumed each year in
the United States. The sustainable goals of the
Energy and Atmosphere category address the
following areas: reducing energy demand; increasing
energy efficiency; building and building systems
commissioning; managing refrigerants; renewable
energy; ongoing energy performance

CHAPTER | 6

Energy and Atmosphere (EA)


Credit Matrix
Introduction
Energy Demand
Energy Efficiency
Managing Refrigerants to Eliminate CFCs
Renewable Energy
Ongoing Energy Performance
Codes & Referenced Standards
Final Thoughts
Studio4 Project: Energy and Atmosphere

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Energy and Atmosphere


Credit Matrix
Prereq
Credit
EAp1
EAp2
EAp3
EAc1
EAc2
EAc3
EAc4
EAc5
EAc5.1
EAc5.2
EAc6

NC
Title
ENERGY & ATMOSPHERE (EA)
Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems
Minimum Energy Performance
Fundamental Refrigerant Management
Optimize Energy Performance
On-Site Renewable Energy
Enhanced Commissioning
Enhanced Refrigerant Management
Measurement and Verification
Measurement and Verification - Base Building
Measurement and Verification - Tenant Submetering
Green Power

35
Reqd
Reqd
Reqd
*1-19
*1-7
2
2
3
NA
NA
2

Schools
Points
33
Reqd
Reqd
Reqd
*1-19
*1-7
2
1
2
NA
NA
2

CS
37
Reqd
Reqd
Reqd
*3-21
4
2
2
NA
3
3
2

Introduction
Generating electricity from fossil fuels has profound affects on the environment when considering
extraction, transportation, refining, distribution and subsequent consumption. The importance
of green building energy conservation can be easily defended when understanding buildings
consume approximately 39% of the energy and 72% of the electricity produced in the U.S.
Burning fossil fuels produces combustion that releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse
gases that contribute to climate change. Coal fired plants account for more than half of the
electricity generated in the U.S. Also, natural gas is a major source of nitrogen oxide and
greenhouse gases as well. Sustainable, green buildings can reduce greenhouse gas emissions
by implementing sustainable strategies that decreases energy demand and increases energy
efficiency.
Two of the most important areas a project team focuses on when designing a sustainable project
are elements related to the site and energy demand/energy efficiency. The successful increase in
a buildings energy efficiency is best achieved by implementing a whole building holistic design
approach as practiced by an integrated project team. The orientation of the building, construction
methods, building envelope, material selections, water efficiency, HVAC and lighting systems all
determine how efficiently the building uses energy and requires careful team coordination.
Energy is addressed by focusing on four key elements:
Energy demand
Energy efficiency
Renewable energy
Ongoing energy performance

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Energy and Atmosphere


Energy Demand
Green building energy savings come from reducing the amount of electricity that is purchased.
Therefore, the most logical place to begin assessing energy is to reduce the projects demand for
energy. For green buildings, several steps that require little more than a fundamental knowledge
and understanding of sustainable site and building design practices can be implemented to
reduce energy consumption. Fundamental to those with sustainable experience and this is where
an experienced team can be of enormous benefit to the successful start of a project.
Collect data: Every project team should develop a program that outlines the parameters that
will be used for guidance throughout the course of the project. Typically this begins with the
collection of data from the owner, during a charrette, to describe their needs. In LEED this is
referred to as the Owners Project Requirements (OPR). With this information in hand, the project
team can then create their Basis of Design (BOD) documents which will formulate a project
program that translates the owners requirements into design and construction language.
Design process: To begin the design process, the project team should analyze the owners
requirements to ensure the building area is no larger than necessary. Next the project team
should prepare an assessment of the projects infrastructure to see that site related components
such as sustainable hardscapes and landscaping concepts are coordinated within the scope of
the project itself and also, perhaps, with adjoining properties to provide an efficient, compact
design that is sensitive to site related synergies and tradeoffs. In the case of these first two
design processes - less is more - the less constructed product, the more energy demand is
reduced. Along with a schematic site program, the building envelope itself must be planned
in accordance with regionally appropriate techniques, including exterior material selections,
insulation, roofing, weatherproofing, fenestration, etc. Consider strategies that can produce
free energy such as available solar options and natural daylighting. Also, natural ventilation
will reduce demands on HAVC equipment, which in turn will require less electricity. The next
preliminary design step is to develop the conceptual interior spaces and required mechanical
systems, including HVAC, plumbing, power and lighting.
Analyze design and data: With the projects program determined and a schematic design
completed, the project team can evaluate the building and building systems such as HVAC,
power and lighting, process water heating, water use, etc. This can best be done by utilizing
a building simulation model that analyzes and compares the energy consumption of the
design case against a baseline case for a similar building which is designed to conventional
building and engineering standards. This simulation model will be used to determine the
effects of building orientation and building envelope components, solar heat gains and losses,
mechanical system controls, water efficiency power demand reductions and all other sources
that affect the demands on energy consumption.

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Energy Efficiency
One of the goals of integrated design is discovering any underlying synergies and tradeoffs
associated with collective design strategies. When looking at project costs, particularly life cycle
costs, the costs related to building operations receive a great deal of attention. The project
team understands that decisions they make with regards to the site and building envelope to
the mechanical equipment, and even interior finishes, have an impact on the cost of building
operations. Energy represents a substantial cost of building operations. Therefore, reducing the
demand for energy becomes an important consideration and equally important to ensure that
the energy is used efficiently. Energy use per square foot and use per capita are metrics for
measuring energy intensity.
Energy efficiency strategies:
Passive and thermal design
Positioning and orientation of the building on a site are of critical importance in being
able to take advantage of nature to reduce energy and improve the quality of the indoor
environment. Proper building orientation will allow for the use of natural resources like
the sun and wind to heat, cool, ventilate and illuminate a building. These strategies along
with thermal energy storage, the selection of materials and location of windows will allow
the building to be heated in the winter, cooled in the summer and naturally lit
High performance building envelope and building systems
Selection of high performing materials such as roofing, insulation and glazing systems
should be appropriate to the regional climate
HVAC, plumbing, electrical and lighting systems should be considered on their efficiency
and life cycle attributes
Verify and monitor
Two key elements to energy efficiency is verifying the building and building systems were
constructed and installed per the construction documents and the continued monitoring
of these systems after occupancy
Energy Simulation
LEED for NC requires new buildings to exceed baseline energy performance standards that:
Baseline complies with Appendix G of ASHRAE Standard 90.1
Must distinguish between regulated energy and process energy.
Regulated energy powers lighting, HVAC and service water heating.
Process energy runs office equipment, computers, elevators,
escalators, kitchen cooking and refrigeration, laundry washing and
drying, lighting that is exempt from the lighting power allowance
and miscellaneous items
Providing an energy simulation analysis allows the design team to see the effects of changes
made to the building and the building systems and determine the most efficient building
design based on related synergies and tradeoffs
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Renewable Energy
The use of renewable energy sources reduces the demand for conventional energy such as
coal, oil and natural gas which also alleviates their associated environmental impacts. LEED
distinguishes between onsite energy generation and offsite energy purchases.
Renewable energy sources include:
photovoltaic
wind energy
solar thermal: active and passive
biofuels: from organic materials such as wood by-products and agricultural waste
geothermal heating
low impact hydroelectric
wave and tidal

Wind

Biomass

Wave & Tidal

Geothermal

Photovoltaic

Off-Site

Strategy considerations for meeting energy demand with renewable energy:


Generate onsite renewable energy
Based on energy costs, not energy consumption
Energy cost savings; possible utility rebates and net metering (selling excess energy to
the utility)
investigate appropriateness: climate; geographical; regional factors
Purchase offsite renewable energy
Based on quantity of energy consumption, not energy costs
Must be at least a 2 year contract for 35% of the buildings electricity consumption
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There are 3 approaches to achieve this credit:
Open electricity market: governing utility company may be able to select a Green-e
certified provider
Closed electricity market: governing utility company may be a Green-e certified
provider
If local utility company cannot provide Green-e certified power, Owner may purchase
renewable energy certificates (RECs)
Green-e is a certification program for renewable energy that has been certified by the
Center for Resource Solutions
Green-e equivalency is renewable energy that is not Green-e certified but is equivalent
for the 2 major criteria for Green-e certification
The energy source meets the requirements for renewable resources detailed by the
Green-e standard
The renewable energy provider has undergone an independent third party verification
that the standard has been met

Ongoing Energy Performance


Another critical component of a successful sustainable project is to ensure that the project
continues to perform after occupancy to the established specifications. The standards for
accomplishing this are handled by the prerequisite for building commissioning and the credit for
monitoring and verification of the commissioned systems.
Strategy considerations for maintaining energy efficiency:
Owners Project requirements (OPR)
Prepare OPR at the beginning of the design process
Conduct commissioning throughout the life cycle of the building
Staff training
Train facilities team to maintain building performance
Preventative maintenance
Develop a preventative maintenance program
Incentives for occupants and tenants
Involve occupants in energy efficient strategies
Promote usage of energy efficient electronic equipment and appliances
Bill tenants from submeter readings to encourage energy conservation
Educate occupants to shut down equipment and turn out lights
Provide occupants feedback on energy performance

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Building Commissioning
Commissioning is a mandated quality control process that should be
initiated at the beginning of the project. The benefits of commissioning
include reduced energy use, lower operating costs, fewer contractor
callbacks, better building documentation, improved occupant
productivity and verification that the commissioned systems perform
in accordance with the owners project requirements.
Consideration should be given to a commissioning program for the
building after occupancy. Commissioning can also be applied to
existing buildings.
At a minimum, the systems to be commissioned are:
HVAC&R systems and related controls
Lighting and daylighting controls
Domestic hot water systems
Renewable energy systems
In the prerequisite EAp1 and credit EAc3, the commissioning steps include:
Predesign, Design Phase
Designate the commissioning authority (CxA)
Document owners project requirements (OPR) and develop the basis of design (BOD)
Review OPR and BOD
Develop and implement a commissioning plan
Incorporate commissioning requirements into the construction documents
Conduct commissioning design review prior to midconstruction documents
Construction Phase
Review contractor submittals applicable to systems being commissioned
Verify installation and performance of commissioned systems
Develop systems manual for commissioned systems
Verify that requirements for training are completed
Complete a summary commissioning report
Occupancy
Review building operation within 10 months after substantial completion
Charts explaining the Commissioning Process Commissioning Authority and Commissioning
Process Tasks and Responsibilities can be located in the Appendix

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Monitoring and Verification
Monitoring and verification tracks energy performance by comparing actual building
performance measurements against predictions from energy simulations or industry standard
benchmarks.
Programs such as EPAs Energy Star Portfolio Manager uses project data on electricity and natural
gas consumption to compare against a benchmark building to arrive at a buildings energy
performance.
Other methods for measurement and verification are Option D: Calibrated Simulation or Option
B: Energy Conservation Method as specified by the International Performance Measurement
& Verification Protocol (IPMVP) Volume III. The Measurement & Verification plans must cover a
period of at least 1 year of post construction occupancy and provide a process for corrective
action if the results indicate that energy savings are not being achieved.

Managing Refrigerants to Eliminate CFCs


Since the 1970s, evidence has suggested that the release of chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs) destroys
the ozone layer. In 1995, the U.S. joined the Montreal Protocol in banning the production of
CFCs and establishing a phase out date for the use of hydochlorofluorcarbons (HCFCs). CFCs and
HCFCs are categorized as ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and used as refrigerants in cooling
systems.
A refrigerant is a working fluid that flows through a machine that is designed to pump heat
from a lower temperature to a higher temperature. Most refrigerants are in the halogen family,
and typically hydrogenated hydrocarbons. This family of chemicals fall into the following
categories:
CFC (ChloroFluorCarbons)
Stability and long life with greatest Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) caused the
production to be banned in this country in 1995
HCFC (HydoChloroFluorCarbons)
Stable and short life, not as great ODP as CFCs, allowing a phase out plan
HFC (HydoFluorCarbons)
Negligible impact on the ozone layer but significant Global Warming Potential (GWP)
Halocarbons
Used in the cells of foamed insulation and fire fighting systems
Natural Refrigerants
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Water (H2O)
Ammonia (NH3)
Hydrocarbons (HC)
Air (78% N2; 21% O2; 1% H2O2; + trace gases)
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The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer is an international treaty
designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number of substances
believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. The treaty was entered into force on January 1,
1989. It is believed that if the international agreement is adhered to, the ozone layer is expected
to recover by 2050.
The Montreal Protocol bans production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and phases out
hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants. Over 50% of the water chillers in existing buildings
still use CFC-11 and many are old, inefficient, leaky and retrofitting is not cost effective. For newer
systems using CFC-11, replacement with HCFC-123 is encouraged. Replacement refrigerants are
less efficient, making the cooling systems consume more energy per unit of cooling output. The
choice of replacement refrigerants considers the tradeoffs between performance, depletion of
stratospheric ozone (ODP) and contribution to global climate change (DWP). An alternative to
these refrigerants is the use of natural refrigerants such as ammonia, carbon dioxide, water or
propane. To achieve certification, new buildings may not use CFC based refrigerants and existing
buildings must complete a total CFC phase out prior to project completion.
For new construction, LEED offers several options to address these issues:
Install HVAC&R systems using no refrigerants
Install HVAC&R systems using non CFC refrigerants
Install HVAC&R systems using refrigerants that minimize their effects on ozone depletion
and global climate change
Install fire suppression systems and equipment that use no CFCs, HCFCs or halons
For existing buildings, LEED requires a phase out plan:
Existing CFC based HVAC&R and fire suppression systems must be replaced or retrofitted to
phase out the use of CFC refrigerants prior to project completion
For existing chiller systems, a plan to phase out CFC based refrigerants within 5 years of
project completion
An alternative compliance path for chillers is permitted if replacement or conversion is not
economically feasible. If a third party audit determines that payback would be greater than
10 years for replacement or conversion, a reduction in annual leakage of 5% is required.

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Energy and Atmosphere


Codes & Referenced Standards
Refer to the Appendix for a complete listing of Referenced Standards by Credit with a description
of the intent of the standard
The Energy & Atmosphere category references some of the most important standards that
are vital to LEED. ASHRAE standards establish minimum and optimized energy performance
and the EPA Clean Air Act regulates the use of refrigerants. Also included are standards for
measurement & verification and Green-e power. Important standards to become familiar
with:
ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 establishes minimum requirements for the energy efficient
design of buildings. ASHRAE 90.1-2007 and ASHRAE 62.1-2007 are two of the most
important standards to LEED
U.S. EPA Clean Air Act, Title VI, Section 608, regulates the use and recycling of ozone
depleting compounds
International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol, IPMVP Volume
III describes best practice techniques for verifying the energy performance of new
construction projects

Final Thoughts
Terminology to know
Refer to Acronyms and Glossary of Terms chapter
British Thermal Unit (BTU)
Building Envelope
Halons, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs),
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
Climate Change
Commissioning (Cx);
Commissioning Agent (CxA)
Commissioning Plan
Commissioning Report
Compact Fluorescent Lamp
Energy Efficient Products and Systems
Energy Management System
ENERGY STAR Rating
Fossil Fuel
Geothermal Energy Systems
Global Warming Potential (GWP)
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Greenhouse Gas
Green Power
HVAC Systems
Lighting Power Density
Nonrenewable Resource
Offsite Renewable Energy
Onsite Renewable Energy
Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP)
Photovoltaic (PV) Energy
Refrigerants
Renewable Energy
Renewable Energy Certificate
Wind Energy
Wave and Tidal Energy Systems
Thoughts to keep
Buildings use 39% of the energy and 72% of the electricity produced each year in the United States
while refrigerants deplete the ozone layer and contribute to global warming. To address these
issues, LEED promotes four types of activities: tracking a buildings energy performance through
design; commissioning and monitoring; using renewable energy; and managing refrigerants to
eliminate CFCs. These activities are categorized as such:




Energy Demand
Energy Efficiency
Renewable Energy
Ongoing Energy Performance
Managing Refrigerants
The Triple Bottom Line:

Energy demand, energy efficiency, ongoing energy performance and renewable energy
address strategies that reduce our dependence on nonrenewable energy sources.
Economic Prosperity: Reducing energy demand will reduce energy and operating costs
which are major cost components of operating a business or home budgets.
Social Responsibility: Efficient use of energy reduces demand on the local energy
infrastructure; using renewable energy resources shows the community a commitment
to responsible environmental stewardship.
Environmental Stewardship: Reducing energy consumption reduces the many profound
environmental effects of fossil fuels and other nonrenewable energy sources; reduces
greenhouse gas emissions.
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Energy Demand
Strategies:
Collect data
Design process
Analyze design and data
Energy Efficiency
Strategies:
Building energy simulation
Renewable Energy
Strategies:
onsite: generates renewable energy based on costs, not consumption
offsite: purchases renewable energy based on consumption, not costs
Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)
RECs, also known as Green tags, Renewable Electricity Certificates, or Tradable
Renewable Certificates (TRCs), are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in
the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity
was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource (renewable electricity).
Renewable electricity has two components: 1) electricity generated and 2) the
environmental attributes associated with renewable electricity. The electricity is
distributed via regional grid systems.
It is important to understand that the electricity associated with a REC is sold
separately and is used by another party. The consumer of a REC receives only a
certificate representing the purchase of the environmental attributes of renewable
energy. In essence, it is supporting the promotion of renewable energy.
Ongoing Energy Performance
Strategies:
Building commissioning
Measurement & Verification
Managing Refrigerants



The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of HCFCs is much smaller than the ODP of CFCs.
However, the ODP of HFCs is nearly zero, but their global warming potential (GWP) is
much higher. Therefore, the dilemma created is that ODP friendly refrigerants are
enemies of GWP and GWP friendly refrigerants are enemies of ODP.
The Triple Bottom Line:
Economic Prosperity: Passive cooling strategies can reduce the costs associated with
active cooling systems; upgrading existing CFC refrigerant based equipment to more
efficient equipment can reduce energy demand and maintenance costs
Social Responsibility: Reducing the impact of ozone depletion contributes, globally, to
overall health and well being
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Environmental Stewardship: The elimination of certain refrigerants can reduce the
depletion of the ozone layer and associated impacts to global warming
Strategies:
No CFCs - no ideal alternatives have been developed for CFCs
Phase Out CFCs
Miscellaneous
Regulated & Process Energy
Regulated energy: generally includes items regulated by building regulations such as:
lighting (interior, parking garage, surface parking, facades and building grounds), HVAC
(space heating, cooling, fans, pumps, toilet exhaust and parking garage ventilation)
and service water heating (domestic or space heating)
Process energy: generally includes items not regulated by building regulations such as
plug-in items: office equipment, computers, elevators, escalators, kitchen cooking and
refrigeration, laundry washing and drying and miscellaneous items
Building Commissioning
The Commissioning Agent (CxA) represents the interests of the Owner to verify that
the design, installation and performance of the building systems are in accordance
with the Construction Documents based on the Owners Project Requirements (OPR)
and the & Basis of Design (BOD)
Energy Audits
LEED for Homes: Home Energy Saver is a government program used for performing
energy audits on residential projects.
LEED for Existing Buildings Operations & Maintenance: Energy audits should begin with
determining the major energy resource users and determining strategies to improve
energy efficiencies.
LEED for Homes
The LEED for Homes rating system manages energy demand on resource consumption
by adjusting the point thresholds for Certified, Silver, Gold and Platinum ratings based
on the size of the home. Depending on location, size and number of occupants, a
100% increase in home size yields an increase in annual energy use of 15% to 50% and
increase in material usage of 40% to 90%
Download The Treatment by LEED of the Environmental Impact of HVAC Refrigerants:
http://www.gbci.org/Libraries/Credential_Exam_References/The-Treatment-by-LEED-of-theEnvironmental-Impact-of-HVAC-Refrigerants.sflb.ashx
Download Guide to Purchasing Green Power:
http://www.gbci.org/Libraries/Credential_Exam_References/Guide-to-Purchasing-Green-Power.sflb.
ashx
Download Cost of Green Revisited:
http://www.gbci.org/Libraries/Credential_Exam_References/Cost-of-Green-Revisited.sflb.ashx
U.S. Doe Energy Building Codes:
http://www.energycodes.gov/
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Energy and Atmosphere


Studio4 Office Project: Energy and Atmosphere
Energy and Atmosphere Category
Energy and Atmosphere deals with practices and policies that reduce the use of energy at the
site, reduce the use of nonrenewable energy both at the site and at the energy source, and
reduce the impact on the global climate, atmosphere, and environment from both activities at
the site and energy sources offsite.
Energy and Atmosphere are combined because a significant portion of the air pollution and
global climate impacts come from energy sources. Therefore reducing or changing these energy
sources has a large impact on the atmosphere, particularly on a more regional or global scale.
EAp1 Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems: Projects that achieve any level of
LEED certification must perform to a higher level than conventional buildings. The building must
first be designed to perform at a higher level, then it must be verified that the required systems
were installed and function in accordance with the documented design. Commissioning (Cx) is
the process of verifying and documenting that a building and related
systems and assemblies were planned, designed, installed, tested,
operated and maintained to meet the owners project requirements
(OPR). The Commissioning Authority (CxA) is the individual who is in
charge of the entire commissioning process.
Depending on the building size, there are different members of the
Project Team, Design Team, Construction team, owner or owners
employees and, of course, the CxA who are permitted to perform
certain activities. Two charts are provided in the Appendix that list the
activities required for commissioning and the persons permitted to perform CxA activities per
building size. Regardless of building size, there are two tasks that only the Cx can perform. The
first is verifying the installation and performance of commissioned systems and the second is
completing a summary commissioning report. The Cx is a consultant to the project in the respect
that their purpose is to protect the owner and acts, essentially, as an oversight entity. This is the
reason the all important verification and summary report tasks can only be done by the CxA.
The energy related systems that must be commissioned:
HVAC&R
Lighting and daylighting controls
Domestic hot water systems
Renewable energy systems
Commissioning is essential to the successful delivery of any high performing green building. A
LEED AP needs to be very familiar with both the tasks required and who is permitted to perform
those tasks. Construction submittal: owner, design team, CxA

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EAp2 Minimum Energy Performance: As stated in EAp1, projects that achieve any level of LEED
certification must perform better than a standard building and this prerequisite establishes that
level for energy performance. According to a DOE report in January 2008, all but nine states
use some iteration of ASHRAE 90.1 as their state energy code. All buildings must meet both the
mandatory provisions and the prescriptive requirements as required by ASHRAE/IENSA Standard
90.1-2007 (without amendments). Determining compliance for the envelope components
is relatively straightforward using the tables in the ASHRAE standard. LEED for Schools must
establish energy performance goals using EPAs Target Finder rating tool.
There are three options provided for establishing minimum energy performance:

Option 1 Whole Building Energy Simulation: Requires energy
simulation software to establish a baseline building and then compares
that to the designed building. The baseline building uses a set of
preestablished conventional building materials and components while
the design building uses materials and components selected by the
Design Team. This determines how the designed building compares to
a standard building. This option is more complex, but yields advanced
and more accurate results and also provides the potential for increased
points based on the models predicted savings.

Option 2 Prescriptive Compliance Path - ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide: This
option has four compliance paths, all directed towards certain building types:
Path 1 Small Office Buildings 2004: must be less than 20,000 sf and office occupancy
Path 2 Small Retail Buildings 2006: Must be less than 20,000 sf and retail occupancy
Path 3 Small Warehouses and Self Storage Buildings 2008: Must be less than 50,000 sf
and warehouse or self storage occupancy
Option 2 K-12 School Buildings: Must be for K-12 schools
The Advanced Energy Design Guide series provides a sensible and easy approach to achieving
advanced levels of energy performance without the need for calculations or simulation analysis.
Prescriptive compliance simply means designing to a set of preestablished building components
and systems that have been shown to produce energy savings. Each path is regulated by the
climate zone where the project is located.

Option 3 Prescriptive Compliance Path - Advanced Buildings Core Performance Guide:
This option complies with all the measures of the Advanced Energy Design Guide series but
permits same type buildings larger than those under Paths 1, 2 and 3, but less than 100,000 sf.
Being an office building less than 20,000 sf, this project will use Option 2 Path 1. Compliance
requires little more than using basic, proven building components and systems. Design submittal:
design team
EAp3 Fundamental Refrigerant Management: The intent of this prerequisite is to reduce ozone
depletion by zero use of ChloroFluoroCarbon (CFC) based refrigerants used in HVAC&R and fire
suppression systems in new buildings, or phasing out CFCs in existing buildings prior to project
completion. Though CFCs are no longer available in new equipment, due to the Montreal
Protocol banning the production of CFCs in this country in 1995, CFC based systems are still
found in existing buildings. If the new building is connected to an existing building, that system
must also be CFC free. Design submittal: owner, mechanical engineer
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EAc1 Optimize Energy Performance: This credit is awarded if energy cost savings can be shown
compared to a base building that meets the requirements of ASHRAE/IENSA 90.1-2007. The
method of determining energy cost savings must meet the requirements of Appendix G of the
standard.

Option 1 Whole Building Energy Simulation: 1-19 points for NC and Schools; 3-21 points
for CS

Option 2 Prescriptive Compliance Path - ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide: 1 point
for each path and option 2 Schools
Path 1 Small Office Buildings 2004: Must be less than 20,000 sf and office occupancy
Path 2 Small Retail Buildings 2006: Must be less than 20,000 sf and retail occupancy
Path 3 Small Warehouses and Self Storage Buildings 2008: Must be less than 50,000 sf
and warehouse or self storage occupancy
Option 2 K-12 School Buildings: Must be for K-12 schools

Option 3 Prescriptive Compliance Path - Advanced Buildings Core Performance Guide:
1-3 points
Design submittal: design team
EAc2 On-Site Renewable Energy: Achievement of this credit is
determined by the percentage of the buildings energy use that is
provided by on-site renewable energy generation systems. For this
credit, the project can use the annual energy cost calculated in EAc1
or the U.S. Department of Energys Commercial Buildings Energy
Consumption Survey (CBECS) database for the building type to
determine the amount of energy cost offset. LEED provides points
based on the percentage of renewable energy contributed.
Since no energy performance calculation has been performed for the project, well use
the CBECS median electrical intensity budget for an office building at 11.7 kWh/Sf-yr for
electrical and 58.5 kBtu/sf-yr for non-electrical fuel and the Default Energy Costs by State
from EIA 2003 Commercial Sector Average Energy Costs by State at $0.0723 $/kWh for
electricity and $0.00789 $/kBtu for natural gas (State of Ohio):
Default Annual Electrical Costs
12,000 sf x 11.7 kWh/sf-yr x $0.0723/kWh = $10,150.92/yr
Default Annual Fuel Costs
12,000 sf x 58.5 (kBtu/sf-yr) x $0.00789$/kBtu = $5,538.78/yr
Default Total Annual Energy Costs
$10,150.92 Electricity + $5,538.78 Fuel = $15,689.70
The project would need to meet 1% of its annual energy costs - $1,568.97 - with renewable
energy systems in order to earn 4 points under EAc2. 1% and 4 points is the only option available
for Core & Shell projects. Design submittal: owner, architect, electrical engineer

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EAc3 Enhanced Commissioning: Enhanced commissioning requires the CxA to be on the project
earlier and stay on the project later than what is necessary with Fundamental Commissioning
by requiring 3 additional tasks to be added to the scope. Again, these tasks are explained on the
charts included in the Appendix and in the order they are to be performed. The 3 tasks, in order,
are:
Perform a design review prior to midconstruction documents
Review contractor submittals applicable to the systems being commissioned
Review building operation within 10 months after substantial completion
Construction submittal: owner, design team, CxA
EAc4 Enhanced Refrigerant Management: The intent of this credit is
not to use refrigerants. Buildings that comply with this credit eliminate
the use of HVAC&R systems that damage the atmosphere with CFCs,
HCFCs and Halons. Select refrigerants with low ozone depletion (ODP)
and global warming potential (GWP) and prevent leakage of these
compounds into the atmosphere. Select equipment with efficient
refrigerant charge and long service life potential. Projects that have
naturally ventilated buildings with no active cooling systems or natural refrigerants including
water, carbon dioxide, and ammonia are eligible for this credit. Design submittal: mechanical
engineer
EAc5 Measurement and Verification: NC & Schools
EAc5.1 Measurement and Verification - Base Building: Core & Shell
EAc5.2 Measurement and Verification - Tenant Submetering: Core & Shell
The M&V series of credits are designed to provide ongoing accountability of building energy
consumption.
Both EAc5 and EAc5.1 require the development and implementation of a measurement and
verification (M&V) plan consistent with either Option D: Calibrated Simulation as specified
by the International Performance Measurement & Ventilation Protocol (IPMVP), Volume III or
Option B: Energy Conservation Measure Isolation as specified by the International Performance
Measurement & Ventilation Protocol (IPMVP), Volume III. Construction submittal: design team,
operations & maintenance
EAc5.2 requires a central monitoring electronic metering network. Also required is a M&V plan
that documents and advises future tenants of this opportunity and the means of achievement.
The intent of submetering is to give tenants an incentive to save energy. However, project teams
should verify that local utilities and municipalities will permit a second party to charge for
electricity based on submetering.
This project will provide separate meters for each tenant. Construction submittal: design team,
operations & maintenance

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EAc6 Green Power: Green power is derived from solar, wind, geothermal, biomass or low-impact
hydro sources and helps increase renewable sources of energy on the grid, rather than fossil
based electricity. This credit offers 2 points for supporting the
development and use of grid source, renewable energy technologies
on a net zero pollution basis - off site renewable energy. The credit
requires a 2 year contract to provide 35% of the buildings electricity
from renewable off site sources based on the quantity of energy
consumed, not the energy cost. Renewable energy sources are
defined by the Center for Resource Solutions Green-e certification
requirements.
The power purchased to comply with this credits requirements do not have to be Green-e
certified. Other sources of green power are eligible if they satisfy the Green-e programs technical
requirements such as renewable energy certificates (RECs), tradable renewable certificates
(TRCs) and green tags. Green tags equate to paying a subsidy to encourage renewable power
generation somewhere on the grid, even if the electricity does not supply your building.
Two options are available for establishing a baseline energy use. Option 1 determines the baseline
by using the results obtained from EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance. Option 2 estimates a
baseline using the DOEs Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) database.
Quantities per square foot are based on the building type.
There are guidelines for establishing area calculations for Core & Shell projects based on the %
of occupancy. However, to illustrate the cost of green power, well assume the building is fully
occupied and use the total 12,000 sf.
Since we havent determined the quantity based on an energy simulation model, well be
using Option 2, where the CBECS median electrical intensity budget for an office building
is 11.7 kWh/sf-yr.
12,000 sf x 11.7 kWh/Sf-yr = 140,400 kWh total electricity usage
140,400 (kWh/yr) x 35% x 2 yrs = 98,280 kwh required Green-e certified green power
or RECs to purchase
If the project obtained a quote from a REC provider of $0.02/kwh, the cost would be:
98,280 kWh x $0.02/kWh = $1,965.60
Construction submittal: owner

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Energy and Atmosphere


Project Checklist Analysis

In the Energy and Atmosphere category, a total of 37 points are available for credits applicable
to this project and we have collected 2 by signing on to EAc3 Enhanced Commissioning. Not the
intent here, but many projects skirt around the important Energy and Atmosphere credits due
to the initial cost for credit achievement.
EAc2 On-Site renewable energy seemed reasonable at $1,568.79, but that does not include
the cost of the renewable energy systems which must be designed, purchased, installed and
commissioned.
EAc6: Green Power requires a renewable contract with no direct benefit to the project or
surrounding neighbors.
The next session will begin at the end of the Materials and Resources chapter.

