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209

0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Troubleshooting ISDN
Session 209

209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

What You Should Know

BRI
T1 and E1 PRI
ISDN Protocol Architecture

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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Basic Rate Access (BRI)


2B + D
SO Interface
B-CHANNEL

B-CHANNEL

BRI

D-CHANNEL

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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
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T1 Primary Rate Interface (PRI)


T1 PRI or S1 Interface
Used in North America and Japan
23 B + D
B-CHANNEL

B-CHANNEL

BRI

D-CHANNEL

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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

E1 Primary Rate Interface (PRI)


E1 PRI or S2 Interface
Used in Europe
30 B + D
B-CHANNEL

B-CHANNEL

BRI

D-CHANNEL

209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
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ISDN Protocol Architecture

Network
Physical

LAPDQ.921

I.430 (BRI)I.431 (PRI)

Physical

209
0913_04F9_c2

Q.931

Data Link

PPP

D-Channel
Network

IP,

Data Link

B-Channel

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Troubleshooting ISDN

There are only two possible problems


with IDSN:

The first problem occurs when you try


to install it.
The second problem occurs when you
receive the first invoice.
209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
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Troubleshooting ISDN

Be systematic
Go step by step
Always troubleshoot both ends
of the connection

209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Troubleshooting Menu
Troubleshooting
Ping remote int
Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Layer 1
Layer 2
Layer 3
Debug PPP
LCP
Speed 56/64
Pap/Chap
NCP
Ping remote net
Tune cost
209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
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10

Ping Remote ISDN Int

ping 1.1.1.1

Ping remote int


Ping remote net
Tune cost

ping 1.1.1.2

1.1.1.1

Troubleshooting

ISDN

1.1.1.2

Do not bother to look at routing or cost


issues if that doesnt work
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0913_04F9_c2

11

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Debug Dialer
Router# debug dialer events
Dialing cause: BRIO: ip
(s=172.16.1.111 d172.16.2.22)

Troubleshooting
Ping remote int
Ping
Debug
remote
dialer
net
Tune
Sh isdn
coststat
Debug PPP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

Router# debug dialer packets


BRIO: ip (s=10.1.1.8, d=10.1.1.1), 100 bytes,
interesting (ip PERMIT)
209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
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12

SH ISDN Status
Router#sh isdn status

Troubleshooting

ISDN BRIO interface

Layer 1 Status : DEACTIVATED


Layer 2 NOT Activated
Layer 3 Status : No Active
Layer 3 Call(s)

Ping remote int


Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Debug
LayerPPP
1
PingLayer
remote
2 net
TuneLayer
cost 3
Debug PPP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

Activated dsl 0 CCBs are 0, Allocated = 0


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13

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

TDM Multiplexing
Creates B1, B2 and D
channels
48 bit physical frame,
4000 frames/s,
192 kbits/s
2 x 8 B1 bits,
2 x 8 B2 bits, 4 x 1 D bit
1

2 3

2 3

Ping remote int


Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Layer 1
Layer 2
Layer 3
Debug PPP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

BB B BB B BB
11 111 1 11

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4 5

Troubleshooting

6 7

F N B B B BB B B B D B B B B B B B B
A
22 2 22 2 22
1 11 1 11 11
Frame from NT to TE

B B BB BBB B
2 2 22 22 22

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

B BB B BBB B
1 11 1 111 1

F
A

B BB B B B B B D B B B B B B B B
2 22 2 22 2 2
1 1 11 111 1
Frame from TE to NT

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

BB BBB B BB
22 22 22 22

14

Synchronization
Troubleshooting
Ping remote int
Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Layer 1
Layer 2
Layer 3
Debug PPP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

1st Line
Code
Violation

2 3

4 5 6

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

BB BBB B B B
11 111 1 1 1

2 3 4

7 8

F N BB B BB B BB
B BB B B B B B
A
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 D 1 11 1 1 1 1 1
Frame from NT to TE

B B BB B BBB
2 2 22 2 222

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

B B B B B BB B
111 1 1 11 1

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2nd Line
Code
Violation

F
A

B BB B BB B B D B B BB BBB B
2 22 2 22 2 2
1 1 11 11 11
Frame from TE to NT

BB B BBB BB
22 2 222 22

15

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Activation ( A Bit )
Troubleshooting
Ping remote int
Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Layer 1
Layer 2
Layer 3
Debug PPP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