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uring both the construction and operations


phases, buildings generate 30% of the countrys
waste and uses 40% of our raw materials. The
sustainable goals of the Energy and Atmosphere
category address the following areas: sustainable
construction and materials selection; waste
management

CHAPTER | 7

Materials and Resources (MR)


Credit Matrix
Introduction
Sustainable Materials
Waste Reduction
Source Reduction
Reuse and Recycling
Waste Management
Sustainable Material Selection Strategies
Life Cycle Impacts
Codes & Referenced Standards
Final Thoughts
Studio4 Project: Materials and Resources
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Credit Matrix
Prereq
Credit
MRp1
MRc1.1
MRc1
MRc1.2
MRc2
MRc3
MRc4
MRc5
MRc6
MRc7
MRc6

NC
Title
MATERIALS & RESOURCES (MR)
Storage and Collection of Recyclables
Building Reuse - Maintain Existing Walls, Floors and Roof
Building Reuse - Maintain Existing Walls, Floors and Roof
Building Reuse - Maintain Interior - Nonstructural Elements
Construction Waste Management
Materials Reuse
Recycled Content
Regional Materials
Rapidly Renewable Materials
Certified Wood
Certified Wood

14
Reqd
*1-3
NA
1
*1-2
*1-2
*1-2
*1-2
1
1
NA

Schools
Points
13
Reqd
*1-2
NA
1
*1-2
*1-2
*1-2
*1-2
1
1
NA

CS
13
Reqd
NA
*1-5
NA
*1-2
1
*1-2
*1-2
NA
NA
1

Introduction
Managing waste is a vital component of sustainable building. Materials and Resources offers
many options for reducing the amount of waste generated by the demands of building through
a coordinated waste management plan and by implementing a sustainable purchasing program.
Materials procurement, recycling programs and waste management can divert huge amounts
of materials from our landfills while improving the overall building environment. Sustainable
design gives consideration to material selections as they relate to natural resources, occupant
health and productivity and life cycle impacts.
Materials and Resources focuses on 2 major issues:
Waste management
Minimizing waste materials typically diverted to landfills
Life cycle impacts
Minimizing the environmental impact of the buildings materials
The Materials and Resources category addresses environmental concerns relating to:
Materials selection
Waste disposal
Waste reduction

Sustainable Materials
The harvesting, processing, delivery and disposal of building materials can have many adverse
environmental impacts. Therefore, the importance of a sustainable procurement policy uses
strategies to reduce the destruction of habitat and ecosystems, pollution of water and air and
to focus on the preservation of our natural resources. These goals can be achieved by reusing
materials or selecting materials that are rapidly renewable, regional, manufactured with recycled
content or harvested from responsible foresters.
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Construction Waste Reduction
Construction and demolition waste account for a large percentage of the total solid waste in
the U.S. and the EPA is at the forefront in establishing guidelines related to Waste Management,
Reuse and Recycling. The strategy rankings of the EPA for solid waste management are, in order
of importance:
Source reduction: reduces environmental impacts throughout the materials life cycle
Reuse of materials: diverts materials from the waste stream
Recycling: diverts waste from landfills and incinerators and reduces the demand for virgin
materials

Source Reduction
By definition of the EPA, source reduction is the practice of designing, manufacturing, purchasing,
or using materials (such as products and packaging) in ways that reduce the amount or toxicity
of trash created. Reusing items is another way to stop waste at the source because it avoids that
items entry in the waste collection and disposal system.

Reuse and Recycling


An effective strategy for minimizing environmental impacts related to construction, if available,
is the reuse of existing buildings, for the obvious reason that reusing building components
diverts waste from the waste stream. The fact this is important also for budgetary reasons, reuse
of exterior and interior materials should be incorporated into the construction documents. It is
also becoming popular to collect salvaged materials from buildings being demolished and put
back into the marketplace.
Recycling includes collecting recyclable materials that would otherwise be considered waste,
sorting and processing recyclables into raw materials, manufacturing raw materials into new
products, and purchasing recycled products.

Waste Management
A good waste management program focuses on waste diversion strategies that reduce the
amount of waste during demolition, construction and occupancy.
Strategy considerations for reducing waste:
Building size
A smaller building produces less waste
Construction waste management
develop a policy that establishes a target diversion rate for the general contractor
develop a waste management plan that includes disposal of any asbestos and PCBs
waste can be collected in one container - commingled - and sent to an offsite facility
to be separated. This practice allows for easier compliance and requires less space for
containers. The second option is to provide marked and protected containers onsite to
separate waste materials to be recycled. This requires more space and monitoring to
ensure compliance.
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Materials and Resources


Recycling
develop a policy to reduce waste during operations and maintenance
provide a convenient and accessible location to occupants for collection of recyclables
monitor the effectiveness of the recycling programs
Compost
Create an on-site composting program

Calculating Material Costs


Material costs for the Materials and Resources credits are determined by the actual costs of the
projects materials with the exception of LEED NC, Schools and CS rating system. For these, the
project team is permitted to use 45% of the total construction costs (labor and equipment)
instead of the actual costs. The costs are selected from Construction Specification Institute (CSI)
MasterFormat Divisions 3 through 10 and Division 12. In all instances, plumbing, HVAC, electrical
components and specialty items such as elevators are excluded from the cost calculations.
Additionally, the costs for Furniture and Furnishings, Division 12, can be used as long as they are
used consistently across all Materials and Resources credits.

Materials and Resources Credit Metrics


The Materials and Resources credit characteristics used to determine compliance are
measured by area, weight or cost, depending on the credit.

Sustainable Material Selection Strategies


The Materials and Resources category offers several credit options for sustainable methods
of selecting materials such as rapidly renewable materials, regional materials and certified
wood products in addition to materials reuse and recycled content materials. Sustainable
materials consider the life cycle of the material.
Storage and Collection of Recyclables
Provide an easily accessible dedicated area for the collection and storage of materials for
recycling for the entire building. Materials must include, at a minimum, paper, corrugated
cardboard, glass, plastics and metals. This is a prerequisite required of the Materials and
Resources category.
Building Reuse: Maintain Existing Walls, Floors and Roof
Maintain threshold percentages of the building structural elements. Window assemblies
and remediated hazardous materials are excluded from consideration.
For NC: 55%, 75% and 95%
For schools: 75% and 95%
For CS: 25%, 33%, 42%, 50% and 75%
Building Reuse: Maintain Interior Nonstructural Elements
Reuse at least 50% of the interior nonstructural elements (interior walls, doors, floor coverings
and ceilings)
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Materials Reuse
Use certain percentages of salvaged, refurbished or reused materials. These can be materials
found on or off the project site. For on site reuse, these items must no longer serve their
original function and must be installed for a different purpose. Off site materials qualify if
they had been previously used.
For NC and Schools: 5% and 10%
For CS: 5%
Recycled Content
Use certain percentages of preconsumer and postconsumer recycled content materials.
Preconsumer waste is generally process waste from industry while postconsumer waste
is generally consumer waste left at curbside for recycling programs. ISO 14021 defines
preconsumer and postconsumer materials.
For NC, Schools and CS: 10% and 20%
Regional Materials
Use certain percentages of building materials that have been extracted, harvested or
recovered and manufactured within 500 miles of the project site. Using indigenous local
resources supports the community and reduces the negative environmental impacts
associated with transportation.
For NC, Schools and CS: 10% & 20%
Rapidly Renewable Materials
Use rapidly renewable materials (materials that are typically harvested within a 10 year cycle)
for a minimum 2.5% of the building materials and products used in the project. Certified
Wood
Use FSC certified wood for a minimum 50% of the wood based materials and products for all
permanently installed wood building components. Requires chain of custody (CoC) proof
Consider purchasing third party certification sustainable products
Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International
Food Alliance Products
Marine Stewardship Council
USDA Organic
Rainforest Alliance Certification

Life Cycle Impacts


Life cycle impacts are fundamental for the proper selection of sustainable materials. The
performance of materials from extraction until the end of their life, also known as cradle to grave,
is a measure of their sustainability. Preferred, however, are cradle to cradle materials that are
recycled at end of their original use.

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Materials and Resources


Codes & Referenced Standards
Refer to the Appendix for a complete listing of Referenced Standards by Credit with a description
of the intent of the standard
The Materials & Resources categorys standards regulates only two prime areas for credit
compliance. One for certified wood products (FSC) and the other which defines recycled
content
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) gives the seal of approval awarded to forest managers
who adopt environmentally and socially responsible forest management practices and
to companies that manufacture and sell products made from certified wood
ISO 14000 product oriented standards include Environmental Labels and Declaration,
Life Cycle Assessment and Design for Environment. These standards are intended to be
applicable to assess environmental performance of products and services, and to provide
guidance on improving their environmental performance.
ISO 14020 series standards (includes ISO 14021), Environmental Labels and Declaration,
are communication tools that convey information on environmental aspects of a product
or service to the market. Three different types of environmental labels and declarations
are currently in use. They include: Type I environmental labeling, Type II self-declared
environmental claims, and Type III environmental declaration.

Final Thoughts
Terminology to know
Refer to Acronyms and Glossary of Terms chapter
Certified Wood
Chain of Custody (CoC)
Construction and Demolition Debris
Construction Waste Management Plan
Landfills
Postconsumer Content
Preconsumer Content
Rapidly Renewable Materials
Regional Materials
Recycled Content
Recycling
Reuse
Salvaged Material
Sustainable Forestry
Waste Diversion
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Thoughts to keep
Sustainable buildings require policies for effective waste management as well as responsible
construction and materials selection. The intent of the Materials and Resources category is to
establish a foundation for developing, implementing and documenting these policies through
waste management and the use of sustainable materials selection.
The Triple Bottom Line:

The successful selection of sustainable materials is directly affected by life cycle analysis
Economic Prosperity: Sustainable materials policies promote strategies such as regional
harvesting and manufacturing which contributes to local economies and reduces the
impact of transportation
Social Responsibility: Selecting sustainable materials that have long life cycle impacts
reduces the burden on our natural resources
Environmental Stewardship: Enormous amounts of our natural resources go into the
construction of buildings. Careful selection of sustainable materials such as recycled
content and reuse can reduce the vast environmental impacts and depletion associated
with buildings
Sustainable Materials Selection
Strategies:
Building Reuse: Maintain Existing Walls, Floors and Roof
Building Reuse: Maintain Interior Nonstructural Elements
Materials Reuse
Recycled Content
Regional Materials
Rapidly Renewable Materials
Certified Wood
Consider purchasing sustainable products that have third party certification
Life Cycle Impacts
Strategies:
Sustainable Construction purchasing policy
Green materials
Green interiors
Sustainable Operations purchasing policy
Green materials
Green electronic equipment

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Materials and Resources


Waste Management
The Triple Bottom Line:
Economic Prosperity: Waste management reduces dependency on landfills that pass
through the high and rising cost of landfill ownership through the costs for dumping
waste, referred to as tipping fees; encouraging recycling and materials reuse instead
of placing in the waste stream can be a source of profit
Social Responsibility: Landfills are sources of groundwater contamination and methane
gas emissions which can create health issues within the surrounding communities.
Environmental Stewardship: Waste management reduces the burden on landfills which
in turn saves land due to expanded needs.
Strategies:
Building size
Construction waste management addressing which materials should be diverted
Recycling
Compost
Miscellaneous
So what is Materials and Resources really about?
The credits in Materials and Resources can be categorized into two areas. The first
applies to dedicated efforts for reducing waste generated by buildings. This can be
done by implementing a waste management and diversion plan that sends only the
minimum materials into the waste stream. Many materials we would normally see as
waste can be sent to recycle centers. For existing buildings, we can reuse sections or
individual components or purchase from recycle or salvage centers where materials
are available for sale from other projects. Also, we can use materials made from
recycled content. All of these are effective strategies that encourage waste diversion.
Secondly, new materials need to be selected on the merits of a life cycle assessment
to ensure the highest degree of sustainability feasible. New materials, products and
components that had not previously existed draw upon our natural resources and
should be selected on the basis of regional materials, rapidly renewable materials and
certified wood products.
Recycled Content are materials classified as preconsumer and postconsumer content.
Preconsumer content would include materials that can no longer be used for their
original purpose. Process waste that an industry has sold or traded to another through the
marketplace. A composite board manufacturer may obtain sawdust from a lumber mill
or a landscaper buying wood chips from a lumber mill. These materials never made it to
the marketplace as originally intended. Flyash and magazine overruns are considered as
preconsumer content materials also. Postconsumer content are materials that have been
manufactured and sold, but no longer of value to the consumer. Remodeling a kitchen

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and setting the old cabinets along side the curb. Aluminum, paper, plastic and glass are
also postconsumer content. Recycled content products generally contain a percentage
of both preconsumer and postconsumer content materials.
Waste prevention, also know as source reduction, is the practice of designing,
manufacturing, purchasing, or using materials in ways that reduce the amount of trash
created. Reusing items is another way to stop waste at the source because it delays or
avoids that items entry in the waste collection and disposal system. Source reduction,
including reuse, can help reduce waste disposal and handling costs, because it avoids the
costs of recycling or municipal landfilling. Source reduction also conserves resources and
reduces pollution, including greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming.
Waste Management = the 3 Rs = Reduce, then Reuse, then Recycle
THE 5 minimum materials to recycle: paper, corrugated cardboard, glass, plastic, metal
Rapidly renewable materials: cork, bamboo, natural rubber, wheat, cotton, straw, linseed
(linoleum)

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Materials and Resources


Studio4 Office Project: Materials and Resources
Materials and Resources Category
Materials and Resources deals with issues that reduce the use of new materials and resources,
encourages the use of materials and resources that have a smaller impact on the environment,
and promotes the reuse or recycling of materials so that more virgin materials and resources are
not used on LEED certified projects. The life cycles of many products and materials are taken
into account also to reduce the impact on the environment. This may include transportation
impacts, harvesting impacts, manufacturing impacts, and the benefit of using recycled materials
in the production of the product. Materials and Resources Credit Characteristics: Most MR credits
require the percentage of material to be calculated based on area, weight, volume or cost and
what materials can and cannot be included into the calculated percentages.
LEED permits 2 options to use for the total material cost of the project. The first is to calculate
and use the actual project costs (excluding labor and equipment) and the second is to apply a
45% factor (including labor and equipment) to total construction costs. This project has been
budgeted at $65/sf. If we calculate 12,000 sf x $65/sf we get a total construction cost of $780,000
and we would then need to back out the cost for labor and equipment. Or we can take the
$780,000 x 0.45 and arrive at a $351,000 cost for our default total materials cost for the project.
MRp1 Storage and Collection of Recyclables: Any responsibly sustainable building design is
important. However, a building and its occupants also impact the environment after construction.
This prerequisite saves land and reduces the environmental impacts
to water and air pollution. As the average waste is 3 pounds per
day per employee, it is important that the building occupants have
the option to maintain good recycling programs throughout the
lifespan of the building. LEED requires an area dedicated to recycling
that is easily accessible, so occupants can recycle, at the minimum,
paper, cardboard, glass, plastic and metals. By recycling these basic
items, there is a reduction in the need for virgin resources as well
as a significant reduction in the amount of waste going to landfills.
Design submittal: owner, architect
MRc1 & MRc1.1 Maintain Existing Walls, Floor and Roof: The purpose of this credit is to leave
the main portion of the building structure and shell in place when renovating. The building
shell includes the exterior walls, roof, and framing but excludes
window assemblies, interior walls, floor coverings, non-structural
roofing material, and ceiling systems. Points are awarded based
on the percentage (by area) of the structural elements retained.
Construction submittal: owner, architect
MRc1.2 Maintain Interior Nonstructural Elements: The intent of
this credit is to reuse the nonstructural elements such as interior
walls, doors, floor coverings and ceiling systems of an existing
building. Points are awarded based on the percentage (by area) of the interior nonstructural
elements retained. Construction submittal: owner, architect. The MRc1 credits are not applicable
to this project.
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MRc2 Construction Waste Management: The goal of this credit is to divert as much construction
waste from the landfill as possible. Develop a construction waste management plan that
identifies the materials that can be reclaimed and determines if
the projects waste materials will be sorted separately on-site or
commingled and separated by a third party at an off-site facility. The
construction waste management plan identifies a location on the
construction site where the materials to be diverted can be stored,
as well as a hauler who will accommodate the designated materials.
Materials that should be considered for recycling include concrete,
glass, wood, plastic, gypsum, tile, drywall, insulation, and carpet.
Excavated soil and land clearing debris are excluded and any PCBs or asbestos materials found
on site need to be properly addressed in the waste management plan. Donations of materials to
charities contribute to the credit. Monitor these materials for 50%, 1 point or 75%, 2 points, by
weight or volume. Construction submittal: contractor
MRc3 Materials Reuse: The intent of this credit is to reuse materials from existing buildings or
find new uses for products that would otherwise go into the landfill. Building materials such
as masonry, flooring, roofing and ceiling materials collected from
deconstructed buildings are being warehoused and sold for use on
new projects. For credit compliance, reused or salvaged materials
(by cost) must be equal to a percentage of the total value of the
project. Mechanical, electrical, plumbing and specialty items such
as elevators are excluded. LEED awards 1 point for 5% and 2 points
for 10% purchase of Reused Materials. With our default materials
cost of $351,000 we would need to purchase $351,000 x 0.05 =
$17,550 to receive 1 point or $351,000 x 0.10 = $35,100 to receive 2 points. Construction submittal:
architect, contractor
MRc4 Recycled Content: By including more recycled content into the building, there is less
solid waste and less impact of materials on the environment. Recycled content products are
made from materials that would otherwise have been discarded.
There are two types of recycled materials: pre-consumer and
post-consumer. Pre-consumer content is material that might have
come from excess or damaged (scrap) items generated during
manufacturing processes that are not reused for the same purpose.
Post-consumer content is a material that has served its intended
use and instead of being set alongside the curb to be picked up
and disposed of, it is being recycled and reused in a different
product. For credit compliance, use materials with recycled content such that the sum (by cost)
of post-consumer content plus 1/2 of the pre-consumer content is equal to a percentage of the
total value of the project. Mechanical, electrical, plumbing and specialty items such as elevators
are excluded. LEED awards 1 point for 10% and 2 points for 20% purchase of Recycled Content
materials. With our default materials cost of $351,000 we would need to purchase $351,000 x
0.10 = $35,100 to receive 1 point or $351,000 x 0.20 = $70,200 to receive 2 points. Construction
submittal: architect, contractor
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Materials and Resources


MRc5 Regional Materials: This credit supports the use of local materials and reduced
transportation distances. The requirements are
the use of building materials or products that
have been extracted, harvested or recovered,
as well as manufactured, within 500 miles of
the project site. The percentage of materials
is calculated on a cost basis. LEED awards 1
point for 10% and 2 points for 20% purchase of
Regional Materials. With our default materials
cost of $351,000 we would need to purchase
$351,000 x 0.10 = $35,100 to receive 1 point or
$351,000 x 0.20 = $70,200 to receive 2 points.
500 Mile Radius
Construction submittal: architect, contractor
MRc6 Rapidly Renewable Materials: The intent of this credit is to reduce the use and depletion
of finite raw materials and long cycle renewable resources by replacing them with materials (by
cost) that have a harvest rate of ten years, or less. Because rapidly renewable resources have a
shorter harvesting cycle than traditional materials, there are many environmental benefits. Often
the use of rapidly renewable resources can save land as well as other resources that usually go
into conventional materials. Also by virtue of their shorter harvesting cycles, rapidly renewable
materials can sustain a community for a longer period than more finite sources. LEED awards 1
point for 2.5% use of Rapidly Renewable materials and products. With our default materials cost
of $351,000 we would need to purchase $351,000 x 0.025 = $8,775 to receive 1 point. This credit
is not available for Core & Shell projects. Construction submittal: architect, contractor

Wheat

Bamboo (U.S.)

Wheat

Cork

MRc6 & MRc7 Certified Wood: Use wood based materials and products that have been certified
in accordance with the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and encourage
environmentally responsible forest management. At a minimum, these
components include structural framing and general dimensional lumber,
flooring, sub-flooring, wood doors and finishes. MRc6 is directed to Core
& Shell projects while MRc7 applies to NC and Schools. LEED awards 1
point for MRc6 & MRc7 for 50% (by cost) of the purchase of Certified Wood
materials and products on the project. With our default materials cost of
$351,000 we would need to purchase $351,000 x 0.50 = $175,500 to receive
1 point. Construction submittal: architect, contractor
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Credit Checklist Analysis

In the Materials and Resources category, a total of 13 points are available and we have collected
6 points. A sufficient quantity of points were not available simply because there was no existing
structure for the project to have access to those credits.
We now have gathered 37 points, 38 with the LEED AP not yet entered, so we are 2 points shy
of reaching the certification level. With the IEQ category remaining, we should have no problem
collecting 40 before we look at the ID and RP categories for additional safety net points.
The next session will begin at the end of the Indoor Environmental Quality chapter.

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he U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


estimates that Americans spend about 90%
of their day indoors, where the air quality can be
significantly worse than outside by as much as 2
to 100 times. The sustainable goals of the Indoor
Environmental Quality category address the
following areas: indoor air quality; thermal comfort,
lighting and acoustics

CHAPTER | 8
Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
Credit Matrix
Introduction
Indoor Air Quality
Ventilation Improvements
Air Contaminant Management
Material Selection Decisions
Thermal Comfort, Lighting & Acoustics
Occupant Control of Systems
Daylight & Views
Core & Shell and Schools
Codes & Referenced Standards
Final Thoughts
Studio4 Project: Indoor Environmental Quality
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Credit Matrix
Prereq
Credit
IEQp1
IEQp2
IEQp3
IEQc1
IEQc2
IEQc3.1
IEQc3
IEQc3.2
IEQc4.1
IEQc4.2
IEQc4.3
IEQc4.4
IEQc4.5
IEQc4.6
IEQc5
IEQc6.1
IEQc6.2
IEQc6
IEQc7.1
IEQc7
IEQc7.2
IEQc8.1
IEQc8.2
IEQc9
IEQc10

NC
Title
INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (IEQ)
Minimum Indoor Air Quality Performance
Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control
Minimum Acoustical Performance
Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring
Increased Ventilation
Construction IEQ Management Plan - During Construction
Construction IEQ Management Plan - During Construction
Construction IEQ Management Plan - Before Occupancy
Low-Emitting Materials - Adhesives and Sealants
Low-Emitting Materials - Paints and Coatings
Low-Emitting Materials - Flooring Systems
Low-Emitting Materials - Composite Wood and Agrifiber Products
Low-Emitting Materials - Furniture and Furnishings
Low-Emitting Materials - Ceiling and Wall Systems
Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control
Controllability of Systems - Lighting
Controllability of Systems - Thermal Comfort
Controllability of Systems - Thermal Comfort
Thermal Comfort - Design
Thermal Comfort - Design
Thermal Comfort - Verification
Daylight and Views - Daylight
Daylight and Views - Views
Enhanced Acoustical Performance
Mold Prevention

15
Reqd
Reqd
NA
1
1
1
NA
1
1
1
1
1
NA
NA
1
1
1
NA
1
NA
1
1
1
NA
NA

Schools
Points
19
Reqd
Reqd
Reqd
1
1
1
NA
1
1*
1*
1*
1*
1*
1*
1
1
1
NA
1
NA
1
*1-3
1
1
1

CS
12
Reqd
Reqd
NA
1
1
NA
1
NA
1
1
1
1
NA
NA
1
NA
NA
1
NA
1
NA
1
1
NA
NA

Introduction
Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) focuses on the quality of the air and environment inside
buildings. Pollutants, temperature, relative humidity, light and sound are factors that can affect
occupant health, comfort and performance. Improving IEQ involves designing, constructing,
commissioning, operating, and maintaining buildings that remove indoor pollutants while
ensuring that fresh air is continually supplied and properly circulated.
Personnel costs are typically larger than a buildings operating costs and increased occupant
satisfaction and productivity gains due to improved IEQ make these improvements a viable
investment. The owner and project team must also be concerned with the liability related to
health issues such as asthma, Sick Building Syndrome and other illnesses that can be attributed
to poor air quality. Therefore, IEQ should be an essential consideration of any sustainable building
design.

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The Indoor Environmental Quality category addresses environmental concerns relating to:
Indoor environmental quality
Occupant health, safety and comfort
Energy consumption
Air change effectiveness
Air contaminant management
The quality of the indoor environment can be improved by focusing on:
Indoor air quality
Thermal comfort
Lighting
Acoustics
Four attributes associated with green building design can be directly connected to increased
occupant productivity:
Increased ventilation control
Increased temperature control
Increased lighting control
Increased daylighting

Ventilation Improvement
Improving the quality of indoor air can be accomplished by increasing ventilation to remove
pollutants from the indoor environment. There are three types of ventilation systems:
Mechanical ventilation (active)
Natural ventilation (passive)
Mixed mode ventilation (active and passive).

Air Contaminant Management


Managing indoor pollutants is the foundation for proper indoor air quality. LEED addresses three
basic contaminants:
Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Particulate Matter

Material Selection Decisions


LEED offers a very comprehensive matrix covering low emitting volatile organic chemicals (VOCs)
regulating interior finish materials within the building envelope. These materials and products
release fewer and less harmful chemical compounds.

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Occupant Control of Systems
Allowing individual occupants control over lighting and temperature within their workspace
improves satisfaction and productivity. Individual lighting controls allow occupants to adjust
lights to the task and thermostats permit temperature adjustment according to clothing and
activity. Additionally, energy consumption is often reduced.

Daylight and Views


As with individual occupant control over lighting and temperature, daylighting and access to
outside views have been shown to improve occupant satisfaction, productivity and reduce
energy consumption. Daylighting and views are dependant on the building design and proper
orientation to the sun.

Core & Shell (CS)


For Core & Shell projects, the design and construction influences indoor environmental quality
in 2 ways:
The design team can influence the quality of interior common area spaces
The decisions of the design team relative to the building core and shell can affect indoor
environmental quality of tenant spaces

Schools
By the very nature of the tasks and occupants, school projects bring unique challenges to the
design team. From special lighting, noise and sound control engineering to the frailties of youth
with regards pollutant control.

Reference Material for IEQ Strategies


The EPA, American Society Of Heating, Refrigerating And Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE),
the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Building Owners and Managers Association
International (BOMA), the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors of North America
(SMACNA), and the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) have collaborated to provide guidance
for IAQ by developing 40 strategies for achieving critical objectives related to moisture
management, ventilation, filtration and air cleaning and source control. It also highlights how
design and construction teams can work together to ensure good IAQ strategies are incorporated
from initial design through project completion.
A summary document of the Indoor Air Quality Guide ideal for a general understanding of the
importance of major IAQ issues - can be downloaded at no charge at: www.ashrae.org/iaq

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Codes & Referenced Standards
Refer to the Appendix for a complete listing of Referenced Standards by Credit with a description
of the intent of the standard
The Indoor Environmental Quality category contains the most extensive collection of
standards regulating the very complex issues addressed by IEQ. As with the Energy &
Atmosphere category, important ASHRAE standards are imposed. Ventilation, thermal
comfort, Environmental Tobacco Smoke, VOCs and other issues are also included. Important
standards to become familiar with:
ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007: Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality: Specifies
minimum standard ventilation rates and IAQ levels
ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007: Ventilation Rate for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality: Standard
providing minimum requirements for operable openings at 4% of the net habitable floor
area
ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999: Method of Testing General Ventilation Air Cleaning Devices
for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size: Standard for methods for testing air cleaners for
2 performance characteristics: the devices capacity for removing particles from the air
stream and the devices resistance to airflow
ASHRAE Standard 55-2004: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy:
Identifies the factors of thermal comfort and the process for developing comfort criteria
for a building space and its occupants. Indoor space environmental and personal factors
that will produce thermal environmental conditions acceptable to 80% of the occupants
within a space. The environmental factors addressed are: temperature, thermal radiation,
humidity and air speed. The personal factors are: activity and clothing
Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI) Green Label Plus identifies low VOC carpets
Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI) Green Label identifies low VOC carpet cushions
FloorScore program identifies low VOC vinyl, linoleum, laminate flooring, wood flooring,
ceramic flooring, rubber flooring and wall base
South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 1113, VOC limits for paints
and coatings
South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 1168, VOC limits for
adhesives, sealants and sealant primers
Green Seal Standard GC-03, VOC limits for anti-corrosive and anti-rust paints
Green Seal Standard GS-11, VOC limits for commercial flat and nonflat paints
Green Seal Standard GC-36, VOC limits for aerosol adhesives
Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association (SMACNA) minimize
indoor air quality issues during demolitions, renovations and construction; do not confuse
with SCAQMD

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Final Thoughts
Terminology to know
Refer to Acronyms and Glossary of Terms chapter
Air Quality Standards
Ambient Temperature
ASHRAE
Bake-Out
Carbon Dioxide Concentration
Construction IAQ Management Plan
Contaminant
Controllability of Systems
Daylighting
Flush-Out
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)
Mechanical Ventilation
Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV)
Mixed Mode Ventilation
Natural Ventilation
Off-Gassing
Particulates
Pollutant
Regularly Occupied spaces
Sick Building Syndrome (SBS)
Thermal Comfort
Ventilation Rate
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Thoughts to keep
When considering the fact that Americans spend 90% of their time indoors where air quality is far
worse than it is outdoors and occupant comfort and satisfaction is critical, it is easy to understand
the importance of improving the indoor environment. As such, Indoor Environmental Quality
deals with improving the quality of air, thermal comfort (temperature and humidity), lighting
and acoustics. The strategies used to address any one issue can have a positive impact to each
area of the Triple Bottom Line. To address these issues, IEQ separates the more complex area of
Indoor Air Quality from Thermal Comfort, Lighting and Acoustics.
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The Triple Bottom Line:
Economic Prosperity: improving the quality of the environment indoors improves
occupant comfort and satisfaction, which in turn increases productivity and reduces
absenteeism
Social Responsibility: improving the indoor air quality to a degree that occupant
health is improved increases productivity, reduces illness which lessens the burden
on the health industry and improves the overall quality of health throughout the
community
Environmental Stewardship: Environmental Tobacco Smoke Control, natural ventilation,
daylighting, green cleaning products and integrated pest control are all environmental
issues being successfully addressed; natural ventilation and daylighting can also
reduce the HVAC and lighting loads which reduces the demand on power which in
turn reduces the environmental issues associated with energy production
Indoor Air Quality
Strategies:
Source control
develop a plan to reduce the contaminants entering the building; cover return and
supply air ducts to prevent contaminants from recirculating through the HVAC
systems; practice good housekeeping; clean spills immediately
Smoking
no smoking in the building or within 25 feet of entrances, operable windows and
air intakes
smoking permitted inside must be confined to spaces built per ASTM E779-03
no smoking in and around schools
Ventilation
properly size ventilation systems to provide adequate outside air to building
occupants. Follow industry standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62, Ventilation for
Acceptable Indoor Air Quality; the more outside air introduced into the space, the
more diluted contaminants become.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) monitoring
install carbon dioxide monitors integrated into the ventilation systems that supply
proper amounts of ventilation to occupants based on occupant loads
High efficiency air filters
install filters with high MERV ratings to reduce smaller particulates
Low emitting materials
specify green materials with low Volatile Organic Chemicals (VOCs); prevents or
reduces off gassing
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Protect air quality during construction
prevent mold by protecting all materials from moisture
Prevent dust and particulate infiltration and buildup
Flush-out
prior to occupancy, flush out the existing air by exhausting it out of the building
and replacing with fresh outdoor air
Air quality testing
test air to ensure acceptable contaminant levels
Green Cleaning Program
employ green cleaning materials and technologies to reduce contaminant
exposure
Integrated pest management
employ a coordinated program using non-chemical strategies such as monitoring
and baiting
Thermal Comfort, Lighting and Acoustics
Strategies:
Individual temperature control
provide occupant temperature controls in mechanically ventilated spaces that allow
individual temperature control
Individual ventilation control
provide adjustable air diffusers in mechanically ventilated spaces that allow
individual air flow adjustment
Operable windows
provide operable windows that open to the outside wherever possible
Daylight
design the building to allow for occupant access to daylight and views by placing
workstations around the perimeter walls of the building, keeping service areas
toward the interior core spaces
skylights, roof monitors, light tubes, light shelves to reflect light into the building
windows with glazing minimum 7-6 above the floor
Views
provide a direct line of sight to exterior; window vision glazing heights to be 2-6
above the floor to 7-6 above the floor. Glazing above 7-6 is referred to as daylight
glazing

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Individual lighting control
provide occupant lighting control so occupants can match the lighting level to the
task
Occupant surveys
conduct surveys to assess occupant indoor environment satisfaction and make
operational changes based on the feedback
Acoustics: LEED for Schools only
provide classrooms with better teacher-to-student and student-to-teacher
communications through effective acoustical and sound transmission design
reduce background noise level to 40 DBA or less from HVAC systems in classrooms
and other core learning spaces
Miscellaneous
It is important to understand the major ASHRAE standards and the intent of these
standards:
ASHRAE 90.1-2007: energy efficiency (not required in IEQ category)
ASHRAE 52.2-1999: ventilation air filters - MERV
ASHRAE 55-2004: thermal comfort - Air and radiant temperatures, air speed, humidity
ASHRAE 62.1-2007: ventilation rates

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Studio4 Office Project: Indoor Environmental Quality
Indoor Environmental Quality Category
The IEQ category is unique with regards to the environmental issues addressed,
as this category is all about the occupants. It is about creating and maintaining
an environment that promotes the well being of people. Simply stated, a healthy
employee is a happy employee - and a happy employee is a productive employee.
Three prerequisites in the Indoor Environmental Quality category represent the
very minimum IEQ efforts that must be addressed in order to proceed with
obtaining credits.
IEQp1 Minimum Indoor Air Quality Performance: This prerequisite establishes a minimum indoor
air quality (IAQ) performance to enhance the comfort and well being of the building occupants.
As ASHRAE 90.1-2007 is synonymous with establishing minimum
energy performance, ASHRAE 62.1-2007 establishes minimum IAQ
performance by addressing the buildings ventilation. The three
basic methods for ventilating buildings and how each are addressed
by ASHRAE 62.1-2007:
Mechanical ventilation (active): determines the minimum
required ventilation rates for various applications using either the
ventilation rate procedure or the indoor air quality procedure
Natural ventilation (passive): provides requirements on the size
and location of ventilation openings
Mixed mode ventilation (active + passive): can use any acceptable
engineering calculation methodology that meets the minimum
ventilation rates required by 62.1-2007
Design submittal: architect and mechanical engineer
IEQp2 Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control: For NC and CS projects, the intent of the
prerequisite is to prevent or minimize exposure of building occupants, indoor surfaces and
ventilation distribution systems to ETS. For Schools, the intent is to eliminate exposure to ETS.
For NC & CS, there are 2 cases. Case 1 is for all buildings and Option 1
prohibits smoking in the building. Option 2 prohibits smoking in the
building except in designated spaces. Case 2 for NC & CS addresses
residential and hospitality projects and prohibits smoking in all
common areas of the building. Case 2 for Schools prohibits smoking
in the building. If smoking is permitted in the building or on the
property grounds, designated smoking areas should be established
and in all cases not permitted within 25 feet of entries, outdoor air intakes or operable windows.
Design submittal: facilities manager
IEQp3 Minimum Acoustical Performance: This prerequisite applies to LEED for Schools only
and provides for classroom environments that are quiet and allow teachers and students the
ability to communicate effectively. Design submittal: architect, mechanical engineer, electrical
engineer, contractor
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IEQc1 Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring: For this credit, the installation of permanent monitoring
systems of building ventilation is required. By monitoring the
ventilation systems performance, the building operator will be able
to stay informed of the deficiencies in the system. The monitoring
system should be designed to generate an alarm when the conditions
vary by at least 10% from the setpoint. One way to achieve this is by
installing carbon dioxide (CO2) and airflow measurement equipment.
The equipment should feed the information to the HVAC system,
Building Automation System (BAS) or building operator to signal for adjustment when varying
beyond the setpoint. Design submittal: mechanical engineer
IEQc2 Increased Ventilation: In order to achieve this credit for mechanically vented spaces, the
outdoor ventilation rates to all occupied spaces must be increased by
30% above the minimum rates required by ASHRAE Standard 62.12007. One approach is to use heat recovery in order to minimize the
additional energy consumption associated with higher ventilation
rates.
For naturally ventilated spaces, first determine if natural ventilation
is an effective strategy for the project, then follow the design
recommendations set forth in the Chartered Institution of Building
Services Engineers (CIBSE) Applications Manual 10. Use flow diagrams and calculations to show
that the design of the natural ventilation systems meets the recommendations outlined in the
CIBSE Applications Manual 10. Another option is to use a macroscopic, multi-zone analytic model
to predict room-by-room airflows that will effectively naturally ventilate, providing the minimum
ventilation rates required by ASHRAE 62.1-2007 for at least 90% of the occupied spaces. Design
submittal: mechanical engineer
IEQc3 & IEQc3.1 Construction Indoor Air Quality Management Plan - During Construction:
This management plan is directed towards eliminating as many indoor air problems during
construction as possible and requires the development and implementation of a plan for the
construction and preoccupancy phases that addresses the following:
During construction, comply with the control measures of
the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning National Contractors
Association (SMACNA) IAQ Guidelines for Occupied Buildings
Under Construction
Protect absorptive materials that are installed or stored on-site
from moisture damage
If permanently installed air handlers are used during construction,
filtration media with a minimum efficiency reporting value
(MERV) of 8 must be installed at each return air grille per ASHRAE
52.2-1999
For School projects, no smoking is permitted inside the building and within 25 feet of
building entrances once the building has been enclosed
Construction submittal: contractor
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IEQc3.2 Construction Indoor Air Quality Management Plan - Before Occupancy: Compliance with
this credit will reduce the IAQ problems resulting from construction or renovation activities.
There are 2 options for achieving this credit. The first is to conduct a
building flush-out prior to building occupancy by supplying a total
volume of 14,000 cubic feet of outdoor air per square foot of floor area,
while maintaining an internal temperature of 60 degrees and up to 60%
relative humidity. The flush-out is often used where occupancy is not
required immediately upon substantial completion of construction. The
second option is to conduct baseline IAQ testing after construction ends,
but prior to occupancy to demonstrate that the contaminant maximum
concentrations are not exceeded. Construction submittal: contractor
EQc4 Low-Emitting Materials: The selection of IEQc4 credits are constructed as a practical way
to prevent IEQ problems by specifying materials that release fewer and less harmful chemical
compounds, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), for adhesives, paints, carpets, composite wood
products and furniture. The delivery and installation of these materials and products should be
coordinated so that they are not exposed to moisture and absorption of off-gassed contaminants.
These rules apply to materials and products inside the building (inside the weatherproofing
system and applied on-site). Construction submittal: architect, contractor
IEQc4.1 Low-Emitting Materials - Adhesives and Sealants: Adhesives, sealants and sealant primers
must comply with South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD)
Rule #1168. Aerosol adhesives must comply with Green Seal Standard
for Commercial Adhesives GS-36. LEED for School projects must comply
with the California Department of Health Services Standard Practice for
the Testing of Volatile Organic Compounds from Various Sources Using
Small Scale Environmental Chambers. Construction submittal: architect,
contractor
IEQc4.2 Low-Emitting Materials - Paints and Coatings: Paints and coatings applied inside the
building must comply to the following:
Architectural paints and coatings applied to interior walls and ceilings
must not exceed the volatile organic compound (VOC) limit established
by Green Seal Standard GS-11, Paints
Anti-corrosive and anti-rust paints applied to interior ferrous metal must
not exceed the VOC limit of 250g/L established by Green Seal GS-03,
Anti-Corrosive Paints
Clear wood finishes, floor coatings, stains, primers and shellacs must not
exceed the VOC limits established by South Coast Air Quality Management
District (SCAQMD) Rule #1113, Architectural Coatings
LEED for School projects must comply with the California Department of Health Services
Standard Practice for the Testing of Volatile Organic Compounds from Various Sources
Using Small Scale Environmental Chambers
Construction submittal: architect, contractor
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IEQc4.3 Low-Emitting Materials - Flooring Systems: All flooring must comply to the following:
Option 1
Carpet to meet the testing and product requirements of the Carpet
and Rug Institute (CRI) Green Label Plus program
Carpet cushion to meet the testing and product requirements of
the Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI) Green Label program
Carpet adhesives must meet the requirements of IEQc4.1 including
the VOC limit of 50 g/L
All hard surface flooring must be certified as compliant with the
FloorScore standard by an independent third party. Hard surface
flooring includes: vinyl; linoleum, laminate, wood, ceramic and
rubber flooring and wall base
An alternative compliance path using FloorScore is acceptable for
credit compliance if 100% of the non-carpet finished flooring is
equal to at least 25% of the finished floor area. Unfinished flooring
areas are mechanical rooms, electrical rooms and elevator service
rooms
Concrete, wood, bamboo and cork floor finishes such as
sealer and stain must meet the requirements of South
Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule
#1113, Architectural Coatings
Tile setting adhesives and grout must meet South Coast
Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule #1168
Option 2
All flooring elements in the building must comply with the California Department of
Health Services Standard Practice for the Testing of Volatile Organic Compounds from
Various Sources Using Small Scale Environmental Chambers
Construction submittal: architect, contractor
IEQc4.4 Low-Emitting Materials - Composite Wood and Agrifiber Products:
Composite wood and agrifiber products are defined as particleboard,
medium density fiberboard (MDF), plywood, wheatboard, panel substrates
and door cores. These materials and products must contain no added ureaformaldehyde resins. LEED for School projects must comply with the California
Department of Health Services Standard Practice for the Testing of Volatile
Organic Compounds from Various Sources Using Small Scale Environmental
Chambers. Construction submittal: architect, contractor

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IEQc4.5 Low-Emitting Materials - Furniture and Furnishings: This credit applies to LEED for
Schools projects only. Classroom furniture that was manufactured, refurbished or refinished
within 1 year prior to occupancy must comply with one of the following options:
Option 1
Furniture and seating must be Greenguard Children and
Schools certified
Option 2
Indoor air concentrations must be less than or equal to those
listed for furniture and seating determined by a procedure
based on the EPA Environmental Technology Verification
(ETV) Large Chamber Test Protocol for Measuring Emissions
of VOCs and Aldehydes
Option 3
Indoor air concentrations must be less than or equal to those listed for furniture and
seating determined by a procedure based on ANSI/BIFMA M7.1-2007 and ANSI/BIFMA
X7.1-2007
Construction submittal: architect, contractor
IEQc4.6 Low-Emitting Materials - Ceiling and Wall Systems: This credit applies to
LEED for Schools projects only and must comply with the California Department of
Health Services Standard Practice for the Testing of Volatile Organic Compounds
from Various Sources Using Small Scale Environmental Chambers. Construction
submittal: architect, contractor
IEQc5 Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control: This credit is designed to minimize and
control pollutant entry to the building and addresses three areas necessary for compliance:
Install a permanent entryway system at each outdoor to indoor
entry to prevent occupant-borne contaminants from entering
the building. The system must be at least ten feet long in the
primary direction of travel in order to capture dirt and particulates
before they can enter the building. Acceptable systems include:
grates, grilles or slotted systems that allow for regular cleaning
underneath. Roll-out mats are only acceptable if scheduled to
have cleaning on a weekly basis by a contracted service
Design facility cleaning and maintenance areas where hazardous gases or chemicals
may be present with isolated exhaust systems for contaminants, and exhaust each space
sufficiently to create a negative pressure with respect to the adjacent spaces. This includes
garages, housekeeping and laundry areas, as well as copying and printing room areas.
Physical isolation must be maintained from regularly occupied areas in the building
In mechanically ventilated buildings, install MERV 13, or higher, filters in air handling units
on both return air and outside supply air.
Provide containment for appropriate disposal of hazardous liquid wastes in places where
water and chemical concentrate mixing occurs
Design submittal: architect, mechanical engineer, contractor
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IEQc6.1 Controllability of Systems - Lighting: The intent of this credit is to design the building
interior with a high level of lighting system control for the individual occupants, as well as lighting
system controllability for multi-occupant spaces. Include integration of
lighting systems controllability into the overall lighting design in order
to provide both ambient and task lighting that will promote occupant
comfort and productivity. For Case 1, provide individual lighting controls
for 90% of the building occupants and provide lighting system controls
for all learning spaces. Case 2, in classrooms, provide a lighting system that
operates in 2 modes: general illumination and audio/visual (A/V). Design
submittal: owner, architect, electrical engineer, lighting engineer
IEQc6.2 Controllability of Systems - Thermal Comfort: This credit requires that thermal comfort be
controllable by 50% of the building occupants. Building design should include individual comfort
controls, as well as comfort controls for groups in multi-occupant spaces.
Individual adjustments may involve individual thermostat controls,
local diffusers at floor, desk or overhead levels, or control of individual
radiant panels. There may also be other means of control integrated
into overall thermal comfort and energy systems in the building design.
Thermal comfort systems may by strictly mechanical, or may integrate
both mechanical and operable windows in order to provide the comfort
criteria needed for this credit. ASHRAE 55-2004 identifies the factors of
thermal comfort (air temperature, radiant temperature, air speed and humidity) and a process
for developing building spaces that suit the needs of the occupants involved in their daily
activities. ASHRAE 62.1-2007, paragraph 5.1 for Natural Ventilation details how operable windows
can be used in lieu of comfort controls. Design submittal: owner, architect, mechanical engineer,
electrical engineer, contractor
IEQc7 & IEQc7.1 Thermal Comfort - Design: There are three variables that can affect thermal
comfort of building occupants: activity, clothing, and environmental factors. Environmental
factors include air temperature, radiant temperature, humidity and air speed. To qualify for
this credit, the design of the buildings HVAC system and building envelope must comply with
ASHRAE 55-2004, Thermal Comfort Conditions for Human Occupancy. During the design and
planning phase, the owner and designer should evaluate the buildings needs based on the
building size, type, location, and nature of the operations, as well as climate conditions. Once
determined, use load calculations to determine size and selection of HVAC equipment to
accomplish the thermal comfort goals and refer to the Chartered Institution of Building Services
Engineers (CIBSE) Application Manual 10 for strategies involving natural ventilation. Design
submittal: owner, architect, mechanical engineer, electrical engineer
IEQc7.2 Thermal Comfort - Verification: The first step of this programs is to have the occupants fill
out a survey to ensure that their comfort level is being met. ASHRAE 55-2004 provides guidance
for establishing thermal comfort criteria and the documentation and validation of building
performance to the criteria. Second, after the survey, develop a plan for corrective action if
greater than 20% of those surveyed are dissatisfied with the comfort level of the building. Design
submittal: owner, architect, mechanical engineer, electrical engineer, Cx
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IEQc8.1 Daylight and Views - Daylight: The goal of this credit is to increase the
connection that people have between indoor and outdoor spaces in order to
provide increased comfort and productivity. There are several strategies that can be
used to increase the amount of daylight entering a building. Many are designed to
bring daylight into interior areas that would otherwise be inaccessible to window
light. Others are designed to maximize the sunlight coming in, while preventing
discomfort due to glare that can be caused by direct sunlight. Daylight provided
by south facing windows should incorporate a light shelf designed to block the
summer sun from directly entering the building and reflect it onto the ceiling of
the interior. In the winter, the suns path is at a lower position in the Southern sky
and is allowed to enter the building in order to provide light and an additional heat
source for the cooler season. Other strategies include light tubes and skylights that
allow light to enter from overhead. 1 point is awarded for providing 75% daylight
and an additional 2 points for 90% daylight in School projects. Design submittal:
owner, architect, mechanical engineer, electrical engineer
IEQc8.2 Daylight and Views - Views: This credit requires a direct line of sight
for 90% of the occupants to view the outdoor environment through windows
placed between 30 and 90 above the finished floor. Measures should be taken
for both IEQc8.1 and IEQc8.2 to insure proper design and energy modeling to
avoid increased heat gain due to the lower insulating nature of glass compared to
standard walls, while maximizing energy efficiency and reduced need for artificial
lighting. Core & Shell projects must incorporate a feasible tenant layout using the
default occupancy counts. Design submittal: architect, civil engineer, landscape
architect
IEQc9 Enhanced Acoustical Performance: This credit applies to LEED for School projects and
provides classrooms better teacher-to-student and student-to-student communications through
effective acoustical design in two ways:
Sound Transmission: Design the building shell, classroom partitions and other core learning
space partitions to meet the Sound Transmission Class (STC) requirements of ANSI S12.602002, Acoustical Performance Criteria, Design Requirements and Guidelines for Schools,
except windows which must meet an STC rating of at least 35
Background Noise: Reduce background noise level to 40 dBA or less from HVAC systems in
classrooms and other core learning spaces
Design submittal: owner, architect, mechanical engineer, electrical engineer, acoustical
consultant, contractor
IEQc10 Mold Prevention: This credit applies to LEED for School projects and reduces the
potential for mold through preventive design and construction by requiring achievement of
these credits:
IEQc3.1: Construction Indoor Air Quality Management Plan - During Construction
IEQc7.1: Thermal Comfort - Design
IEQc7.2: Thermal Comfort - Verification
Construction submittal: mechanical engineer
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Credit Checklist Analysis

In the Indoor Environmental Quality category, a total of 14 points are available for credits
applicable to this project and we have collected 4 points.
We now have gathered 41 points, enough to receive certification, if all are accepted during the
final review.
The next session will begin at the end of the Innovation in Design chapter.

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he LEED Innovation in Design credit category


awards bonus points for projects that use
new and innovative technologies and strategies to
improve a buildings performance well beyond what
is required by other LEED credits or in green building
considerations that are not specifically addressed
elsewhere in LEED. This credit category also
rewards projects for including a LEED Accredited
Professional on the team to ensure a holistic,
integrated approach to the design and construction
phase.

CHAPTER | 9

Innovation in Design (ID)


Credit Matrix
Introduction
Innovation in Design
Innovation in Design
Exemplary Performance
LEED Accredited Professional
The School as a Teaching Tool
Studio4 Project: Innovation in Design

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Credit Matrix
Prereq
Credit
IDc1.1
IDc1.2
IDc1.3
IDc1.4
IDc1.5
IDc2
IDc3

NC
Title
INNOVATION IN DESIGN (ID)
Innovation in Design
Innovation in Design
Innovation in Design
Innovation in Design
Innovation in Design
LEED Accredited Professional
The School as a Teaching Tool

6
1
1
1
1
1
1
0

Schools
Points
6
1
1
1
1
0
1
1

CS
6
1
1
1
1
1
1
0

Introduction
The Innovation in Design credits IDc1.1 - IDc1.5 provide bonus points for projects that incorporate
innovative and sustainable building features that improve performance above and beyond the
LEED Rating System requirements as directed in each credit. With the Innovation in Design
credit series there are two strategies available to receive points. The first is to exceed a credits
requirements and is referred to as exemplary performance, where the general rule is that the ID
requirements meet the next incremental increase or double if incremental levels do not exist.
The second option is to address a sustainable topic not covered in the LEED Rating System, and
this is referred to as innovative performance.
For IDc2, a LEED Accredited Professional is an important member in the makeup of the project
team for a coordinated path toward a projects certification efforts and LEED rewards the project
that has a LEED AP involved as a principle participant.
IDc3 is available only to EB O&M and School projects.
The credit structure for Innovation is Design is as follows:
Innovation in Design
ID Credit 1: Innovation in Design
Innovation in Design
Exemplary Performance
ID Credit 2: LEED AP
ID Credit 3: The School as a Teaching Tool
Some confusing aspects of the ID category arise given the fact that the category is titled Innovation
in Design, ID Credit 1 is also titled Innovation in Design and 1 of the 2 compliance paths for
ID Credit 1 is titled Innovation in Design. For the specific ID Credit 1, there are 2 compliance
paths allowed, either for all Innovation in Design credits or for Innovation in Design credits in
combination with Exemplary Performance credits.
Download Guidance on Innovation & Design (ID) Credits :
http://www.usgbc.org/Docs/LEEDdocs/IDcredit_guidance_final.pdf

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Innovation in Design
ID Credit 1: Innovation in Design
Innovation in Design (Innovative Performance)
Innovation in Design points are awarded for innovative strategies that introduce new ideas not
covered in the 5 LEED categories under prerequisites and credits and must meet three criteria:
The strategy must demonstrate a quantifiable environmental performance benefit
The strategy must be applied comprehensively across the project
The strategy must be transferable to other projects and be significantly better than standard
sustainable practices
Types of strategies that are indicative of Innovation in Design are:
Developing an educational outreach program
Using a greenhouse gas budget to demonstrate carbon neutral design and operations
Incorporating high levels of fly ash in concrete to divert waste materials from landfills
Exemplary Performance
The terms Exceptional Performance and Exemplary Performance are used interchangeably and
are for strategies exceeding credit requirements.
Exemplary Performance strategies are not available for every LEED credit.
These points, when available, are awarded for going to the next higher incremental level of credit
performance. For example, if the credit threshold percentage requirements are 10% and 20%, an
ID point may be awarded for achieving a 30% level of performance. Incrementally, 30% would
be the next threshold. For credits with more than 1 compliance path, an ID point can be earned
by satisfying more than 1 compliance path if their benefits are additive.
Points may also awarded for doubling the level of credit performance. For example, if the credit
requires a 2 year contract at 35%, an ID point may be awarded for providing a 4 year contract at
35%, or a 2 year contract at 70%. ID points may be awarded for doubling the percentage of credit
performance. For example, if 10% and 20% thresholds are required, an exemplary point may be
awarded when a performance achievement of 40% is provided. 40% would be doubling the
20% threshold.

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Innovation in Design
Rating System ID Points
ID Credit 1: Innovation in Design
Path 1: Innovation in Design (Innovative Performance)
NC, CS & CI: 1 - 5 points
EB O&M and Schools: 1 - 4 points
Each Innovation in Design strategy achieved is allowed one (1) point
Each strategy must identify, in writing:
The intent of the proposed innovation credit
The proposed requirement for compliance
The proposed submittals to demonstrate compliance
The design approach (strategies) used to meet the requirements
Path 2: Exemplary Performance
NC, CS, CI, EB O&M & Schools: 1 - 3 points
Each Exemplary Performance strategy achieved is allowed one (1) point
ID Credit 2: LEED Accredited Professional
NC, CS, CI, EB O&M and Schools: 1 point is allowed for one member of the Project Team
being a LEED Accredited Professional and performing as a principal participant
Required submittal information:
Name of the LEED AP
Name of the LEED APs company
Brief description of the LEED APs project role(s)
Copy of the LEED AP certificate
ID Credit 3: The School as a Teaching Tool
EB O&M: 1 point for Documenting Building Costs Impacts
Schools: 1 point for The School as a Teaching Tool
Total ID Points Available
NC, CS & CI: 6 points: 5 points for ID Credit 1 & 1 point for ID Credit 2
EB O&M & Schools: 6 points: 4 points for ID Credit 1, 1point for ID Credit 2 & 1 point for ID
Credit 3

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Innovation in Design
Studio4 Office Project: Innovation in Design
Innovation in Design Category
During the course of developing this project, we have not looked at the ID points available to
selected credits. Section 9 Exemplary Performance under each credit will state if an ID Exemplary
Performance point is available and if so, what the requirement or threshold is for achieving
compliance. Since Exemplary Performance requires achievement, we will concentrate on the
other option and see if we can gather any points for Innovative Performance.
Innovative Performance is, in a sense, granted to strategies and programs that exhibit unique
performance. The USGBC website offers guidance on these types of strategies. In part, they include
comprehensive strategies which demonstrate quantifiable environmental benefits. Examples
are: Educational Outreach Programs; Green Housekeeping; High Volume Fly Ash; Low-Emitting
Furniture & Furnishings; Organic Landscaping / Integrated Pest Management Program.
The project will attempt to achieve the following:
IDc1.1 Green Building Education: Studio4 provides educational services
related to sustainable development ideals and conducts classes for
individuals and employees of companies interested in receiving
accreditation. Studio4 has a website that promotes sustainability and
being located in an excellent public school system, will develop a
childrens Green Educational Program.
IDc1.2 Green Housekeeping: Cleaning products can be harmful to the
environment and human health and have the potential to off-gas volatile
organic compounds (VOCs). These chemicals also harm water systems
by the way they are carelessly disposed. Reverting to an environmental
cleaning program is a cost effective alternative to conventional cleaning
programs that should be considered by all projects seeking certification.
IDc2 LEED Accredited Professional (AP): The intent of this credit is to support and encourage the
design integration required by a LEED green building project and to streamline the application
and certification process. The requirement for compliance is that at least one principal participant
of the project team be a LEED Accredited Professional. Construction Submittal

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Innovation in Design
Credit Checklist Analysis

We picked up 3 of the 6 points available in the Innovation in Design category. The project team
could have collected additional points by looking at the Exemplary Performance credits and
other Innovative Performance option such as the use of fly ash in our concrete mix. However, we
already have the point total necessary - 44 - for certification and a small safety net of 4 points,
with the Regional Priority category remaining.
The final session will begin at the end of the Regional Priority chapter.

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SGBCs regional councils, chapters and


affiliates have identified the environmental
concerns that are locally most important for every
region of the country, and six LEED credits that
address those local priorities were selected for
each region. A project that earns a regional priority
credit will earn one bonus point in addition to any
points awarded for that credit. Up to four extra
points can be earned in this way.

CHAPTER | 10

Regional Priority (RP)


Credit Matrix

Regional Priority Credits


Studio4 Project: Regional Priority
Studio4 Project: Certification Summary

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Regional Priority
Credit Matrix
Prereq
Credit
RPc1.1
RPc1.2
RPc1.3
RPc1.4

NC
Title
REGIONAL PRIORITY (RP)
Regional Priority
Regional Priority
Regional Priority
Regional Priority

4
1
1
1
1

Schools
Points
4
1
1
1
1

CS
4
1
1
1
1

Regional Priority Credits


Since environmental priorities may differ between different geographical regions in the U.S.,
the Regional Priority category tackles the unique challenges and opportunities for addressing
critical environmental issues for various regions throughout the country.
The challenges in the Northeast differ tremendously from those in the Southwest, from the
usage of heating oil to the urgency of water conservation. Densely populated urban locations
often feature credits related to stormwater management or heat island reduction, while site
protection and building reuse credits are frequently prioritized in rural locations with low
population densities.
Through USGBCs regional councils, chapters and affiliates, regionally specific environmental
issues were identified. For a projects location, as determined by its zip code, 6 existing LEED
credits have been prioritized because they address environmental issues within that specific zip
code.
Each Regional Priority credit is based on an existing credit and, if achieved, worth an additional 1
point. A total of 4 additional points may be earned from the pool of 6 Regional Priority credits.
Upon project registration, LEED Online automatically determines a projects Regional Priority
credits, based on the projects zip code.
Although the project may be able to qualify for more than 4 of the 6 Regional Priority credits
available, the project team can choose any 4 credits for which they prefer the points to apply.
Regional Priority Credits are available only in the U.S. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet by state is
available for download from the USGBC website.
For current Regional Priority information, refer:
http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1984

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Regional Priority
Studio4 Office Project: Regional Priority
Regional Priority Category
Upon project registration, LEED Online automatically determines a projects Regional Priority
credits, based on the projects zip code.
Each Regional Priority credit is based on an existing credit and, if achieved, worth an additional 1
point. A total of 4 additional points may be earned from the pool of 6 Regional Priority credits.

Shown is a capture of the spreadsheet for the zip code 45242, the credits available for Regional
Priority points are:
SSc6.1 Stormwater Design - Quantity Control
EAc2 On-Site Renewable Energy
MRc1.1 (75%) Building Reuse - Maintain Existing Walls, Floors and Roof
MRc2 (75%) Construction Waste Management
MRc3 Materials Reuse
IEQc8.1 Daylight and Views - Daylight
Two Regional Priority points are applicable, based on previous credit achievement:
SSc6.1 Stormwater Design - Quantity Control
MRc2 Construction Waste Management.

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Regional Priority
Credit Checklist Analysis

2 of the 4 points available in the Regional Priority category provides the project team with 46
points.
We will take an overview look at the final Credit Checklist to determine if this is the path to
certification we want to focus on and then prepare a Summary Report.

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Studio4 Office Project: Certification Summary


Project Certification Summary

The project team has analyzed the preliminary credit count and determined basic certification
can be achieved by complying with local codes and ordinances, implementing good design and
construction techniques and prioritizing which limited sustainable credits to pursue.
A review by category indicates the credits achieved in the Sustainable Sites category were
assisted by, in large part, the location and condition of the site, the demands of local codes and
ordinances and an aggressive Pilot Program by the local storm and sanitary sewer authority.
The Water Efficiency credits were achieved primarily through the use of water efficient plumbing
fixtures and credits previously achieved in the Sustainable Sites category.
Energy and Atmosphere took the hit that is indicative of many projects seeking certification. The
credits within this category represent a substantial initial cost and although credible evidence
exists that indicate attractive payback periods, budgets are often tight and cannot handle this
financial burden.
With each LEED project that receives certification, in addition to federal, state and local
governments beginning to mandate some degree of certification in government and educational
facilities, new products become available that make the Materials and Resources category an
easy mark for collecting credits.

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The Indoor Environmental Quality category doesnt address sustainable elements the same
as any of the other categories. Yet it is an extremely important part of certification because it
deals directly and immediately with human health, well being and occupant productivity. Low
VOC products are available in every category for little, if any, additional cost nor at a sacrifice to
design. The Daylight and Views credits can be difficult if the site and floor plan are not suitable
for considering these credits on their face. Revising the building floor plan and fenestration along
with the interior office layout can come at the sacrifice of the Owners Project Requirements
or site conditions and are not always attainable. Every project should look closely at increased
ventilation, monitoring and chemical and pollutant control at the source.
In all likelihood, the project team will probably go back and reconsider some of the credits
passed over. The direction of this project changed, however, to focus on achieving certification
at minimal cost only to illustrate how little cost basic LEED certification can contribute to the
overall budget. Granted, this project is small although typical of many projects in size and
site attributes. Not discussed are the costs for compliance of the prerequisites, though all
but Fundamental Commissioning and Water Use Reduction are mainly a step above code or
standards implemented in construction today such as providing space for recycling, a smoke
free environment, construction pollution activity and refrigerant management.
In summary, many attributes of green building have already been put in place through federal,
state and local laws, codes and ordinances. Combined with proper design and good construction
practices and BMPs inherent in the industry today, NOT being green would be difficult to
defend!

Studio4 Office Project

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he LEED Green Associate accreditation is


for professionals who want to demonstrate
green building expertise in non-technical fields
of practice denoting basic knowledge of green
design, construction, and operations. The LEED
Green Associate examination is also required for all
candidates who plan to continue forward with one
of the Tier II credentialing examinations.

CHAPTER | 11

LEED Green Associate Exam


Study Materials

4 Steps for Exam Preparation


LEED Green Associate Exam

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LEED Green Associate Exam


LEED Green Associate Exam
A LEED Green Associate is an individual who has passed the exam and possesses the knowledge
and skill to understand and support green design, construction and operations. The LEED Green
Associate exam is a Tier I exam that is constructed towards those who want a basic understanding
of sustainability but not in need of the technical knowledge required to obtain a Tier II exam for
a LEED Accredited Professional with Specialty. For those who wish to obtain any of the Tier II
credentials, they must also pass the Green Associate exam. This can be taken prior to a Tier II
exam or at the same time as a Tier II exam.

Study Materials
The primary sources for the development of the core references are the LEED Rating Systems.
The LEED Green Associate examination is designed to test your general knowledge of green
building practices and how to support other professionals working on LEED projects.
The two primary resources for the Green Associate exam as recommended by USGBC/GBCI
are the Green Associate Candidate Handbook and the Green Building and LEED Core Concepts
Guide.
The GBCI Green Associate Candidate Handbook is a free download and is frequently updated,
therefore it is recommended to review the most current edition of this document for any revisions.
All LEED Candidate Handbooks can be located at:
http://www.gbci.org/main-nav/professional-credentials/resources/candidate-handbooks.aspx
LEED Reference Guides (Green Building and LEED Core Concepts Guide) are published by the
U.S. Green Building Council and are available for purchase at:
http://www.usgbc.org/Store/PublicationsList_New.aspx?CMSPageID=1518
Importantly, the Green Associate Candidate Handbook lists two categories of additional
reference materials. There are currently eleven (11) primary references and eleven (11) ancillary
references listed. Primary references are those from which exam items are taken and ancillary
references contain concepts relating to the LEED rating systems that the candidate should be
familiar with.