A = 0 , Deactivated
A = 1 , Activated
1

2 3

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4 5

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

BB B BB B BB
11 111 1 11
2 3

6 7

D A F N B B B BB B B B D B B B B B B B B
A
22 2 22 2 22
1 11 1 11 11
Frame from NT to TE

B B BB BBB B
2 2 22 22 22

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

B BB B BBB B
1 11 1 111 1

F
A

B BB B B B B B D B B B B B B B B
2 22 2 22 2 2
1 1 11 111 1
Frame from TE to NT

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

BB BBB B BB
22 22 22 22

16

Activation Procedure: INFO 0


TE

1 INFO 0Not Active: No Signal

NT

No Signal
No Signal

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17

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Activation Procedure: INFO 1


TE

1 INFO 0Not Active: No Signal

NT

No Signal
No Signal
2 INFO 1TE becomes Active: "01111110" Signal (= HDLC Flags)

209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
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18

Activation Procedure: INFO 2


TE

1 INFO 0Not Active: No Signal

NT

No Signal
No Signal
2 INFO 1TE becomes Active: "01111110" Signal (= HDLC Flags)

3 INFO 2Network Sends Frames with A-bit = 0

A=0

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19

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Activation Procedure: INFO 3


TE

1 INFO 0Not Active: No Signal

NT

No Signal
No Signal
2 INFO 1TE becomes Active: "01111110" Signal (= HDLC Flags)

3 INFO 2Network Sends Frames with A-bit = 0

A=0

4 INFO 3TE Synchronises and Sends Physical Frames

209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
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20

10

Activation Procedure: INFO 4


TE

1 INFO 0Not Active: No Signal

NT

No Signal
No Signal
2 INFO 1TE becomes Active: "01111110" Signal (= HDLC Flags)

3 INFO 2Network Sends Frames with A-bit = 0

A=0

4 INFO 3TE Synchronises and Sends Physical Frames

F
5INFO 4NT Synchronizes and Sends Frames with A-bit = 1

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0913_04F9_c2

A=1

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

21

Debug BRI: Activation


23:57:24: BRI: write_sid: scp = 0, wrote = 1B
23:57:24: BRI: write_sid: scp = 0, wrote = 20
23:57:24: BRI: write_sid: scp = 0, wrote = 3
SID interrupt. status reg = C
23:57:24: BRI: Received activation indication
23:57:26: BRI: write_sid: scp = 0, wrote = E
23:57:26: BRI: write_sid: scp = 0, wrote = E
209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

22

11

Debug BRI: T3 Timer Expires


BRI: Starting Power Up timer for unit = 2
BRI: write_sid: wrote 3 for subunit 2, slot 1
BRI: Starting T3 timer after expiry of Power Up timeout
for unit = 2, current state is F4
()
BRI: write_sid: wrote 92 for subunit 2, slot 1
BRI: write_sid: wrote 93 for subunit 2, slot 1
BRI: T3 timer expired for unit = 2, current state is F2
BRI: write_sid: wrote 1 for subunit 2, slot 1
BRI: write_sid: wrote 0 for subunit 2, slot 1
BRI: Forced interrupt for subunit 2, slot 1 is F
BRI: write_sid: wrote FF for subunit 2, slot 1
BRI: write_sid: wrote 1 for subunit 2, slot 1
BRI: write_sid: wrote 0 for subunit 2, slot 1
BRI: Deactivation for unit = 2, current state is F2
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23

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

SH CONT BRI 0
Router#sh cont bri
BRIO unit 0
D Chan Info :
Layer 1 is Activated
Idb 0x9F6E8, ds 0xA56F8, reset_mask 0x8
buffer size 1524
RX ring with 2 entries at 0x2101600 : Rxhead 0
00 pak=0x0AB0A4 ds=0x40CE70 status=D000
pak_size=0
()
209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
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24

12

PRI : SH CONT: No Alarms


sh cont t1
T1 2/0 is up
Description: Primary Rate Interface to DMS-100
No alarms detected
Framing is ESF, Line Code is B8ZS,
Clock Source is Line
Data in current interval (165 seconds elapsed):
0 Line Code Violations, 0 Path Code Violations
0 Slip Secs, 1 Fr Loss Secs, 0 Line Err Secs,
0 Degraded Mins
0 Errored Secs, 0 Bursty Err Secs,
0 Severely Err Secs, 12 Unavail Secs
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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