4 Steps for Exam Preparation


Download the Green Associate Candidate Handbook to determine if eligibility requirements
are met
Register for and schedule the exam per instructions in the Green Associate Candidate
Handbook
Gather study materials as listed above plus additional reference materials available on the
web
Study the collected resources until you feel comfortable with your degree of green
awareness and knowledge
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LEED Green Associate Exam


Getting Started

The first thing you should to do is download and study the LEED Green Associate Candidate
Handbook, available as a free download at www.gbci.org. This handbook is the default source for
information regarding the specifics for the LEED Green Associate exam process. The information
contained in the Studio4 LEED Green Associate study guide is an outline description of the exam
process. A review of the LEED Green Associate Handbook will acquaint you with the specifics
regarding exam rescheduling, hours of operation of the test site, contact numbers, etc.
Note: Check the GBCI website frequently for the current version of the LEED Green Associate Candidate
Handbook.
Detailed within the LEED Green Associate Candidate Handbook is, in part, the following
information:
5 Things Every Candidate Should Know (includes study links)
Study Materials (includes sample exam questions)
Applying for Your Exam (includes eligibility requirements)
Scheduling Your Exam (days, dates and times available)
Pre-Exam Checklist (one month & one week checklists)
The Day of Your Exam (ID and name requirements)
After Your Exam (passing, failing, credentialing and certificates)
Contact information

Examination Eligibility Requirements

To take the LEED Green Associate exam, you must have experience in the form of involvement
on a LEED registered project, employment (or previous employment) in a sustainable field of
work, or engagement in (or completion of) an education program that addresses green building
principles. You only have to meet one of these criteria to demonstrate eligibility.
For candidates who have attended, or are attending, an education program that addresses
green building principles, GBCI will accept a certificate of completion or an official transcript in
lieu of a letter of attestation. Any other eligibility documentation must be in the form of a letter
of attestation.
Candidates must also agree to the disciplinary policy and credential maintenance requirements
and submit to an application audit.

Applying for the Exam

The process necessary to take the LEED Green Associate exam requires three (3) steps. First, you
must apply for the exam and receive approval from the GBCI, the second step is to register for the
exam with Prometric and third, upon successful registration, you can schedule your exam with
Prometric. Registration is valid for a period of one (1) year from date of application approval. You
are permitted to have one pending registration at any one time, but can take the examination
three times during one year of the application approval. After three unsuccessful attempts, you
must wait three months before you can register again.
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LEED Green Associate Exam


Go to www.gbci.org and click My Credentials. Create an account with GBCI, if you do not
have one. Create, or update, your profile and upload the required document for proof of
eligibility. Verify that your name matches the identification you will present at the test
center
GBCI will review the application and approve, request additional information or deny
After application approval by GBCI, you can register and schedule the exam with
Prometric

Registration and Scheduling


GBCI contracts with Prometric to administer all LEED credentialing examinations. After you have
been approved by GBCI and received your eligibility ID, you can register and schedule your exam
with Prometric. After registering and scheduling, you will receive a confirmation number via
e-mail. It is recommended that this be printed in the event you need to contact Prometric in the
future. Candidates may register at any point during their one year application period through
My Credentials at www.gbci.org. Available Prometric test sites can be located by visiting www.
prometric.com/gbci

LEED Green Associate Application and Exam Fees


$50 non-refundable LEED Green Associate application fee
$150 examination fee for USGBC national members and full time students
$200 examination fee for all other exam applicants
Payment can be made electronically by credit or debit card
For test sites within the U.S., the fee is charged at the time the exam is taken
For test sites outside the U.S., the fee is charged at the time the exam is scheduled

Testing Rules & Regulations


It is important to note that USGBC and Prometric adhere to these rules, almost without exception,
and are explained in full detail in the LEED Green Associate Candidate Handbook.
You must provide a valid government issued photo ID (Drivers License, Passport or Military
ID). The name on your photo ID must match the name you used when registering for the exam
The test site will have available small lockers for you to place your personal items which are
not permitted to be taken into the examination room. These items include wallets, purses,
watches, keys, cell phones, calculators, paper, pens/pencils, computers, beverages, food,
books, bags
You must receive approval from the testing proctor prior to leaving the examination room.
If you need to leave the examination room for any reason, make certain you have your
photo ID with you. If you leave the building during the examination, the test proctor will
terminate your exam

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One Month Before Your Exam
Ensure that your name in My Credentials matches the identification you will present at the test
center

One Week Before Your Exam


Confirm that the exam scheduled with Prometric is for the correct date, time, and location
Ensure that your name in My Credentials matches the identification you will present at the test
center

The Day of Your Exam


You must provide a valid, unexpired ID with a signature and a photograph

Examination Format
Raw exam scores are converted to a scaled score that ranges from a minimum of 125 to a
maximum of 200 with a passing score set at 170. The scaled score is reported on screen at the
end of the exam
You will have 10 minutes to review a tutorial on how to use the computer. Any time remaining
can be used to write memorization notes on the scrap paper provided at the test site
There are 100 randomly delivered questions on the exam and you will have 2 hours to complete
the 100 question exam, not including the 10 minute tutorial
Questions are multiple choice with some having more than one answer, such as choose 3 of 5

Miscellaneous
Make certain you know where the test center is located and get there 15 - 30 minutes early
You are permitted to move through the questions and either answer, leave unanswered or mark.
At the conclusion of the exam, you will be shown a summary of the 100 questions showing
which have been answered, marked or unanswered and given the opportunity to go back to
address the marked or unanswered questions. You can also elect to review all of the questions
at this time
No credit is given for providing partial answers, such as answering 2 of 5 when 3 of 5 is
required
No credit is given for unanswered questions. Therefore it is recommended that you answer all
questions on the first try and mark those you are unsure of. Marked questions count as being
answered
Take your time and read each question carefully. Pay particular attention to words such as not,
may, prerequisite, may be required, etc.. Not seeing these words can have an effect on the correct
answer
Certain questions and answers may remind you of something that can provide assistance in
answering other questions you were previously unsure of

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LEED Green Associate Exam


Passing the Exam
If you receive a score of 170 or higher, you earn the LEED Green Associate designation
You will receive a print out of your examination results which will indicate your performance on
each section
You will receive an automatic e-mail from GBCI notifying you when your results have posted
Two to three months after you pass the exam, you will receive formal notification from GBCI,
including a congratulatory letter and a certificate recognizing you as a LEED Green Associate

Failing the Exam


If you receive a score of 169 or lower you will be denied the LEED Green Associate credential
You will receive a print out of your exam results which will indicate your performance on each
section
If you decide to retake the exam, you can use the report to focus your studies on your weakest
areas as indicated by your exam print out
You will receive an automatic e-mail from GBCI notifying you when your results have posted

Certificates
Certificates will be mailed directly from GBCI headquarters two to three months after the test
date

Exam Specifications
The specifications for each section of the LEED Green Associate exam are organized to include
a list of seven (7) domains and their corresponding knowledge areas. This structure assesses
whether a candidate is capable of performing specific tasks and services.
The following outline provides a general description of exam content areas for the LEED Green
Associate exam:
1. Synergistic Opportunities and LEED Application Process
2. Project Site Factors
3. Water Management
4. Project Systems and Energy Impacts
5. Acquisition, Installation, and Management of Project Materials
6. Stakeholder Involvement in Innovation
7. Project Surroundings and Public Outreach

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LEED Credentialing
There are three tiers to the LEED Credentialing system:
Tier I: LEED Green Associate
Tier II: LEED AP+ (with Specialty)
Building Design & Construction (BD&C)
Interior Design & Construction (ID&C)
Operations & Maintenance (O&M)
Homes
Neighborhood Development (ND)
Tier III: LEED Fellow (Under Development)
A LEED Green Associate is someone who has passed the LEED Green Associate examination
by demonstrating an understanding of basic green building knowledge, construction and
operations and has a general knowledge of green building practices and how to support other
professionals working on LEED projects.

5 Things Every Candidate Should Know


1. Ensure that your name in My Credentials matches the identification you will present at the test
center
2. In order to receive member pricing for your examination, you must enter your Corporate
Access ID into your USGBC account prior to registration. (To update your member status, go to
www.usgbc.org > Your Account > Membership) The member discount is not automatically applied
retroactively to exam registrations that are submitted under non-member pricing
3. To change or cancel your exam appointment you must do so through Prometric no later
than midnight on the third day before your scheduled exam. All exam appointments cancelled/
rescheduled 30 days or less before the exam date are charged a $30 fee. If you do not receive
a new confirmation number from Prometric, contact them immediately to confirm that your
appointment has been successfully cancelled/rescheduled
4. The only field you cannot edit in your My Credentials account is the name. (If you need to
change your name, contact GBCI credentialing staff at www.gbci.org/contact > Name Changes
or at 1-800-795-1746, within the US, or at +1-202-828-1145, outside the US.) Every other field,
including username, e-mail address, password, street address, company affiliation, etc., can be
changed, so there is no reason to create a new account when you change jobs, locations, or job
titles
5. If you have a documented disability that would prevent you from taking a LEED Professional
Credentialing exam under standard conditions, you may request a reasonable accommodation
as required by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Prometric certifies that it shall comply
with the provisions of the ADA.

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he specifications for each section of the LEED


Green Associate examination are organized
to include a list of seven (7) domains and their
corresponding knowledge areas. This structure
provides the framework to guide the development
of the examination items to assess whether a
candidate is capable of performing specific tasks
and services.

CHAPTER | 12

The Seven Domains

Synergistic Opportunities and LEED


Project Site Factors
Water Management
Project Systems & Energy Impacts
Project Materials
Stakeholder Involvement in Innovation
Project Surroundings & Public Outreach
Miscellaneous Recommended Resources
USGBC/GBCI Resources

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The Seven Domains


As outlined in the LEED Green Associate Candidate Handbook, the content of the Green Associate
exam is categorized into seven sections, or domains. Each domain contains various topics relative
to a specific areas to study. The seven domains are:
1. Synergistic Opportunities and LEED Application Process
2. Project Site Factors
3. Water Management
4. Project Systems and Energy Impacts
5. Acquisition, Installation and Management of Project Materials
6. Stakeholder Involvement in Innovation
7. Project Surroundings and Public Outreach
It is important that the study material links included in the LEED Green Associate Candidate
Handbook be downloaded and reviewed. The LEED Green Associate Candidate Handbook has
a reference section listing Primary and Ancillary reference materials that should be reviewed,
particularly the Primary reference materials. Many of these links have been included at the
end of this section. Also, it is important to read the Glossary and become familiar with the
terminology. All current rating system candidate handbooks can be located on the GBCI website:
http://www.gbci.org/main-nav/professional-credentials/resources/candidate-handbooks.aspx

1. Synergistic Opportunities and LEED Application Process


Project Requirements (site; program; budget; schedule)
The project requirements are generally established by a charrette during the predesign
and design phases when the site is selected, the building program written, preliminary
design sketches prepared, preliminary budget and preliminary schedules written for
review. Refer to the Green Building Chapter
Costs (hard costs; soft costs; life-cycle costs)
For information on these types of costs, refer to the Green Building Chapter
Green Resources (USGBC; Environmental Building News)
For a listing of Green Resources, refer to the Appendix
Standards that support LEED Credit (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Airconditioning Engineers [ASHRAE]; Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National
Association [SMACNA] guidelines; Green Seal)
For a listing of Referenced Standards, refer to the Appendix
Credit Interactions (energy and IEQ; waste management)
For a listing of Credit Interactions, refer to the Appendix
Credit Interpretation Rulings/Requests and precedents that lead to exemplary performance
For information on Credit Interpretation Rulings, refer to the USGBC chapter
For information on Exemplary Performance, refer to the Innovation in Design chapter

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The Seven Domains


Components of LEED Online and Project Registration
For information on LEED Online, refer to the USGBC chapter
For information on the Project Registration process, refer to the USGBC chapter
Components of LEED Scorecard
For information on the LEED Scorecard, refer to the USGBC chapter
Components of Letter Templates (project calculations; supplementary docs)
For information on Letter Templates, refer to the USGBC chapter. To review a sample of
the Letter Template, refer to the Appendix
Strategies to Achieve Credit
Strategies to Achieve Credit are defined by the LEED rating system that applies to the
project. The appropriate reference guide will list all credits and the requirements to
achieve the credit. For a free download copy of LEED rating systems (not reference guides):
http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=222
Project Boundary; LEED Boundary; Property Boundary
For a description of the various boundary types, refer to the Sustainable Sites chapter
Prerequisites and/or Minimum Program Requirements for LEED Certification
For information on Prerequisites, refer to the USGBC chapter
For information on Minimum Program Requirements, refer to the USGBC chapter
Preliminary Rating (target certification level)
A preliminary rating is the target rating level as determined by the total credit count of
the credits the project initially sets out to pursue. Ideally, during the predesign (charrette)
phase. The project team uses the Scorecard to evaluate each credit and its requirements
to determine if the credit is achievable, and at what cost to the project budget or its
interaction with other credits. The total of these credits will be the target certification
level.
Multiple Certifications for Same Building (Operations & Maintenance for certified building
new construction; core and shell and commercial interior; certified building in neighborhood
development)
For information on Multiple Certifications, refer to the USGBC chapter
Occupancy Requirements (existing building -- building must be fully occupied for 12
continuous months as described in minimum program requirements)
For information on Minimum Program Requirements, refer to the USGBC chapter
USGBC Policies (trademark usage; logo usage)
USGBC Logo Guidelines: http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1835&
Requirements to Earn LEED AP Credit
For information on the LEED AP credit, refer to the Innovation in Design chapter

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The Seven Domains


2. Project Site Factors
Community Connectivity: Transportation (public transportation; bike storage; fuel efficient
vehicle parking; parking capacity; car pool parking; car share membership [Zipcar];
shuttles; carts); Pedestrian Access (circulation and accessibility such as cross walks; ramps;
and trails)
For Community Connectivity information, refer to the Sustainable Sites chapter
Zoning Requirements: density components such as calculations, site area and floor area
ratio; construction limits; open space; building footprint; development footprint; specific
landscaping restrictions
For Zoning information, refer to the Sustainable Sites chapter
Development: Heat Islands (non-roof; roof; Solar Reflectance Index [SRI]; emissivity; albedo;
heat island effect; green roofs)
For Heat Island information, refer to the Sustainable Sites chapter

3. Water Management
Types and Quality of Water (potable; graywater; blackwater; stormwater)
For water type definitions, refer to the Water Efficiency chapter
Water Management (water use reduction through fixtures such as water closets; urinals;
sinks; lavatory faucets; showers; harvesting; baseline water demand; calculations of Full
Time Equivalent; irrigation)
For water use reduction strategies, refer to the Water Efficiency chapter
For FTE information, refer to the Sustainable Sites chapter

4. Project Systems and Energy Impacts


Environmental Concerns (chlorofluorocarbon [CFC] reduction, no refrigerant
option, ozone depletion, fire suppressions without halons or CFCs, phase-out plan,
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons [HCFC])
For refrigerant management information, refer to the Energy & Atmosphere chapter
Green Power (off-site generated, renewable energy certificates, Green-e providers)
For green power information, refer to the Energy & Atmosphere chapter

5. Acquisition, Installation, and Management of Project Materials


Recycled Materials (pre-consumer, post-consumer, collection requirements, commingled)
For sustainable materials information, refer to the Materials & Resources chapter
Locally (regionally) Harvested and Manufactured Materials
For sustainable materials information, refer to the Materials & Resources chapter
Construction Waste Management (written plan; accounted by weight or volume; reduction
strategies; polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) removal and Asbestos-containing materials
(ACM) management)
For construction waste management information, refer to the Materials & Resources
chapter
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6. Stakeholder Involvement in Innovation
Integrated Project Team Criteria (architect, heating-ventilation-air-conditioning [HVAC]
engineer, landscape architect, civil engineer, contractor, Facility Manager)
For information integrated design, refer to the Green Building chapter
The 4 conversations in the Introduction provide an excellent analysis of the roles and
values of an integrated project and design team
Durability Planning and Management (material lifecycle, building re-use)
This subject promotes durability and high performance of the building enclosure and
its components and systems through appropriate design, materials selection and
construction practices. Although this can be applicable to all green projects through the
sustainable procurement policies, Durability Planning and Management is a LEED for
Homes mandated prerequisite and can be reviewed in the LEED for Homes Reference
Guide
Innovative and Regional Design (regional green design and construction measures as
appropriate and established requirements)
For information on regionalization, refer to the USGBC chapter
For information on regional priority credits, refer to the Regional Priority chapter

7. Project Surroundings and Public Outreach


Codes (building, plumbing, electrical, mechanical, fire protection)
Every construction project in this country will most likely be governed, to some degree,
by local, state and/or federal regulations, laws and codes. They include local zoning
and building codes that are concerned with building setbacks, parking requirements,
landscaping and open space ordinances, fire protection and, most importantly, life safety
issues. The Sustainable Building Technical Manual: Part II provides additional information
regarding Laws, Codes and Standards. The Appendix provides a link to this manual

Miscellaneous Recommended Resources


Some of the subject matter as recommended in the LEED Green Associate Candidate Handbook
under Primary References and Ancillary References is covered in this study guide in whole, in part
or in outline form. Other information may not be covered in this guide for a variety of reasons,
primarily due to the importance of the document in its entirety.
It is important to understand that in an effort to keep LEED current, USGBC/GBCI frequently
updates their information. Therefore, it is recommended to use the current edition of the LEED
Green Associate Candidate Handbook and download these documents for current information
and directions. Presently, GBCI publishes updated Candidate Handbooks on a monthly basis.

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cronyms and definitions that may be unfamiliar


or have specific meanings in the context of
sustainability and green building.

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Acronyms & Abbreviations
Glossary of Terms

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Acronyms & Abbreviations
ACCA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America
ACEEE: American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy
AE: Awareness and Education Section
AFUE: Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency
AIA: American Institute of Architects
AFV: Alternative Fueled Vehicle (hybrid-electric, electric, natural gas, bio-diesel, fuel cell
ALP ENERGY STAR: Advanced Lighting Package
ANSI: American National Standards Institute
ASHRAE: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials
BIPV: Building Integrated Photovoltaics (integrated with roof, spandrels, glazing, shading
devices
BOD: Biological Oxygen Demand (that which is created by the release of nitrogen rich
wastewater
CAE: Combined Annual Efficiency
CDVR: Corrected Design Ventilation Rate (design ventilation rate divided by the air change
effectiveness
CFA: Conditioned Floor Area
CFC: Chlorofluorocarbon (ozone depleting HVAC refrigerants
CFL: Compact Fluorescent Light
CFM: Cubic Feet per Minute
CFR: U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
CGP: Construction General Permit
CIBSE: Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers
CIR: USGBC Credit Interpretation Request
CIWMB: California Integrated Waste Management Board
CO: Carbon Monoxide
CO2: Carbon Dioxide
COC: Chain of Custody
COP: Coefficient of Performance
CRI: Carpet & Rug Institute
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CRS: Center for Resource Solutions
CSI: Construction Specifications Institute
CWA: Clean Water Act (formerly referred to as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act or Federal
Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972)
CZ: Climate zone
DHW: Domestic Hot Water
DOE: U.S. Department of Energy
DU: Distribution Uniformity
EA: LEED Energy and Atmosphere section
ECB: Energy Cost Budget (ASHRAE 90.1 compliance path
ECM: Energy Conservation Measure (design strategies intended to reduce energy use
EEM: Energy Efficient Measure (interchangeable with ECM, term used in energy modeling
tools
EER: Energy Efficiency Rating
EERE :U.S. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
EF: Energy Factor
EPA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
ETS: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (includes that which is spread through ventilation
systems
FEMA: U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency
FSC: Forest Stewardship Council
GBCI: Green Building Certification Institute
GPF: Gallons Per Flush
GPM : Gallons Per Minute
GWP: Global Warming Potential (rating of a gaseous substances contribution to greenhouse
effects
HCFC: Hydrochloroflourocarbon (alternative refrigerant that has reduced ozone depleting
effects
HFC: Hydroflourocarbon (alternative refrigerant with no ozone depleting effects but some
tradeoff
HEPA: High-Efficiency Particle Absorbing
HERS: Home Efficiency Rating Standards
HET: High-Efficiency Toilet
HOA: Homeowners Association
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HSPF: Heating Season Performance Factor
HVAC: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning
HVAC&R: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning & Refrigeration
IAP: ENERGY STAR with Indoor Air Package
IAQ: Indoor Air Quality (with respect to human occupancy of a building
ICC: International Code Council
ICF: Insulated Concrete Form
ID: LEED Innovation & Design section
IDR: Innovative Design Report
IECC: International Energy Conservation Code
IEQ: LEED Indoor Environmental Quality section (encompasses IAQ, thermal comfort, daylighting,
etc
IESNA: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America
IPLV: Integrated Part Load Value (chiller efficiency including part load operation for a given
cycle
IPMVP: International Performance Measurement & Verification Protocol, Inc.
IRC: International Residence Code
ISO: International Organization for Standardization
KW: Kilowatt
KWH: Kilowatt-hour
LCA: Life Cycle Assessment (a full assessment of a materials cradle-to-grave environmental
impacts
LED: Light-Emitting Diode
LEED: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
LEED AP: LEED Accredited Professional
LL: LEED Location and Linkages section (Homes)
MEF: Modified Energy Factor
MERV: Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (a measure of the effectiveness of air filtration
media
MR: LEED Materials & Resources section
MSDS: Material Safety Data Sheet (provides essential information on composition and
hazards
NFRC: National Fenestration Rating Council
NPDES: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
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NPS: Non-point Source
O&M: Operation and Maintenance
ODP: Ozone Depleting Potential (rating of a gaseous substances ability to destroy stratospheric
ozone
OSB: Oriented Strand Board
OSWER: U.S. EPA Office of Solid Waste & Emergency Response
RESNET: Residential Energy Services Network
SCAQMD: South Coast Air Quality Management District
SCS: Scientific Certification Systems
SEER: Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating
SHGC: Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (the fraction of solar radiation admitted through a particular
glazing
SIP: Structural Insulated Panels
SMACNA: Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning National Contractors Association
SWPPP: Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan
SRI: Solar Reflectance Index
SS: LEED Sustainable Site section
TASC: Technical Advisory Subcommittee
TP: Total Phosphorous (phosphates, polyphosphates and orthophosphates in stormwater
TSS: Total Suspended Solids (particles too small or light to be removed from a liquid by gravity
settling
UL: Underwriters Laboratory
UBC: Uniform Building Code: The International Conference of Building Officials model building
code
UPC :Uniform Plumbing Code
USGBC: U.S. Green Building Council
VAV: Variable Air Volume (ventilation system configuration differentiated from Constant Air
Volume)
VOC: Volatile Organic Compound (hazardous substances that offgass from certain chemicals
WE: LEED Water Efficiency section
WF: Water Factor
WFA: Window-to-floor ratio

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Glossary of Terms
acid rain: precipitation of dilute solutions of strong mineral acids, formed by the mixing of the
atmosphere of various industrial pollutants (primarily sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide) with
naturally occurring oxygen and water vapor
active ventilation: synonymous with mechanical ventilation
adapted (or introduced) plants: non-native, introduced plants that reliably grow well in a given
habitat with minimal winter protection, pest control, fertilization or irrigation once their root
systems are established; adapted plants are considered low, maintenance and not invasive
adaptive reuse: renovation of a space for a purpose different from the original
adhesives: substance that is used to bond one surface to another by attachment
aerosol adhesive: an aerosol product in which the spray mechanism is permanently housed
in a nonrefillable can
agrifibre: agricultural fiber such as wheat, straw, cereal straw, sugarcane bagasse, sunflower
husk, walnut shells, coconut husks
agrifibre board: a composite panel product derived from recovered agricultural waste fiber
and mixed together with a resin. To meet credit requirements, the products must: be inside
the buildings weatherproofing system, composite components used in assemblies must be
included and the product must be part of the base building system
air conditioning: the process of treating air to meet the requirements of a conditioned space
by controlling the temperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution
air handling units (AHUs): mechanically indirect heating, ventilating or air conditioning
systems in which air is treated or handled by equipment located outside the space served and
conveyed to and from the space by means of a fan and duct system
airborne pollutant: airborne chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause
harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment
into the atmosphere
albedo: reflectance of sunlight, also known as Solar Reflectance
alternative daily cover: material that is placed on the surface of the active face of a municipal
solid waste landfill at the end of each day to control vectors, fires, odors, blowing litter and
scavenging
alternative fuel vehicle: a vehicle that runs on a fuel other than traditional petroleum fuels
(petrol or diesel); and also refers to any technology of powering an engine that does not involve
solely petroleum (electric car, hybrid electric vehicles, solar powered)
ambient temperature: temperature of the surrounding air or other medium
anticorrosive paint: coatings formulated for use in preventing the corrosion of ferrous metal
substrates
aquifer: underground rock formations holding water that is supplied to wells and springs
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architectural nonporous sealant primer: substance used as a sealant primer on nonporous
materials
architectural porous sealant primer: substance used as a sealant on porous materials
area weighted SRI: weighted average calculation for buildings with multiple roof surfaces
to demonstrate that the total roof area has an average SRI equal to or greater than that of a
theoretical roof 75% of whose surfaces have an SRI of 78 and 25% have an SRI of 30%
assembly recycled content: percentage of material in a product that is either postconsumer
or preconsumer recycled content
attendance boundary: used by school districts to determine which students attend what
school based on where they live
audiovisual (A/V) media: slides, film, video, sound recordings and other such devises used to
present information
automatic fixture sensors: motion detectors that automatically turn on and turn off lavatories,
sinks, water closets and urinals
ASHRAE: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers
bake out: process of removing VOCs from a building by elevating the temperature
balancing damper: adjustable plate that adjusts air flow within ducts
baseline building performance: annual energy costs for a building design intended for use as
a baseline for rating above standard design, as defined by ASHRAE 90.1-2007, Appendix G
baseline case versus design case: amount of design case water saved over the baseline case
amount; the baseline case is based on the Energy Policy Act or 1992 (EPAct 1992) for flush and
flow rates
baseline irrigation water use: amount of water used by conventional irrigation in the region
basis of design (BOD): design information gathered to document the owners project
requirements
bay: a component of a standard, rectilinear building design that is an open area defined by a
building element such as columns or a window
bedroom: LEED for Homes, any room or space that could be used or is intended to be used for
sleeping purposes and meets local fire and building code requirements
Best Management Practices (BMPs): used to control the generation and delivery of pollutants
from the built environment to water ways, thereby reducing the amount of pollutants entering
surface and ground waters. BMPs can be structural like a Vortechs System or can be nonstructural, like street sweeping
bicycle racks: outdoor bicycle racks, bicycle lockers and indoor bicycle storage rooms
biochemical oxygen demand: measure of how fast biological organisms use up oxygen in a
body of water
biodegradable: capable of decomposing under natural conditions
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biodiversity: variety of life in all forms, levels and combination including ecosystem diversity,
species diversity and genetic diversity
biofuel based energy systems: electrical power systems that run on renewable fuels derived
from organic materials such as untreated wood waste, agricultural crops and residues, animal
wastes, landfill gas and other organic waste
biological control: use of chemical or physical water treatment to inhibit bacterial growth in
cooling towers
biomass: total weight of a designated group of organisms in a particular area
bioswale: stormwater control feature that uses a combination of engineered basin, soils and
vegetation to slow and detain stormwater
blackwater: wastewater from toilets and urinals, definitions vary where wastewater from
kitchen sinks, showers and bathtubs are considered as blackwater under some jurisdictions
bleed off or blow down: release of solids in a cooling tower by releasing the towers recirculating
water
bleed off rate: frequency bleed off occurs
borate: nontoxic wood preservative
breathing zone: part of an occupied room from 3 to 6 feet off the floor and more than 2 feet
from walls or fixed air conditioning equipment
brownfield: land whose former use resulted in potential pollution or the presence of hazardous
substances
British thermal unit (Btu): amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of
liquid water from 60 F to 61 F
buildable land: portion of the site where construction can occur; excludes public streets or
other public right-of-ways and other public areas such as parks
Building Automation Systems (BAS): systems that use computer controls to monitor and
control building subsystems for maximum operating efficiency and reporting
building density: floor area of the building divided by the total area of the site (sf per acre)
building engineer: engineering professional who oversees and is responsible for the operation
and maintenance of the buildings plumbing, mechanical and electrical systems
building envelope: exterior surfaces of a building (walls, roof, windows, floor) and also referred
to as the shell
building footprint: area of the building structure that as determined by the perimeter of
the building plan, which is typically the foundation walls. Hardscapes, landscaping and other
nonbuilding facilities are not included in the building footprint
building operating plan: document covering the intended operation of each building base
system

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built environment: man made alterations to a specific area, including its natural resources
byproduct: material, other than the principal material, that is generated as a consequence of
an industrial process or as a breakdown product in a living system
campus or private bus: bus or shuttle service that is privately operated and not available to
the general public; in LEED, a campus or private bus line that falls within 1/4 mile of the project
site and provides transportation service to the public can contribute to earning points
cap and trade system: regulatory or management system that sets a target level for emissions
or natural resource use, and, after distributing shares in that quota, lets trading in those permits
determine their price
carbon dioxide levels (CO2): measuring exhaust gas levels that indicate ventilation
effectiveness. Concentrations above 530 ppm (parts per million) show inadequate ventilation,
while concentrations above 800 ppm show poor air quality
carbon footprint: measure of greenhouse gas emissions associated with an activity; a
comprehensive carbon footprint includes building construction, operation, energy use,
building related transportation and the embodied energy of water, solid waste and construction
materials
carpool: two or more people sharing a vehicle
catchment: the surface area of a roof that captures rainwater for rainwater harvesting
certified wood: wood that has been issued a certificate from an independent organization
with developed standards of good forest management, verifying harvesting from responsibly
managed forests
chain-of-custody (CoC): tracks products from harvest or extraction to consumer end-use
chain of custody certification: awarded to companies that produce, sell, promote or trade
forest products after audits verify proper accounting of material flows and proper use of the
FSC name and logo
charrette: collaborative session in which the project team discusses design and construction
options
chemical runoff: water that takes chemicals from the project, including the surrounding
hardscape, to local waterways
chemical treatment: chemicals to control rusting, biological growth and scaling in cooling
towers. Other treatments such apply ultra-violet light, are considered healthier for humans
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): chemical compounds (halocarbons) made up of carbon, fluorine,
and chlorine; CFCs have been used as propellants in spray cans, coolants in refrigerators and air
conditioners, and in foam, plastics, and cleaning solvents; they are very stable in the troposphere,
but are broken down by strong ultraviolet light in the stratosphere and release chlorine atoms
that then deplete the ozone layer
churn: movement of people and workspaces within a space

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circulation loop: system that returns cold water to the water heater until hot water reaches the
source (faucet); one component of a structured plumbing system
climate change: significant change to a given climate over 10 years or more
climate zone: in the U.S., one of eight regions defined by the International Energy Conservation
Code (IECC) that characterizes the temperature of an area of the country; climate zone 1 is the
hottest and climate zone 8 is the coldest
closed combustion: furnace and water heater design where the supply air is ducted from the
outside and exhaust gases are ducted to the outdoors
coating: substance applied to beautify, protect or provide a barrier to a surface
combined heat and power (CHP) (or cogeneration): generates both electrical power and
thermal energy from one fuel source
combustion exhaust gases: most common gases resulting from fossil fuel combustion,
including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
comfort criteria: conditions for human comfort based on temperature, humidity, clothing and
anticipated activity
commingling recycling: permits putting different materials in one container for later sorting
and recycling at a sorting facility
commissioning (Cx): process of verifying and documenting that a building and all of its
systems and assemblies are planned, designed, installed, tested, operated and maintained to
meet the owners project requirements (OPR)
commissioning authority (CxA): individual designated to organize, lead and review the
completion of commissioning process activities; ensures that systems are installed and function
in accordance with the owners project requirements (OPR)
commissioning cycle: schedule of commissioning phases
commissioning plan: document that outlines the organization, schedule, allocation of
resources and documentation requirements of the commissioning process
commissioning process: systematic effort to ensure that building systems are designed,
specified, installed and functioning in accordance with the owners intent
commissioning report: document that details the commissioning process, including a
commissioning program overview, identification of the commissioning team and description
of the commissioning process activities
commissioning specification: contract language used in construction documents to detail
the objective, scope and implementation of the construction and acceptance phases of the
commissioning process as developed by the design phase of the commissioning plan
commissioning team: includes those people responsible for working together to carry out the
commissioning process

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community connectivity: amount of connection between a site and the surrounding
community; the physical location of the site relative to homes, schools, retail, restaurants,
medical and other services
compact fluorescent lamp (CFL): small fluorescent lamp used as a more efficient alternative
to incandescent lamps
compensating shower valves: designed to keep bathing water temperatures in the shower
fairly constant when other appliances are in use or when the hot or cold water supply pressure
changes or the bathing water outlet temperature changes
completed design area: total area of the finished ceilings, floors, full height walls and
demountable partitions, interior doors and built-in case goods. Not included are exterior doors
and windows
composite wood: wood or plant particles or fibers bonded together by a synthetic resin or
binder and include plywood, particle board, oriented strandboard (OSB), medium density
fiberboard (MDF) and composite door cores; to meet credit requirements, the products must
be inside the buildings weatherproofing system, composite components used in assemblies
must be included and the product must be part of the base building system
composting (or nonwater) toilets: dry plumbing fixtures and fittings that contain and treat
human waste via microbiological processes
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA): tax
on the chemical and petroleum industries to clean up abandoned or historic waste sites
compressed work week: rearranges the workweek by increasing the daily hours and decreasing
the number of days from a standard of 8 hours per day for 5 consecutive days
concentration: ratio of the level of dissolved solids in the recirculating water to the level found
in the entering makeup water
conditioned space: sections of a building that are heated, cooled or both
conductivity meter or EC meter: device that measures the amount of nutrients and salt in the
air
conservation: methods of utilizing natural resources in ways to prevent their depletion
constructed wetland: artificial system designed to simulate the water treatment effects of
wetlands and remove any pollutants
construction and demolition debris (C&D): waste and recyclable materials from construction,
demolition, deconstruction or renovation of existing buildings
construction, demolition and land clearing debris (CDL): everything included in construction
and demolition debris plus soil, vegetation and rock from land clearing
construction IAQ management plan: plan to minimize air contamination caused by building
construction; includes procedures to remove contaminants before occupancy

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construction waste management plan: plan that diverts construction debris from landfills or
incinerators through recycling, salvaging and reusing
contaminant: unwanted airborne element that may reduce indoor air quality
controllability of systems: percentage of occupants who have direct control over temperature,
airflow and lighting in their spaces
controls: operating mechanisms that enable a person to turn devices on or off
conventional irrigation: most common type of irrigation used in the region where the project
is located
conventional turf: typically regional monoculture grass that requires considerable watering,
mowing and fertilizing
cooling tower: equipment using water to absorb heat from other sources, such as air
conditioning systems
core learning spaces: spaces for educational activities where the primary purpose is teaching
or learning
critical visual tasks: visual tasks completed by building occupants
curfew hours: locally set times when lighting restrictions take effect; default time is 10 p.m.
daylight factor: percentage of exterior illumination to interior illumination; variables include
floor area, window area, window design, visible transmittance and window height
daylight glazing: vertical window 7-6 above the floor
daylighting: controlled admission of natural light into a space to reduce or eliminate the need
for artificial light
daylighting zone: total floor area that meets the performance requirements for daylighting
daylight responsive lighting controls: photosensors used with other switching and dimming
devices to control the amount of artificial light in relationship to the amount of natural
daylight
declarant: LEED AP team member technically qualified to verify the content of a LEED credit
submittal template and is authorized by the project administrator to sign the template and
upload to LEED Online; the declarant have a significant degree of responsibility for the credit
such as participation in or oversight of the implementation and verification; the declarant for
credits may be restricted or unrestricted.
demand control circulation: switch or sensor triggered automatic circulation of water through
a looped system to ensure that hot water is immediately available while keeping unused cold
water in the system in order to save water and energy
demand control ventilation: automatic reduction of outside air to a level below design rates
when occupancy is less than design determined by occupancy indicators such as time of day,
schedules

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density: quantity of structures on a site, measured for residential buildings as dwelling units
per usable acre of buildable land available for residential uses and for nonresidential buildings
as floor area ratio per net acre of buildable land available for nonresidential uses
densely occupied space: area with 25 people or more per 1,000 square feet, or 40 square feet
or less of floor space per person
density factor (kd): modifies the evapotranspiration rate to reflect the use by a particular plant
or group of plants to calculate the landscape coefficient
design light output: output of a lamp at 40% of its useful life
designed landscape: the arrangement of features on a site, including softscapes (grasses,
shrubs) and hardscapes (patios, fountains) not under roof
development density: total area of all buildings within a particular area and expressed in
square feet per acre
development footprint: area impacted by the project site, which includes parking, landscaping,
roads and other facilities in addition to the building
distribution uniformity (DU): metric for estimating how uniformly water is applied to an area;
DU ranges from 0 and 1, where 1 indicates the irrigation system is providing equal coverage
and 0 indicates under or over watering
district energy system: central energy conversion plant and transmission and distribution
system that provides thermal energy to a group of buildings; central energy systems that
provide only electricity are not included
disturbed lot area: part of the site directly affected by construction activity or any activity that
would compact the soil or damage vegetation
dew point: temperature to which air must be cooled for the water vapor it contains to revert
to a liquid state
direct line of sight to perimeter vision glazing: method used to determine the calculated
area of regularly occupied areas with direct line of sight to perimeter vision glazing
displacement ventilation: provides buoyancy driven air flow rather than conventional forced
methods
diversity of uses or housing types: number of spaces or housing types, offices, homes, schools,
parks, stores, per acre
downstream equipment: all heating or cooling systems, equipment and controls located
within a project building and site associated with transporting thermal energy into heated or
cooled spaces
drip irrigation: uses low pressure to deliver water through a series of tubes directly to specific
plants; uses less water than standard means and supplies water only to selected plants, not
weeds or hardscape surfaces

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dry ponds: elevated areas that detain stormwater and slow runoff but are dry between rain
events
dry urinals: also known as nonwater urinals and composting toilets; a water flush is replaced
with a trap full of buoyant liquid that blocks sewer gas and odors from escaping
dry wells: underground structure that collects stormwater runoff and distributes it over a large
area, increasing absorption and minimizing erosion
dual flush toilet: toilet with two flush volumes; one for solid waste and a reduced volume for
liquid waste
durability: ability of a building or any of its components to perform its required function in its
service environment over the period of time without foreseen cost for maintenance or repair
durable goods: items that have a useful life of 2 or more years or may require capital
expenditure
durable goods waste stream: durable goods leaving the project site that have been fully
depreciated and have reached the end of their useful life
ecological restoration: process of assisting in the recovery and management of ecological
integrity
ecologically appropriate features: natural inanimate features of the landscape (rocks and
water features)
ecologically appropriate site features: natural site elements that maintain or restore the
ecological integrity of the site
economizer: devices such as HVAC enthalpy controls used to make building systems more
energy efficient
ecosystem: basic unit of nature that includes a community of organisms and their nonliving
environment linked by biological, chemical and physical processes
edge development: a group of homes that extend an existing community beyond its borders
but remain connected to it; in LEED for Homes, at least 25% of an edge developments perimeter
must border land that has been previously developed
electrical conductivity meter (EC): device that measures the amount of nutrients and salt in
water
elemental mercury: pure mercury. Mercury vapor is commonly used in fluorescent and other
types of lamps
embodied energy: energy used during the entire life cycle of a product, including the
manufacture, transportation, disposal as well as the inherent energy captured within the
product
emissions reduction reporting: calculation, tracking and documentation of the greenhouse
gas emissions that are associated with the energy usage of a building

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emissivity: ratio of radiation emitted from a material to the radiation from a black body at the
same temperature
endangered species: species threatened with extinction
energy audit: identifies the amount and purpose of the energy used and identifies efficiency
and cost reduction opportunities
energy conservation measures: methods or activities that use less energy
energy or greenhouse gas emissions per capita: total greenhouse gas emissions of a
community divided by the total resident count
energy efficient products and systems: building components and appliances that use less
energy
energy management system: HVAC control monitoring system that adjusts equipment to
conserve energy
energy simulation model (or energy model): computer representations that allow users to
estimate the anticipated energy use of the building; allows various systems to be compared for
performance with a baseline
ENERGY STARhome: home build to a high standard of energy efficiency that is at least 15%
more efficient than International Energy Conservation Code (IECC)
ENERGY STARwith Indoor Air package (IAP): certification program that recognizes homes
with systems to ensure high standards of indoor air quality and rated as an ENERGY STAR
home
ENERGY STAR rating: measure of a buildings energy performance compared to those with
similar characteristics; a 50 score represents average building performance
energy use intensity: energy consumption divided by the area in square feet in a building;
energy consumption is usually expressed as British thermal units (Btus) per square foot or as
kilowatt-hours of electricity per square foot per year (kWh/sf/yr)
enhanced commissioning: set of best practices that go beyond fundamental commissioning
that includes designating a commissioning authority prior to the construction documents
phase, conducting commissioning design reviews, reviewing contractor submittals, developing
a systems manual, verifying operator training and performing a post occupancy operations
review
entryway systems: open floor grates or grilles designed to capture potential pollutants from
people entering a building
environmental attributes of green power: includes emissions reduction
environmental sustainability: long term maintenance of ecosystems
Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS): (also known as secondhand smoke) refers to all forms
of tobacco smoke exhaled, or allowed to be released into the air, by smokers

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erosion: process by which hard materials are loosened or dissolved, or worn away and
transported by natural agents
eutrophication: increase in chemical nutrients, such as nitrogen found in fertilizers, in an
ecosystem
evapotranspiration: amount of water lost from the soil and by transpiration from plants and
expressed in millimeters per unit of time
evapotranspiration rate (ET): amount of water lost from a vegetated surface in units of water
depth and expressed in millimeters per unit of time
exfiltration: air leakage through cracks
exhaust air: air removed from a building and discharged outside the building by mechanical
or natural ventilation systems
existing area: total area of a building structure, core and envelope that existed when the
project area was selected
facility alteration or addition: building work done on an existing building; facility alterations
refers to changes made to the building that do not alter the original design character of the
building; facility additions are structures added to the original building smaller than the original
building in scale.
Fairtrade: product certification system overseen by FLO International that identifies products
that meet certain environmental, labor and development standards
floodplain: land that has a likelihood of being flooded within a given storm cycle, such as a 100
year storm
floor area ratio: ratio of total building area to that of the amount of buildable land
fly ash: solid waste from an incineration process which can be used in concrete
flush out: operation of mechanical systems for two weeks using 100% outside air at the end of
construction and prior to occupancy to ensure safe indoor air quality
Food Alliance: certifies food from sustainable farms and ranches that produce natural products,
ensure quality control and food safety, responsibly manage water and energy resources,
stresses recycling and waste management, provides a safe work environment and commits to
a continuous improvement of sustainable practices
footcandle: amount of illumination falling on a surface at one lumen per square foot of surface
area
formaldehyde: a natural VOC compound found in plants and animals
fossil fuel: energy derived from ancient organic remains such as peat, coal, crude oil and natural
gas
fuel efficient vehicles: vehicles earning a score of 40 or more on the American Council for an
Energy Efficient Economy annual vehicle rating guide

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full cutoff luminaire: light source where the light output (in lumens) does not exceed 0% at 90
degrees above nadir and 10% above 80 degrees
full disclosure: for products that are not formulated with listed suspect carcinogens has two
components: (1) disclosure of all ingredients (both hazardous and nonhazardous) that make up
1% or more of the undiluted product and (2) use of concentration ranges for each of the disclosed
ingredients; full disclosure for products that are formulated with listed suspect carcinogens has
three components: (1) disclosure of listed suspect carcinogens that make up 0.1% or more of
the undiluted product (2) disclosure of all ingredients (both hazardous and nonhazardous) that
make up 1% or more of the undiluted product and (3) use of concentration ranges for each of
the disclosed ingredients; suspect carcinogens are those that are listed on authoritative lists
(IARC, NTP or California Proposition 65) for MSDS preparation; concentration range definitions
are available from OSHA or Canada WHMIS Standards
full time equivalent (FTE): regular building occupant who spends 40 hours per week in the
project building. Part time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per
week divided by 40. Multiple shifts are included or excluded depending on their intent and
requirements of the credit
full time equivalent building occupants: measure equal to the total number of hours all
building occupants spend in the building during the peak 8 hour occupancy period divided by
8 hours
fully shielded exterior light fixtures: attached to outside light sources and built so the lower
edge of the shield is at or below the lowest edge of the lamp, such that light travels downward
only
fundamental commissioning: set of essential best practices used to ensure that building
performance requirements have been identified early in the projects development and to
verify that the designed systems have been installed in compliance with those requirements.
Included are the process of designating a commissioning authority, documenting the owners
project requirements and basis of design (BOD), incorporating commissioning requirements
into the construction documents, establishing a commissioning plan, verifying installation and
performance of specified building systems and completing a summary commissioning report
furniture, fixtures and equipment (FFE): all movable items not part of the base building such
as desks, computers and portable lights
gallons per minute: measurement of water used by flow fixtures (faucets, showerheads,
aerators, sprinkler heads); Per EPAct 1992, baseline rates for faucets, showerheads and aerators
is 2.5 gpm
gallons per flush: measurement of water used by flush fixtures (water closets and urinals); per
EPAct 1992, baseline rates for water closets is 1.6 gpf and urinals is 1.0 gpf
geothermal energy: the heat of the earth; where this heat occurs close to the earths surface,
and is able to maintain a temperature in the surrounding rock or water at or above 150 degrees
C, it may be tapped to drive steam turbines

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geothermal heating systems: systems that use pipes to transfer heat from underground
steam or hot water for heating, cooling and hot water
glare: any excessively bright source of light within the visual field that creates discomfort or
loss of visibility
glazing factor: ratio of interior light at a specific point on a specific plane under known overcast
skies; the variables used by LEED area the floor area, window areas, window geometry, visible
transmittance and window height
global warming: increase in the temperature near the surface of the earth
graywater (or greywater): domestic wastewater composed of wash water from kitchen,
bathroom and laundry sinks, tubs and washers; the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC) defines
graywater as untreated household wastewater that has not come in contact with toilet waste;
the International Plumbing Code (IPC) defines graywater as wastewater discharged from
lavatories, bathtubs, showers, clothes washers and laundry sinks; some states will allow kitchen
sinks to be included with graywater
green cleaning: use of cleaning products and practices that have lower environmental impacts
and more positive indoor air quality impacts than conventional products and practices
green power: synonymous with renewable energy
green-e: program established by the Center for Resource Solutions to promote green electricity
products
Green Rater: individual that performs field inspections and performance testing of LEED for
Homes measures for the LEED for Homes Provider; a HERS rater with additional training can
become a Green Rater
greenfields: sites not previously developed or graded that could support open space, habitat
or agriculture
greenwashing: term playing off whitewash that is used to describe projects that are labeled
as energy-efficient and sustainable when theyre really not; its also a term sometimes used to
describe the distribution of misleading information by a business or an organization to conceal
its abuse of the environment
greenhouse effect: the rise in temperature that the Earth experiences because certain gases
in the atmosphere (water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane, for example)
trap energy from the sun; because of their warming effect, these gases are referred to as
greenhouse gases; without them, more heat would escape back into space and the Earths
average temperature would be about 33C colder; similarly, their rapid accumulation in the
atmosphere can lead to rising temperatures
greenhouse gases (GHGs): gasses such as carbon dioxide or methane that reflects infrared
radiation emitted by the earth, thereby helping to retain heat in the atmosphere
group multi occupant spaces: include conference rooms, classrooms and other indoor spaces
used as places of congregation

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halons: ozone damaging chemicals used in fire fighting systems and extinguishers
hard costs: project costs directly related to construction and development activities such as
contractor costs, labor and material costs, and costs related to direct service and material costs
for the project; not included are soft costs such as legal fees, closing fees, architectural and
engineering fees, interest costs, etc.
hardscape: refers to the non-plant elements of the landscape; these elements include
pavement, concrete, brick, tile and other hard surfaces external to the building shell
hard surface flooring: includes vinyl, linoleum, laminate, wood rubber, wall base and associated
sundries
harvested rainwater: precipitation captured and used for indoor and/or irrigation needs
heat island effect: refers to the absorption of heat by dark surfaces, such as buildings, then
radiating that heat into nearby areas
Hertz (Hz): unit to describe the frequency of vibrations (cycles) per second
high efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA): filters that remove (99.97%) 0.3 micron particles
high efficiency toilet: toilets that use no more than 1.3 gallons per flush (GPF)
high performance green building: structure designed to conserve water and energy; uses
space, materials and resources efficiently; minimizes construction waste; creates a healthful
indoor environment
Home Energy Rating System (HERS): indexed system for evaluating the energy efficiency of a
home using an energy simulation model; a HERS index of 100 represents the energy efficiency
of a home that meets IECC code requirements; each additional index point represents a 1%
increase in energy use; lower index numbers indicates the percentage savings in energy use
horizontal footcandle: light on a horizontal surface
hospitality: the business of providing temporary residence to customers, such as a hotel
hospitality industry: companies within the food services, accommodations, recreation and
entertainment sectors
HVAC systems: equipment, distribution systems and terminals that provide the processes of
heating, ventilating and air conditioning
HVAC&R systems: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration systems inside a
building
hybrid vehicles: use a gasoline engine to drive an electric generator and use the electric
generator to drive the vehicles wheels
hydro energy: energy supplied by water flowing
hydronic system: heating or cooling systems that use circulating water as the heat transfer
medium such as a boiler with hot water circulated through radiators

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hydrochloroflourocarbons (HCFCs): cooling chemicals used in building equipment; they
damage the ozone layer, but not to the extent of CFCs
hydroflourocarbons (HFCs): cooling chemicals that do not damage the ozone layer but may
contribute to global warming
hydrology: study of water occurrence, movement and balances in an ecosystem
hydro energy or hydropower: electricity produced from the downhill flow of water
impervious surfaces: having a perviousness of less than 50% and promote runoff of water
instead of infiltration into the subsurface
imperviousness: resistance of a material to penetration by a liquid such as water
incinerator: furnace for burning waste
individual occupant spaces: where workers use standard workspaces to conduct individual
tasks
indoor adhesive, sealant or primer: adhesive or sealant product applied on-site, inside the
buildings weatherproofing system
indoor air quality (IAQ): nature of air inside a space that affects the health and well being
of building occupants; it is considered acceptable when there are no known contaminants
at harmful concentrations and when the majority (80%) of the occupants do not express
dissatisfaction
indoor carpet systems: carpet, carpet adhesive or carpet cushion products installed inside the
buildings weatherproofing system
indoor paints or coating products: applied inside a buildings weatherproofing system
indoor composite wood or agrifibre: product installed inside the buildings weatherproofing
system
infill site: a lot in an existing community; LEED for Homes requires at least 75% of its perimeter
bordering land to be previously developed
infiltration: air leakage into conditioned spaces through cracks in floors, ceilings and walls
from unconditioned spaces or the outdoors
infiltration basins and trenches: devices that help stormwater settle into the ground
infrared (or thermal) emittance: a parameter between 0 and 1 that indicates the ability of a
material to shed infrared radiation (heat)
in situ remediation: involves treating contaminants in place using injection wells, reactive
trenches or other technologies that take advantage of the natural hydraulic gradient of
groundwater
installation inspection: examines components of the building systems to determine whether
they are installed properly and ready for systems performance testing

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integrated design team: all the stakeholders involved in a building project beginning from
early in the design process
integrated pest management (IPM): coordinated use of knowledge about pests, the
environment and pest prevention and control methods to minimize pest infestation and
damage
interior lighting power allowance: maximum lighting power allowed for the interior of a
building and expressed in watts
interior nonstructural components reuse: determined by dividing the area of retained
components by the larger area of the prior condition or the area of the completed design
invasive plants: aggressive, reproduce rapidly and tend to overrun areas, forcing out native
species.
irrigated land: land watered by artificial means
irrigation efficiency: percentage of water used by irrigation equipment that is effective for
irrigation that does not evaporate, blow away or fall on hardscape surfaces
ladder blocking: method of framing where interior partition walls meet and are reinforced by
walls that are perpendicular
laminate adhesive: adhesives used in wood or agrifibre products
lamp life: useful operating span of a lamp
lamps: products that use electricity to produce light
landfills: disposal site where waste is buried
landscape area: total site area used for landscaping purposes excluding the building footprint,
hardscape areas, water bodies, parking, etc.
landscape coefficient (KL): coefficient used to calculate the evapotranspiration rate taking into
account the species factor, density factor and microclimate factor of the area
leakage rate: speed at which an appliance loses refrigerant, measured between refrigerant
changes or over 12 months, whichever is shorter
least toxic chemical pesticide: pesticide products where all active ingredients and known
inactive ingredients meet the least toxic Tier 3 hazard criteria under the City and County of San
Franciscos hazard screening protocol; least toxic also applies to any pesticide product, or other
rodent bait, that is applied in a self-contained, enclosed bait station placed in an accessible
location, or applied in a gel that is neither visible nor accessible
LEED Accredited Professionals (LEED APs): people who have passed the LEED professional
test.
LEED credit: optional LEED Green Building Rating System component whose achievement
results in the earning of points toward certification

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LEED Credit Interpretation Request (CIR): formal USGBC process in which a project team
experiencing difficulties in the application of a LEED prerequisite or credit can seek and receive
clarification
LEED intent: primary goal of each LEED prerequisite or credit
LEED Green Building Rating System: voluntary, consensus based, market driven building
rating system based on existing proven technology
LEED prerequisite: required LEED Green building Rating System component whose
achievement is mandatory and does not earn any points
LEED project boundary: portion of the project site submitted for LEED certification; for single
building developments, this is the entire project scope and is limited to the site boundary;
for multiple building developments, the LEED project boundary may be a portion of the
development as determined by the project team
LEED Technical Advisory Group (TAG): committee consisting of industry experts who assist in
interpreting credits and developing improvements to the LEED Green Building Rating System
legionella pneumophilia: a waterborne bacterium that causes Legionnaires disease
life cycle assessment: analyzes a product, process or services environmental aspects and
impacts.
life cycle cost analysis (LCC): calculates expected future operating, maintenance and
replacement costs of designs and features to assist owners in developing a realistic design and
budget estimate
light pollution: waste light produces glare or is directed into the night sky or off-site
light trespass: unobtrusive light that causes annoyance, discomfort or loss of visibility
lighting power density (LPD): installed lighting power per unit area
local zoning requirements: local government regulations imposed to promote orderly
development of private lands and prevent land use issues
lodging: facilities that provide overnight accommodations to customers or guests, including
hotels, motels, inns and resorts
lot: individual parcel of land on which a home is built
low emitting vehicles: classified as zero emission vehicles (ZEVs) by the California Air Resources
Board
lumen: unit of luminous flux equal to the light emitted in a unit solid angle by a uniform point
source of 1 candle intensity
luminaire: complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp and housing
luminaire opening: part of the luminaire that allows light to be emitted
makeup water: water used by cooling systems to replace that which has been lost

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management staff: employees or contractors involved in operating and maintaining a building
or site
manufacturing: final assembly of components into the building product that is furnished and
installed by the trade workers
market transformation: systemic improvements in the performance of a market or market
segment
market value: value presumed to be less than the replacement value, the amount paid or
would have been paid
mass transit: designed to transport large groups of people in a single vehicle
master plan: overall design or development concept for the buildings and site
Material Data Safety Sheets (MSDS): detailed instructions documenting a method to achieve
uniformity of performance
measures of energy use: three primary measures of energy consumption associated with
buildings expressed in kilowatt hours of electricity, therms of natural gas and gallons of liquid
fuel
mechanical (active) ventilation: air circulated through mechanical means such as fans and
blowers
metering controls: controls that limit the time water can flow, typically installed on bathroom
faucets and showers and are generally manual-on and automatic-off devices
methylmercury: toxic compounds of mercury containing the complex CH3HG-; often occurs in
pollutants and bioaccumulates in living organisms; found in higher levels of a food chain
microclimate factor (kmc): coefficient used for calculating the landscape coefficient by adjusting
the Evapotranspiration Rate to reflect the climate of the area
microirrigation: irrigation using small sprinklers, microjets and drippers designed to apply
small amounts of water
minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV): mechanical system air filter efficiency rating
ranging from 1 to 16
mixed (active and passive) mode ventilation: combines natural and mechanical ventilation,
using one method or the other, or a combination of the two
mixed use: project that involves a combination of residential and commercial or retail
components
mycotoxins: toxic substances produced by fungus
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES): permit program to control water
pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into the waterways
native (or indigenous) plants: adapted to a given area during a defined time period and are
not invasive

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natural areas: native or adaptive vegetation or other ecologically appropriate features
natural (passive) ventilation: air circulated by natural means and without the aid of fans or
blowers
negative pressure smoking rooms: rooms with mechanical airflow devices (exhaust fans) to
lower the air pressure below that of surrounding spaces; the negative pressure causes the air to
flow from surrounding areas into the space to provide ventilation
neighborhood: synonymous with residential area
net metering: metering and billing arrangements that allows on-site generators to send excess
electricity flows to the regional power grid
net present value: total discounted value of all cash inflows from a project or investment
net project material value: includes the construction material value and the CSI Division 12
(Furniture and Furnishings) material value, less the material values for mechanical and electrical
components and the salvage value identified in the MR credits
no-disturbance zone: an area that is protected during construction
noise reduction coefficient (NRC): the arithmetic average of absorption coefficients at 250,
500, 1,000 and 2,000 Hz for a material
nonoccupied spaces: includes all rooms used by maintenance personnel that are not open for
use by occupants
nonporous sealant: substance used as a sealant on nonporous materials
nonpotable water (aka gray water): water unfit for human consumption that has not come
into contact with human waste, but is adequate for other uses such as irrigation
nonregularly occupied spaces: hallways, corridors, lobbies, break rooms and other areas
where people do not spend extended periods of time
nonrenewable resource: resource that can be depleted over time
nonwater (or composting) toilet systems: dry plumbing fixtures and fittings that contain and
treat human waste via microbiological processes
nonwater (or dry) urinal: replaces a water flush with a trap containing a layer of buoyant liquid
that floats above the urine, blocking sewer gas and odors
occasional furniture: furniture located in lobbies and in conference rooms
occupants: workers in a commercial building who either have a permanent office or workstation
in the building or typically spend a minimum of 10 hours per week in the building; in residential
building, occupants include all people who live in the building; in schools, occupants include
students, faculty, support staff, administration and maintenance employees
off gassing: the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
off-site salvaged materials: items recovered from a source different from the project site

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on-demand (tankless) heaters: heaters that heat water only when needed and applies only
the amount of heat required to meet the demand
ongoing commissioning: applies the commissioning process continually to maintain optimal
building performance
ongoing consumables: products that have a low unit cost and regularly used and replaced
during the course of business
on-site renewable energy: energy derived from renewable sources located within the project
site perimeter
on-site salvaged materials: Items recovered and reused at the same location
on-site wastewater treatment: transport, storage, treatment and disposal of wastewater
generated on the project site
open grid pavement: is less than 50% impervious and accommodates vegetation between
the open cells
open space area: if no local codes define open space, LEED defines as the property area minus
the development footprint
outdoor air: ambient air from the outside that enters a building through a ventilation system
owner: person directly employed by the organization holding title to the project and recognized
by law as having rights, responsibilities and ultimate control over the project building
owners project requirements (OPR): document detailing the ideas, concepts and criteria that
are determined by the owner to be important to the success of the project
ozone: a chemically unstable and highly reactive gas (each molecule of which consists of three
atoms of oxygen in contrast with the usual two) found mainly at ground level in cities and in
the stratosphere; at ground level, ozone can be a lung irritant; in the stratospheric ozone layer,
the gas plays an important role in protecting the Earths surface from high levels of biologically
damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which is known to be a significant risk factor for skin
cancers, eye cataracts, and the suppression of mammalian immune systems
ozone layer: region of the stratosphere (lying approximately 15-40 km above the Earths
surface) that contains the bulk of the worlds atmospheric ozone
paint: liquid, liquefiable or mastic composition that is converted to a solid protective, decorative
or functional adherent film after application as a thin layer
parking footprint: site area occupied by parking structures
partially shielded light fixtures: outside light fixtures built so light travels horizontally or
downward, but not upward
particulates: solid particles or droplets in the atmosphere; the chemical composition varies
depending on location and time of the year
passive ventilation: uses the building layout, fabric and form to provide natural ventilation to
a conditioned space using nonmechanical forms of heat transfer and air movement
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pedestrian access: allows people to walk to services without being blocked by walls, freeways
or other barriers
percentage improvement: measures the energy cost savings for the proposed design as
defined in ASHRAE 90.1-2007, Appendix G
perviousness: percentage of a paved area that is open and allows water to soak into the
ground
pheno-formaldehyde: combination of urea and formaldehyde that is used in glues and may
emit formaldehyde at room temperature
photovoltaic cell: device incorporating a semiconductor that generates electricity when
exposed to (sun) light; the technology may be further sub-divided into crystalline, multicrystalline, thin-film and concentrator variants
photovoltaic energy (PV) or solar: energy from the sun converted by photovoltaic cells into
electricity
picogram: one trillionth of a gram
picograms per lumen hour: measure of the amount of mercury in a lamp per unit of light
delivered over its useful life
plug load: synonymous with receptacle load
plumbing fixtures and fittings: receptacles, devices or appliances that are either permanently
or temporarily connected to the buildings water distribution system and receive liquid or liquid
borne wastes and discharge wastewater, liquid borne waste materials, or sewage either directly
or indirectly to the drainage system of the premises; includes water closets, urinals, lavatories,
sinks, showers and drinking fountains
pollutant: substance introduced into the environment that adversely affects the usefulness
of a resource or the health of humans, animals or the ecosystem; common pollutants include
carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx), mercury (Hg), small particulates
(PM25) and large particulates (PM10)
porous materials (aka permeable): having tiny openings which can absorb or discharge
fluids
porous pavements and permeable surfaces: allows runoff to infiltrate into the ground
postconsumer fiber: paper, paperboard and fibrous wastes that are collected from municipal
solid waste systems
postconsumer material: recycled from consumer waste
postconsumer recycled content: percentage of material in a product that was consumer waste;
recycled materials generated by household, commercial, industrial or institutional end users
and can no longer be used for its intended purpose. It includes returns from the distribution
chain

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postconsumer waste: materials generated by households, commercial, industrial and
institutional facilities that can no longer be used for its intended purpose; includes returns
of materials from the distribution chain; construction and demolition debris, materials
collected through recycling programs, discarded materials such as cabinetry and decking, and
maintenance waste such as leaves, grass clippings and tree trimmings
potable water: water that meets or exceeds EPAs drinking water quality standards and is
approved for human consumption by the state or local authorities having jurisdiction
power vented exhaust: active fans that pulls air and gases out of spaces
PPM: parts per million, a measurement commonly used for distribution of an element in a gas
or liquid
preconsumer recycled content (also known as post-industrial content): percentage of
material made from recycled manufacturing waste; reclaimable items that are reworked, regrind
or scrap generated in a process that be reused in the same process are not included
predicted mean vote: empirical equation for predicting the mean vote on a rating scale of
thermal comfort of a large population of people exposed to a certain environment
predevelopment: before the LEED project was initiated, but not necessarily before any
development or disturbance took place. Predevelopment conditions describe conditions on
the date the developer acquired rights to a majority of the buildable land on the project site
through purchase or an option to purchase
preferred parking: parking spaces that provide advantages to vehicle drivers, such as being
close to buildings or being covered
preventive maintenance: routinely scheduled inspection, cleaning and repairs
previously developed sites: sites that have previously been built upon, graded or altered
by human activities; in LEED for Homes, at least 75% of the area has to have been previously
developed
prime farmland: undeveloped land that has been determined to be suitable for agricultural
use
primer: material applied to a substrate to improve adhesion of subsequently applied coats
prior condition: state of the project space at the time it was selected
prior condition area: total area of the finished ceilings, floors and full height walls that existed
when the project was selected. It does not include doors or windows
private or private use: plumbing fixtures in residences, apartments, and dormitories, to
private (non-public) bathrooms in transient lodging facilities (hotels and motels), and to private
bathrooms in hospitals and nursing facilities
process water: water used for industrial processes and building systems such as boilers, cooling
towers and chillers