25

PRI: SH CONT: Alarms


sh cont t1
T1 2/1 is down
Transmitter is sending remote alarm
Receiver has loss of signal
Framing is ESF, Line Code is B8ZS,
Clock Source is Line
Data in current interval (160 seconds elapsed):
0 Line Code Violations, 0 Path Code Violations
0 Slip Secs, 0 Fr Loss Secs, 0 Line Err Secs,
0 Errored Secs, 0 Bursty Err Secs,
0 Severely Err Secs, 160
Unavail Secs
209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

26

13

SH ISDN Status
Router#sh isdn stat
Troubleshooting

The current ISDN Switchtype


= basic-net3

Ping remote int


Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Layer 1
Layer 2
Layer 3
Debug PPP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

ISDN BRI0 interface


Layer 1 Status: Activated
Layer 2 Status: NOT Activated
Layer 3 Status: No Active Call(s)

Activated dsl 0 CCBs are 0, Allocated = 0


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27

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

ISDN Protocol Architecture

Network
Physical

LAPDQ.921

I.430 (BRI)I.431 (PRI)

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

Physical

209
0913_04F9_c2

Q.931

Data Link

PPP

D-Channel
Network

IP,

Data Link

B-Channel

28

14

The Data Link Layer


The ISDN network does not impose the use of any data
link layer protocol for the B channels
On the D channel the use of Q.921 or LAPD is defined
LAPD: Link Access Procedure on the D channel
Specified in CCITT I.441 and Q.921
Q.921 protocol is used between the TE and the local ISDN
switch (not end-to-end)

Q.921LAPD
TE
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0913_04F9_c2

NT1

LT

ET
29

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

TEI Assignment
TE sends ID REQ, switch answers with ID ASSN
AI = 127 asks for any TEI
AI = 64 means TEI 64 is assigned
Reference Indicator (RI) is a random number
RI must match in request and response
ID Request (AI = 127 , RI = 23)
TE

ET
ID Assigned (AI = 64 , RI = 23)

209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
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30

15

Debug ISDN Q921: TEI Assigned

TEI 64 gets assigned by the switch


2656.612 TX -> IDREQ ri = 14613 ai = 127
2656.648 RX <- IDASSN ri = 14613 ai = 64

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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

31

Debug ISDN Q921: No TEI


IDREQ gets retransmitted
Timer T202 (default 2 seconds)
Every IDREQ has a different RI
2424.920 TX -> IDREQ ri = 63529 ai = 127
2426.924 TX -> IDREQ ri = 31418 ai = 127
2428.928 TX -> IDREQ ri = 9819 ai = 127
209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

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16

Connection Establishment
The TE or the switch send an SABME
to establish the data link connection
SABME needs to be acknowledged
by a UA
SABME (SAPI=0 , TEI=64)
TE

ET
UA (SAPI=0 , TEI=64)

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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

33

Debug ISDN Q921: Connection


You need a TEI before you can send an
SABME
SAPI=0 means this data link will be used
for signalling
2656.612 TX -> IDREQ ri = 14613 ai = 127
2656.648 RX <- IDASSN ri = 14613 ai = 64
2656.652 TX -> SABMEp sapi = 0 tei = 64
2656.676 RX <- UAf sapi = 0 tei = 64
209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

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17

Information Transfer
Once the data link connection is
established, INFO frames can be
exchanged
INFO frames get acknowledged by other
INFO frames or by RR frames
INFO (SAPI=0 , TEI=64 , N(S)=0 , N(R)=0)
TE

ET
INFO (SAPI=0 , TEI=64 , N(S)=0 , N(R)=1)

RR (SAPI=0 , TEI=64 , N(R)=1)


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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

35

Debug ISDN Q921: Info


2656.612 TX -> IDREQ ri = 14613 ai = 127
2656.648 RX <- IDASSN ri = 14613 ai = 64
2656.652 TX -> SABMEp sapi = 0 tei = 64
2656.676 RX <- UAf sapi = 0 tei = 64
2658.360 RX <- INFOc sapi = 0 tei = 64 ns = 0 nr = 0
2658.368 TX -> RRr sapi = 0 tei = 64 nr = 1
2658.372 TX -> INFOc sapi = 0 tei = 64 ns = 0 nr = 1
209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

36

18

Data Link Monitor


If no INFO frames are exchanged, the
status of the data link can be
checked by the periodic exchange of
RR frames
This procedure is optional
RR (SAPI=0 , TEI=64 , N(R)=3)

TE

ET

RR (SAPI=0 , TEI=64 , N(R)=7)


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0913_04F9_c2

37

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Debug ISDN Q921: RR


180484 RX <- RRp sapi = 0 tei = 80 nr = 5
180488 TX -> RRf

sapi = 0 tei = 80 nr = 4

190484 RX <- RRp sapi = 0 tei = 80 nr = 5


190488 TX -> RRf

sapi = 0 tei = 80 nr = 4

200484 RX <- RRp sapi = 0 tei = 80 nr = 5


200488 TX -> RRf

sapi = 0 tei = 80 nr = 4

210484 RX <- RRp sapi = 0 tei = 80 nr = 5


210484 TX -> RRf
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sapi = 0 tei = 80 nr = 4

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

38

19

SH ISDN Status
Layer 1 Status:
Troubleshooting

ACTIVE
Layer 2 Status:
TEI = 0, State =
MULTIPLE_FRAME_ESTABLISHED
Layer 3 Status:

Ping remote int


Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Layer 1
Layer 2
Layer 3
Debug PPP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

0 Active Layer 3 Call(s)


Activated dsl 0 CCBs = 0
209
0913_04F9_c2

39

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

ISDN Protocol Architecture

Network
Physical

LAPDQ.921

I.430 (BRI)I.431 (PRI)

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

Physical

209
0913_04F9_c2

Q.931

Data Link

PPP

D-Channel
Network

IP,

Data Link

B-Channel

40

20

The Network Layer


The ISDN network does not impose the use of any
network link layer protocol for the B channels
On the D channel the use of Q.931 is defined
Q.931 protocol is used between the TE and the local
ISDN switch (not end-to-end!)
Inside the ISDN network SS#7 ISUP is used

Q.931
TE
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0913_04F9_c2

NT1

LT

ET
41

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

ISDN Switch Type


Q.931 comes in many local flavours
Use the ISDN switch-type command to specify
the correct version of the protocol
basic-1tr6
basic-5ess
basic-dms100
basic-net3
basic-ni1
basic-nwnet3
basic-nznet3
basic-ts013
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- ntt
- primary-4ess
- primary-5ess
- primary-dms100
- primary-net5
- vn2
- vn3

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

42

21

Call Set Up
En-bloc sending: the initial set-up message
contains all necessary addressing
information

TE

Setup

ET

ET

Set-up

TE

Call Proceeding
Connect

Connect
Connect ACK

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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

43

Debug ISDN Q931: Outgoing Call


248236 TX -> INFOc sapi = 0 tei = 80 ns = 6 nr = 6
SETUP pd = 8 callref = 0x02
Bearer Capability i = 0x8890
Channel ID i = 0x83
Called Party Number i = 0x80, '372756'
248392 RX <- INFOc sapi = 0 tei = 80 ns = 6 nr = 7
CALL_PROC pd = 8 callref = 0x82
Channel ID i = 0x89
249460 RX <- INFOc sapi = 0 tei = 80 ns = 7 nr = 7
CONNECT pd = 8 callref = 0x82
209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

44

22

Debug ISDN Q93: Incoming Call


251076 RX <- UI sapi = 0 tei = 127
SETUP pd = 8 callref = 0x45
Bearer Capability i = 0x8890
Channel ID i = 0x8A
Calling Party Number i = 0x0083, '372500'
Calling Party SubAddr i = 0x80, 'P2902'
Called Party Number i = 0x
251564 TX -> INFOc sapi = 0 tei = 80 ns = 8 nr = 8
CONNECT pd = 8 callref = 0xC5
251996 RX <- INFOc sapi = 0 tei = 80 ns = 8 nr = 9
CONNECT_ACK pd = 8 callref = 0x45
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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

SPIDS
Service Profile Identifier
Used to bind a specific terminal to a
specific service profile (only on BRI)
SPIDS are assigned by the service
provider
SPID is 10 digit telephone number + extra
digits
DMS-100 and NI-1 require SPIDS
Do not use SPIDS unless you have to
SPIDS are only used in North America
209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

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23

SPIDS: Configuration
Isdn spid1 spid-number (ldn)
Isdn spid2 spid-number (ldn)
Spid-number:
Assigned by service provider
Usually ten digit telephone number + some extra
digits

ldn: local directory number


Optional
Required to receive incoming calls on the second B
Channel
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47