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project boundary: portion of the project site submitted for LEED certification. For single building
developments, this is the entire project scope and is limited to the site boundary; for multiple
building developments, the LEED project boundary may be a portion of the development as
determined by the project team
project building: the real property, including an occupied and operational building(s) and the
associated grounds that is registered for and actively pursuing LEED certification
property area: total area within the legal property boundaries of a site
property manager: person in charge of building operations and maintenance
proposed building performance: annual energy cost calculated for a proposed design as
defined in ASHRAE 90.1-2007, Appendix G
Protected Harvest certification standards: reflects the requirements and environmental
considerations of different crops and bioregions
Provider: organization that recruits, trains and coordinates LEED for Homes Green Raters to
serve as third party verifiers of LEED homes; Providers are the official certifiers of LEED for
Homes on behalf of USGBC
public transportation: bus, rail, light rail and other services designed to move large numbers
of people on a regular basis and route
public or public use: applies to all buildings, structures, or uses that are not defined as private
or private use
radon: radioactive gas that naturally vents from the ground
Rainforest Alliance certification: award for farms that protects wildlife by planting trees,
controls erosion, limits agrichemicals, protects native vegetation, hires local workers and pays
fair wages
rain garden: a stormwater management feature consisting of an excavated depression and
vegetation that collects and infiltrates runoff to reduce peak discharge rates
rainwater harvesting: the collection and storage of precipitation from a catchment area
rapidly renewable materials: agricultural products that can be grown or raised and harvested
within a ten year cycle
rated power: the nameplate power on equipment representing its maximum draw
receptacle (aka plug) load: the current drawn by all equipment that is plugged into the
electrical system
recirculated air: air that has been used then reconditioned for further use
reclaimed material: also referred to as salvaged or reuse materials, these are building
components that have been recovered from a demolition site and are reused in their original
state, but not recycled
reclaimed water: wastewater that has been treated and purified for reuse

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recommissioning: applies to previously commissioned buildings undergoing new construction
or renovation
recovered fiber: postconsumer and waste fiber from the manufacturing process
recycled content: percentage (by volume or weight) of material in a product that has been
recycled from the manufacturing waste stream (preconsumer) or the consumer waste stream
(postconsumer) and used to manufacture new materials
recycling: collection, reprocessing and reuse of materials recovered or diverted from waste
stream
recycling collection area: an area located in a regularly occupied space in the building for the
collection of occupants recyclable materials
refrigerants: the working fluids of refrigeration cycles that absorb heat from a reservoir at low
temperatures and reject heat at higher temperatures
refurbished materials: used products that are updated and/or repaired to increase their
lifespan
regenerative design: sustainable plans that improve existing conditions to create positive
change in the local and global environments
regional materials: percentage (total material costs of the building) of a buildings materials
that have been extracted, processed and manufactured within a 500 mile radius of the project
site
regionally harvested or extracted materials: materials taken from within a 500 mile radius
of the project site
regionally manufactured products: materials assembled as finished products within a 500
mile radius of the project site
regular building occupants: people who spend 10 hours or more per week in a building,
including those who live there
regularly occupied spaces: in commercial buildings are where people sit or stand as they
work; in residential applications these spaces include all living and family rooms and exclude
bathrooms, closets or other storage or utility areas; in schools, they are areas where students,
teachers or administrators are seated or standing as they work or study
relative humidity: ratio of partial density of airborne water vapor to the saturation density of
water vapor at the same temperature and total pressure
remanufactured materials: Items made into other products, such as plastic bottles turned
into clothing
remediation: process of cleaning up a contaminated site by physical, chemical or biological
means

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renewable energy (aka green power): energy sources that are not depleted by use; derived
from incoming solar radiation, wind, hydropower, waves and tidal, lake and pond thermal
differences, from decomposition of waste material such as methane gas from landfills, from
processes that use regenerated materials such as wood and biobased products and from the
internal heat of the earth
renewable energy certificates (RECs): tradable commodities that verify electricity was
generated by a renewable source
renewable resource: a resource that is capable of being replenished through natural processes
or its own reproduction, generally within a time span that does not exceed a few decades;
metal bearing ores are not renewable, but metals themselves can be recycled indefinitely
replacement value: estimated cost of replacing a used product
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA): legislation allows the EPA to control
hazardous waste from cradle to grave
residential area: land zoned primarily for housing at a density of 10 units per acre or greater
retained components: portions the finished ceilings, finished floors and full height walls and
demountable partitions, interior doors and built in case goods that existed in the prior condition
area and remain in the completed design
retention ponds: designed to capture stormwater and clear it of pollutants before its release
retrofit: any change to an existing building
return air: air removed from a space and then recirculated or exhausted
reuse: percentage (total material costs of the building) that have been salvaged and reused in
the same or related use
reused area: total area of the building structure, core and envelope that existed in the prior
condition and remains in the completed design
reverberation: acoustical phenomenon that occurs when sound persists in an enclosed space
because of its repeated reflection or scattering upon the enclosing surfaces or objects within
the space
reverberation time (RT): measure of the amount of reverberation in a space and equal to the
time required for the level of a steady sound to decay by 60dB after the sound has stopped
ridesharing: synonymous with carpooling
R value: measure of thermal resistance and is the inverse of U value; R = 1/U
safety and comfort light levels: meets local code requirements and must be adequate to
provide a safe path of egress
salvaged materials or reused materials: construction items recovered from existing buildings
or construction sites and reused

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sealant: an adhesive used to fill, seal or waterproof gaps or joints between two surfaces
sealant primer: substance applied to a substrate prior to the application of a sealant to enhance
the bonding surface
sealers: coatings applied to either block materials from penetrating into or leaching out of a
substrate, to prevent subsequent coatings from being absorbed by the substrate or to prevent
harm to subsequent coatings by materials in the substrate
seating: task and guest chairs used with systems furniture
secure bicycle storage: internal or external secured location for keeping bikes safe from theft
sedimentation: addition of soil particles to bodies of water, which decreases water quality and
clarity
sensors: devices that undergo a measurable change in response to environmental changes
and communicate this to the appropriate equipment or control system
sequence of operations: detailed system level document for each building system covering all
stages of operation and variable
setpoints: normal operating ranges for building systems and indoor environmental quality
shielding: devices or techniques used as part of a luminaire to limit glare, light trespass or sky
glow
sick building syndrome (SBS): combination of symptoms that appear to be linked to time
spent in a building but cannot be traced to a specific cause
siltration: depositation and sedimentation of particles in water bodies
simple payback: amount of time it will take to recover the initial investment through savings;
simple payback, in years, can be calculated by dividing first cost by annual savings
site area: synonymous with property area and total area within a project boundary, both built
and natural portions
site assessment: investigation of a sites above ground and subsurface characteristics including
its structures, geology and hydrology
site disturbance: portion of the site which disturbed due to the project requirements
site energy: amount of heat and electricity consumed by a building
sky glow: caused by stray light from unshielded light sources and light reflecting off surfaces
that enter the atmosphere and illuminate off dust, debris and water vapor
soft costs: Indirect construction costs such as architectural, engineering and permit fees
softscape: natural elements of a landscape such as soil and plant materials
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC): measurement of windows ability to block heat from the
sun and expressed as a fraction of the heat from the sun that enters the window; a lower SHGC
blocks more heat than higher SHGC values

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solar reflectance (albedo): the ability of a surface material to reflect sunlight and measured on
a scale from 0 to 1; black has a solar reflectance of 0; white has a solar reflectance of 1
solar reflex index (SRI): measure of a materials ability to reject heat from the surface of a
material, with the index ranging from 0, black and less reflective, to 100, white and highly
reflective.
solar thermal systems: systems that collect or absorb sunlight via solar collectors to heat water
that is then circulated to the buildings hot water tank
solar window: screen mesh used to block heat and light from the sun
sound absorption: the portion of sound energy striking a surface that is not returned as sound
energy
sound absorption coefficient: ability of a material to absorb sound, expressed as a fraction of
incident sound
sound absorption class (STC): single number rating for the acoustic attenuation of airborne
sound passing through a partition or other building element
source energy: raw fuel used by a building
source reduction: reduces the amount of unnecessary material brought into a building, such
as packaging
species factor (ks): coefficient used to adjust the Evapotranspiration Rate to reflect features of
a specific plant species
spores: microscopic cells used by mold to reproduce
square footage: total area of a building including all rooms, corridors, elevators, stairwells and
shafts
standard operating procedures (SOPs): detailed instructions documenting a method to
achieve uniformity of performance
stewardship: stewardship is assuming responsibility for taking good care of resources; these
resources may be individual, communal, commercial, or environmental, and form part of any
communitys natural capital
stormwater: runoff water resulting from precipitation that flows over surfaces and usually to
storm sewers or waterways
stormwater pollution prevention plan: describes all measures to prevent stormwater
contamination, control sedimentation and erosion during construction and comply with the
requirements of the Clean Water Act
stormwater runoff: water from precipitation that flows over surfaces into sewer systems or
receiving water bodies
stratified random sampling: categorizes members of a population into discreet subgroups,
based on characteristics that may affect their responses to a survey

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stratosphere: layer of the earths atmosphere just above the troposphere, extending from 10
km to about 50 km above the earth
street grid density: neighborhood density calculated as the number of centerline miles per
square mile. Centerline miles are the length of a road down its center
subdivision: homes and building lots that immediately surround a new LEED for Homes
project
submetering: measuring energy consumption by specific mechanical or electrical systems,
such as heating or air-conditioning
substantial completion: a contractual benchmark that usually corresponds to the point at
which a client could occupy a nearly completed space; of the buildings indoor plumbing system
is defined as either initial building construction or the last plumbing renovation of all or part
of the building that included a 100% retrofit of all plumbing fixtures and fittings as part of the
renovation
supply air: air delivered to a space by mechanical or natural ventilation
sustainable development: development path along which the maximization of human wellbeing for todays generations does not lead to declines in future well-being
sustainable forestry: process of managing forest resources by maintaining the biodiversity of
the forests
sustainable purchasing policies: policies that prefer products with limited environmental
impacts
sustainability: meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs
sustainable forestry: management of forest resources to meet the long term forest product
needs of humans while maintaining the biodiversity of forested landscapes
sustained yield forestry: management of a forest to produce in perpetuity a high level annual
or regular periodic output through a balance between increment and cutting
systemic sampling: surveys every xth person in a population using a constant skip interval
systems furniture: panel based workstations
systems narrative: general description of each major building heating, cooling, ventilation,
humidification/dehumidification and lighting systems
systems performance testing: determining the ability of commissioned systems to perform
in accordance with the owners project requirements (OPR)
telecommuting: to work by using telecommunication and computer technologies from a
location other than the usual or traditional place of business
termite: wood eating social insect also know as a white ant

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tertiary treatment: highest level of water treatment that removes organics, solids and other
pollutants
thermal bridge: part of the building envelope having high heat conductance, which lowers
the average R value
thermal comfort: temperature, humidity and air flow range for human comfort when occupants
express satisfaction
thermal envelope: thermal enclosure created by the building exterior and insulation
tipping fees: charges by a landfill for disposal of waste
topsoil: uppermost layer of soil containing high levels of nutrients and organic matter
total phosphorus (TP): organically bound phosphates, polyphosphates and orthophosphates
in stormwater, commonly attributed to fertilizers
total suspended solids (TSS): particles too small or light to be removed from stormwater via
gravity settling
transient users: occupants who do not use a facility on a consistent, regular, daily basis
transportation demand management: process of reducing peak period vehicle trips
tree and plant preservation plan: formal assessment of the lot and the subsequent
development of a landscape plan that seeks to preserve existing trees and plants
two year, 24-hour design storm: rate that represents the largest amount of rainfall expected
over a 24 hour period during a 2 year interval
undercover parking: underground or under a deck, roof or building where the hardscape
surfaces are shaded
underground parking: parking beneath a stacked structure such as a building
universal notification: notifying building occupants not less than 72 hours before a pesticide
is applied in a building or on surrounding grounds under normal conditions and within 24
hours after application in emergency conditions
upstream equipment: heating or cooling systems, equipment and controls that are associated
with a district energy system but are not part of the project buildings thermal connection
or do not interfere with the district energy system; includes the central energy plant and all
transmission and distribution equipment associated with transporting thermal energy to the
project building and site
urea formaldehyde: combination of two materials often found in glue that can emit
formaldehyde at room temperature
USDA organic: USDAs certification for products that contain at least 95% organically produced
ingredients; remaining ingredients must contain nonagricultural substances or be nonorganically
produced agricultural products that are not commercially available in organic form

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U value: the measure of heat flow through materials that separate the building facade, slab or
roof from the exterior environment in units; the inverse of R value
vapor barrier: material used to prevent moisture penetration through wall, ceiling, floor and
roof assemblies and the potential condensation that can result from temperature differentials
between the buildings interior and exterior temperatures
vegetation containing artifices: planters, gardens or other constructions that hosts flora
vehicle miles traveled (vmt): transportation demand measurement of vehicle miles associated
with a project
ventilation: process of supplying air to or removing air from a space for the purpose of
controlling air contaminant levels, humidity or temperature within the space
ventilation rate: amount of air circulated in a space measured in air changes per hour; ASHRAE
standard 62 determines the proper amount to ensure that a sufficient quantity of air is supplied
for the number of occupants to prevent carbon monoxide and other pollutant accumulation
verification: range of checks and tests carried out to determine whether components,
subsystems, systems and interfaces between systems operate in accordance with the contract
documents
vertical footcandles: light on a vertical surface
visible light transmittance (Tvis): ratio of total transmitted light to the total incident light; the
amount of visible spectrum light passing through a glazing surface divided by the amount of
light striking the glazing surface
vision glazing: portion of exterior windows between 26 and 76 above the floor that permits
a view to the exterior
volatile organic compounds (VOC): carbon-containing compound, such as gasoline or acetone,
that vaporizes at a relatively low temperature, generally below 40C; VOCs can contaminate
water, and in the atmosphere can react with other gases in the presence of sunlight to form
ozone or other photochemical oxidants
Walk off mats: mats placed inside the building entrances to capture dirt, water and other
materials tracked inside by people and equipment
walking distance: defines the length of the walkable pathway between the building and public
transportation
waste: materials that flow from the building to final disposal
waste disposal: eliminates waste by means of burial in a landfill, combustion through
incineration or any other way that is not reuse or recycling
waste diversion: the reduction of materials disposed of at landfills and waste transformation
facilities

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waste reduction program: program to reduce waste flowing from a project to landfills and/or
incinerators; includes a list of steps that will be taken to reduce the flow and increase reuse and
recycling; tracking and review procedures are also part of the plan
waste stream: overall flow of waste from a building or site
wastewater: spent or used water from a home, farm, community or industry that contains
dissolved or suspended matter
water meters: devices that measure water volume usage
wave and tidal energy systems: energy captured by wave and tidal action that is turned into
electricity and primarily used for desalination, water pumping and electricity generation
weighted decibel (dBA): sound pressure level measured with a conventional frequency
weighting that approximates how the human ear hears different frequency components of
sounds at typical listening levels for speech
wet ponds: elevated areas that detain stormwater and slow runoff and hold water all the time
wetland vegetation: plants that require saturated soils to survive or can tolerate prolonged
wet soil conditions
wind energy: electricity generated by wind turbines
window -to-floor ratio (WFR): total area of the window, measured vertically from 30 inches
above the finished floor to the top of the glass, multiplied by the width of the glass divided by
the floor area
xeriscaping: landscaping method that makes routine irrigation unnecessary, allowing plants
to be watered from rain and or use compost to retain moisture

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CHAPTER | 14
Appendix
Green Resource Links: Websites, Publications & Blogs
USGBC & GCBI Organizational Chart
Six Steps to Certification Flow Chart
LEED Rating Systems & Reference Guide Chart
Certification Fee Chart
Project Checklist Sample
Credit Form Sample
Commissioning Process
Tasks & Responsibilities for EAp1 & EAc3
CxA Qualifications
Credit Charts
Referenced Standards

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Green Resources
Websites
Refer last page of the Seven Domains Chapter for additional resource links
USGBC Home Page www.usgbc.org/
Green Building Research www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1718
LEED resources www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=75
LEED rating systems http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=222
USGBC green building education http://www.greenbuild365.org/
USGBC education and training courses www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=283
USGBC Green Building resource links http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=76&
USGBC Trademark and Logo Guidelines http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1835
USGBC Portfolio Program http://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=3387
LEED MPRs http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=2102LEED sample credit forms www.usgbc.
org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1447
GBCI Home Page www.gbci.org/
GBCI Green Associate Candidate Handbook (required primary and ancillary resource links)
http://www.gbci.org/main-nav/professional-credentials/resources/candidate-handbooks.aspx
Credentialing resources http://www.gbci.org/main-nav/professional-credentials/resources.aspx
GBCI Glossary http://www.gbci.org/glossary.aspx
Foundations of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Environmental Rating System A tool
for Market Transformation http://www.gbci.org/Libraries/Credential_Exam_References/Sustainable-BuildingTechnical-Manual-Part-II.sflb.ashx
LEED Sustainable Building Design Technical Manual, Part II http://www.gbci.org/Libraries/Credential_Exam_
References/Sustainable-Building-Technical-Manual-Part-II.sflb.ashx
LEED The Treatment by LEED on the Environmental Impact of Refrigerants http://www.gbci.org/Libraries/
Credential_Exam_References/The-Treatment-by-LEED-of-the-Environmental-Impact-of-HVAC-Refrigerants.sflb.
ashx
Guide to Purchasing Green Power http://www.gbci.org/Libraries/Credential_Exam_References/Guide-toPurchasing-Green-Power.sflb.ashx
Cost of Green Revisited http://www.gbci.org/Libraries/Credential_Exam_References/Cost-of-Green-Revisited.
sflb.ashx
LEED CIRs http://www.gbci.org/Libraries/Credential_Exam_References/Guidelines-for-CIR-Customers.sflb.ashx
Miscellaneous Resource Websites
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) www.epa.gov/
The International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO); Uniform Plumbing Code http://
www.iapmo.org/Pages/splash.aspx
The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE); http://www.ashrae.
org/
International Code Council (ICC); Internation Plumbing Code http://www.iccsafe.org/Pages/default.aspx
Stormwater Glossary of Terms www.stormwaterauthority.org/glossary.aspx
ENERGY STAR http://www.energystar.gov
Brownfields and Land Revitalization http://www.epa.gov/brownfields/
Code of Federal Regulations (Definitions of prime agricultural land and wetlands) http://www.gpoaccess.gov/
cfr/index.html
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FEMA (Definition of 100 year flood) http://www.fema.gov/


U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (Endangered Species Program) http://www.fws.gov/endangered/
NOAA Office of Protected Resources (Endangered Species Act) http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/esa/
Harvard Green Building Resource www.green.harvard.edu/theresource/
LEED credit analysis www.leeduser.com/
Real Life LEED http://www.reallifeleed.com/
McGraw-Hill green website www.greensource.construction.com/Default.asp
HOK green website http://hoklife.com/category/archives/sustainable-design/
Sustainable Connections resource website www.sustainableconnections.org/
Inhabitat sustainable website www.inhabitat.com
Studio4 sustainable website www.studio4llc.com

Publications
Environmental magazine lists
http://www.deb.uminho.pt/Fontes/enviroinfo/publications/
http://local444.caw.ca/docs/enviromaglist-may2008.pdf
http://www.city.stratford.on.ca/naturally/envmag.asp
Environmental Design + Construction www.edcmag.com/
Green Builder www.greenbuildermag.com/

Blogs
Green blog directory www.bestgreenblogs.com//

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USGBCand
& GBCI
Chart
USBGC
GBCIOrganizational
Organizational Chart

GBCI
Professional
Accredidtaion

USGBC
Building
Certification

LEED Online

Reference
Guides
Professional Accreditation:
Tier I:
LEED Green Associate
Tier II:
LEED AP (BD+C): Building Design + Construction
LEED AP (ID+C): Interior Design + Construction
LEED AP (O+M): Operations + Maintenance
LEED AP Homes
LEED AP (ND): Neighborhood Development
Tier III:
LEED Fellow: (TBD)
Building Certification:
LEED for New Construction
LEED for Schools
LEED for Core & Shell
LEED for Existing Buildings
LEED for Commercial Interiors
LEED for Homes

LEED

Rating
Systems

Education
Programs

Reference Guides:
Green Building Design and Construction Reference Guide
Green Interior Design and Construction Reference Guide
Green Building Operations and Maintenance Reference Guide
Green Building and LEED Core Concepts Guide
Rating Systems:
New Construction and Major Renovations
Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance
Commercial Interiors
Core & Shell
Schools
Retail*
Healthcare*
Homes
Neighborhood Development*
* : Pilot Program
Education Programs:
100 Level: Awareness
200 Level: Understanding
300 Level: Application & Implementation

GBCI

USGBC

Mission: To support a high level of competence in


building methods for environmental efficiency
through the development and administration of a
formal program of certification and recertification

Mission: To transorm the way buildings and communities


are designed, built and operated, enabling an environmentally and socially responsible, healthy and prosperous
environment that improves the quality of life

Primary Functions:
Provides third party LEED project certication
Provides third party LEED professional credentials

Primary Functions:
Developed the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Green Building Rating System. The LEED
Green Building Rating Sustem is the nationally accepted
benchmark for the design, construction and operation of
high performance green buildings
Provides and develops LEED based education and research
programs

Organization: The Green Building Certification


Institute (GBCI) was established in January 2008 to
provide third party certification and professional
credentials for recognition of excellence in green
building practice and performance

Organization: The The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)


is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit entity composed of leaders from
every sector or the building industry working to promote
buildings and communities that are environmentally responsible, profitable and healthy places to live and work

www.studio4llc.com

2009.11.02

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Six Steps to Certification


Six Steps to Certification

LEED 2009: New Construction & Major Renovations, Schools and Core&Shell

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Is LEED
Right for You

Registration

Prepare
Application

Submit
Application

Application
Review

Certification

Step 1: Determine appropriateness of LEED


Form a charrette and gather information to determine if, and at what level, LEED is appropriate
Step 2: Registration via LEED OnLine
www.gbci.org
Step 3: Prepare Application
Assign team members and prepare all documents required for prerequisites and credits being sought
(minimum number of credits are required for Certification)
Step 4: Submit Application via LEED OnLine
Upload Credit Forms with all required documentation
Step 5: Application Review
Upon receipt of a completed submittal application, a formal review will be initiated
Step 6: Certification
Certification is the final step in the LEED Review Process. Once the final review is complete,
the project team can either accept or appeal the final decision. If accepted, LEED Certified Projects:
will receive a formal certificate of recognition
will receive information on how to order plaques, certificates, photo submissions and marketing
May be included in an online directory and US Dept. of Energy High Performance Bldgs. Database
NOTE: Project certification requires all Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) and prerequisites in each
sustainable category be met along with a minimum total number of credit points
For current
current Steps
process:
For
StepstotoCertification
Certification:

http://www.gbci.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=211

http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=64

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Project Certification Fees


PROJECT CERTIFICATION FEES

LEED 2009: New Construction, Schools, Core and Shell

Project Certification Rates: Effective 11 January, 2010


Project Certification fees depend on USGBC membership status and the sf of the building
Project Registration fees not included
< 50,000 sf

50,000 500,000 sf

> 500,000 sf

Appeals
(if applicable)

Fixed Rate

Based on sf

Fixed Rate

Per Credit

USGBC Members

$2,000

$0.040

$20,000

$500

Non-Members
Expedited Fee

$2,250

$0.045
$5,000 regardless of sf

$22,500

$500

LEED 2009: NC, CS &CI


Design Review

$500

Construction Review
USGBC Members

$500

$0.010

$5,000

$500

Non-Members
Expedited Fee

$750

$0.015
$5,000 regardless of sf

$7,500

$500

$0.045

$22,500

$500

$0.055
$27,500
$10,000 regardless of sf

$500

$500

Combined Design & Construction Review


USGBC Members

$2,250

Non-Members
Expedited Fee

$2,750

LEED 2009: EB O&M

$500

Fixed Rate

Based on SF

Fixed Rate

Per Credit

USGBC Members

$1,500

$0.030

$15,000

$500

Non-Members
Expedited Fee

$2,000

$0.040
$10,000 regardless of sf

$2,000

$500

$0.015

$7,500

$500

$0.020
$10,000
$10,000 regardless of sf

$500

Initial Certification Review

$500

Recertification Review
USGBC Members
Non-Members
Expedited Fee

LEED 2009: Core & Shell

$750
$1,000

$500

Fixed Rate

Per Credit

$3,250

$500

$4,250
$5,000 regardless of sf

$500

for all rating systems

$220

Precertification
USGBC Members
Non-Members
Expedited Fee
CIR's

$500

For current Project Registration and Certification Fees:


For current Project Certification Fees:
http://www.gbci.org/Certification/Resources/Registration-fees.aspx
http://www.gbci.org/main-nav/building-certification/resources/fees/current.aspx
https://www.gbci.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=127
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Chapter 14 |

207

LEED
&& Reference
Guides
LEEDRating
Ratings
Six Systems
Steps
Systems
to Certification
Reference Guides

LEED 2009: New Construction & Major Renovations, Schools and Core&Shell

LEED for New Construction


Total Possible Points**

110*

LEED for Schools


Total Possible Points**

LEED for Core & Shell


110*

Total Possible Points**

26

Water & Efficiency

10

Water & Efficiency

11

Water & Efficiency

10

Energy & Atmosphere

35

Energy & Atmosphere

33

Energy & Atmosphere

37

Materials & Resources


Indoor Environmental Quality

14
15

Materials & Resources


Indoor Environmental Quality

13
19

Materials & Resources


Indoor Environmental Quality

13
12

Regional Priority

Sustainable Sites

110*

Sustainable Sites

Sustainable Sites

* Out of a possible 100 pts + 10 bonus pts


** Certified 40-49 pts; Silver 50-59 pts;
Gold 60-79 pts; Platinum 80+ pts
Innovation in Design
6

24

* Out of a possible 100 pts + 10 bonus pts


** Certified 40-49 pts; Silver 50-59 pts;
Gold 60-79 pts; Platinum 80+ pts
Innovation in Design
6
Regional Priority

LEED for Retail

LEED for Healthcare


28

Under
Development

Under
Development

* Out of a possible 100 pts + 10 bonus pts


** Certified 40-49 pts; Silver 50-59 pts;
Gold 60-79 pts; Platinum 80+ pts
Innovation in Design
6
Regional Priority

LEED for Commercial Interiors LEED for Retail Interiors


Total Possible Points**

110*

Sustainable Sites

21

Water & Efficiency

11

Energy & Atmosphere

37

Materials & Resources


Indoor Environmental Quality

14
17

Under
Development

* Out of a possible 100 pts + 10 bonus pts


** Certified 40-49 pts; Silver 50-59 pts;
Gold 60-79 pts; Platinum 80+ pts
Innovation in Design
6
Regional Priority

26

Water & Efficiency

14

Energy & Atmosphere

35

Materials & Resources


Indoor Environmental Quality

10
15

* Out of a possible 100 pts + 10 bonus pts


** Certified 40-49 pts; Silver 50-59 pts;
Gold 60-79 pts; Platinum 80+ pts
Innovation in Operations
6
Regional Priority

D for Neighborhood Development


110*

Smart Location & Linkage

27

Neighborhood Pattern & Design


Green Infrastructure & Buildings

44
29

* Out of a possible 100 pts + 10 bonus pts


** Certified 40+ pts; Silver 50+ pts;
Gold 60+ pts; Platinum 80+ pts
Innovation & Design Process
6
Regional Priority

LEED for Homes


Total Possible Points**

LEED for New Construction & Major Renovations

LEED for Core & Shell

LEED for Existing Schools

LEED for Schools

110*

Sustainable Sites

Total Possible Points**

Reference Guide

LEED for Existing Buildings


Total Possible Points**

Rating System

136*

Innovation & Design Process


Location & Linkages
Sustainable Sites

The LEED 2009 Reference Guide for


Green Building
Design & Construction

LEED for Healthcare*

Under
Development

LEED for Retail*

LEED for Commercial Interiors

LEED for Retail Interiors*

LEED for Existing Buildings


Operations & Maintenance
LEED for Existing Schools*

The LEED 2009 Reference Guide for


Green Interior
Design & Construction

The LEED 2009 Reference Guide for


Green Building
Operations & Maintenance

LEED for Homes

The LEED for Homes


Reference Guide

LEED for Neighborhood Development

The LEED 2009 Reference Guide for


Neighborhood Development

* These rating systems are under development

11
10
22

Water & Efficiency

15

Energy & Atmosphere

38

Materials & Resources


Indoor Environmental Quality
Awareness & Education

16
21
3

* Out of a possible 136pts


** Certified 45-59 pts; Silver 60-74 pts;
Gold 75-89 pts; Platinum 90+ pts

www.studio4llc.com

2009.11.02

SUSTAINABLEIDEALS

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LEED Rating
Systems Reference Guides
RATING SYSTEMS REFERENCE GUIDES
LEED 2009: New Construction, Schools, Core and Shell

LEED Rating System

Applies To

Reference Guide

New Buildings and Major Renovations


New Buildings : Offices, institutional buildings (libraries, museums, churches,
etc.), hotels, and residential buildings of 4 or more habitable stories
LEED for
Major Renovations : Major HVAC replacement or modifications;
New Construction (NC)
Building core (major mechanical systems) & shell (building envelope and
structural) renovation
Owner or Tenant occupies greater than 50% of leasable space

LEED for
Core & Shell (CS)

Developer controls core (major mechanical systems) & shell (building


envelope and structural) but not leasable tenant spaces
Commercial office buildings, medical office buildings, retail centers,
warehouses, institutional buildings and laboratory facilities
Owner or Tenant occupies 50% or less of leasable area

LEED for
Schools

Must be used for the construction or major renovation of an academic


building on K12 school grounds
Other projects on a school campus may qualify under 2 or more LEED rating
system project scopes:
Nonacademic buildings on a school campus, such as administrative offices,
maintenance facilities or dormitories are eligible for either LEED for New
Construction or LEED for Schools
Projects involving postsecondary academic buildings or prekindergarten
buildings may also choose to use either LEED for New Construction or LEED
for Schools

LEED for
Commercial Interiors
(CI)

Tenant spaces primarily in office, retail, and institutional buildings:


Tenant spaces that do not occupy the entire building
Designed to work hand in hand with LEED Core & Shell projects

LEED 2009 Reference


Guide for
Green Interior Design
and Construction

LEED for
Existing Buildings:
Operations &
Maintenance (EB
O&M)

For the ongoing operations and maintenance of existing commercial and


institutional buildings
Also used for buildings certified under NC, Schools or C&S

LEED 2009 Reference


Guide for
Green Building
Operations &
Maintenance

LEED for
Homes

New Residences
Single Family: Attached and Detached
Multifamily: Low rise 1 to 3 stories and include 2 or more dwelling units
Rehabilitation
Manufactured and Modular
Mixed Use if at least 50% of the floor area is residential

LEED 2009 Reference


Guide for
Green Homes

www.studio4llc.com

LEED 2009 Reference


Guide for
Green Building Design
and Construction

2009.11.02

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Chapter 14 |

209

Project Checklist Sample

SUSTAINABLEIDEALS

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Credit Form Sample

(v3 Credit Forms were not available at time of printing)

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Chapter 14 |

211

COMMISSIONING PROCESS

Commissioning
Process
LEED 2009:
New Construction, Schools,
Core and Shell
Commissioning Authority
COMMISSIONING AUTHORITY

Party Acting as Commissioning Authority (CxA)

Fundamental
Commissioning
Prerequisite 2 4 5

Enhanced
Commissioning
Credit 3 4 5

< 50,000 (sf) >= 50,000 (sf)

Employee or subcontractor of general contractor with


construction responsibilities

Yes

Employee or subcontractor, with construction


responsibilities, of construction manager who holds
construction contracts

Yes

Employee or subcontractor, with project design


responsibilities, of the architect or engineer of record

Yes

Disinterested employee or subcontractor of general


contractor or construction manager 1

Yes

Yes

Disinterested employee of architect or engineer 1

Yes

Yes

Disinterested subcontractor to architect or engineer 1

Yes

Yes

Yes

Construction manager not holding construction contracts

Yes

Yes

Yes

Independent consultant contracted to Owner

Yes

Yes

Yes

Owner employee or staff

Yes

Yes

Yes

1 "Disinterested" means an employee or subcontractor who has no project responsibilities other than
2 EAp1 requirements
3 EAc3 requirements (the CxA must review the owner's project requirements (OPR), basis of design (BOD) and
design documents prior to midconstruction documents phase and perform a back check)
4 The came CxA overseeing the enhanced commissioning tasks must also oversee the fundamental
5 Regardless of who employees the CxA, the CxA "shall have documented commissioning authority
experience in at least two building projects" and ideally meet the minimum qualifications of having "a high
level of experience in energy systems design, installation and operation, commissioning planning and process
management, hands on field experience with energy systems performance, interaction, startup, balancing,
testing, troubleshooting, operation and maintenance procedures and energy systems automation control
knowledge."