SPIDS: Configuration Examples


Isdn spid1 415555836201 5558362
Isdn spid2 415555837002 5558370
Spid-number:
415: area code
555: exchange
8362 and 8370: station ID
01 and 02: terminal identifier

ldn: local directory number


555: exchange
8362 and 8370: station ID
209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

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24

SPID Validation
SPIDS are validated by the switch
Handshake between TE and local ISDN
switch
Valid SPID is acknowledged with Endpoint ID
INFO (SPID = SPID1)
TE

ET
INFO(ENDPOINT IDENT)
INFO (SPID = SPID2)
INFO (ENDPOINT IDENT)

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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

49

Debug ISDN Q931 : Valid SPIDS


11438.776 TX -> INFORMATION pd = 8 callref = (null)
SPID Information i = 0x363133373835323631323030
11438.872 RX <- INFORMATION pd = 8 callref = (null)
ENDPOINT IDent i = 0xF180
11443.848 TX -> INFORMATION pd = 8 callref = (null)
SPID Information i = 0x363133373835323631333030
11443.972 RX <- INFORMATION pd = 8 callref = (null)
ENDPOINT IDent i = 0xF080
209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

50

25

Invalid SPIDS
Rejected by the network

INFO (SPID = SPID1)


TE

ET
INFO (Invalid IE Contents)
INFO (SPID = SPID2)
INFO (Invalid IE Contents)

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0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

51

Debug ISDN Q931: Incorrect SPID

11678.060 TX -> INFORMATION pd = 8 callref = (null)


SPID Information i = 0x31323334353536373736

11678.164 RX <- INFORMATION pd = 8 callref = (null)


Cause i = 0x82E43AInvalid IE contents

209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

52

26

SH ISDN Status
Layer 1 Status: ACTIVE
Layer 2 Status:
TEI = 88, State = MULTIPLE_FRAME_ESTABLISHED

Spid Status:
TEI 88, ces = 1, state = 6(not initialized)

spid1 configured, no LDN, spid1 sent, spid1 NOT valid


TEI Not Assigned, ces = 2, state = 1 (terminal down)

spid2 configured, no LDN, spid2 NOT sent, spid2 NOT valid


Layer 3 Status: 0 Active Layer 3 Call(s)
Activated dsl 1 CCBs = 0
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53

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Call Refused

Call can be refused for various reasons

TE

Set-up

ET

Release
Complete

209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

ET

Setup

TE

Release
Complete

54

27

Debug ISDN Q93: Call Refused


0:03:10: 190.680 TX -> SETUP pd = 8 callref = 0x01
0:03:10:

Bearer Capability i = 0x8890

0:03:10:

Channel ID i = 0x83

0:03:10:

Called Party Number i = 0x80, '4839625'

0:03:10: 190.756 RX <- RELEASE_COMP


RELEASE_COMP pd = 8 callref = 0x81
0:03:10:
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Cause i = 0x8295 - Call rejected


55

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Call Clearing
Any side can clear the call
Disconnect
TE

209
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Disconnect
ET

ET

TE

Release

Release

Release
Complete

Release
Complete

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

56

28

Debug ISDN Q931: Call Cleared


312.900 RX <- INFOc sapi = 0 tei = 96 ns = 1 nr = 2
DISCONNECT pd = 8 callref = 0x81
Cause i = 0x82D8
Signal i = 0x03
312.912 TX -> RRr sapi = 0 tei = 96 nr = 2
received HOST_DISCONNECT_ACK
312.920 TX -> INFOc sapi = 0 tei = 96 ns = 2 nr = 2
RELEASE pd = 8 callref = 0x01
Cause i = 0x8090
312.948 RX <- RRr sapi = 0 tei = 96 nr = 3
313.220 RX <- INFOc sapi = 0 tei = 96 ns = 2 nr = 3
RELEASE_COMP pd = 8 callref = 0x81
209
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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Show ISDN Status


Layer 1 Status:
ACTIVE
Layer 2 Status:
TEI = 0,
State = MULTIPLE_FRAME_ESTABLISHED
Layer 3 Status:
6 Active Layer 3 Call(s)
Activated dsl 0 CCBs = 6
CCB:callid=8020, sapi=0, ces=0, B-chan=22
CCB:callid=8026, sapi=0, ces=0, B-chan=20
CCB:callid=8027, sapi=0, ces=0, B-chan=18
CCB:callid=8029, sapi=0, ces=0, B-chan=23
CCB:callid=A02D, sapi=0, ces=0, B-chan=21
CCB:callid=A030, sapi=0, ces=0, B-chan=19