SUSTAINABLEIDEALS

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2009.11.02

Commissioning Process
Tasks and Responsibilities

COMMISSIONING PROCESS
LEED 2009: New Construction, Schools, Core and Shell
TASKS & RESPONSIBILITIES
Rating
Project
Fundamenta
Enhanced
System
l
Phases
Tasks
Predesign/Design Phase
Request for
EAp1, Task 1
Owner or
Owner or
proposal Architect 1 Designate commissioning authority (CxA)
EAc3, Task 1 Project Team Project Team
and engineer
selection
Owner's project
Owner or
Owner or
Document owner's project requirements
requirements
CxA*
EAp1, Task 2
CxA*
2
(OPR); Develop basis of design (BOD)
(OPR); basis of
Design Team Design Team
design (BOD)
Commissioning Tasks
1 - 12

Review owner's project requirements


(OPR) and basis of design (BOD)

EAp1, Task 2
EAc3, Task 2

Schematic design

Design
development

Develop and implement commissioning


plan

EAp1, Task 4

Conduct commissioning design review


prior to midconstruction documents

EAc3, Task 2

N/A

CxA

EAc3, Task 3

N/A

CxA

EAp1, Task 5

CxA

CxA

EAc3, Task 4

N/A

CxA**

CxA

Project Team Project Team


or
or
CxA
CxA*
Project Team Project Team
Incorporate commissioning requirements
5
or
EAp1, Task 3
or
into construction documents
CxA*
CxA

Construction
documents
Construction
documents

Construction Phase
Equipment
Review contractor submittals applicable
procurement
7
to systems being commissioned
Equipment
Functional testing
Verify installation and performance of
Test and balance
8
commissioned systems
Performance
testing acceptance
Operations and
Develop systems manual for
Maintenance
9
commissioned systems
(O&M) manuals

Project Team
or
CxA
Project Team
or
CxA

O&M training

10

Verify that requirements for training are


completed

EAc3, Task 5

N/A

Substantial
completion

11

Complete a summary commissioning


report

EAp1, Task 6

CxA

CxA

12

Review building operation within 10


months after substantial completion

EAc3, Task 6

N/A

CxA

Occupancy
Systems
monitoring

* Although EAp1 does not require the CxA to be on the project team until just before the equipment
installation phase, if brought in earlier the CxA can also help the owner develop the project requirements and
** Some commissioning tasks can be performed by the owner or other project team members. However, the
review of the owner's project requirements (OPR) and basis of design (BOD) must be performed by the CxA.
For EAp1, Fundamental Commissioning, this may be performed at any time before verification of equipment
installation and acceptance.
RED indicates EAc3, Enhanced Commissioning, tasks only
www.studio4llc.com

2009.11.02

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Chapter 14 |

213

Referenced Standards
SUSTAINABLE SITES (SS)
SSp1
Construction Activity
Pollution Prevention

SSp2
Environmental
Site Assessment

2003 EPA Construction General Permit: A set of provisions construction operators must follow to
comply with NPDES stormwater regulations
OR
Local Codes if more stringent
ASTM E1527-05 Phase I Environmental Assessment: A report prepared that identifies potential or
existing environmental contamination liabilities but does not collect physical samples or chemical
analysis
ASTM E1903-97 Phase II Environmental Site Assessment: An investigation that collects samples of
soil, groundwater or building materials to analyze for quantitative values of various contaminants
U.S. Department of Agriculture, United States Code of Federal Regulations Title 7, Volume 6,
Parts 400 to 699, Section 657.5: Standard that defines prime farmland
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Definition of 100 Year Flood: The flood
elevation that has a 1% chance of being reached or exceeded each yea

SSc1
Site Selection

Endangered Species List (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, List of Threatened and Endangered
Species): Addresses threatened and endangered wildlife and plants
National Marine Fisheries Services, List of Endangered Marine Species: In addition to this federal
list, state agencies provide state specific lists
United States Code of Federal Regulations, 40 CFR, Parts 230 -233, and Part 22, Definition of
Wetlands: Addresses wetlands and discharges of dredge or filled material into water regulated by states

SSc2
Development Density and No Referenced Standards
Community Connectivity
U.S. EPA, Definition of Brownfields (EPA Sustainable Redevelopment of Brownfields Program)
SSc3
Brownfield
Redevelopment

ASTM E1527-05 Phase I Environmental Site Assessment: A report prepared that identifies potential
or existing environmental contamination liabilities but does not collect physical samples or chemical
analysis
ASTM E1903-97 Phase II Environmental Site Assessment: An investigation that collects samples of
soil, groundwater or building materials to analyze for quantitative values of various contaminants

SSc4.1
Alternative Transportation No Referenced Standards
Public Transportation
Access
SSc4.2
Alternative Transportation
No Referenced Standards
Bicycle Storage &
Changing Rooms
SSc4.3
Alternative Transportation
No Referenced Standards
Low-Emitting &
Fuel-Efficient Vehicles

SUSTAINABLEIDEALS

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Referenced Standards
SUSTAINABLE SITES (SS)
SSc4.4
Institute of Transportation Engineers, Parking Generation Study, 2003: Database of studies for
Alternative Transportation
various types of parking demands
Parking Capacity
SSc5.1
No Referenced Standards
Site Development
Protect or Restore Habitat
SSc5.2
Site Development
Maximize Open Space

No Referenced Standards

SSc6.1
Stormwater Design
Quantity Control

No Referenced Standards

SSc6.2
Stormwater Design
Quality Control

No Referenced Standards

ASTM E408-71(1996) e1, Standard Test Methods for Total Normal Emittance of Surfaces Using
Inspection Meter Techniques: Describes how to measure total normal Emittance of surfaces
ASTM C1371-04a, Standard Test Method for Determination of Emittance of Materials Near
Room Temperature Using Portable Emissometers: Technique for determination of the emittance of
typical materials
SSc7.1
Heat Island Effect
Nonroof

ASTM E903-96, Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance and Transmittance
of Materials Using Integrating Spheres: Energy Star roofing standard for initial reflectance
measurement
ASTM E1918-97, Standard Test Method for Measuring Solar Reflectance of Horizontal and Low
Sloped Surfaces in the Field: Measures solar reflectance in the field
ASTM C1549-04, Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient
Temperatures Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer: Technique for determining the solar
reflectance of flat, opaque materials
ASTM E1980-01, Standard Practice for Calculating Solar Reflectance Index of Horizontal and
Low Sloped Opaque Surfaces: Describes how surface reflectivity and emissivity are combined to
calculate solar reflectance index (SRI) for a roofing material or other surface
ASTM E408-71(1996)e1, Standard Test Methods for Total Normal Emittance of Surfaces Using
Inspection Meter Techniques: Describes how to measure total normal Emittance of surfaces

SSc7.2
Heat Island Effect
Roof

ASTM E903-96, Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance and Transmittance of
Materials Using Integrating Spheres: Energy Star roofing standard for initial reflectance
measurement
ASTM E1918-97, Standard Test Method for Measuring Solar Reflectance of Horizontal and Low
Sloped Surfaces in the Field: Measures solar reflectance in the field
ASTM C1371-04a, Standard Test Method for Determination of Emittance of Materials Near
Room Temperature Using Portable Emissometers: Technique for determination of the emittance of
typical material
ASTM C1549-04, Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient
Temperatures Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer: Technique for determining the solar
reflectance of flat, opaque materials

SUSTAINABLEIDEALS
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Chapter 14 |

215

Referenced Standards
SUSTAINABLE SITES (SS)
SSc8
Light Pollution
Reduction

ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low Rise Residential
Lighting, Section 9 (without amendments): Establishes exterior lighting power densities (LPD) for
buildings

SSc9
Tenant Design &
Construction Guidelines

No Referenced Standards

SSc9
Site Master Plan

No Referenced Standards

SSc10
Joint Use of Facilities

No Referenced Standards

WATER EFFICIENCY (WE)


The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992 (and as amended): Addresses energy and water use in
commercial, institutional and residential facilities
The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005: Statute that became U.S. law in August 2005
WEp1
Water Use
Reduction

International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials Publication/American National


Standards Institute IAPMO/ANSI UPC 1-2006, Uniform Plumbing Code 206, Section 402.0,
Water Conserving Fixtures and Fittings: PC defines water conserving fixtures and fittings for water
closets, urinals and metered faucets
International Code Council, International Plumbing Code 2006, Section 604, Design of
Building Water Distribution System: Defines maximum flow rates and consumption for plumbing
fixtures and fittings, including public and private lavatories, showerheads, sink faucets, urinals and water
closets

WEc1
Water Efficient
Landscaping

WEc2
Innovative
Wastewater
Technologies

No Referenced Standards

The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992 (and as amended): Addresses energy and water use in
commercial, institutional and residential facilities
The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005: Statute that became U.S. law in August 200
International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials Publication/American National
Standards Institute IAPMO/ANSI UPC 1-2006, Uniform Plumbing Code 206, Section 402.0,
Water Conserving Fixtures and Fittings: UPC defines water conserving fixtures and fittings for water
closets, urinals and metered faucets

WEc3
Water Use Reduction

WEc4
Process Water
Use Reduction

International Code Council, International Plumbing Code 2006, Section 604, Design of
Building Water Distribution System: Defines maximum flow rates and consumption for plumbing
fixtures and fittings, including public and private lavatories, showerheads, sink faucets, urinals and water
closets

No Referenced Standards

SUSTAINABLEIDEALS

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Referenced Standards
ENERGY & ATMOSPHERE (EA)
EAp1
Fundamental
Commissioning of
Building Energy Systems

No Referenced Standards

ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low Rise
Residential: Establishes minimum requirements for the energy efficient design of buildings using
mandatory provisions and additional prescriptive requirements
California T-24-2005: granted parallel equivalency to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2007
ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings, 2004: Achieves advanced
levels of energy savings without having to perform calculations or analysis for office buildings up to
20,000 sf

EAp2
Minimum Energy
Performance

ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Warehouses and Self Storage Buildings,
2008: Achieves advanced levels of energy savings without having to perform calculations or analysis for
warehouses up to 50,000 sf and self storage buildings that use unitary heating and air conditioning
equipment
ASHRAE Advanced Energy Guide for K-12 School Buildings: Achieves advanced levels of energy
savings without having to perform calculations or analysis for elementary, middle and high school
buildings
New Building Institute, Advanced Buildings Core Performance Guide: Provides a predictable
alternative to energy performance modeling and a simple set of criteria for increasing building energy
performance
Energy Star Program, Target Finder Rating Tool: A government partnership managed by the EPA
and DOE as an online tool that can establish energy performance goals for a project

EAp3
Fundamental
Refrigerant
Management

U.S. EPA Clean Air Act, Title VI, Section 608, Compliance with the Section 608 Refrigerant
Recycling Rule: Regulations on using and recycling ozone depleting compounds

SUSTAINABLEIDEALS
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Chapter 14 |

217

Referenced Standards
ENERGY & ATMOSPHERE (EA)
ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low Rise
Residential: Establishes minimum requirements for the energy efficient design of buildings using
mandatory provisions and additional prescriptive requirements
California T-24-2005: granted parallel equivalency to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2007
ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings, 2004: Achieves advanced
levels of energy savings without having to perform calculations or analysis for office buildings up to
20,000 sf
EAc1
Optimize
Energy
Performance

ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Warehouses and Self Storage Buildings,
2008: Achieves advanced levels of energy savings without having to perform calculations or analysis for
warehouses up to 50,000 sf and self storage buildings that use unitary heating and air conditioning
equipment
ASHRAE Advanced Energy Guide for K-12 School Buildings: Achieves advanced levels of energy
savings without having to perform calculations or analysis for elementary, middle and high school
buildings
New Building Institute, Advanced Buildings Core Performance Guide: Provides a predictable
alternative to energy performance modeling and a simple set of criteria for increasing building energy
performance

EAc2
On-Site
Renewable
Energy
EAc3
Enhanced
Commissioning
EAc4
Enhanced
Refrigerant
Management

ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low Rise
Residential: Establishes minimum requirements for the energy efficient design of buildings using
mandatory provisions and additional prescriptive requirement
California T-24-2005: granted parallel equivalency to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2007
No Referenced Standards

No Referenced Standards

EAc5
Measurement
& Verification

International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol, Volume III, EVO 30000.12006, Concepts and Options for Determining Energy Savings in New Construction, effective
January, 2006: IPMVP Volume III describes best practice techniques for verifying the energy performance
of new construction projects

EAc5.1
Measurement
& Verification
Base Building

International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol, Volume III, EVO 30000.12006, Concepts and Options for Determining Energy Savings in New Construction, effective
January, 2006: IPMVP Volume III describes best practice techniques for verifying the energy
performance of new construction projects

EAc5.2
Measurement
& Verification
Tenant Submetering

International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol, Volume III, EVO 30000.12006, Concepts and Options for Determining Energy Savings in New Construction, effective
January, 2006: IPMVP Volume III describes best practice techniques for verifying the energy
performance of new construction projects

EAc6
Green Power

Center for Resource Solutions, Green-e Product Certification Requirements: Certifies products
that meet environmental and consumer protection standards developed un conjunction with
environmental, energy and policy organizations. Three types of renewable energy are eligible for Green-e
certification: renewable energy certificates, utility green pricing programs and competitive electricity
products

SUSTAINABLEIDEALS

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Referenced Standards
MATERIALS & RESOURCES (MR)
MRp1
Storage & Collection
of Recyclables

No Referenced Standards

MRc1.1
Building Reuse
Maintain Existing
Walls, Floors and Roof

No Referenced Standards

MRc1
Building Reuse
Maintain Existing
Walls, Floors and Roof

No Referenced Standards

MRc1.2
Building Reuse
Maintain Interior
Nonstructural Elements

No Referenced Standards

MRc2
Construction
Waste Management

No Referenced Standards

MRc3
Materials Reuse

No Referenced Standards

MRc4
Recycled Content

International Standard ISO 14021-1999, Environmental Labels and Declarations - Self


Declared Environmental Claims (Type II Environmental Labeling): Specifies requirements for self
declared environmental claims including statements, symbols and graphics for products

MRc5
Regional Materials

No Referenced Standards

MRc6
Rapidly Renewable
Materials

No Referenced Standards

MRc7
Certified Wood
MRc6
Certified Wood

Forest Stewardship Council Principles and Criteria: Seal of approval awarded to forest managers
who adopt environmentally and socially responsible forest management practices and to companies that
manufacture and sell products made from certified wood

INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (IEQ)


IEQp1
Minimum Indoor
Air Quality Performance

IEQp2
Environmental Tobacco
Smoke (ETS) Control

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007: Ventilation for


Acceptable Indoor Air Quality: Specifies minimum standard ventilation rates and IAQ levels

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ASTM-E779-03, Standard Test Method for


Determining Air Leakage Rate by Fan Pressurization: Standard for measuring air leakage rates
through a building envelope under controlled pressurization and depressurization
Residential Manual for Compliance with California's 2001 Energy Efficiency Standards (For Low
Rise Residential Buildings),Chapter 4: Standard for the quality of design and construction of
mechanical ventilation systems and air distribution systems

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Chapter 14 |

219

Referenced Standards
INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (IEQ)
IEQp3
Minimum
Acoustical
Performance

IEQc1
Outdoor Air
Delivery Monitoring

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ASHRAE Standard S12.60-2002, Acoustical


Performance Criteria, Design Requirements, and Guidelines for Schools: Standard for acoustical
performance criteria and design requirements for classrooms and other learning spaces
ASHRAE Handbook, Chapter 47, Sound and Vibration Control, 2003 HVAC Applications:
Addresses sound and vibration from mechanical equipment

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007: Ventilation for


Acceptable Indoor Air Quality: Specifies minimum standard ventilation rates and IAQ levels

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007: Ventilation for


Acceptable Indoor Air Quality: Specifies minimum standard ventilation rates and IAQ levels
IEQc2
Increased Ventilation

IEQc3.1
Construction IAQ
Management Plan
During Construction
IEQc3
Construction IAQ
Management Plan
During Construction
IEQc3.2
Construction IAQ
Management Plan
Before Occupancy

IEQc4.1
Low Emitting Materials
Adhesives and Sealants

IEQc4.2
Low Emitting Materials
Paints and Coatings

Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) Application Manual 10-2005,


Natural Ventilation in Non-Domestic Buildings: CIBSE Applications Manual 10-2005 provides
guidance for implementing natural ventilation in nonresidential buildings

Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association (SMACNA) IAQ Guidelines
for Occupied Buildings under Construction, 2nd edition, Chapter 3, November 2007: Guidelines
for maintaining healthful indoor air quality during demolitions, renovations and construction
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999: Method of
Testing General Ventilation Air Cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size:
Standard for methods for testing air cleaners for 2 performance characteristics: the device's capacity for
removing particles from the air stream and the device's resistance to airflow

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Compendium for the Determination of Air
Pollutants in Indoor Air: Provides regional, state and local environmental regulatory agencies with
step-by-step sampling and analysis procedures for the determination of selected pollutants in indoor air
South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Amendment to South Coast Rule
1168, VOC Limits, effective January 7, 2005: VOC limits for adhesives, sealants and sealant primers
Green Seal Standard GC-36, effective October 19,2000: VOC limits for aerosol adhesives
South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 1113, Architectural Coatings:
VOC limits for paints and coatings
Green Seal Standard GC-03: VOC limits for anti-corrosive and anti-rust paints
Green Seal Standard GS-11: VOC limits for commercial flat and nonflat paints

SUSTAINABLEIDEALS

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Referenced Standards
INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (IEQ)
Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI) Green Label Plus and Green Label Testing Program: CRI is a trade
organization representing the carpet and rug industry. Green Label Plus is an independent testing
program that identifies carpet and carpet cushions with low VOC emissions. Green Label addresses carpet
cushions
South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 1168, VOC Limits: VOC limits for
adhesives
South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 1113, Architectural Coatings :
VOC limits for paints and coatings
IEQc4.3
Low Emitting Materials
Flooring Systems

FloorScore Program: Tests and certifies flooring products for compliance with indoor air quality
emission requirements. Products include vinyl, linoleum, laminate flooring, wood flooring, ceramic
flooring, rubber flooring and wall base
California Department of Health Services Standard Practice for the Testing of Volatile Organic
Emissions from Various Sources Using Small Scale Environmental Chambers, including 2004
Addenda: Testing practice that applies to any newly manufactured material generally used within an
enclosed indoor environment. Excluded is testing of all products that cannot be tested whole or by
representative sample in small scale environmental chambers
State of California Standard 1350, Section 9, Standard Practice for the Testing of Volatile
Organic Emissions from Various Sources Using Small Scale Environmental Chambers, Testing
Criteria : Specifies testing criteria for carpet emissions that will satisfy the credit requirements

IEQc4.4
Low Emitting Materials
Composite Wood
& Agrifiber Products

FOR SCHOOLS:
California Department of Health Services Standard Practice for the Testing of Volatile Organic
Emissions from Various Sources Using Small Scale Environmental Chambers, including 2004
Addenda: Testing practice that applies to any newly manufactured material generally used within an
enclosed indoor environment. Excluded is testing of all products that cannot be tested whole or by
representative sample in small scale environmental chambers

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Business and Institutional Furniture Makers


Association (BIFMA) X7.1-2007 Standard for Formaldehyde and TVOC Emissions of Low
Emitting Office Furniture Systems and Seating: Standard for Formaldehyde and TVOC Emissions of
Low Emitting Office Furniture and Seating
BIFMA International: Defines the criteria for office furniture VOC emissions to be classified as low
IEQc4.5
emitting products
Low Emitting Materials
Furniture and Furnishings Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Large Chamber Test Protocol for Measuring
Emissions of VOCs and Aldehydes, effective September 1999: Protocol that requires the
placement of the seating product or furniture assembly to be tested in a climatically controlled chamber
Greenguard Certification Program: Performance based standards to define goods with low
chemical emissions for use indoors, primarily for building materials; interior furnishings; furniture;
electronics; and cleaning, maintenance and personal care products

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221

Referenced Standards
INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (IEQ)

IEQc4.6
Low Emitting Materials
Ceiling and Wall Systems

California Department of Health Services Standard Practice for the Testing of Volatile Organic
Emissions from Various Sources Using Small Scale Environmental Chambers, including 2004
Addenda: Testing practice that applies to any newly manufactured material generally used within an
enclosed indoor environment. Excluded is testing of all products that cannot be tested whole or by
representative sample in small scale environmental chambers

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999: Method of Testing


IEQc5
General Ventilation Air Cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size: Standard for
Indoor Chemical
methods for testing air cleaners for 2 performance characteristics: the device's capacity for removing
& Pollutant Source Control
particles from the air stream and the device's resistance to airflow

IEQc6.1
Controllability of Systems No Referenced Standards
Lighting
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007: Ventilation Rate
IEQc6.2
for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality: Standard providing minimum requirements for operable openings
Controllability of Systems
at 4% of the net habitable floor area
Thermal Comfort
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ASHRAE Standard 55-2004: Thermal
Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy: Identifies the factors of thermal comfort and the
process for developing comfort criteria for a building space and its occupants. Indoor space
IEQc6
environmental and personal factors that will produce thermal environmental conditions acceptable to
Controllability of Systems
80% of the occupants within a space. The environmental factors addressed are: temperature, thermal
Thermal Comfort
radiation, humidity and air speed. The personal factors are: activity and clothing

IEQc7.1
Thermal Comfort
Design

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ASHRAE Standard 55-2004: Thermal


Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy: Identifies the factors of thermal comfort and the
process for developing comfort criteria for a building space and its occupants. Indoor space
environmental and personal factors that will produce thermal environmental conditions acceptable to
80% of the occupants within a space. The environmental factors addressed are: temperature, thermal
radiation, humidity and air speed. The personal factors are: activity and clothing
Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) Application Manual 10-2005,
Natural Ventilation in Non-Domestic Buildings: CIBSE Applications Manual 10-2005 provides
guidance for implementing natural ventilation in nonresidential building

IEQc7
Thermal Comfort
Design

IEQc7.2
Thermal Comfort
Verification

SCHOOLS:
ASHRAE HVAC Applications Handbook, 2003 edition, Chapter 4 (Places of Assembly), Typical
Natatorium Design Conditions: ASHRAE handbook to help design engineers use equipment and
systems

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ASHRAE Standard 55-2004: Thermal


Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy: Identifies the factors of thermal comfort and the
process for developing comfort criteria for a building space and its occupants. Indoor space
environmental and personal factors that will produce thermal environmental conditions acceptable to
80% of the occupants within a space. The environmental factors addressed are: temperature, thermal
radiation, humidity and air speed. The personal factors are: activity and clothing

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Referenced Standards
INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (IEQ)
IEQc8.1
Daylight and Views
Daylight

ASTM D1003-07e1, Standard Test Method for Haze and Luminous Transmittance of
Transparent Plastics: Tests the specific light transmitting and wide angle light scattering properties of
planer sections of materials

IEQc8.2
Daylight and Views
Views

No Referenced Standards

IEQc9
Enhanced
Acoustical Performance

IEQc10
Mold Prevention

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ASHRAE Standard S12.60-2002, Acoustical


Performance Criteria, Design Requirements, and Guidelines for Schools: Standard for acoustical
performance criteria for classrooms and other learning spaces
ASHRAE Handbook, Chapter 47, Sound and Vibration Control, 2003 HVAC Applications:
Addresses sound and vibration from mechanical equipment
Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers, EPA Reference
Number 402-F-91-102, effective December 1991:Provides information on factors affecting IAQ and
how to develop and manage an IAQ profile

INNOVATION in DESIGN (ID)


IDc1.1
Innovation in Design

No Referenced Standards

IDc1.2
Innovation in Design

No Referenced Standards

IDc1.3
Innovation in Design

No Referenced Standards

IDc1.4
Innovation in Design

No Referenced Standards

IDc1.5
Innovation in Design

No Referenced Standards

IDc2
LEED
Accredited Professional

No Referenced Standards

IDc3
The School
as a Teaching Tool

No Referenced Standards

REGIONAL PRIORITY (RP)


RPc1.1
Regional Priority

Refer project zip code applicable Regional Priority credits

RPc1.2
Regional Priority

Refer project zip code applicable Regional Priority credits

RPc1.3
Regional Priority

Refer project zip code applicable Regional Priority credits

RPc1.4
Regional Priority

Refer project zip code applicable Regional Priority credits

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223

CREDITInteractions
INTERACTIONS
Credit

LEED 2009: New Construction and Major Renovations, Schools and Corehell

SUSTAINABLE SITES (SS)


Construction Activity Pollution Prevention
SSp1

Ssp2

Minimizing site disturbance and preventing soil and erosion assists SSc5.1 &
SSc5.2
Limiting disturbance of natural hydrology assists SSc6. & SSc6.2

Environmental Site Assessment


Projects conducting environmental site assessments are eligible to achieve SSc3

Site Selection
SSc1

Previously developed sites are likely to public transportation and connectivity


and have an opportunity to remediate a contaminated site SSc2, SSc3 & SSc4.1
Limiting development footprint protects sensitive areas, SSc5.1 & SSc5.2
Credit SSc1 can assist stormwater design SSc6.1 & SSc6.2

SSc5.1: Site Development - Protect or Restore Habitat


SSc5.2: Site Development - Maximize Open Space
SSc6.1: Stormwater Design - Quantity Control
SSc6.2: Stormwater Design - Quality Control
SSc3: Brownfield Redevelopment
SSc2: Development Density and Community Connectivity
SSc3: Brownfield Redevelopment
SSc4.1: Alternative Transportation - Public Transportation Access
SSc5.1: Site Development - Protect or Restore Habitat
SSc5.2: Site Development - Maximize Open Space
SSc6.1: Stormwater Design - Quantity Control
SSc6.2: Stormwater Design - Quality Control

Development Density and Community Connectivity


SSc2

SSc3

Channeling development toward urban areas increases the likelihood of


locating on a previously developed site, SSc1, and near public transportation
SSc4.1

Brownfield Redevelopment
Projects developing on Brownfield sites are likely to qualify for SSc1

Alt. Transportation - Public Transportation Access


SSc4.1 Sites located near public transportation are likely to be previously developed
sites, SSc1, and near urban areas SSc2

Alt. Transportation - Bicycle Storage and Changing Rooms


SSc4.2 Paving materials added for paving bicycle lanes can affect stormwater design
SSc6.1 & SSc6.2 and alter heat island effects, SSc7.1

SSc1: Site Selection


SSc4.1: Alternative Transportation - Public Transportation Access

SSc1: Site Selection


SSc1: Site Selection
SSc2: Development Density and Community Connectivity
SSc6.1: Stormwater Design - Quantity Control
SSc6.2: Stormwater Design - Quality Control
SSc7.1: Heat Island Effect - Nonroof

Alt. Transportation - Low-Emitting and Fuel-Efficient Vehicles


SSc4.3 Projects that provide preferred parking without increasing the parking capacity SSc4.4: Alternative Transportation - Parking Capacity
may be eligible for SSc4.4

Alt. Transportation - Parking Capacity


Minimizing surface parking can enhance the qualities of open space, SSc5.1 &
SSc4.4 SSc5.2
Change the stormwater design, SSc6.1 & SSc6.2
Reduce heat island effects, SSc7.1

Site Development - Protect or Restore Habitat


Protecting or restoring habitat provides open space, SSc5.2
Reduces impervious areas, thereby reducing the quantity and increasing the
SSc5.1 quality of stormwater, SSc6.1 & SSc6.2
Reduces heat island effects, SSc7.1 & SSc7.2
Allows for the use of native vegetation to reduce landscaping irrigation
requirements, WEc1

Site Development - Maximize Open Space


Maximizing open spaces may improve stormwater quantities and qualities,
SSc5.2 SSc6.1 & SSc6.2
Increasing the amount of open space can reduce heat island effects, SSC7.1 &
SSc7.2

SSc5.1: Site Development - Protect or Restore Habitat


SSc5.2: Site Development - Maximize Open Space
SSc6.1: Stormwater Design - Quantity Control
SSc6.2: Stormwater Design - Quality Control
SSc7.1: Heat Island Effect - Nonroof
SSc5.2: Site Development - Maximize Open Space
SSc6.1: Stormwater Design - Quantity Control
SSc6.2: Stormwater Design - Quality Control
SSc7.1: Heat Island Effect - Nonroof
SSc7.2: Heat Island Effect - Roof
WEc1: Water Efficient Landscaping
SSc6.1: Stormwater Design - Quantity Control
SSc6.2: Stormwater Design - Quality Control
SSc7.1: Heat Island Effect - Nonroof
SSc7.2: Heat Island Effect - Roof

Stormwater Design - Quantity Control


Reducing the rate and quantity of stormwater reduces filtration requirements,
SSc6.2
Reducing impervious surfaces by using pervious surfaces, vegetated roofs and
SSc6.1 vegetated open spaces can contribute to SSc5.1, SSC5.2, SSc7.1 & SSc7.2
Harvesting rainwater reduces stormwater runoff and can be reused for
irrigation,
WEc1, and nonpotable needs inside the building, WEc3
Projects in dense urban areas that earn SSc2 may have difficulty achieving credit
SSc6.1

SSc6.2: Stormwater Design - Quality Control


SSc5.1: Site Development - Protect or Restore Habitat
SSc5.2: Site Development - Maximize Open Space
SSc7.1: Heat Island Effect - Nonroof
SSc7.2: Heat Island Effect - Roof
WEc1: Water Efficient Landscaping
WEc3: Water Use Reduction
SSc2: Development Density and Community Connectivity

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CREDITInteractions
INTERACTIONS
Credit
LEED 2009: New Construction and Major Renovations, Schools and Corehell

SUSTAINABLE SITES (SS)


Stormwater Design - Quality Control
Projects Using best management practices (BMP) to capture and treat runoff
reducing the runoff volume, affects the stormwater quality, SSc6.2
SSc6.2 Reducing impervious surfaces by using pervious surfaces, vegetated roofs and
vegetated open spaces can contribute to SSc5.1, SSC5.2, SSc7.1 & SSc7.2
Using BMPs for rain gardens, vegetated swales, rainwater harvesting, etc. can
assist with earning WEc1

SSc6.1: Stormwater Design - Quantity Control


SSc5.1: Site Development - Protect or Restore Habitat
SSc5.2: Site Development - Maximize Open Space
SSc7.1: Heat Island Effect - Nonroof
SSc7.2: Heat Island Effect: Roof
WEc1: Water Efficient Landscaping

SSc7.1: Heat Island Effect - Nonroof


Locating parking structures underground will assist with SSc5.2 The use of open
grid pavements to capture and treat stormwater runoff can contribute to SSc6.1
SSc7.1
& SSc6.2
Vegetation used to shade hardscapes can also help reduce landscaping
irrigation requirements, WEc1

Heat Island Effect - Roof


Vegetated roofs help capture and treat stormwater, SSc6.1 & SSc6.2
Using highly reflective roofing materials can reduce cooling loads, EAc1
SSc7.2
Vegetated roofs can also reduce the amount of rainwater harvesting that can be
used for nonpotable purposes, thereby making it more challenging to achieve
WEc3