Troubleshooting
Ping remote int
Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Layer 1
Layer 2
Layer 3
Debug PPP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

Total Allocated ISDN CCBs = 6


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Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
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58

29

ISDN Protocol Architecture

Network
Physical

LAPDQ.921

Physical

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Q.931

Data Link

PPP

D-Channel
Network

IP,

Data Link

B-Channel

I.430 (BRI)I.431 (PRI)

59

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Point-to-Point Protocol
PPP: RFC 1548 + others

Troubleshooting

Three main components of PPP

Ping remote int

Debug dialer
Multiprotocol encapsulation
Sh isdn stat
Link Control Protocol (LCP)
Debug PPP
LCP
Establishing and maintaining the
Speed 56/64
data link
Pap/chap
NCP
Option negotiation (e.g. use CHAP)
Ping remote net
Tune cost
Several Network Control Protocols (NCP)
Establishing and configuring network layer protocols
Protocol specific option negotiation (addresses, )
IPCP, IPXCP ATCP,
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60

30

LCP Negotiation
Configure-Req proposes
certain options
If all options are acceptable,
the remote station returns
a Configure-ACK
Configure-Req

Troubleshooting
Ping remote int
Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Debug PPP
LCP
Speed 56/64
Pap/chap
NCP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

Configure-ACK
209
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61

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

LCP Negotiation
In reality all PPP negotiations are double
negotiations
Configure-Req

Configure-ACK

Configure-Req

Configure-ACK
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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
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31

Debug PPP Packet: LCP ACK

PPP BRI: B-Channel 1: I LCP


CONFREQ(1) id 2 (4)
PPP BRI: B-Channel 1: O LCP
CONFACK(2) id 2 (4)

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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

63

Debug PPP Negotiation


ppp: sending CONFREQ, type = 3
(CI_AUTHTYPE), value = C023/0
ppp: sending CONFREQ, type = 5
(CI_MAGICNUMBER), value = 8C01B4
ppp: config ACK received, type = 3
(CI_AUTHTYPE), value = C023
ppp: config ACK received, type = 5
(CI_MAGICNUMBER), value = 8C01B4
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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

64

32

SH INT BRI 0 1
BRI0: B-Channel 1 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is BRI
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 64 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec,
rely 255/255, load 1/255
Encapsulation PPP, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
lcp state = OPEN
ncp ipcp state = REQSENT ncp osicp state =
NOT NEGOTIATED
ncp ipxcp state = NOT NEGOTIATED ncp xnscp state =
NOT NEGOTIATED
ncp vinescp state = NOT NEGOTIATED ncp deccp state =
NOT NEGOTIATED
ncp bridgecp state = NOT NEGOTIATED
ncp atalkcp state = NOT NEGOTIATED
Last input 0:00:00, output 0:00:00, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
Output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops
Five minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Five minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 1 packets/sec
9099 packets input, 855915 bytes, 0 no buffer
()
209
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Troubleshooting
Ping remote int
Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Debug PPP
LCP
Speed 56/64
Pap/chap
NCP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

65

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

64 and 56 KBit/s
Inter-switch connections may
limit the speed to 56 kbit/s

Troubleshooting

The bearer capability can specify


that the call is a 56 kbit/s call that
uses V.110 rate adaptation
If the internal signalling protocol in
the ISDN network is adapted to
ISDN (SS#7 ISUP) this 56 kbit/s
indication will carried up till the
remote subscriber
Setup(56)
TE
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(56)
ET

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

Ping remote int


Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Debug PPP
LCP
Speed 56/64
Pap/chap
NCP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

Setup(56)
ET

TE
66

33

64 and 56 KBit/s
The dialer map allows you to specify
the speed for the outgoing call
Dialer map ip 1.1.1.1 123456 speed 56
Default is 64 kbit/s
Setup(56)
TE

209
0913_04F9_c2

(56)
ET

Setup(56)
ET

TE

67

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Call Not End-to-End ISDN


Many (international) ISDN connections do not yet use
full ISDN signalling in the network
The consequence is that the 56 kbit/s indication is
not passed to the remote switch
Set-up(56)
TE

(56)
ET

Set-up(64)
ET
Not End-to-End
ISDN

TE

The receiving side thinks a 64 kbit/s call


The only indication is that the call is not end-to-end
isdn. You can configure isdn not-end-to-end 56
209
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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

68

34

Debug ISDN Q931


17993.584 TX -> SETUP pd = 8 callref = 0x02
Bearer Capability i = 0x8890
Troubleshooting
Channel ID i = 0x83
Ping remote int
Called Party Number i = 0x80, '97832480'
Debug dialer
17993.820 RX <- CALL_PROC pd = 8
Sh isdn stat
callref = 0x82
Debug PPP
LCP
Channel ID i = 0x89
Speed 56/64
Locking Shift to Codeset 5
Pap/chap
Codeset 5 IE 0x2A i = 0x808E0C, 'OUTSIDE CALL'
NCP
Ping remote net
17994.696 RX <- PROGRESS pd = 8 callref = 0x82
Tune cost
Progress Ind i = 0x8A81 Call not end-to-end ISDN
17996.648 RX <- CONNECT pd = 8 callref = 0x82
Progress Ind i = 0x8482 - Destination address is non-ISDN
209
0913_04F9_c2

69

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

PAP and CHAP


Authentication protocols
Troubleshooting

PAP: Password
Authentication Protocol
CHAP: Challenge
Handshake
Authentication Protocol

Ping remote int


Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Debug PPP
LCP
Speed 56/64
Pap/chap
NCP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

CHAP is to be preferred
over PAP
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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

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35

Configuration CHAP
hostname left
username right
password cisco
int bri 0
encapsulation ppp
ppp authentication chap
ip add 1.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
dialler map ip 1.0.0.2 name
right 12345

Router
Left
209
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hostname right
username left
password cisco
int bri 0
encapsulation ppp
ppp authentication chap
ip add 1.0.0.2 255.255.255.0
dialler map ip 1.0.0.1 name
left 54321

ISDN

Router
Right
71

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Debug PPP CHAP


ISDN Event: Connected to 2823680 on B1 at 64 Kb/s
BRI0: B-Channel 1: PPP AUTH CHAP input code = 1 id = 10 len = 14
BRI0: B-Channel 1: PPP AUTH CHAP input code = 2 id = 16 len = 26
BRI0: B-Channel 1: remote passed CHAP authentication
BRI0: B-Channel 1: PPP AUTH CHAP input code = 3 id = 10 len = 4
BRI0: B-Channel 1: Passed CHAP authentication with remote
209
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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

72

36

SH DIALER
Brussels# sh dial
BRI0 - dialler type = ISDN
Dial String

Successes Failures

4085261234

Last called Last status

never

0 incoming call(s) have been screened


BRI0: B-Channel 1 - dialler type = ISDN
Rotary group 0, priority = 0
Idle timer (120 secs), Fast idle timer (20 secs)
Wait for carrier (30 secs), Re-enable (15 secs)
Time until disconnect 85 secs
Connected to 4085261234 (Dallas)
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73

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

The Prefix Issue


Without PAP or CHAP

Router
54321
Left

1st Call (from 40854321)


2nd Call (to 54321)

54321

Router
Right

54321
Not Yet
Connected

12345

With PAP or CHAP

Router
54321
Left

Call (from 40854321)

54321
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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

Router
Right

Left
Already
Connected

12345
74

37

The Prefix Issue


PAP/CHAP enables you to know which
site is connected
Without PAP or CHAP, this would be
based on the ISDN calling number
This is often problematic
Calling number may not be present
Calling number may be presented
with/without prefixes

Troubleshooting
Ping remote int
Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Debug PPP
LCP
Speed 56/64
Pap/chap
NCP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

The net result is that without PAP or


CHAP you would open two half-duplex
B channels (instead of one full duplex)
209
0913_04F9_c2

75

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

NCP

Network control protocols


Negotiate and verify network level
parameters (address)
Different NCP for the different
network protocols (IPCP,IPXCP, )
NCP Configure-req

Troubleshooting
Ping remote int
Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Debug PPP
LCP
Speed 56/64
Pap/chap
NCP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

NCP Configure-ACK
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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