SSc5.2: Site Development - Maximize Open Space


SSc6.1: Stormwater Design - Quantity Control
SSc6.2: Stormwater Design - Quality Control
WEc1: Water Efficient Landscaping
SSc5.1: Site Development - Protect or Restore Habitat
SSc5.2: Site Development - Maximize Open Space
SSc6.1: Stormwater Design - Quantity Control
SSc6.2: Stormwater Control - Quality Control
EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance
WEc3: Water Use Reduction

Light Pollution Reduction


SSc8

SSc9

Energy savings beyond the baseline lighting power density (LPD) established by
ASHRAE 90.1 may contribute to EAc1
Automatic occupancy controls to shut off interior perimeter lighting assists
IEQc6.1

Tenant Design and Construction Guidelines


Credit SSc9 is related to all these LEED Core & Shell credits the project pursues

Site Master Plan


SSc9

LEED for Schools requires the achievement and recalculation of (4) of these (7)
credits for compliance: SSc1, 5.1, 5.2,6.1,6.2, 7.1 and 8.1
Possible community partnerships may result from pursuit of this credit, SSc10

Joint Use of Facilities


SSc10 This credit likely will place the project in the proximity of the school to services

EAc1: Optimize energy Performance


IEQc6.1: Controllability of Systems - Lighting

WEc3: Water Use Reduction


EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance
EAc3: Enhanced Commissioning
EAc5: Measurement and Verification
IEQp2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke Control
IEQc2: Increased Ventilation
IEQc3: Construction IAQ Management Plan
IEQc5: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control
IEQc6: Controllability of Systems
IEQc7: Thermal Comfort
IEQc8: Daylighting and Views
SSc1: Site Selection
SSc5.1: Site Development - Protect or Restore Habitat
SSc5.2: Site Development - Maximize Open Space
SSc6.1: Stormwater Design - Quantity Control
SSc6.2: Stormwater Design - Quality Control
SSc7.1: Heat Island Effect - Nonroof
SSc8: Light Pollution Reduction
SSc10: Joint Use of Facilities
SSc2: Development Density and Community Connectivity

and institutions within the neighborhood, SSc2

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Chapter 14 |

225

CREDITInteractions
INTERACTIONS
Credit
LEED 2009: New Construction and Major Renovations, Schools and Corehell

WATER EFFICIENCY (WE)


SSc6.1: Stormwater Design - Quantity Control
SSc6.2: Stormwater Design - Quality Control
Water Use Reduction
WEc1: Water Efficient Landscaping
Efforts to increase rainwater harvesting, increase greywater use and decrease in WEc2: Innovative Wastewater Technologies
demand on local water aquifers may support SSc6.1, SSc6.2, WEc1, WEc2, WEc3
WEp1
WEc3: Water Use Reduction
and WEc4
WEc4: Process Water Use Reduction (Schools)
Additional energy use may be needed for certain reuse strategies requiring EAp1,
EAp1: Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems
EAc3 and EAc5
EAc3: Enhanced Commissioning
EAc5: Measurement and Verification

Water Efficient Landscaping


WEc1

Using native or adaptive vegetation can assist with SSc5.1, SSc5.2 and SSc7.2
Rainwater capturing can help managing stormwater runoff, SSc6.1 and SSc6.2
Landscaping can mitigate climate conditions and reduce building energy
consumption by shading hardscapes and south facing windows and aiding
passive solar design, contributing to SSc7.1, EAp2 and EAc1

SSc5.1: Site Development - Protect or Restore


SSc5.2: Site Development - Maximize Open Space
SSc6.1: Stormwater Design - Quantity Control
SSc6.2: Stormwater Design - Quality Control
SSc7.1: Heat Island Effect - Nonroof
SSc7.2: Heat Island Effect - Roof
EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance
EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance

WEc2

SSc6.1: Stormwater Design - Quantity Control


SSc6.2: Stormwater Design - Quality Control
Innovative Wastewater Technologies
WEp1: Water Use Reduction
Efforts to increase rainwater harvesting, increase greywater use and decrease in WEc1: Water Efficient Landscaping
demand on local water aquifers may support SSc6.1, SSc6.2, WEp1, WEc1, WEc2,
WEc3: Water Use Reduction
WEc3 and WEc4
WEc4: Process Water Use Reduction (Schools)
Additional energy use may be needed for certain reuse strategies requiring EAp1,
EAp1: Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems
EAc3 and EAc5
EAc3: Enhanced Commissioning
EAc5: Measurement and Verification

WEc3

SSc6.1: Stormwater Design - Quantity Control


SSc6.2: Stormwater Design - Quality Control
Water Use Reduction
WEc1: Water Efficient Landscaping
Efforts to increase rainwater harvesting, increase greywater use and decrease in WEc2: Innovative Wastewater Technologies
demand on local water aquifers may support SSc6.1, SSc6.2, WEc1, WEc2, WEc3
WEc3: Water Use Reduction
and WEc4
WEc4: Process Water Use Reduction (Schools)
Additional energy use may be needed for certain reuse strategies possibly
EAp1: Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems
requiring credits EAp1, EAc3 and EAc5
EAc3: Enhanced Commissioning
EAc5: Measurement and Verification
Process Water Use Reduction

WEc4

Some water saving technologies affect energy performance and may require
commissioning and measurement/verification, EAp1 and EAc5

EAp1: Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems


EAc5: Measurement and Verification

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CREDIT
INTERACTIONS
Credit
Interactions

LEED 2009: New Construction and Major Renovations, Schools and Corehell

ENERGY AND ATMOSPHERE (EA)

Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems


EAp1

LEED encourages the commissioning of energy using systems in these credits:


SSc8, WEc1, WEc2, WEc3, EAc1, EAc2, EAc5, IEQp1, IEQc1, IEQc2, IEQc5, IEQc6
and IEQc7
EAp1 establishes the minimum threshold for commissioning that is used for
enhanced commissioning, EAc3

SSc8: Light Pollution Reduction


WEc1: Water Efficient Landscaping
WEc2: Innovative Wastewater Technologies
WEc3: Water Use Reduction
EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance
EAc2: On-site Renewable Energy
EAc5: Measurement and Verification
IEQp1: Minimum Indoor Air Quality Performance
IEQc1: Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring
IEQc2: Increased Ventilation
IEQc5: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control
IEQc6: Controllability of Systems
IEQc7: Thermal Comfort
EAc3: Enhanced Commissioning

Minimum Energy Performance

EAp2

LEED for NC, Schools and CS address building energy efficiency in 2 places:EAp2
and EAc1
Energy consumption can be reduced by ensuring the project exceeds building
code requirements for the envelope, lighting and HVAC systems, EAc1, using
climatically appropriate roofing materials, SSc7.2, and optimizing exterior
lighting, SSc8
Energy use can be mitigated by using renewable energy, EAc3 and EAc6
Building energy performance and indoor environmental issues such as
increased ventilation, occupant controllability and the amount of daylight must
be carefully coordinated. Increased ventilation may require additional energy
use, which in turn can cause air and water pollution. The additional need for
energy may be mitigated by considering these strategies: IEQp1, IEQc1, IEQc2,
IEQc6, IEQc7 and IEQc8
Because water use, especially domestic hot water, requires significant energy
use, water use reductions can lead to energy savings, WEc3 and WEc4

EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance


SSc7.2: Heat Island Effect - Roof
SSc8: Light Pollution Reduction
EAc2: On-site Renewable Energy
EAc6: Green Power
IEQp1: Minimum Indoor Air Quality Performance
IEQc1: Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring
IEQc2: Increased Ventilation
IEQc6: Controllability of Systems
IEQc7: Thermal Comfort
IEQc8: Daylight and Views
WEc3: Water Use Reduction
WEc4: Process Water Use Reduction (Schools)

Fundamental Refrigerant Management

EAp3

EAp3 establishes minimum thresholds for refrigerant selection while greater


EAc4: Enhanced Refrigerant Management
environmental benefits can be achieved by using environmentally preferable or
no refrigerants, EAc4

Optimize Energy Performance

EAc1

LEED for NC, Schools and CS address building energy efficiency in 2 places:EAp2
and EAc1
Energy consumption can be reduced by ensuring the project exceeds building
code requirements for the envelope, lighting and HVAC systems, EAc1using
climatically appropriate roofing materials, SSc7.2, and optimizing exterior
lighting, SSc8
Energy use can be mitigated by using renewable energy, EAc3 and EAc6
Building energy performance and indoor environmental issues such as
increased ventilation, occupant controllability and the amount of daylight must
be carefully coordinated. Increased ventilation may require additional energy
use, which in turn can cause air and water pollution. The additional need for
energy may be mitigated by considering these strategies: IEQp1, IEQc1, IEQc2,
IEQc6, IEQc7 and IEQc8
Because water use, especially domestic hot water, requires significant energy
use, water use reductions can lead to energy savings, WEc3 and WEc4

EAp2: Minimize Energy Performance


SSc7.2: Heat Island Effect - Roof
SSc8: Light Pollution Reduction
EAc2: On-site Renewable Energy
EAc6: Green Power
EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance
IEQp1: Minimum Indoor Air Quality Performance
IEQc1: Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring
IEQc2: Increased Ventilation
IEQc6: Controllability of Systems
IEQc7: Thermal Comfort
IEQc8: Daylight and Views
WEc3: Water Use Reduction
WEc4: Process Water Use Reduction (LEED for Schools only)

On-Site Renewable Energy

EAc2

The installation of renewable energy equipment usually has only a small effect
on the achievement of other credits but does require commissioning, EAp1, and
measurement and verification, EAc5
The achievement of on-site renewable energy, EAc2, is a percentage of the
building's energy use and tied to the building's energy performance, EAp2 and
EAc1
EAc2 reduces the amount of green power needed, EAc6

EAp1: Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems


EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance
EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance
EAc5: Measurement and Verification
EAc6: Green Power

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Chapter 14 |

227

CREDIT INTERACTIONS
Credit
Interactions

LEED 2009: New Construction and Major Renovations, Schools and Corehell

ENERGY AND ATMOSPHERE (EA)

Enhanced Commissioning
EAc3

LEED encourages the commissioning of energy using systems in these credits:


SSc8, WEc1, WEc2, WEc3, EAc1, EAc2, EAc5, IEQp1, IEQc1, IEQc2, IEQc5, IEQc6
and IEQc7
EAc3 goes beyond the minimum threshold established by EAp1

SSc8: Light Pollution Reduction


WEc1: Water Efficient Landscaping
WEc2: Innovative Wastewater Technologies
WEc3: Water Use Reduction
EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance
EAc2: On-site Renewable Energy
EAc5: Measurement and Verification
IEQp1: Minimum Indoor Air Quality Performance
IEQc1: Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring
IEQc2: Increased Ventilation
IEQc5: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control
IEQc6: Controllability of Systems
IEQc7: Thermal Comfort
EAp1: Fundamental Commissioning of the Building Energy
Systems

Enhanced Refrigerant Management

EAc4

EAc4 encourages the use of no refrigerants or environmentally preferable


refrigerants and goes beyond the baseline prerequisite EAp3 Since building
cooling equipment consumes a large part of the energy use, HVAC&R equipment
plays a significant role in the building's energy performance, EAp2 & EAc1
Systems addressed by EAc4 can help meet the thermal comfort needs of the
building occupants, IEQc7, IEQc7.1 and IEQc7.2

Measurement and Verification

EAc5

Implementation of a measurement & verification (M&V) plan can contribute to


realizing optimal energy performance, EAp2 & EAc1
On-site renewable energy generation systems are considered within an M&V
plan
Commissioning uses measurement devices and often tracks building
performance and can serve as a basis for a M&V plan, EAp1 & EAc3

EAp3: Fundamental Refrigerant Management


EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance
EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance
IEQc7.1: (CS IEQc7): Thermal Comfort - Design
IEQc7.2: Thermal Comfort - Verification

EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance


EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance
EAc2: On-site Renewable Energy
EAp1: Fundamental Commissioning of the Building Energy
Systems
EAc3: Enhanced Commissioning

EAc5.1 Measurement and Verification - Base Building

refer EAc5

EAc5.2 Measurement and Verification - Tenant Submetering

refer EAc5

Green Power
EAc6

Replacing conventional energy sources with renewable energy sources works


synergistically with efforts to reduce energy costs, EAc1
Replacing roofing materials with roof mounted renewable energy sources
reduces heat island effect, SSc7.2
Renewable energy sources should be commissioned, EAp1 & EAc3

EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance


SSc7.2: Heat Island Effect - Roof
EAp1: Fundamental Commissioning of the Building Energy
Systems
EAc3: Enhanced Commissioning

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CREDIT
INTERACTIONS
Credit
Interactions

LEED 2009: New Construction and Major Renovations, Schools and Corehell

MATERIALS AND RESOURCES (MR)


Storage and Collection of Recyclables
MRp1 Projects can seek ID credit for educational outreach
CS projects should address recycling within tenant guidelines, SSc9

IDc1: Innovation in Design


SSc9: Tenant Design and Construction Guidelines

Building Reuse - Maintain Existing Walls, Floors and Roof


Develop a comprehensive reuse management plan on an adaptive reuse project MRc2: Construction Waste Management
MRc1.1
If reuse is not enough to meet the requirements of MRc1, these materials may be MRc3: Materials Reuse
applied to MRc2 or MRc3, but not both

MRc1

Building Reuse - Maintain Existing Walls, Floors and Roof

MRc1.2 Building Reuse - Maintain Interior - Nonstructural Elements


Construction Waste Management
MRc2

Projects that reuse existing buildings but do not meet the threshold
requirements for MRc1 may apply the reused portions toward achievement of
MRc2
If the building is found to contain contaminated substances, these materials
should be remediated per EPA, SSc3

Materials Reuse

MRc3

Develop a comprehensive reuse management plan to evaluate materials


meeting the requirements for MRc1 & MRc2
Remanufactured materials are not considered a reuse of the material but can
contribute toward MRc2 & MRc4
The project material costs used for MRc3 must be consistent with those costs
used in MRc4, MRc5 & MRc6

refer MRc1.1
refer MRc1.1

MRc1: Building Reuse


SSc3: Brownfield Redevelopment

MRc1: Building Reuse


MRc2: Construction Waste Management
MRc4: Recycled Materials
MRc5: Regional Materials
MRc6: Rapidly Renewable Materials

Recycled Content

MRc4

Coordinate recycled procurement with a waste management plan to make use


of salvaged deconstruction and demolition waste, MRc2 & MRc3
Purchasing new recycled content materials using local waste products that are
remanufactured locally can take advantage of synergies with MRc5
The project material costs used for MRc4 must be consistent with those costs
used in MRc3, MRc5 & MRc6
Recycled content materials may contain high VOCs, IEQc4

MRc2: Construction Waste Management


MRc3: Materials Reuse
MRc5: Regional Materials
MRc6: Rapidly Renewable Materials
IEQc4: Low-Emitting Materials

Regional Materials
MRc5

The project material costs used for MRc5 must be consistent with those costs
used in MRc3, MRc4 & MRc6
Using regional materials may affect the levels of achievement of MRc3, MRc4 &
MRc5

MRc3: Materials Reuse


MRc4: Recycled Materials
MRc6: Rapidly Renewable Materials

Rapidly Renewable Materials


MRc6

MRc7
MRc6

The project material costs used for MRc65 must be consistent with those costs
used in MRc3, MRc4 & MRc5
Using rapidly renewable materials may affect the levels of achievement of MRc3,
MRc4 & MRc5
Rapidly renewable materials may contain high VOCs, IEQc4

MRc3: Materials Reuse


MRc4: Recycled Materials
MRc5: Regional Materials
IEQc4: Low-Emitting Materials

Certified Wood

MRc5: Regional Materials


IEQc4.4: Low-Emitting Materials - Composite Wood and

Certified wood (FSC) may be sourced locally, MRc5


Mixed certified wood products may contain urea-formaldehyde, IEQc4.4

Certified Wood

Agrifiber
refer MRc7

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CREDIT
INTERACTIONS
Credit
Interactions
LEED 2009: New Construction and Major Renovations, Schools and Corehell

INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (IEQ)


Minimum Indoor Air Quality Performance
Commissioning and measurement & verification can improve IAQ while
minimizing energy efficiency losses, EAp1, EAc3 & EAc5
Specify materials and furnishings that do not release VOCs, IEQc4
IEQp1
Occupant activities such as chemical handling and smoking can affect indoor
air quality, IEQc5 & IEQp2
Dense neighborhoods and heavy traffic can affect ventilation, SSc4, where sites
could be contaminated, SSc3

EAp1: Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems


EAc3: Enhanced Commissioning
EAc5: Measurement and Verification
IEQc4: Low Emitting Materials
IEQc5: Indoor Chemical and Pollution Source Control
IEQp2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control
SSc4: Alternative Transportation
SSc3: Brownfield Redevelopment

EAp1: Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems


EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance
Using separate ventilation systems to isolate smoking requires additional
EAc3: Enhanced Commissioning
energy, commissioning and measurement & verification, EAp1, EAc1, EAc3 and EAc5: Measurement and Verification
EAc5
IEQp2
IEQp1: Minimum Indoor Air Quality Performance
Indoor and outdoor smoking affects the IAQ performance and is related to
IEQc1: Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring
IEQp1, IEQc1 & IEQc2
Project should address smoking related contaminants in conjunction with other IEQc2: Increased Ventilation
IEQc4: Low Emitting Materials
sources of air pollutants, IEQc4 & IEQc5
IEQc5: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control
Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control

IEQp3

Minimum Acoustical Performance


Additional strategies to achieve effective acoustical performance, IEQc9

Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring


IEQc1

Monitoring airflow can alert building operators of potential IAQ problems that
requires increased ventilation, IEQc2 and help the commissioning process and
enable measurement & verification, EAp1, EAc3 & EAc5
Dense neighborhoods, heavy traffic and site contamination can raise CO2 levels
where alternative transportation methods can help alleviate, SSc4

Increased Ventilation
IEQc2

Ventilation strategies influence energy performance and requires


commissioning as well as measurement & verification, EAp1, EAc3 & EAc5
Increased mechanical ventilation increase energy consumption and affect EAp2
& EAc1 Installing ventilation monitoring can facilitate the achievement and
maintenance of increased ventilation, IEQc1

Construction Indoor Air Quality Management Plan


During Construction
IEQc3.1 Construction activities can affect a building after occupancy. Reduce levels of

indoor contaminants by implementing a construction IAQ management plan,


IEQc3.2, selecting low emitting finish materials and furnishings, IEQc4, and
isolating indoor pollutant sources, IEQc5

IEQc9: Enhanced Acoustical Performance


IEQc2: Increased Ventilation
EAp1: Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems
EAc3: Enhanced Commissioning
EAc5: Measurement and Verification
SSc4: Alternative Transportation
EAp1: Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems
EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance
EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance
EAc3: Enhanced Commissioning
EAc5: Measurement and Verification
IEQc1: Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring

IEQc3.2: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - Before Occupancy


IEQc4: Low Emitting Materials
IEQc5: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control

Construction Indoor Air Quality Management Plan


During Construction

IEQc3.1: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - During Construction


IEQc3.2: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - Before Occupancy
IEQc3 CS projects are eligible for exemplary performance under ID when an indoor IAQ
IEQc4: Low Emitting Materials
management plan is enforced for 100% of the tenants
There are a number of credit synergies between CS and CI offered as incentives IEQc5: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control
for CS projects to pursue CI certification

Construction Indoor Air Quality Management Plan


Before Occupancy
Comprehensive IAQ management plans consists of best practices both during
construction and after construction prior to occupancy, IEQc3.1
IEQc3.2 Materials specified and installed within the external moisture barrier, as well as
filtration, can affect air quality and influence the results for air quality testing,
IEQc4 & IEQc5
Dilution of indoor air contaminants can be achieved by introducing outdoor air,
IEQp1 & IEQc2

IEQc3.1: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - During Construction


IEQc4: Low Emitting Materials
IEQc5: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control
IEQp1: Minimum Indoor Air Quality Performance
IEQc2: Increased Ventilation

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LEED Green Associate Study Guide


2010 Studio4, LLC All Rights Reserved

CREDIT
INTERACTIONS
Credit
Interactions

LEED 2009: New Construction and Major Renovations, Schools and Corehell

INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (IEQ)

Low Emitting Materials - Adhesives and Sealants


The credit intent is to reduce odorous, irritating or harmful indoor air
contaminants, IEQc4.2, IEQc4.3, IEQc4.4, IEQc4.5 & IEQc4.6
Indoor environmental quality also includes occupant's auditory comfort and
IEQc4.1 well being, IEQp3 & IEQc9
Scheduling strategies and the use and tracking of building materials are part of
the contractor orientation training, IEQc3.1 & IEQc3.2
Indoor air quality is affected by sources generated within the building IEQp2 &
IEQc5

Low Emitting Materials - Paints and Coatings


The credit intent is to reduce odorous, irritating or harmful indoor air
contaminants, IEQc4.1, IEQc4.3, IEQc4.4, IEQc4.5 & IEQc4.6
IEQc4.2 Scheduling strategies and the use and tracking of building materials are part of
the contractor orientation training, IEQc3.1 & IEQc3.2
Indoor air quality is affected by sources generated within the building IEQp2 &
IEQc5

Low Emitting Materials - Flooring Systems


The credit intent is to reduce odorous, irritating or harmful indoor air
contaminants, IEQc4.1, IEQc4.2, IEQc4.4, IEQc4.5 & IEQc4.6
IEQc4.3 Scheduling strategies and the use and tracking of building materials are part of
the contractor orientation training, IEQc3.1 & IEQc3.2
Indoor air quality is affected by sources generated within the building IEQp2 &
IEQc5

Low Emitting Materials - Composite Wood and Agrifiber


Products
The credit intent is to reduce odorous, irritating or harmful indoor air
contaminants, IEQc4.1, IEQc4.2, IEQc4.3, IEQc4.5 & IEQc4.6
IEQc4.4 Indoor environmental quality also includes occupant's auditory comfort and
well being, IEQp3 & IEQc9
Scheduling strategies and the use and tracking of building materials are part of
the contractor orientation training, IEQc3.1 & IEQc3.2
Indoor air quality is affected by sources generated within the building IEQp2 &
IEQc5

IEQc4.2: Low Emitting Materials - Paints and Coatings


IEQc4.3: Low Emitting Materials - Flooring Systems
IEQc4.4: Low Emitting Materials - Composite Wood & Agrifiber
IEQc4.5: Low Emitting Materials - Furniture & Furnishings
(Schools)

IEQc4.6: Low Emitting Materials - Ceiling and Wall Systems


(Schools)
IEQp3: Minimum Acoustical Performance (Schools)
IEQc9: Enhanced Acoustical Performance (Schools)
IEQc3.1: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - During Construction
IEQc3.2: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - Before Occupancy
IEQp2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control
IEQc5: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control
IEQc4.1: Low Emitting Materials - Adhesives and Sealants
IEQc4.3: Low Emitting Materials - Flooring Systems
IEQc4.4: Low Emitting Materials - Composite Wood & Agrifiber
IEQc4.5: Low Emitting Materials - Furniture & Furnishings
(Schools)

IEQc4.6: Low Emitting Materials - Ceiling and Wall Systems


(Schools)

IEQc3.1: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - During Construction


IEQc3.2: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - Before Occupancy
IEQp2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control
IEQc5: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control
IEQc4.1: Low Emitting Materials - Adhesives and Sealants
IEQc4.2: Low Emitting Materials - Paints and Coatings
IEQc4.4: Low Emitting Materials - Composite Wood & Agrifiber
IEQc4.5: Low Emitting Materials - Furniture & Furnishings
(Schools)

IEQc4.6: Low Emitting Materials - Ceiling and Wall Systems


(Schools)

IEQc3.1: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - During Construction


IEQc3.2: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - Before Occupancy
IEQp2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control
IEQc5: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control
IEQc4.1: Low Emitting Materials - Sealants and Adhesives
IEQc4.2: Low Emitting Materials - Paints and Coatings
IEQc4.3: Low Emitting Materials - Flooring Systems
IEQc4.5: Low Emitting Materials - Furniture & Furnishings
(Schools)

IEQc4.6: Low Emitting Materials - Ceiling and Wall Systems


(Schools)
IEQp3: Minimum Acoustical Performance (Schools)
IEQc9: Enhanced Acoustical Performance (Schools)
IEQc3.1: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - During Construction
IEQc3.2: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - Before Occupancy
IEQp2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control
IEQc5: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control

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2009.11.02

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LEED Green Associate Study Guide
2010 Studio4, LLC All Rights Reserved

Chapter 14 |

231

CREDITInteractions
INTERACTIONS
Credit

LEED 2009: New Construction and Major Renovations, Schools and Corehell

INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (IEQ)

Low Emitting Materials - Furniture and Furnishings


The credit intent is to reduce odorous, irritating or harmful indoor air
contaminants, IEQc4.1, IEQc4.2, IEQc4.3, IEQc4.4 & IEQc4.6
IEQc4.5 Scheduling strategies and the use and tracking of building materials are part of
the contractor orientation training, IEQc3.1 & IEQc3.2
Indoor air quality is affected by sources generated within the building IEQp2 &
IEQc5

Low Emitting Materials - Ceiling and Wall Systems


The credit intent is to reduce odorous, irritating or harmful indoor air
contaminants, IEQc4.1, IEQc4.2, IEQc4.3, IEQc4.4 & IEQc4.5
Indoor environmental quality also includes occupant's auditory comfort and
IEQc4.6 well being, IEQp3 & IEQc9
Scheduling strategies and the use and tracking of building materials are part of
the contractor orientation training, IEQc3.1 & IEQc3.2
Indoor air quality is affected by sources generated within the building IEQp2 &
IEQc5

IEQc4.1: Low Emitting Materials - Adhesives and Sealants


IEQc4.2: Low Emitting Materials - Paints and Coatings
IEQc4.3: Low Emitting Materials - Flooring Systems
IEQc4.4: Low Emitting Materials - Composite Wood & Agrifiber
IEQc4.6: Low Emitting Materials - Ceiling and Wall Systems
(Schools)

IEQc3.1: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - During Construction


IEQc3.2: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - Before Occupancy
IEQp2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control
IEQc5: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control
IEQc4.1: Low Emitting Materials - Sealants and Adhesives
IEQc4.2: Low Emitting Materials - Paints and Coatings
IEQc4.3: Low Emitting Materials - Flooring Systems
IEQc4.4: Low Emitting Materials - Composite Wood & Agrifiber
IEQc4.5: Low Emitting Materials - Furniture & Furnishings
(Schools)

IEQp3: Minimum Acoustical Performance (Schools)


IEQc9: Enhanced Acoustical Performance (Schools)
IEQc3.1: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - During Construction
IEQc3.2: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - Before Occupancy
IEQp2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control
IEQc5: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control

IEQc3.1: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - During Construction


IEQc3.2: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - Before Occupancy
Filtration media can remove contaminants from the air during construction and EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance
during operation, IEQc3.1 & IEQc3.2
EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance
IEQc5 Exhausting air can require additional fan energy and require commissioning,
EAp1: Fund. Commissioning of the Building Energy Systems
EAc1 & EAp2, EAp1 & EAc3
EAc3: Enhanced Commissioning
Filtration systems must be capable of accommodating the filtration media,
IEQp1: Minimum Indoor Air Delivery Monitoring
IEQp1 & IEQc1
IEQc1: Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring
Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control

Controllability of Systems - Lighting


Lighting systems are affected by window placement, glazing selection for
daylight and views, IEQc8, and zoning strategies employed for thermal comfort
IEQc6.1
controllability,IEQc6.2
Lighting systems affect energy performance, EAp2 & EAc1and are required to be
commissioned, EAp1 and EAc3

Controllability of Systems - Thermal Comfort


IEQc6.2 The intent of this credit is to enable individuals and groups in multioccupant
spaces to control their thermal comfort, systems and maintenance

IEQc6

Controllability of Systems - Thermal Comfort

IEQc8: Daylight and Views


IEQc6.2: Controllability of Systems - Thermal Comfort
EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance
EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance
EAp1: Fund. Commissioning of the Building Energy Systems
EAc3: Enhanced Commissioning
EAp1: Fund. Commissioning of the Building Energy Systems
EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance
EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance
EAc3: Enhanced Commissioning
Eac5: Measurement and Verification
IEQc5: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control
IEQc6.1: Controllability of Systems - Lighting (NC & Schools)
IEQc8: Daylight and Views
refer IEQc6.2

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SUSTAINABLEIDEALS

232 | Chapter 14

LEED Green Associate Study Guide


2010 Studio4, LLC All Rights Reserved

CREDITInteractions
INTERACTIONS
Credit

LEED 2009: New Construction and Major Renovations, Schools and Corehell

INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (IEQ)


Thermal comfort is affected by environmental conditions (air temperature,
radiant temperature, relative humidity and air speed), personal factors
(metabolic rate and clothing) and personal preferences. Thermal comfort can be
controlled by active (HVAC) and passive (natural ventilation. Using both active
IEQc7.1
and passive systems, the building's energy consumption can be reduced as well
as optimizing comfort levels, EAp2, EAc1, EAc5
Thermal comfort systems should be commissioned, EAp1 & EAc3
Addressing and maintaining thermal comfort are also covered by IEQp1, IEQc2,
IEQc6.2 & IEQc7.2

EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance


EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance
EAc5: Measurement and Verification
EAp1: Fund. Commissioning of the Building Energy Systems
EAc3: Enhanced Commissioning
IEQp1: Minimum Indoor Air Delivery Monitoring
IEQc2: Increased Ventilation
IEQc6.2: Controllability of Systems - Thermal Comfort
IEQc7.2: Thermal Comfort - Verification

IEQc7

Thermal Comfort - Design

refer IEQc7.1

Thermal Comfort - Verification

EAc5: Measurement and Verification


EAp1: Fund. Commissioning of the Building Energy Systems
EAc3: Enhanced Commissioning
IEQp1: Minimum Indoor Air Delivery Monitoring
IEQc2: Increased Ventilation
IEQc6.2: Controllability of Systems - Thermal Comfort
IEQc7.1: Thermal Comfort - Design

Thermal Comfort - Design

Thermal comfort is affected by environmental conditions (air temperature,


radiant temperature, relative humidity and air speed), personal factors
(metabolic rate and clothing) and personal preferences. Thermal comfort
IEQc7.2
systems should be measured & verified, EAc5, monitored, IEQp1, and
commissioned, EAp1 & EAc3
Achieving thermal comfort by ventilation, IEQc2, and controlling, IEQc6.2 per
system design parameters, IEQc7.1

Daylight and Views - Daylight


Increasing the area of vision glazing can increase access to views from the
IEQc8.1 building, IEQc8.2
Increased window-to-wall ration can alter energy performance, EAc1 & EAp2
Daylighting controls can maximize energy savings, IEQc6.1

Daylight and Views - Views

IEQc8.2: Daylight and Views - Views


EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance
EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance
IEQc6.1: Controllability of Systems - Lighting

Increasing the area of vision glazing can increase access to views from the
IEQc8.2 building, IEQc8.1
Increased window-to-wall ration can alter energy performance, EAc1 & EAp2
Daylighting controls can maximize energy savings, IEQc6.1

IEQc8.1: Daylight and Views - Daylight


EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance
EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance
IEQc6.1: Controllability of Systems - Lighting

Enhanced Acoustical Performance


IEQc9 This credit is directly related to strategies and measures to achieve effective

IEQp3: Minimum Acoustical Performance (Schools)

acoustical performance, IEQp3

IEQc3.1: Construction IAQ Mgt Plan - During Construction


Mold Prevention
IEQc10 Abating mold through preventative design and construction measures is treated IEQc7.1: Thermal Comfort - Design
in IEQc3.1, IEQc7.1 & IEQc7.2
IEQc7.2: Thermal Comfort - Verification
Innovation in Design (ID)
IDc1.1 Innovation in Design
IDc1.2 Innovation in Design
IDc1.3 Innovation in Design
IDc1.4 Innovation in Design
IDc1.5 Innovation in Design
IDc2

LEED Accredited Professional

IDc3

The School as a Teaching Tool


Regional Priority (RP)

RPc1.1 Regional Priority


RPc1.2 Regional Priority
RPc1.3 Regional Priority
RPc1.4 Regional Priority
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LEED Green Associate Study Guide
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Chapter 14 |

233