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38

Debug PPP Negotiation


BRI0: B-Channel 1: O IPCP CONFREQ
CONFREQ id D
(10) Type3 (6) 147 211 117 40
BRI0: B-Channel 1: I IPCP CONFREQ
CONFREQ id C
(10) Type3 (6) 147 211 117 1
BRI0: B-Channel 1: O IPCP CONFACK
CONFACK id C
(10) Type3 (6) 147 211 117 1
BRI0: B-Channel 1: I IPCP
IPCP CONFACK
CONFACK id D
(10) Type3 (6) 147 211 117 40
209
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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

SH INT BRI 0 1
BRI0: B-Channel 1 is up,
line protocol is up
Hardware is BRI
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 64 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec,
rely 255/255, load 1/255
Encapsulation PPP, loopback not set,
keepalive set (10 sec)
lcp state = OPEN
ncp ipcp state = OPEN
ncp osicp state = NOT NEGOTIATED
ncp ipxcp state = REQSENT
ncp xnscp state = NOT NEGOTIATED

Troubleshooting
Ping remote int
Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Debug PPP
LCP
Speed 56/64
Pap/chap
NCP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

()
209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

78

39

SH INT BRI 0 1
BRI0: B-Channel 1 is up, line
protocol is up

Troubleshooting

Hardware is BRI
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 64 Kbit, DLY
20000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255
Encapsulation PPP, loopback not set,
keepalive set (10 sec)
lcp state = OPEN

Ping remote int


Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Debug PPP
LCP
Speed 56/64
Pap/chap
NCP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

ncp ipcp state = OPEN


()
209
0913_04F9_c2

79

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

ISDN Protocol Architecture

Physical Data Link

IP,
PPP

Q.931
LAPDQ.921

I.430 (BRI)I.431 (PRI)

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

Physical

209
0913_04F9_c2

D-Channel
Network Data Link

Network

B-Channel

80

40

Ping Remote Networks


ping 2.2.2.2 from 3.3.3.3
Troubleshooting

ping 3.3.3.3 from 2.2.2.2

1.1.1.1

ISDN

Ping remote int


Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Debug PPP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

1.1.1.2

2.2.2.2

3.3.3.3

Now that we con ping the remote ISDN


interface, we can look at routing issues
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81

Static or Dynamic Routes


Static routes are most often used
Dynamic routes risk to bring up the lines
all the time
If you use dynamic routes, make sure
broadcast updates are forwarded over ISDN
Snapshot routing is best suited
dynamic solution
ip route 170.11.12.0 255.255.255.0 170.11.18.1
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Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
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41

Dont Wait for the First Bill

ping 2.2.2.2 from 3.3.3.3


Troubleshooting
Ping remote int
Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Debug PPP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

ping 3.3.3.3 from 2.2.2.2

2.2.2.2
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1.1.1.1

ISDN

1.1.1.2

3.3.3.3

83

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Interesting Traffic
Dialer filter triggers call if traffic is interesting
Use sh ISDN history, debug dialer, and the ISDN
mib to debug issues
int bri 0
dialer-group 1
access-list 101 deny igrp 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255
access-list 101 permit ip 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255
dialer-list 1 list 101
209
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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

84

42

Show ISDN History


Router#sh isdn hist
------------------------------------------------------------ISDN CALL HISTORY
------------------------------------------------------------History Table MaxLength = 100 entries
History Retain Timer = 15 Minutes
------------------------------------------------------------------------Call Calling Called Duration Remote Time until
Type Number Number Seconds Name Disconnect
------------------------------------------------------------------------Out
01234 220
Paris
Out
04567 521
LA
Out
345
Failed
In
43078
320
Orlando
In 785601
Active(57) Brussels
209
0913_04F9_c2

85

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Debug Dialer
router# debug dialer events
Dialling cause: BRI0: ip
(s=172.16.1.111 d=172.16.2.22)

router# debug dialer packets


BRI0: ip (s=10.1.1.8, d=10.1.1.1), 100 bytes,
interesting (ip PERMIT)
209
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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

86

43

Troubleshooting ISDN

Be systematic
Go step by step
Always troubleshoot both
ends of the connection

209
0913_04F9_c2

Troubleshooting
Ping remote int
Debug dialer
Sh isdn stat
Layer 1
Layer 2
Layer 3
Debug PPP
LCP
Speed 56/64
Pap/chap
NCP
Ping remote net
Tune cost

87

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Please Complete Your


Evaluation Form
Session 209

209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

88

44

209
0913_04F9_c2

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr

89

45